Sample records for andstrongly deformed structure

  1. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server


    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  2. Shell structure of octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xizhen; Dong Baoguo


    A convenient definition of intrinsic frame of an octupole deformed shape was proposed recently. The octupole deformation potential was expanded on the bases of irreducible representations of group O h . Based on the parameterization given in previous paper, the shell structures of octupole deformation which cover all possible octupole deformed shapes were studied

  3. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.


    of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....

  4. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 20, 2014 ... The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost' spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed ...

  5. Deformation Characteristics of Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus T. AKANO


    Full Text Available The composites provide design flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites exhibit excellent fatigue tolerance and high specific strength and stiffness which have led to numerous advanced applications ranging from the military and civil aircraft structures to the consumer products. However, the modelling of the beams undergoing the arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but small strains, is a common problem in the application of these engineering composite systems. This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model which is able to estimate the deformations of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composite beams. The governing equations are based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT with a von Kármán type of kinematic nonlinearity. The anisotropic elasticity is employed for the material model of the composite material. Moreover, the characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite material is achieved through a tensile test, while a simple laboratory experiment is used to validate the model. The results reveal that the composite fibre orientation, the type of applied load and boundary condition, affect the deformation characteristics of the composite structures. The nonlinearity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration in the analysis of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composites.

  6. Deformed metals - structure, recrystallisation and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    It is shown how new discoveries and advanced experimental techniques in the last 25 years have led to paradigm shifts in the analysis of deformation and annealing structures of metals and in the way the strength of deformed samples is related to structural parameters. This is described in three...... sections: structural evolution by grain subdivision, recovery and recrystallisation and strength-structure relationships....

  7. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 20, 2014 ... Here, we study theoretically the low-lying as well as the excited deformed bands and their electromagnetic properties to search for various structures, spherical and deformed, of the exotic nuclei 82Ge and 84Se by employing the deformed Hartree–Fock (HF) and angular momentum (J) projection method ...

  8. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.


    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur......, good agreement has been found between experimental measurements of the flow stress and calculated values. Commercial purity aluminium is used as an example and deformed by cold rolling and by accumulative roll bonding....

  9. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.


    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structures...

  10. Thermally assisted deformation of structural superplastics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal structural superplasticity and the deformation of nanostructured materials in the thermally activated region are regarded as being caused by the same physical process. In this analysis, grain/interphase boundary sliding controls the rate of deformation at the level of atomistics. Boundary sliding develops to a ...

  11. Thermally assisted deformation of structural superplastics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Their absolute values were exceptionally high compared .... Structural superplastics & nanostructured materials. 101 temperature deformation, further flow was possible only when the stress was raised to a higher value. ...... Padmanabhan K A, Schlipf J 1996 A model for grain boundary sliding and its relevance to optimal.

  12. Layered Structures in Deformed Metals and Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Layered structures characterize metals and alloys deformed to high strain. The morphology is typical lamellar or fibrous and the interlamellar spacing can span several length scales down to the nanometer dimension. The layered structures can be observed in bulk or in surface regions, which is shown...... by the way of examples of different processing routes: friction, wire drawing, shot peening, high pressure torsion and rolling. The interlamellar spacing reaches from 5-10 nanometers to about one micrometer and the analysis will cover structural evolution, strengthening parameters and strength-structure...... relationships. Finally, the results will be discussed based on universal principles for the evolution of microstructure and properties during plastic deformation of metals and alloys from low to high strain....

  13. Deformations of symplectic Lie algebroids, deformations of holomorphic symplectic structures, and index theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nest, Ryszard; Tsygan, Boris


    Recently Kontsevich solved the classification problem for deformation quantizations of all Poisson structures on a manifold. In this paper we study those Poisson structures for which the explicit methods of Fedosov can be applied, namely the Poisson structures coming from symplectic Lie algebroids......, as well as holomorphic symplectic structures. For deformations of these structures we prove the classification theorems and a general a general index theorem....

  14. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang


    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  15. [Bone tissue morphological structure in congenital deformations of the jaws]. (United States)

    Shishkanov, A V; Panin, M G; Shipkova, T P; Chumakov, A A; Komnova, Z D


    Morphological structure of bone tissue was studied in various types of congenital deformations of the jaws. Morphological changes in the bone with deformations and the severity of these disorders depended not so much on the type on the deformation, but mainly on its severity, which can be explained by a drastic increase of functional exercise because of impaired occlusion and impossibility of proper chewing. Decelerated weak restructuring of bone tissue and imperfect osteogenesis in deformed bone, similar in various types of deformations, were demonstrated on morphological material. These changes can affect the regenerative potential of the bone in operated zones.

  16. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 20, 2014 ... nuclei, e.g., in 16O (Z = N = 8) [12,13] and 56Ni (Z = N = 28) [14–16], coexisting with the spherical ground configuration. Recently, Hwang et al [2] have observed deformed rotational bands in 82Ge. To our knowledge, these deformed rotational bands have not been studied theoretically so far though there ...

  17. Description of soft sediment deformational structure of the Campano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several soft sediment deformational structures were identified during fieldwork survey carried out on exposures of Gombe Formation in the Gongola sub–basin of the Northern Benue Trough at Gombe and environs. These soft sediment deformational structures includes: simple internal cusps, which occur wide spread ...

  18. Determination of Velocity And Acceleration of Structural Deformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Velocity And Acceleration of Structural Deformation Using Kalman Filter Technique. ... This paper outlines the procedure of geodetic monitoring system of circular oil storage tanks and presents the analysis of the resulted observations to determine the values of their deformation. At the Forcados Tank Farm, ...

  19. Thermally assisted deformation of structural superplastics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    their behaviour resembles that of conventional materials deforming at high homologous tem- peratures. Prior to developing this ... Intense shear bands, protrusions and possibly intrusions form and lead to crack formation. ... (i) In fully dense n–Cu, n–SnO2 and n–TiO2 strain rate sensitivity was present at room temperature.

  20. Formation of disorientations in dislocation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, W.


    Disorientations developing during plastic deformation in dislocation structures are investigated. Based on expected mechanisms for the formation of different types of dislocation boundaries (statistical trapping of dislocations or differently activated slip systems) the formation of the disorient......Disorientations developing during plastic deformation in dislocation structures are investigated. Based on expected mechanisms for the formation of different types of dislocation boundaries (statistical trapping of dislocations or differently activated slip systems) the formation...

  1. Effect of deformation on the structural state of piracetam (United States)

    Kanunnikova, O. M.; Mikhailova, S. S.; Karban', O. V.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Aksenova, V. V.; Sen'kovskii, B. V.; Pechina, E. A.; Lad'yanov, V. I.


    The effect of various deformation actions on the structure-phase transformations in piracetam of modifications I and II with a sodium acetate addition is studied. Mechanical activation and pressing are shown to cause the polymorphic transformation of modification I into modification II, and modification III forms predominantly during severe plastic deformation by torsion. The structural difference between the piracetam molecules of modifications I and II is found to be retained in aqueous solutions.

  2. Control and large deformations of marginal disordered structures (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Pinson, Matthew; Chen, Elizabeth

    Designed deformations, such as origami patterns, provide a way to make easily controlled mechanical metamaterials with tailored responses to external forces. We focus on an often overlooked regime of origami - non-linear deformations of large disordered origami patterns with no symmetries. We find that practical questions of control in origami have counterintuitive answers, because of intimate connections to spin glasses and neural networks. For example, 1 degree of freedom origami structures are actually difficult to control about the flat state with a single actuator; the actuator is thrown off by an exponential number of `red herring' zero modes for small deformations, all but one of which disappear at larger deformations. Conversely, structures with multiple programmed motions are much easier to control than expected - in fact, they are as easy to control as a dedicated single-motion structure if the number of programmed motions is below a threshold (`memory capacity').

  3. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyses of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection data of the diffusive plate boundary in the central Indian Ocean reveal a new kind of deformed structure besides the well-reported structures of long-wavelength anticlinal basement rises and high-angle reverse faults. The structure (basement trough) has a length of ...

  4. QuikForm: Intelligent deformation processing of structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, R.J.; Wellman, G.W.


    There currently exists a critical need for tools to enhance the industrial competitiveness and agility of US industries involved in deformation processing of structural alloys. In response to this need, Sandia National Laboratories has embarked upon the QuikForm Initiative. The goal of this program is the development of computer-based tools to facilitate the design of deformation processing operations. The authors are currently focusing their efforts on the definition/development of a comprehensive system for the design of sheet metal stamping operations. The overall structure of the proposed QuikForm system is presented, and the focus of their thrust in each technical area is discussed.

  5. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  6. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo


    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile-deformed ......With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  7. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur. Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine ...

  8. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)


    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vakulenko


    Full Text Available The influence of parameters of degree of plastic deformation for 30…80 % and subsequent temper on the structure and yielding stress in the microyield region of preimproved carbon steels has been studied. The classification of dispersed phase of ferrite into two types containing the high angle boundaries and substructure boundaries respectively in relation to steels has been discussed.

  10. On approximation theorem for structured deformations from BV(Omega)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav


    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-100 ISSN 2326-7186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : structured deformation * fracture * approximations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    trough) has a length of about 150 km and deepens by up to 1 km from its regional trend (northward dipping). The basement trough includes a .... lower sedimentary layers follow the basement trend of the structure on its slopes and abut .... Keeping the spatial deformation activity in view, the early Pliocene age is assigned to ...

  12. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine ...

  13. Electronic Structure and Properties of Deformed Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)


    A theoretical framework based on Huckel tight-binding model has been formulated to analyze the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes under uniform deformation. The model successfully quantifies the dispersion relation, density of states and bandgap change of nanotubes under uniform stretching, compression, torsion and bending. Our analysis shows that the shifting of the Fermi point away from the Brillouin zone vertices is the key reason for these changes. As a result of this shifting, the electronic structure of deformed carbon nanotubes varies dramatically depending on their chirality and deformation mode. Treating the Fermi point as a function of strain and tube chirality, the analytical solution preserves the concise form of undeformed carbon nanotubes. It predicts the shifting, merging and splitting of the Van Hove singularities in the density of states and the zigzag pattern of bandgap change under strains. Four orbital tight-binding simulations of carbon nanotubes under uniform stretching, compression, torsion and bending have been performed to verify the analytical solution. Extension to more complex systems are being performed to relate this analytical solution to the spectroscopic characterization, device performance and proposed quantum structures induced by the deformation. The limitations of this model will also be discussed.

  14. Polycrystal deformation and single crystal deformation: Dislocation structure and flow stress in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Borrego, A.; Pantleon, W.


    The relation between the polycrystal deformation and single crystal deformation has been studied for pure polycrystalline copper deformed in tension. The dislocation microstructure has been analyzed for grains of different orientation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and three types...

  15. Intermediate size inducer pump - structural analysis and transient deformation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, T.K.; Nishizaka, J.N.


    This report summarizes the structural and thermal transient deformation analysis of the Intermediate Size Inducer Pump. The analyses were performed in accordance to the requirements of N266ST310001, the specification for the ISIP. Results of stress analysis indicate that the thermal transient stress and strain are within the stress strain limits of RDT standard F9-4 which was used as a guide.

  16. Fast Detection of Material Deformation through Structural Dissimilarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Parkinson, Dilworth


    Designing materials that are resistant to extreme temperatures and brittleness relies on assessing structural dynamics of samples. Algorithms are critically important to characterize material deformation under stress conditions. Here, we report on our design of coarse-grain parallel algorithms for image quality assessment based on structural information and on crack detection of gigabyte-scale experimental datasets. We show how key steps can be decomposed into distinct processing flows, one based on structural similarity (SSIM) quality measure, and another on spectral content. These algorithms act upon image blocks that fit into memory, and can execute independently. We discuss the scientific relevance of the problem, key developments, and decomposition of complementary tasks into separate executions. We show how to apply SSIM to detect material degradation, and illustrate how this metric can be allied to spectral analysis for structure probing, while using tiled multi-resolution pyramids stored in HDF5 chunked multi-dimensional arrays. Results show that the proposed experimental data representation supports an average compression rate of 10X, and data compression scales linearly with the data size. We also illustrate how to correlate SSIM to crack formation, and how to use our numerical schemes to enable fast detection of deformation from 3D datasets evolving in time.

  17. Structure and properties of copper after large strain deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, Kinga; Molak, Rafal M.; Pakiela, Zbigniew


    Structure and properties of Cu in dependence on strain (from {epsilon}{proportional_to} 0.9 to {epsilon}{proportional_to} 15) during multi-axial compression processing at room temperature was investigated. The evolution of dislocation structure, misorientation distribution and crystallite size were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The mechanical properties of yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and uniform elongation was performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). The structure-flow stress relationship of multi-axial compression processing material at strains {epsilon}{proportional_to} 3.5 and {epsilon}{proportional_to} 5.5 is discussed. It is found that processing does not produce any drastic changes in deformation structure and the microstructural refinement is slow. These results indicate that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role during multi-axial compression process in this range of deformation (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Ground Liquefaction and Deformation Analysis of Breakwater Structures Under Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jie


    Full Text Available Ground liquefaction and deformation is one of the important causes that damage engineering structures. Chinese current code for seismic design of breakwater is based on the single-level seismic design method as well as code for port and water-way engineering. However, this code can not exactly reflect the seismic performance of breakwater structures which experience different seismic intensities. In this paper, the author used a finite difference software, namely, FLAC3D, to analyze the state and compute seismic responses of breakwater structure. The breakwater foundation’s pore pressure ratio and displacement due to different earthquake have been studied. And the result show that: Smaller earthquakes have little influence on serviceability of the foundation, and severe earthquakes can liquefy some parts of the foundation; In the latter case , obvious changes of pores and foundation displaces can be found. Particularly, when seismic peak acceleration reachs 0.2g, Liquefaction appears in the foundation and mainly concentrated in the upper right side of the structure. In addition, the survey of ultra-hole pressure and displacement values of sand layers of the breakwater, manifests when the ultra pore pressure near 1.0, displacement and overturning structure is relatively large, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the structure. This paper’s research can provide theoretical and designable reference for similar engineering structures

  19. Structural deformation and intertube conductance of crossed carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S.C.; Choi, Hyoung J.; Ihm, Jisoon; Louie, Steven G.


    We present a first-principles study of the structure and quantum electronic conductance of junctions consisting of two crossed (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes. The structures are determined by constrained minimization of total energy at a given force between the two tubes, simulating the effects of substrate-tube attraction or an applied force. We find that the intertube contact distance is very sensitive to the applied force in the range of 0-10 nN. The intertube conductance is sizable for realistic deformation expected from substrate interaction. The results explain the recent transport data on crossed nanotubes and show that these systems may be potentially useful as electromechanical devices

  20. Structural Deformation and Intertube Conductance of Crossed Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Mazzoni, Mario S. C.; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ihm, Jisoon; Louie, Steven G.


    We present a first-principles study of the structure and quantum electronic conductance of junctions consisting of two crossed (5,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes. The structures are determined by constrained minimization of total energy at a given force between the two tubes, simulating the effects of substrate-tube attraction or an applied force. We find that the intertube contact distance is very sensitive to the applied force in the range of 0--10nN. The intertube conductance is sizable for realistic deformation expected from substrate interaction. The results explain the recent transport data on crossed nanotubes and show that these systems may be potentially useful as electromechanical devices

  1. Octupole deformation in neutron-rich actinides and superheavy nuclei and the role of nodal structure of single-particle wavefunctions in extremely deformed structures of light nuclei (United States)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.; Agbemava, S. E.


    Octupole deformed shapes in neutron-rich actinides and superheavy nuclei as well as extremely deformed shapes of the N∼ Z light nuclei have been investigated within the framework of covariant density functional theory. We confirmed the presence of new region of octupole deformation in neutron-rich actinides with the center around Z∼ 96,N∼ 196 but our calculations do not predict octupole deformation in the ground states of superheavy Z≥slant 108 nuclei. As exemplified by the study of 36Ar, the nodal structure of the wavefunction of occupied single-particle orbitals in extremely deformed structures allows to understand the formation of the α-clusters in very light nuclei, the suppression of the α-clusterization with the increase of mass number, the formation of ellipsoidal mean-field type structures and nuclear molecules.

  2. Plastic deformation enabled energy dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor. (United States)

    Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong


    It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic deformation behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's energy dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Neitzel


    Full Text Available Polymers have various interesting properties, which depend largely on their inner structure. One way to influence the macroscopic behaviour is the deformation of the polymer chains, which effects the change in microstructure. For analyzing the microstructure of non-deformed and deformed polymer materials, Raman spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used. In the present study we compare the results for crystallinity measurements of deformed polymers using both methods in order to characterize the differences in micro-structure due to deformation. The study is ongoing, and we present the results of the first tests.

  4. Nuclear structure at high-spin and large-deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.


    Atomic nucleus is a finite quantal system and shows various marvelous features. One of the purposes of the nuclear structure study is to understand such features from a microscopic viewpoint of nuclear many-body problem. Recently, it is becoming possible to explore nuclear states under 'extreme conditions', which are far different from the usual ground states of stable nuclei, and new aspects of such unstable nuclei attract our interests. In this lecture, I would like to discuss the nuclear structure in the limit of rapid rotation, or the extreme states with very large angular momenta, which became accessible by recent advent of large arrays of gamma-ray detecting system; these devices are extremely useful to measure coincident multiple γ-rays following heavy-ion fusion reactions. Including such experimental aspects as how to detect the nuclear rotational states, I review physics of high-spin states starting from the elementary subjects of nuclear structure study. In would like also to discuss the extreme states with very large nuclear deformation, which are easily realized in rapidly rotating nuclei. (author)

  5. Speckle photography applied to measure deformations of very large structures (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Morgan, Chris K.


    Fundamental principles of mechanics have recently been brought to bear on problems concerning very large structures. Fields of study include tectonic plate motion, nuclear waste repository vault closure mechanisms, the flow of glacier and sea ice, and highway bridge damage assessment and residual life prediction. Quantitative observations, appropriate for formulating and verifying models, are still scarce however, so the need to adapt new methods of experimental mechanics is clear. Large dynamic systems often exist in environments subject to rapid change. Therefore, a simple field technique that incorporates short time scales and short gage lengths is required. Further, the measuring methods must yield displacements reliably, and under oft-times adverse field conditions. Fortunately, the advantages conferred by an experimental mechanics technique known as speckle photography nicely fulfill this rather stringent set of performance requirements. Speckle seemed to lend itself nicely to the application since it is robust and relatively inexpensive. Experiment requirements are minimal -- a camera, high resolution film, illumination, and an optically rough surface. Perhaps most important is speckle's distinct advantage over point-by-point methods: It maps the two dimensional displacement vectors of the whole field of interest. And finally, given the method's high spatial resolution, relatively short observation times are necessary. In this paper we discuss speckle, two variations of which were used to gage the deformation of a reinforced concrete bridge structure subjected to bending loads. The measurement technique proved to be easily applied, and yielded the location of the neutral axis self consistently. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using whole field techniques to detect and quantify surface strains of large structures under load.

  6. Structural Changes in Deformed Soft Magnetic Ni-Based Metallic Glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A.; Csach, K.; Miskuf, J.; Ocelik, V.

    The effects of intensive plastic deformation of the soft magnetic metallic glass Ni Si 13 on the structural relaxation were examined. The enthalpy changes studied by differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the intensive plastic deformation was associated with the partial structural

  7. On the modelling of the dynamics of elastically deformable floating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Malenica, Sime; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    In this paper we are reexamining the dynamic equations of an elastically deformable floating structure to identify and evaluate the contribution from the inertia cross coupling terms which commonly have been neglected due to the assumption of small structural deformation. Numerical experiments on...

  8. Hamiltonian structure of isospectral deformation equation and semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.


    We consider semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices. We show that this new class of matrices, called s-matrices, defines Hamiltonian structures for isospectral deformation equations. Concrete examples of factorized s-matrices are constructed and they are used to define Hamiltonian structure for general two-dimensional isospectral deformation systems. (orig.)

  9. Exploring of PST-TBPM in Monitoring Dynamic Deformation of Steel Structure in Vibration (United States)

    Chen, Mingzhi; Zhao, Yongqian; Hai, Hua; Yu, Chengxin; Zhang, Guojian


    In order to monitor the dynamic deformation of steel structure in the real-time, digital photography is used in this paper. Firstly, the grid method is used correct the distortion of digital camera. Then the digital cameras are used to capture the initial and experimental images of steel structure to obtain its relative deformation. PST-TBPM (photographing scale transformation-time baseline parallax method) is used to eliminate the parallax error and convert the pixel change value of deformation points into the actual displacement value. In order to visualize the deformation trend of steel structure, the deformation curves are drawn based on the deformation value of deformation points. Results show that the average absolute accuracy and relative accuracy of PST-TBPM are 0.28mm and 1.1‰, respectively. Digital photography used in this study can meet accuracy requirements of steel structure deformation monitoring. It also can warn the safety of steel structure and provide data support for managers’ safety decisions based on the deformation curves on site.

  10. Complex structure-induced deformations of σ-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Dmitri [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russ. Acad. Sci.,Gubkina str. 8, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We describe a deformation of the principal chiral model (with an even-dimensional target space G) by a B-field proportional to the Kähler form on the target space. The equations of motion of the deformed model admit a zero-curvature representation. As a simplest example, we consider the case of G=S{sup 1}×S{sup 3}. We also apply a variant of the construction to a deformation of the AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×S{sup 1} (super-)σ-model.

  11. String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Korbinian


    This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the

  12. Formality theory from Poisson structures to deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Chiara


    This book is a survey of the theory of formal deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds, in the formalism developed by Kontsevich. It is intended as an educational introduction for mathematical physicists who are dealing with the subject for the first time. The main topics covered are the theory of Poisson manifolds, star products and their classification, deformations of associative algebras and the formality theorem. Readers will also be familiarized with the relevant physical motivations underlying the purely mathematical construction.

  13. Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model (United States)

    TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.


    With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even

  14. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pore-pressure changes induced by liquefaction and fluidization processes (Lowe 1975; Owen 1987;. Monila et al. 1998; Jones and Omoto 2000; Fernandes et al. 2007; Singh and Jain 2007; Mugnier et al. 2011). The driving forces that are required during the deformation process include reverse density gradients, unequal ...

  15. Effect of crystal structure peculiarities of ageing alloys on dislocation structure during active deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travina, N.T.; Nikitin, A.A.; Zimina, L.N.


    On coarse-grain polycrystal samples of commercial KhN67MVTYu (EhP202), Kh60MVTYu (EhP487) and KhN60MKVYu (EhI661) alloys, aged under various conditions, studied are mechnanical properties after active deformation by extension at room temperature and dislocation structure corresponding to these structural states. Crystal and dislocation structures have been studied using electron microscope. In the alloys with mode--rate (13-14 v.%) quantity of γ' phase (KhN67MVTYu and KhN60MVTYu) at the stage of coherent-conjugated bond of particles with matrix deformation runs mainly according to the mechanism of cutting particles by separate dislocations; at the break of coherent bond - by bending of particles according to the Orovan mechanism or by their cutting with clusters of dislocations. At high volume part of particles of γ'-phase (40 v%, KhN60MKVYu alloy) the Orovan mechanism does not manifest itself in any of studied states. In this alloy at this stage of the break of the γ'-phase coherent bond with matrix in the result of ordered position of particles along the directions in matrix formed are interlayers free from particles on which strain is being mainly developed. Dislocation structure is compared with mechanical properties of the alloys

  16. Vortex Structures in the Shock-deformed Armor Steels (United States)

    Atroshenko, Svetlana; Meshcheryakov, Yuri; Natalia, Naumova


    Several kinds of armor steel were tested under uniaxial strain conditions within impact velocity range from 250 to 400 m/s. Using optical and REM microscopy, the post shocked specimens were studied to reveal the kinematical mechanisms of dynamic deformation at the mesoscale. In all the specimens, the cross-section of specimens was found to be filled with rotational cells of very complex space morphology. Each rotation cell consists of central core of 1-2 μm in diameter and family of petals surrounding the core, so the space configuration of eddy is closely remands a fan of total size 6-7 μm. During the deformation, the petals move around the core providing the vortical motion of rotation as a whole. Dependence of rotational cell density on the strain rate changes non-monotonously, maximum density corresponds to maximum macrohardness and maximum of spall-strength of steel.

  17. Dislocations structure in copper cyclically deformed in low amplitude of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, L.C.R.


    The evolution of the dislocation structure during the fatigue life of copper, was observed. Fatigue tests were performed, in annealed polycristals, with constant plastic strain amplitude, and interrupted at different percentages of their fatigue lives. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used for surface analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy for structural observations. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Structure and properties of quenched low-carbon steel in case of plastic deformation and tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, V.K.; Drozdov, B.Ya.; Pirogov, V.A.; Plevako, P.S.


    The investigation of the processes taking place during the deformation and the tempering of grade 20 hardened steel has shown that the plastic deformation involves an increase in hardness and a drop in coercive force. The latter is due to a displacement of carbon atoms from normal interstitial locations to crystalline lattice imperfection sites. The effect of tempering has been studied on steels not worked and on those worked by 20 and 40 % after hardening. It is found that the tempering of a cold-worked steel is accompanied by a recrystallization which makes itself evident at 500 deg C after 40 % deformation and at 600 deg C after 20 % deformation. The stability of the low-carbon steel martensite during the recrsytallization is due to the absence of a substantial excess of dislocations of a single sign, and not to the inhibiting effect of the carbide particles. The heterogeneity of the structure produced by the hardening facilitates recrystallization of deformed steel

  19. Micro-structural evolution in plastically deformed crystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christopher

    Two rate-independent strain gradient crystal plasticity models are developed and applied in numerical studies designed to identify the properties inherent to model predictions of plastic deformation. The two models incorporate gradients of slip into the framework of conventional crystal plasticity...... predictions for the two models to be obtained. Application of the two models to the pure shear boundary value problem is used to characterize plastic behavior, which also allows for the identification of inherent properties through closed form expressions. Single crystal Monazite containing a void is studied...

  20. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan) (United States)

    Gladkov, A. S.; Lobova, E. U.; Deev, E. V.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Mazeika, J. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.


    This paper discusses the composition and distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures induced by liquefaction in Late Pleistocene lacustrine terrace deposits on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul Lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The section contains seven deformed beds grouped in two intervals. Five deformed beds in the upper interval contain load structures (load casts and flame structures), convolute lamination, ball-and-pillow structures, folds and slumps. Deformation patterns indicate that a seismic trigger generated a multiple slump on a gentle slope. The dating of overlying subaerial deposits suggests correlation between the deformation features and strong earthquakes in the Late Pleistocene.

  1. Shear Creep Simulation of Structural Plane of Rock Mass Based on Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Zhang


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the creep characteristics of the structural plane of rock mass are very useful. However, most existing simulation methods are based on continuum mechanics and hence are unsuitable in the case of large displacements and deformations. The discontinuous deformation analysis method proposed by Genhua is a discrete one and has a significant advantage when simulating the contacting problem of blocks. In this study, we combined the viscoelastic rheological model of Burgers with the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA method. We also derived the recurrence formula for the creep deformation increment with the time step during numerical simulations. Based on the minimum potential energy principle, the general equilibrium equation was derived, and the shear creep deformation in the structural plane was considered. A numerical program was also developed and its effectiveness was confirmed based on the curves obtained by the creep test of the structural plane of a rock mass under different stress levels. Finally, the program was used to analyze the mechanism responsible for the creep features of the structural plane in the case of the toppling deformation of the rock slope. The results showed that the extended DDA method is an effective one.

  2. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of deformation of sail of 30-foot yacht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Bak


    Full Text Available Most yacht sails are made of thin fabric, and they have a cambered shape to generate lift force; however, their shape can be easily deformed by wind pressure. Deformation of the sail shape changes the flow characteristics over the sail, which in turn further deforms the sail shape. Therefore, fluid-structure interaction (FSI analysis is applied for the precise evaluation or optimization of the sail design. In this study, fluid flow analyses are performed for the main sail of a 30-foot yacht, and the results are applied to loading conditions for structural analyses. By applying the supporting forces from the rig, such as the mast and boom-end outhaul, as boundary conditions for structural analysis, the deformed sail shape is identified. Both the flow analyses and the structural analyses are iteratively carried out for the deformed sail shape. A comparison of the flow characteristics and surface pressures over the deformed sail shape with those over the initial shape shows that a considerable difference exists between the two and that FSI analysis is suitable for application to sail design.

  3. Plastic deformation modelling of tempered martensite steel block structure by a nonlocal crystal plasticity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boeff


    Full Text Available The plastic deformations of tempered martensite steel representative volume elements with different martensite block structures have been investigated by using a nonlocal crystal plasticity model which considers isotropic and kinematic hardening produced by plastic strain gradients. It was found that pronounced strain gradients occur in the grain boundary region even under homogeneous loading. The isotropic hardening of strain gradients strongly influences the global stress–strain diagram while the kinematic hardening of strain gradients influences the local deformation behaviour. It is found that the additional strain gradient hardening is not only dependent on the block width but also on the misorientations or the deformation incompatibilities in adjacent blocks.

  4. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)


    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  5. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo


    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  6. Mechanical design of deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for linear nanopositioning stages (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kearney, Steven P.; Preissner, Curt A.


    A method and deformation compensated flexural pivots structured for precision linear nanopositioning stages are provided. A deformation-compensated flexural linear guiding mechanism includes a basic parallel mechanism including a U-shaped member and a pair of parallel bars linked to respective pairs of I-link bars and each of the I-bars coupled by a respective pair of flexural pivots. The basic parallel mechanism includes substantially evenly distributed flexural pivots minimizing center shift dynamic errors.

  7. Influence of deformation on structural-phase state of weld material in St3 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Alexander, E-mail:; Ababkov, Nicolay, E-mail:; Ozhiganov, Yevgeniy, E-mail: [Kuzbass State Technical University, 25-54, Krasnaya Str., 650000, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); LLC “Kuzbass Center of Welding and Control”, 33/2, Lenin Str., 650055, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Kozlov, Eduard, E-mail: [Kuzbass State Technical University, 25-54, Krasnaya Str., 650000, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Popova, Natalya, E-mail: [Kuzbass State Technical University, 25-54, Krasnaya Str., 650000, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: [Kuzbass State Technical University, 25-54, Krasnaya Str., 650000, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zboykova, Nadezhda, E-mail:; Koneva, Nina, E-mail: [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    The structural-phase condition of the weld material subjected to the plastic deformation was investigated using the translucent diffraction electron microscopy method. The investigations were carried out near the joint of the weld and the base metal. The seam was done by the method of manual arc welding without artificial defects. The St3 steel was taken as the welded material. Influence of the plastic deformation on morphology, phase composition, defect structure and its parameters of weld metal was revealed. All investigations were done at the distance of 0.5 mm from the joint of the weld and the base metal at the deformation degrees from 0 to 5% and after destruction of a sample. It was established that deformation of the sample did not lead to qualitative changes in the structure (the structure is still presented by ferrite-pearlite mixture) but changed the quantitative parameters of the structure, namely, with the increase of plastic deformation a part of the pearlite component becomes more and more imperfect. In the beginning it turns into the destroyed pearlite then into ferrite, the volume fraction of pearlite is decreased. The polarization of dislocation structure takes place but it doesn’t lead to the internal stresses that can destroy the sample.

  8. The mechanical properties of austenite stainless steel 304 after structural deformation through cold work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarok, Naila; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: [PPS Materials Science, FMIPA-Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Notonegoro, Hamdan Akbar [Mechanical Engineering Dept., FT-Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa,Cilegon 42435 (Indonesia); Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini [Pusat Penelitian Fisika,LIPI, Serpong (Indonesia)


    The 304 stainless steel (SS) type is widely used in oil and gas operations due to its excellent corrosion resistance. However, the presence of the fine sand particles and H{sub 2}S gas contained in crude oil could lead the erosion and abrasion in steel. In this study, cold rolled treatments were conducted to the 304 SS in order to increase the wear resistance of the steel. The cold work has resulted in thickness reduction to 20%, 40% and 60% of the original. Various microstructural characterizations were used to analyze the effect of deformation. The hardness characterization showed that the initial hardness value increased from 145 HVC to 395 HVC as the level of deformation increase. Further, the wear resistance increased with the deformation rate from 0% to 40% and subsequently decreased from 40% to 60% deformation rate. Microstructural characterization shows that the boundary change to coincide by 56 µm, 49 µm, 45 µm, and 43 µm width and the grain go to flatten and being folded like needles. The effect of deformation on the grain morphology and structure was also studied by optical metallography and X-Ray Diffraction. It is shown that the deformation by means of a cold rolled process has transformed the austenite structure into martensitic structure.

  9. Influence of structural heterogeneity on the structural coarsening during annealing of polycrystalline Ni subjected to dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Luo, Z.P.; Hansen, Niels


    The structural heterogeneity of a polycrystalline Ni subjected to dynamic plastic deformation to a strain of 2.3 was characterized, and its influence on the structural coarsening behaviour during post annealing was investigated. Structural heterogeneity on the large scale manifests itself by form...

  10. In-situ studies of bulk deformation structures: Static properties under load and dynamics during deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo


    load, focusing on grains that have the tensile direction close to the h100i direction. It was found that the individual subgrains, on average, are subjected to a reduction of the elastic strain with respect to the mean elastic strain of the grain. The walls are equivalently subjected to an increased...... relaxation conditions, and unloading, it is found that the overall dislocation structure only depends on the maximum obtained flow stress. However, some changes in orientation and internal strain distribution between the subgrains were observed after the unloading. An in-situ stepwise straining experiment...

  11. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue


    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  12. Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Formation of the YBa2Cu3O y Structure (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E. I.; Krinitsina, T. P.; Bobylev, I. B.; Zyuzeva, N. A.; Degtyarev, M. V.


    The structure of the YBa2Cu3O y (123) compound has been investigated after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion performed at room temperature. Distinctive structural features of the samples prepared by standard synthesis and the samples (with increased critical current density) after treatment at t = 200°C in water-saturated atmosphere have been revealed. It has been shown that a lamellar textured structure formed during the annealing of hydrated and deformed samples includes a superconducting orthorhombic phase with a high oxygen index and residual defects that can serve as pinning centers.

  13. Mechanical and structural behaviour of uranium α, β, γ phases during plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Collot, C.


    High temperature behaviour of rich and poor uranium alloys in α, β and γ crystalline structures is studied: dynamic recrystallization phenomena begins only in α and β phases high temperature range, high strength and brittle β phase shows a very large ductility above 700 0 C. Dynamic recrystallization in γ phase rich alloys is observed only if large energy is available. Recrystallization is a thermal actived phenomena localised at grain boundary, dependant with alloy concentration and crystalline structure. β phase activation energy and deformation rate for dynamic recrystallization beginning are the most important in relation with structure complexity; both temperature and rate deformation are dynamic recrystallization factors [fr

  14. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar


    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  15. Soft-sediment deformation structures in NW Germany caused by Late Pleistocene seismicity (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta


    New data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne area link this soft-sediment deformation directly to earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. Soft-sediment deformation structures include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. The style of soft-sediment deformation will be discussed with respect to brittle failure, liquefaction and fluidization processes, and was controlled by (1) the magnitude of the earthquake and (2) the permeability, tensile strength and flexural resistance of the alluvial and aeolian sediments. It is the first time in northern Germany that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleistocene and in the seventeenth century indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. The Late Pleistocene earthquake probably occurred between 15.9 ± 1.6 and 13.1 ± 1.5 ka; the association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that it had a magnitude of at least 5.5.

  16. Confocal scanning laser microscopic study of the RDX defect structure in deformed polymer-bonded explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Bouma, R.H.B.


    The influence of an explosion-driven deformation on the defect structure in RDX crystals embedded in a polymer-bonded explosive was investigated by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy. The images were compared to the defect structure in the as-received RDX grades, embedded

  17. Influence of Plastic Deformation Process on the Structure and Properties of Alloy WE43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarczyk I.


    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of structure and properties tests of flat bars made of alloy WE43 obtained in the process of extrusion with the use of KOBO method. An analysis of structure changes was conducted both in initial state and after plastic deformation.

  18. Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camproux Anne-Claude


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Results Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. Conclusion The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.

  19. 3D Segmentation of Rodent Brain Structures Using Hierarchical Shape Priors and Deformable Models (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Uzunbas, Mustafa; Shen, Tian; Delis, Foteini; Huang, Xiaolei; Volkow, Nora; Thanos, Panayotis; Metaxas, Dimitris N.


    In this paper, we propose a method to segment multiple rodent brain structures simultaneously. This method combines deformable models and hierarchical shape priors within one framework. The deformation module employs both gradient and appearance information to generate image forces to deform the shape. The shape prior module uses Principal Component Analysis to hierarchically model the multiple structures at both global and local levels. At the global level, the statistics of relative positions among different structures are modeled. At the local level, the shape statistics within each structure is learned from training samples. Our segmentation method adaptively employs both priors to constrain the intermediate deformation result. This prior constraint improves the robustness of the model and benefits the segmentation accuracy. Another merit of our prior module is that the size of the training data can be small, because the shape prior module models each structure individually and combines them using global statistics. This scheme can preserve shape details better than directly applying PCA on all structures. We use this method to segment rodent brain structures, such as the cerebellum, the left and right striatum, and the left and right hippocampus. The experiments show that our method works effectively and this hierarchical prior improves the segmentation performance. PMID:22003750

  20. Bridge Structure Deformation Prediction Based on GNSS Data Using Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Xin


    Full Text Available Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA, and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH. Firstly, the raw deformation data is directly pre-processed using the Kalman filter to reduce the noise. After that, the linear recursive ARIMA model is established to analyze and predict the structure deformation. Finally, the nonlinear recursive GARCH model is introduced to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. Simulation results based on measured sensor data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS deformation monitoring system demonstrated that: (1 the Kalman filter is capable of denoising the bridge deformation monitoring data; (2 the prediction accuracy of the proposed Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model is satisfactory, where the mean absolute error increases only from 3.402 mm to 5.847 mm with the increment of the prediction step; and (3 in comparision to the Kalman-ARIMA model, the Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model results in superior prediction accuracy as it includes partial nonlinear characteristics (heteroscedasticity; the mean absolute error of five-step prediction using the proposed model is improved by 10.12%. This paper provides a new way for structural behavior prediction based on data processing, which can lay a foundation for the early warning of bridge health monitoring system based on sensor data

  1. Bridge Structure Deformation Prediction Based on GNSS Data Using Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH Model. (United States)

    Xin, Jingzhou; Zhou, Jianting; Yang, Simon X; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu


    Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA), and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH). Firstly, the raw deformation data is directly pre-processed using the Kalman filter to reduce the noise. After that, the linear recursive ARIMA model is established to analyze and predict the structure deformation. Finally, the nonlinear recursive GARCH model is introduced to further improve the accuracy of the prediction. Simulation results based on measured sensor data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) deformation monitoring system demonstrated that: (1) the Kalman filter is capable of denoising the bridge deformation monitoring data; (2) the prediction accuracy of the proposed Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model is satisfactory, where the mean absolute error increases only from 3.402 mm to 5.847 mm with the increment of the prediction step; and (3) in comparision to the Kalman-ARIMA model, the Kalman-ARIMA-GARCH model results in superior prediction accuracy as it includes partial nonlinear characteristics (heteroscedasticity); the mean absolute error of five-step prediction using the proposed model is improved by 10.12%. This paper provides a new way for structural behavior prediction based on data processing, which can lay a foundation for the early warning of bridge health monitoring system based on sensor data using sensing

  2. Description of Soft Sediment Deformational Structure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    depositional soft sediment depositional structures in the Gombe ... 3- National Centre for Petroleum Research and Development, A.T.B.U. Bauchi State, Nigeria. Figure 1: ... America through the process of rifting (Grant, 1971; Olade,. 1975). However ...

  3. Localized Damage Process in Metal Structures Under High Velocity Deformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vodenicharov, Stefan


    The ASB initiation and growth in high strength steel are investigated. An integrated energy theoretical approach is suggested for modeling ASB development and identifying post critical structure state in the bands...

  4. Quantitative description of changes in the structure in austenitic steels after hot temperature deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuc, D.; Rodak, K.; Niewielski, G.; Hetmanczyk, M.


    An investigation on the structural changes in austenitic hard deformable Cr-Mn and Cr-Ni steels during dynamic recrystallization has been presented in the paper. The influence of the factors (strain rate, deformation, temperature) on the geometric characteristic of grains has been taken into consideration. Investigation of the structure were performed using metallographic microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results of researched should widen the theoretical background in order to the model of phenomena, which accompany the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. (author)

  5. q-deformed phase-space and its lattice structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wess, J.


    Quantum groups lead to an algebraic structure that can be realized on quantum spaces. These are non-commutative spaces that inherit a well-defined mathematical structure from the quantum group symmetry. In turn, such quantum spaces can be interpreted as non-commutative configuration spaces for physical systems. We study the non-commutative Euclidean space that is based on the quantum group SO q (3)

  6. Measurement of deforming mode of lattice truss structures under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H.


    Full Text Available Lattice truss structures, which are used as a core material in sandwich panels, were widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. However, explanation of the deforming mechanism using reliable experimental results is almost rarely reported, particularly for the dynamic deforming mechanism. The present work aimed at the measurement of the deforming mode of lattice truss structures. Indeed, quasi-static and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB tests have been performed on the tetrahedral truss cores structures made of Aluminum 3003-O. Global values such as crushing forces and displacements between the loading platens are obtained. However, in order to understand the deforming mechanism and to explain the observed impact strength enhancement observed in the experiments, images of the truss core element during the tests are recorded. A method based on the edge detection algorithm is developed and applied to these images. The deforming profiles of one beam are extracted and it allows for calculating the length of beam. It is found that these lengths diminish to a critical value (due to compression and remain constant afterwards (because of significant bending. The comparison between quasi-static and impact tests shows that the beam were much more compressed under impact loading, which could be understood as the lateral inertia effect in dynamic bucking. Therefore, the impact strength enhancement of tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel can be explained by the delayed buckling of beam under impact (more compression reached, together with the strain hardening of base material.

  7. Topography and structural heterogeneities in surface ground deformation: a simulation test for Somma-Vesuvius volcano (United States)

    Tammaro, Umberto; Riccardi, Umberto; Romano, Vittorio; Meo, Michele; Capuano, Paolo


    Through a 3D finite element code we simulate, the deformation of Somma-Vesuvius volcano caused by some overpressure sources. Under the assumption of linear elastic isotropic material behavior, the volcano deformation sources are located at various depths and their geometry (shape and lateral extension) is mainly constrained by the results of recent seismic tomography studies. These simulations have the objective to inquire about the influence of topography and structural heterogeneity on ground deformation. Structural heterogeneities have been modeled in terms of dynamical elastic parameters (Young's modulus) accounting for previous seismic tomography and gravity studies. Topography of Somma-Vesuvius is taken into account, using a digital terrain model. The main outcomes of this study is a strong deviation from axially symmetric pattern of the displacement field, which is quietly unaccounted by simplistic Mogi modeling in homogeneous medium with simplified topography. These results demonstrate that real topography and structural heterogeneities are key factors controlling the pattern of ground deformations, i.e. one of the most relevant problem in volcano monitoring. Moreover, an improved knowledge of deformation patterns can significantly help in the location of monitoring sensors as well as in the design of an efficient geodetic network.

  8. Using Ground Radar Interferometry for Precise Determining of Deformation and Vertical Deflection of Structures (United States)

    Talich, Milan


    The paper describes possibilities of the relatively new technics - ground based radar interferometry for precise determining of deformation of structures. Special focus on the vertical deflection of bridge structures and on the horizontal movements of high-rise buildings and structural objects is presented. The technology of ground based radar interferometry can be used in practice to the contactless determination of deformations of structures with accuracy up to 0.01 mm in real time. It is also possible in real time to capture oscillations of the object with a frequency up to 50 Hz. Deformations can be determined simultaneously in multiple places of the object, for example a bridge structure at points distributed on the bridge deck at intervals of one or more meters. This allows to obtain both overall and detailed information about the properties of the structure during the dynamic load and monitoring the impact of movements either individual vehicles or groups. In the case of high-rise buildings, it is possible to monitor the horizontal vibration of the whole object at its different height levels. It is possible to detect and determine the compound oscillations that occur in some types of buildings. Then prevent any damage or even disasters in these objects. In addition to the necessary theory basic principles of using radar interferometry for determining of deformation of structures are given. Practical examples of determining deformation of bridge structures, water towers reservoirs, factory chimneys and wind power plants are also given. The IBIS-S interferometric radar of the Italian IDS manufacturer was used for the measurements.

  9. Auxetic hexachiral structures with wavy ligaments for large elasto-plastic deformation (United States)

    Zhu, Yilin; Wang, Zhen-Pei; Hien Poh, Leong


    The hexachiral structure is in-plane isotropic in small deformation. When subjected to large elasto-plastic deformation, however, the hexachiral structure tends to lose its auxeticity and/or isotropy—properties which are desirable in many potential applications. The objective of this study is to improve these two mechanical properties, without significantly compromising the effective yield stress, in the regime with significant material and geometrical nonlinearity effects. It is found that the deformation mechanisms underlying the auxeticity and isotropy properties of a hexachiral structure are largely influenced by the extent of rotation of the central ring in a unit cell. To facilitate the development of this deformation mechanism, an improved design with wavy ligaments is proposed. The improved performance of the proposed hexachiral structure is demonstrated. An initial study on possible applications as a protective material is next carried out, where the improved hexachiral design is shown to exhibit higher specific energy absorption capacity compared to the original design, as well as standard honeycomb structures.

  10. Progressive deformation of feldspar recording low-barometry impact processes, Tenoumer impact structure, Mauritania (United States)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Kah, Linda C.; Harris, R. Scott


    The Tenoumer impact structure is a small, well-preserved crater within Archean to Paleoproterozoic amphibolite, gneiss, and granite of the Reguibat Shield, north-central Mauritania. The structure is surrounded by a thin ejecta blanket of crystalline blocks (granitic gneiss, granite, and amphibolite) and impact-melt rocks. Evidence of shock metamorphism of quartz, most notably planar deformation features (PDFs), occurs exclusively in granitic clasts entrained within small bodies of polymict, glass-rich breccia. Impact-related deformation features in oligoclase and microcline grains, on the other hand, occur both within clasts in melt-breccia deposits, where they co-occur with quartz PDFs, and also within melt-free crystalline ejecta, in the absence of co-occurring quartz PDFs. Feldspar deformation features include multiple orientations of PDFs, enhanced optical relief of grain components, selective disordering of alternate twins, inclined lamellae within alternate twins, and combinations of these individual textures. The distribution of shock features in quartz and feldspar suggests that deformation textures within feldspar can record a wide range of average pressures, starting below that required for shock deformation of quartz. We suggest that experimental analysis of feldspar behavior, combined with detailed mapping of shock metamorphism of feldspar in natural systems, may provide critical data to constrain energy dissipation within impact regimes that experienced low average shock pressures.

  11. Lithospheric structure and deformation of the North American continent


    Magdala Tesauro; Mikhail Kaban; S. Cloetingh; W. D. Mooney


    We estimate the integrated strength and elastic thickness (Te) of the North American lithosphere based on thermal, density and structural (seismic) models of the crust and upper mantle. The temperature distribution in the lithosphere is estimated considering for the first time the effect of composition as a result of the integrative approach based on a joint analysis of seismic and gravity data. We do this via an iterative adjustment of the model. The upper mantle temperatures are initially e...

  12. Symmetry analysis in the investigation of the order-disorder phase transition and possible structural deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, O.V.; Syromyatnikov, V.N.


    Order-disorder phase transitions for the Me-X structures in Nb-H(D) hydrides with hydrogen (deuterium) ordering over the 12d tetrahedral interstices of the GAMMAsub(c)sup(v) lattice and for the Me-X and Me-X 2 oxides in the Ta-O system with oxygen ordering over octahedral 6b interstices are presented. The concentration of interstitial atoms is assumed to be constant. All possible models of ordered structures with a GAMMAsub(o)sup(b) lattice were determined using symmetry analysis. The possible structural deformations consistent with each variant of the ordering of the interstitial atoms were also considered. The structural deformations include the displacements of the metal atoms and of the centres of the interstices which were deduced using symmetry analysis. The results of the analysis of the final structure symmetry raise the question of understanding the nature of superstructure reflections in neutron diffraction patterns. (Auth.)

  13. Modelling and Simulation of Structural Deformation of Isothermal Subsurface Flow and Carbon Dioxide Injection

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    Injection of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoir has double benefit. On the one hand, it is a profitable method due to issues related to global warming, and on the other hand it is an effective mechanism to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. Such injection associates complex processes involving, e.g., solute transport of dissolved materials, in addition to local changes in density of the phases. Also, increasing carbon dioxide injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium, so it is important to include such effect into the model. The structural deformation modelling in carbon sequestration is important to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. On the other hand, geologic formation of the medium is usually heterogeneous and consists of several layers of different permeability. In this work we conduct numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heterogeneous porous medium domain with dissolved solute transport as well as structural deformation effects. The solute transport of the dissolved component is described by concentration equation. The structural deformation for geomechanics is derived from a general local differential balance equation with neglecting the local mass balance of solid phase and the inertial force term. The flux continuity condition is used at interfaces between different permeability layers of the heterogeneous medium. We analyze the vertical migration of a CO2 plume injected into a 2D layered reservoir. Analysis of distribution of flow field components such as saturation, pressures, velocities, and CO2 concentration are presented.

  14. Algebraic structure of the Green's ansatz and its q-deformed analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.


    The algebraic structure of the Green's ansatz is analyzed in such a way that its generalization to the case of q-deformed para-Bose and para-Fermi operators is becoming evident. To this end the underlying Lie (super) algebraic properties of the parastatistics are essentially used. (author). 41 refs

  15. The general form of the relaxation of a purely interfacial energy for structured deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav


    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2017), s. 191-215 ISSN 2326-7186 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : structured deformations * relaxation * subadditive envelope * interfacial energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics

  16. Shear-deforming textile reinforced concrete for the construction of double-curved structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.; Bergsma, O.K.; Schipper, H.R.


    A composite textile reinforced concrete (TRC) material is developed to overcome the difficulties of constructing double-curved freeform structures. This is possible by shear-deformation of the woven reinforcement. It affects the direction of reinforcement and thickness, resulting in variable

  17. Evolution of deformation structures under varying loading conditions followed in situ by high angular resolution 3DXRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, B.


    copper to different loading conditions are presented: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains can be observed concurrently with broadening of the Bragg reflection shortly after onset of plastic deformation. With continued tensile deformation, the subgrain structure develops...... intermittently. When the traction is terminated, stress relaxation occurs and number, size and orientation of subgrains are found to be constant. The subgrain structure freezes and only a minor clean-up of the dislocation structure is observed. When changing the tensile direction after pre-deformation in tension...

  18. Structural transformations at the initial stages of fragmentation of plastically deformed polycrystals: A computer experiment (United States)

    Rybin, V. V.; Perevezentsev, V. N.; Svirina, Yu. V.


    Results have been presented for a computer experiment on concurrent micro-, meso-, and macroscopic studies of the evolution of dislocation structure in a large (adjacent to one of the junctions) domain of a grain after its constant-rate macroplastic deformation to an extent that corresponds to the onset of the stage of developed plastic deformation. The type of dislocation-density and dislocation-charge distributions, as well as amounts and degrees of inhomogeneity in local plastic deformation, have been analyzed. The type of dislocation rearrangements at the junctions and fractures of high-angle grain boundaries has been established, which is responsible for the formation of the first dangling dislocation boundaries, which are mesodefects that trigger fragmentation.

  19. Mechanical deformation of atomic-scale metallic contacts: Structure and mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    electronic conductance. Various defects such as intersecting stacking faults, local disorder, and vacancies are created during the deformation. Disordered regions act as weak spots that reduce the strength of the contacts. The disorder tends to anneal out again during the subsequent atomic rearrangements......We have simulated the mechanical deformation of atomic-scale metallic contacts under tensile strain using molecular dynamics and effective medium theory potentials. The evolution of the structure of the contacts and the underlying deformation mechanisms are described along with the calculated...... that the results measured in a nanocontact experiment depend significantly on the elastic stiffness of the experimental apparatus. For a soft setup, some of the atomic rearrangements might not be detected, whereas others are amplified....

  20. Deformation of periodic nanovoid structures in Mg single crystals (United States)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Su, Yanqing; Zare Chavoshi, Saeed


    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in Mg single crystal containing periodic cylindrical voids subject to uniaxial tension along the z direction are carried out. Models with different initial void sizes and crystallographic orientations are explored using two interatomic potentials. It is found that (i) a larger initial void always leads to a lower yield stress, in agreement with an analytic prediction; (ii) in the model with x[\\bar{1}100]–y[0001]–z[11\\bar{2}0] orientations, the two potentials predict different types of tension twins and phase transformation; (iii) in the model with x[0001]–y[11\\bar{2}0]–z[\\bar{1}100] orientations, the two potentials identically predict the nucleation of edge dislocations on the prismatic plane, which then glide away from the void, resulting in extrusions at the void surface; in the case of the smallest initial void, these surface extrusions pinch the void into two voids. Besides bringing new physical understanding of the nanovoid structures, our work highlights the variability and uncertainty in MD simulations arising from the interatomic potential, an issue relatively lightly addressed in the literature to date.

  1. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick


    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  2. Deformation analysis and prediction of bank protection structure with river level fluctuations (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Xing, Yixuan


    Bank structure is an important barrier to maintain the safety of the embankment. The deformation of bank protection structure is not only affected by soil pressure caused by the excavation of the riverway, but also by the water pressure caused river water level fluctuations. Thus, it is necessary to establish a coupled soil-water model to analyze the deformation of bank structure. Based on Druck-Prager failure criteria and groundwater seepage theory, a numerical model of bank protection structure with consideration of the pore water pressure of soil mass is established. According to the measured river level data with seasonal fluctuating, numerical analysis of the deformation of bank protection structure is implemented. The simulation results show that the river water level fluctuation has clear influence on the maximum lateral displacement of the pile. Meanwhile, the distribution of plastic zone is related to the depth of groundwater level. Finally, according to the river water level data of the recent ten years, we analyze the deformation of the bank structure under extreme river level. The result shows that, compared with the scenario of extreme high river level, the horizontal displacement of bank protection structure is larger (up to 65mm) under extreme low river level, which is a potential risk to the embankment. Reference Schweiger H F. On the use of drucker-prager failure criteria for earth pressure problems[J]. Computers and Geotechnics, 1994, 16(3): 223-246. DING Yong-chun,CHENG Ze-kun. Numerical study on performance of waterfront excavation[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,2013,35(2):515-521. Wu L M, Wang Z Q. Three gorges reservoir water level fluctuation influents on the stability of the slope[J]. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, 2013, 739: 283-286.

  3. Formation of Quenching Structures in the Steel 35 by Deform Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Degtyareva


    Full Text Available In industry different methods of surface hardening are widely used to increase reliability and durability of friction unit parts. Among these methods are areas of focus based on deformcutting technology (DC i.e. method of chip-free mechanical treatment.It is shown that DC method allows us to produce through- or partial-hardening surface layers of a large thickness (0,4…1.5mm on steel with no additional heat sources. The standard metal-cutting equipment and common tools are used for deform-cutting process.The significant heat generation in the deform-cutting zone and mechanical effect from the tool allow us to heat undercut layers to the phase transformation point to have the hardening structure as a result of heat removal to the cold balk. The hardening structure formation occurs at significant heating and cooling rate (106C/c with large degrees and rates of strain.The deform-cutting modes and working face tool grinding determine the type and properties of the hardening structure. To produce the hardening structure would require the heat transfer and force action augmentation while treatment.These researches deal with through- and partial surface hardening samples produced by turning steel 35 shafts. While through hardening the phase transformation carry among the whole thickness of the undercut layer; while partial hardening the hardening interlayer formed on the side of the cutting tool contact.The depth of hardening zone of samples with through hardening layers is 0,5 mm; the depth of hardening zone of partial hardening samples is 0,8 mm. Micro-hardness of the through hardening layers is 653 HV0,1 and 485 HV0,1 for the partial hardening layers. The metallographic analysis shows that the hardening zone formed while deform cutting has disperse structure; there are ferrite ghosts in it.The tempering at temperatures of 200 – 700C showed that the micro-hardness of the hardening structures formed while deform cutting is larger than the micro

  4. Motion and deformation estimation from medical imagery by modeling sub-structure interaction and constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh


    This paper presents a novel medical image registration algorithm that explicitly models the physical constraints imposed by objects or sub-structures of objects that have differing material composition and border each other, which is the case in most medical registration applications. Typical medical image registration algorithms ignore these constraints and therefore are not physically viable, and to incorporate these constraints would require prior segmentation of the image into regions of differing material composition, which is a difficult problem in itself. We present a mathematical model and algorithm for incorporating these physical constraints into registration / motion and deformation estimation that does not require a segmentation of different material regions. Our algorithm is a joint estimation of different material regions and the motion/deformation within these regions. Therefore, the segmentation of different material regions is automatically provided in addition to the image registration satisfying the physical constraints. The algorithm identifies differing material regions (sub-structures or objects) as regions where the deformation has different characteristics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the analysis of cardiac MRI which includes the detection of the left ventricle boundary and its deformation. The experimental results indicate the potential of the algorithm as an assistant tool for the quantitative analysis of cardiac functions in the diagnosis of heart disease.

  5. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method. (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu


    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  6. Simulation of Viscoplastic Deformation of Low Carbon Steel Structures at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Maciejewski, K.; Ghonem, H.


    The deformation response of a low carbon structural steel subjected to high temperature simulating fire conditions is generated using a viscoplastic material constitutive model which acknowledges the evolution of the material hardening parameters during the loading history. The material model is implemented in an ABAQUS subroutine (UMAT) which requires the determination of the material constants as a function of temperature. Both the temperature dependency and strain-rate sensitivity of the material parameters have been examined by the analysis of a single steel beam and a steel-framed structure subjected to temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Sequentially coupled thermal-stress analysis is applied to a structure under simulated fire condition. Results of this analysis show that above a transitional temperature, the deformation of the steel is strain-rate dependent. The combined effect of heat flux and loading rate on the complex deformation of a two-story steel structure is examined and the significance of employing a viscoplastic material model is discussed.

  7. A deformed shape monitoring model for building structures based on a 2D laser scanner. (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Bub Ryur; Lee, Hong Min; Kim, Yousok; Park, Hyo Seon


    High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1) module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2) module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3) module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4) module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5) module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible.

  8. Creep deformation and rupture behavior of type 304/308 stainless steel structural weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.; Richardson, M.; Sartory, W.K.


    The creep deformation and rupture of type 304/308 stainless steel structural weldments at 593 0 C (1100 0 F) was experimentally investigated to study the comparative behavior of the base metal and weld metal constituents. The tests were conducted in support of ORNL's program to develop high-temperature structural design methods applicable to liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) system components that operate in the creep range. The specimens used were thin-walled, right circular cylinders capped with either flat or hemispherical heads and tested under internal gas pressure. Circumferential welds were located in different regions of the cylinder or head and, with one exception, were geometrically duplicated by all base metal regions in companion specimens. Results are presented on the comparative deformation and rupture behavior of selected points in the base metal and weldment regions of the different specimens and on the overall surface strains for selected specimens

  9. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey


    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  10. Optimisation by plastic deformation of structural and mechanical uranium alloys properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, Claude.


    Structural and mechanical properties evolution of rich and poor uranium alloys are investigated. Good usual properties are obtained with few metallic additions with a limited effect giving a fine and isotrope grain structure. Amelioration is observed with heat treatment from β and γ phases high temperature range. However, dynamic recrystallisation, related to hot working, is the better phenomena to maximize the usual mechanical and structural properties. So high temperature behaviour of rich and poor uranium alloys in α, β and γ crystalline structure is studied: - dynamic recrystallisation phenomena begins only in α, and β phases high temperature range; - high strength and brittle β phase shows a very large ductility above 700 deg C. Recrystallisation is a thermal actived phenomena localised at grain boundary, dependant with alloys concentration and crystalline structure. β phase activation energy and deformation rate for dynamic recrystallisation beginning are most important, than α and γ phases in relation with quadratic structure complexity. Both temperature and deformation rate are the main dynamic recrystallisation factors. Optimal usual mechanical and structural properties obtained by hot working (forging, milling) are sensible to hydrogen embrittlement [fr

  11. Analysis of Structure and Deformation Mechanisms of Mineral Wool Slabs under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimutis STEPONAITIS


    Full Text Available The products of mineral wool are widely used for thermal insulation of buildings, both at construction of new buildings and at renovation of old ones. The mechanical resistance and stability of them, as well as their energy saving and heat saving requirements are in most cases related to the essential specifications of the building. The mechanical characteristics of these products are subject to structure of material, density, content of binder in the product and to technology of production. Subject to the latter, mineral wool products with different fibrous structure are received, therefore, for the structure of each type, the individual structural models are developed attempting to describe the properties of fibrous systems. The deformability of mineral wool products is conditioned by mobility of fibrous structure, which shows up best under compression by short term loads. This study established the impact of various thicknesses and deformations on changes in structure of rock wool products. It also established that the thickness of mineral wool products conditions and influences considerable changes in their structure.DOI:

  12. Evidence for cross rift structural controls on deformation and seismicity at a continental rift caldera (United States)

    Lloyd, Ryan; Biggs, Juliet; Wilks, Matthew; Nowacki, Andy; Kendall, J.-Michael; Ayele, Atalay; Lewi, Elias; Eysteinsson, Hjálmar


    In continental rifts structural heterogeneities, such as pre-existing faults and foliations, are thought to influence shallow crustal processes, particularly the formation of rift faults, magma reservoirs and surface volcanism. We focus on the Corbetti caldera, in the southern central Main Ethiopian Rift. We measure the surface deformation between 22nd June 2007 and 25th March 2009 using ALOS and ENVISAT SAR interferograms and observe a semi-circular pattern of deformation bounded by a sharp linear feature cross-cutting the caldera, coincident with the caldera long axis. The signal reverses in sign but is not seasonal: from June to December 2007 the region south of this structure moves upwards 3 cm relative to the north, while from December 2007 until November 2008 it subsides by 2 cm. Comparison of data taken from two different satellite look directions show that the displacement is primarily vertical. We discuss potential mechanisms and conclude that this deformation is associated with pressure changes within a shallow (Analysis of the distribution of post-caldera vents and cones inside the caldera shows their locations are statistically consistent with this fault structure, indicating that the fault has also controlled the migration of magma from a reservoir to the surface over tens of thousands of years. Spatial patterns of seismicity are consistent with a cross-rift structure that extents outside the caldera and to a depth of ∼30 km, and patterns of seismic anisotropy suggests stress partitioning occurs across the structure. We discuss the possible nature of this structure, and conclude that it is most likely associated with the Goba-Bonga lineament, which cross-cuts and pre-dates the current rift. Our observations show that pre-rift structures play an important role in magma transport and shallow hydrothermal processes, and therefore they should not be neglected when discussing these processes.

  13. Introduction to Journal of Structural Geology special issue on "Deformation of the lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story" (United States)

    Sintubin, Manuel; de Bresser, Hans; Drury, Martyn; Prior, David J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf


    This special issue Deformation of the Lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story is dedicated to Professor Henk Zwart (1924-2012). The theme is inspired by Henk's retirement lecture entitled Mountains must indeed be studied with a microscope (19 February 1988). Henk Zwart was a pioneer in linking microstructural research with the large-scale issues concerning lithospheric rheology and deformation. The famous Zwart's Hen House, representing the nine diagnostic relationships of porphyroblast growth with respect to the timing of deformation, is still a key element in contemporary textbooks on structural geology and microtectonics. This particular insight may not have occurred if it wasn't for a mistake made by the thin-section maker in the Leiden lab of Henk Zwart. By accident a thin section of a Pyrenean metamorphic rock was made, not perpendicular to the lineation - as was the standard procedure in those early days of structural geology - but parallel to the lineation. That mistake and Henk's recognition that the lineation parallel view gave more useful information changed structural geology and microtectonics.

  14. Multi-trace deformations in AdS/CFT. Exploring the vacuum structure of the deformed CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Center for Mathematical Physics, Hamburg (Germany)


    We present a general and systematic treatment of multi-trace deformations in the AdS/CFT correspondence in the large N limit, pointing out and clarifying subtleties relating to the formulation of the boundary value problem on a conformal boundary. We then apply this method to study multi-trace deformations in the presence of a scalar VEV, which requires the coupling to gravity to be taken into account. We show that supergravity solutions subject to 'mixed' boundary conditions are in one-to-one correspondence with critical points of the holographic effective action of the dual theory in the presence of a multi-trace deformation, and we find a number of new exact analytic solutions involving a minimally or conformally coupled scalar field satisfying 'mixed' boundary conditions. These include the generalization to any dimension of the instanton solution recently found in hep-th/0611315. Finally, we provide a systematic method for computing the holographic effective action in the presence of a multi-trace deformation in a derivative expansion away from the conformal vacuum using Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Requiring that this effective action exists and is bounded from below reproduces recent results on the stability of the AdS vacuum in the presence of 'mixed' boundary conditions. (orig.)

  15. Structure and Function of the Membrane Deformation AAA ATPase Vps4 (United States)

    Hill, Christopher P.; Babst, Markus


    The ATPase Vps4 belongs to the type-I AAA family of proteins. Vps4 functions together with a group of proteins referred to as ESCRTs in membrane deformation and fission events. These cellular functions include vesicle formation at the endosome, cytokinesis and viral budding. The highly dynamic quaternary structure of Vps4 and its interactions with a network of regulators and co-factors have made the analysis of this ATPase challenging. Nevertheless, recent advances in the understanding of the cell biology of Vps4 together with structural information and in vitro studies are guiding mechanistic models of this ATPase. PMID:21925211

  16. Deformation Structure of Unidirectionally Compressed Ultrafine-Grained Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Ding, S. X.; Sun, D. K.; Hsiao, C. I.; Chang, C. P.; Chang, L.; Kao, P. W.


    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) Mg-3Al-1Zn (AZ31) alloys with gain sizes ranging from 0.46 to 3.22 μm were prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and annealing. The deformation structure of UFG AZ31 alloy resulting from uniaxial compression was studied by optical and electron microscopy. The deformation was noted to proceed with the development of shear bands (SBs), which has not been reported in an UFG hcp metal. Characterization of these SBs was performed, and comparison with the SBs formed in UFG bcc and fcc metals was given. \\{ 10bar{1}2\\} tension twins inside SBs were found in all specimens compressed, irrespective of the grain size. Discussion on the limiting grain size of twinning in the UFG AZ31 alloy is also given.

  17. Transition of Temporal Scaling Behavior in Percolation Assisted Shear-branching Structure during Plastic Deformation (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Chen, Cun; Wang, Gang; Liaw, Peter K.


    This paper explores the temporal scaling behavior induced shear-branching structure in response to variant temperatures and strain rates during plastic deformation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). The data analysis based on the compression tests suggests that there are two states of shear-branching structures: the fractal structure with a long-range order at an intermediate temperature of 223 K and a larger strain rate of 2.5 × 10-2 s-1 the disordered structure dominated at other temperature and strain rate. It can be deduced from the percolation theory that the compressive ductility, ec, can reach the maximum value at the intermediate temperature. Furthermore, a dynamical model involving temperature is given for depicting the shear-sliding process, reflecting the plastic deformation has fractal structure at the temperature of 223 K and strain rate of 2.5 × 10-2 s-1.

  18. Anti-deformed Polyacrylonitrile/Polysulfone Composite Membrane with Binary Structures for Effective Air Filtration. (United States)

    Zhang, Shichao; Liu, Hui; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin


    Airborne particle filtration proposed for fibers requires their assembly into porous structures with small pore size and low packing density. The ability to maintain structural stability upon deformation stress in service is essential to ensure a highly porous packing material that functions reliably; however, it has proven extremely challenging. Here, we report a strategy to create anti-deformed poly(ethylene oxide)@polyacrylonitrile/polysulfone (PEO@PAN/PSU) composite membranes with binary structures for effective air filtration by combining multijet electrospinning and physical bonding process. Our approach allows the ambigenous fiber framework including thin PAN nanofibers and fluffy PSU microfibers, through which run interpenetrating PEO bonding structures, to assemble into stable filtration medium with tunable pore size and packing density by facilely optimizing the bimodal fiber construction and benefiting from the PEO inspiration. With the integrated features of small pore size, high porosity, and robust mechanical properties (8.2 MPa), the resultant composite membrane exhibits high filtration efficiency of 99.992%, low pressure drop of 95 Pa, and desirable quality factor of 0.1 Pa(-1); more significantly, it successfully gets rid of the potential safety hazards caused by unexpected structural collapsing under service stress. The synthesis of PEO@PAN/PSU medium would not only make it a promising candidate for PM2.5 governance but also provide a versatile strategy to design and develop stable porous membranes for various applications.

  19. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno


    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  20. Structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon steel subjected to severe deformation (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Goruleva, L. S.; Makarov, A. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.


    The structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon eutectic steel subjected to the cold plastic deformation by hydrostatic extrusion in a wide range of true strain have been studied. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it has been shown that the formation of cellular, fragmented, and submicrocrystalline structures occurs in the ferritic constituent of the pearlite structure of the steel upon extrusion. This is a consequence of the occurrence of dynamic recovery and continuous dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization, which cause a decrease in the density of free dislocations at the true strain of more than 1.62. The partial dissolution of the carbide phase is also observed. It has been found that, at a true strain of up to 0.81, the strength properties of the investigated steel are determined mainly by subgrain, dislocation, and precipitation mechanisms of the strengthening; in the deformation range of 0.81-1.62, the role of the grainboundary strengthening increases. At strains above 1.62, grain-boundary strengthening is a prevailing mechanism in the formation of the level of strength properties of the extruded U8A steel. The ultimate tensile strength and yield stress over the entire strain range only uniquely correlate with the density of highangle boundaries; the dependences of the strength characteristics on other structural parameters are not monotonic.

  1. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X Q


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures. (paper)

  2. The control on the deformation of the ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F; Giraud, P F; Védrine, P; Guyot, C; Levesy, B; Ponsot, P; Schune, P; Sun, Z


    The ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure supports the barrel toroid and the muon detectors. The warm structure is about 26 meters long with an outer diameter of 20 meters. In order to ensure the physics performance of the muon detectors, the deformation of the warm structure is minimised during the design phase. The barrel toroid assembly has been carried out in the cavern of the ATLAS experiment since end of 2004. In September 2005, the warm structure has been completely released. The release has been followed-up in real time using optical alignment sensors. Good agreement has been found within 1 mm, between the alignment system measurement, the geometer survey and the predicted values according to the finite element analyses results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Agakhanov


    Full Text Available The necessity of studying the effect impact of elementary particles impact on the strength and deformation materials properties used in protective constructions nuclear reactors and reactor technology has been stipulated. A nuclear reactor pressure vessel from prestressed concrete, combining the functions of biological protection is to be considered. The neutron flux problem distribution in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor has been solved. The solution is made in axisymmetric with the finite element method using a flat triangular finite element. Computing has been conducted in Matlab package. The comparison with the results has been obtained using the finite difference method, as well as the graphs of changes under the influence of radiation exposure and the elastic modulus of concrete radiation deformations have been constructed. The proposed method allows to simulate changes in the deformation properties of concrete under the influence of neutron irradiation. Results of the study can be used in the calculation of stress-strain state of structures, taking into account indirect heterogeneity caused by the physical fields influence.

  4. Structural consequences of diffuse traumatic brain injury: A large deformation tensor-based morphometry study (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Avants, Brian; Patel, Sunil; Whyte, John; Coslett, H. Branch; Pluta, John; Detre, John A.; Gee, James C.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of long-term disability. Despite the importance of identifying neuropathology in individuals with chronic TBI, methodological challenges posed at the stage of inter-subject image registration have hampered previous voxel-based MRI studies from providing a clear pattern of structural atrophy after TBI. We used a novel symmetric diffeomorphic image normalization method to conduct a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) study of TBI. The key advantage of this method is that it simultaneously estimates an optimal template brain and topology preserving deformations between this template and individual subject brains. Detailed patterns of atrophies are then revealed by statistically contrasting control and subject deformations to the template space. Participants were 29 survivors of TBI and 20 control subjects who were matched in terms of age, gender, education, and ethnicity. Localized volume losses were found most prominently in white matter regions and the subcortical nuclei including the thalamus, the midbrain, the corpus callosum, the mid- and posterior cingulate cortices, and the caudate. Significant voxel-wise volume loss clusters were also detected in the cerebellum and the frontal/temporal neocortices. Volume enlargements were identified largely in ventricular regions. A similar pattern of results was observed in a subgroup analysis where we restricted our analysis to the 17 TBI participants who had no macroscopic focal lesions (total lesion volume> 1.5 cm 3). The current study confirms, extends, and partly challenges previous structural MRI studies in chronic TBI. By demonstrating that a large deformation image registration technique can be successfully combined with TBM to identify TBI-induced diffuse structural changes with greater precision, our approach is expected to increase the sensitivity of future studies examining brain-behavior relationships in the TBI population. PMID:17999940

  5. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.


    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...

  6. 3D visualization of deformation structures and potential fluid pathways at the Grimsel Test Site (United States)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; Kober, Florian; Berger, Alfons; Spillmann, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco


    Knowledge on the ability of fluids to infiltrate subsurface rocks is of major importance for underground constructions, geothermal or radioactive waste disposal projects. In this study, we focus on the characterization of water infiltration pathways, their 3D geometries and origins. Based on surface and subsurface mapping in combination with drill core data, we developed by the use of MoveTM (Midland Valley Exploration Ltd.) a 3D structural model of the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). GTS is an underground laboratory operated by NAGRA, the Swiss organisation responsible for the management of nuclear waste. It is located within a suite of post-Variscan magmatic bodies comprising former granitic and granodioritic melts, which are dissected by mafic and aplitic dikes. During Alpine orogeny, the suite was tectonically overprinted within two stages of ductile deformation (Wehrens et al., in prep.) followed by brittle overprint of some of the shear zones during the retrograde exhumation history. It is this brittle deformation, which controls today's water infiltration network. However, the associated fractures, cataclasites and fault gouges are controlled themselves by aforementioned pre-existing mechanical discontinuities, whose origin ranges back as far as to the magmatic stage. For example, two sets of vertically oriented mafic dikes (E-W and NW-SE striking) and compositional heterogeneities induced by magmatic segregation processes in the plutonic host rocks served as nucleation sites for Alpine strain localization. Subsequently, NE-SW, E-W and NW-SE striking ductile shear zones were formed, in combination with high temperature fracturing while dissecting the host rocks in a complex 3D pattern (Wehrens et al, in prep.). Whether the ductile shear zones have been subjected to brittle reactivation and can serve as infiltration pathways or not, depends strongly on their orientations with respect to the principal stress field. Especially where deformation structures intersect

  7. Structure of deformable diatomic molecules: a modified n-butane liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seanea; Kim, Soonchul; Lee, Songhi


    The density functional approximation for polyatomic molecules, which is based on the bridge function of the intermolecular interaction, was developed and applied to investigate the thermodynamic and the structural properties of deformable diatomic molecules. The Percus trick was employed to calculate the uniform structure of modified n-butane. The calculated static correlation functions were used to predict the density behaviors of a modified n-butane liquid at liquid-solid interfaces. The theoretical results show that (i) at low densities, the hypernetted-chain (HNC) equation compares with the density functional approximation based on the bridge function and that (ii) the relative population between the gauche and the trans states strongly affects the liquid structure at liquid-solid interfaces.

  8. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla


    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  9. Simulation of CO2 Injection in Porous Media with Structural Deformation Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is one of the most attractive methods to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by injecting it into the geological formations. Furthermore, it is also an effective mechanism for enhanced oil recovery. Simulation of CO2 injection based on a suitable modeling is very important for explaining the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in a reservoir. Increasing of CO2 injection may cause a structural deformation of the medium. The structural deformation modeling in carbon sequestration is useful to evaluate the medium stability to avoid CO2 leakage to the atmosphere. Therefore, it is important to include such effect into the model. The purpose of this study is to simulate the CO2 injection in a reservoir. The numerical simulations of two-phase flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are presented. Also, the effects of gravity and capillary pressure are considered. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation (IMPES) and IMplicit Pressure-Displacements and an Explicit Saturation (IMPDES) schemes are used to solve the problems under consideration. Various numerical examples were simulated and divided into two parts of the study. The numerical results demonstrate the effects of buoyancy and capillary pressure as well as the permeability value and its distribution in the domain. Some conclusions that could be derived from the numerical results are the buoyancy of CO2 is driven by the density difference, the CO2 saturation profile (rate and distribution) are affected by the permeability distribution and its value, and the displacements of the porous medium go to constant values at least six to eight months (on average) after injection. Furthermore, the simulation of CO2 injection provides intuitive knowledge and a better understanding of the fluid flow behavior of CO2 in the subsurface with the deformation effect of the porous medium.

  10. Tracking molecular structure deformation of nitrobenzene and its torsion-vibration coupling by intense pumping CARS (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Wu, Hong-Lin; Song, Yun-Fei; He, Xing; Yang, Yan-Qiang; Tan, Duo-Wang


    The structural deformation induced by intense laser field of liquid nitrobenzene (NB) molecule, a typical molecule with restricting internal rotation, is tracked by time- and frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes. Raman spectroscopy (CARS) technique with an intense pump laser. The CARS spectra of liquid NB show that the NO2 torsional mode couples with the NO2 symmetric stretching mode, and the NB molecule undergoes ultrafast structural deformation with a relaxation time of 265 fs. The frequency of NO2 torsional mode in liquid NB (42 cm-1) at room temperature is found from the sum and difference combination bands involving the NO2 symmetric stretching mode and torsional mode in time- and frequency-resolved CARS spectra. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21173063 and 21203047), the Foundation of Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China (Grant No. XZR2014-16), NSAF (Grant No. U1330106), and the Special Research Project of National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2012-S-07).

  11. Pre-deformation Analysis on Construction of Special-shaped Thin-walled Concrete Acoustic Wind Tunnel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Boping


    Full Text Available Structural deformation of special-shaped thin-walled concrete acoustic wind tunnel under self-weight effect can not cater for requirements of high flatness and smoothness of moulding surface. Therefore pre-deformation analysis is carried out on construction of wind tunnel structure. Threshold is utilized to choose equivalent cross-section for the plane needing pre-deformation construction to do analysis. Analysis results show that design specifications of reinforced concrete is feasible for pre-deformation analysis on equivalent plane model under self-weight effect. Present construction on pre-camber wind tunnel according to deflection under self-weight effect also achieves the desired design requirements. Construction technology of arc-shaped erection template which controls mid-span pre-camber value keeps features of simple construction and high accuracy

  12. Structural developments in un-stabilized ultra low carbon steel during warm deformation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, Rahul, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Kumar, Amit, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Shekhawat, Satish K., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India)


    In the present investigation, ultra low carbon steel samples were deformed in plane strain compression mode in a deformation simulator. The deformation was carried out at four different temperatures in the warm rolling region (293, 473, 673 and 873 K) upto 70% strain at two different strain rates (0.1/s and 1/s). Subsequently, all the deformed samples were fully recrystallized at 1073 K. Afterwards, all the deformed and fully recrystallized samples were subjected to detailed microstructural characterization using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction. Bulk texture was measured for all the samples by X-ray diffraction. In-grain misorientation developments (kernel average misorientations) were estimated for the deformed γ-fibre (ND//<111>) and α-fibre (RD//<110>). Deformed γ-fibre showed an increase in in-grain misorientation at intermediate deformation temperatures. This increase was explained by using the plastic instability criterion. After complete recrystallization, the γ-fibre strengthened for deformation at lower temperatures (293 K and 473 K), while Goss texture developed for samples deformed at higher temperatures (673 K and 873 K). - Highlights: • ULC steel samples were deformed in near plane strain condition. • Microstructural developments were characterized using EBSD. • Increase in in-grain misorientation at intermediate deformation temperatures. • γ-fibre strengthened for low temperature deformation. • Goss texture developed for high temperature deformation.

  13. Structural and magnetic study of mechanically deformed Fe rich FeAlSi ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarra, E.; Apiñaniz, E.; Plazaola, F.


    Highlights: ► Addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. ► Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. ► Disordering induces a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms in Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x and Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x . ► Addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe. ► Si inhibits the para-ferro transition found in Fe 60 Al 40 alloy with disordering. - Abstract: In this work we study systematically the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the magnetic and structural properties of mechanically disordered powder Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x , Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x and Fe 60 Al 40−x Si x alloys by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In order to obtain different stages of disorder the alloys were deformed by different methods: crushing induction melted alloys and ball milling annealed (ordered) alloys using different number of balls and speed. X-ray and Mössbauer data show that mechanical deformation induces the disordered A2 structure in these alloys. The results indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns show that the normalized lattice parameter variation of the disordered alloys of each composition decreases monotonically with Si content, indicating clearly that Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. The study of the hyperfine fields indicates that there is a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms with the disordering; indeed, there is an inversion of the behavior of the hyperfine field of the Fe atoms. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe.

  14. Off-Yrast low-spin structure of deformed nuclei at mass number A∼150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krugmann, Andreas


    -spinflip parts of the cross section has been done. Here, for the first time, the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) has been identified in the heavy deformed nucleus {sup 154}Sm that appears as a double-hump structure in the E1 response. A possible interpretation of this double-hump structure in terms of a deformation splitting analogously to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) has been given. In case of the spinflip cross section, a broad distribution in the excitation energy range between 6 and 12 MeV has been observed. The distribution and the extracted sum strength are in good accordance with previous experiments.

  15. Experiments on deformation behaviour of functionally graded NiTi structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir S. Shariat


    Full Text Available Functionally graded NiTi structures benefit from the combination of the smart properties of NiTi and those of functionally graded structures. This article provides experimental data for thermomechanical deformation behaviour of microstructurally graded, compositionally graded and geometrically graded NiTi alloy components, related to the research article entitled “Functionally graded shape memory alloys: design, fabrication and experimental evaluation” (Shariat et al., 2017 [1]. Stress–strain variation of microstructurally graded NiTi wires is presented at different heat treatment conditions and testing temperatures. The complex 4-way shape memory behaviour of a compositionally graded NiTi strip during one complete thermal cycle is demonstrated. The effects of geometrical design on pseudoelastic behaviour of geometrically graded NiTi plates over tensile loading cycles are presented on the stress–strain diagrams.

  16. Experiments on deformation behaviour of functionally graded NiTi structures. (United States)

    Shariat, Bashir S; Meng, Qinglin; Mahmud, Abdus S; Wu, Zhigang; Bakhtiari, Reza; Zhang, Junsong; Motazedian, Fakhrodin; Yang, Hong; Rio, Gerard; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Liu, Yinong


    Functionally graded NiTi structures benefit from the combination of the smart properties of NiTi and those of functionally graded structures. This article provides experimental data for thermomechanical deformation behaviour of microstructurally graded, compositionally graded and geometrically graded NiTi alloy components, related to the research article entitled "Functionally graded shape memory alloys: design, fabrication and experimental evaluation" (Shariat et al., 2017) [1]. Stress-strain variation of microstructurally graded NiTi wires is presented at different heat treatment conditions and testing temperatures. The complex 4-way shape memory behaviour of a compositionally graded NiTi strip during one complete thermal cycle is demonstrated. The effects of geometrical design on pseudoelastic behaviour of geometrically graded NiTi plates over tensile loading cycles are presented on the stress-strain diagrams.

  17. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.


    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  18. Multifractal Analysis of Seismically Induced Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Imaged by X-Ray Computed Tomography (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Komatsubara, Junko

    Unconsolidated soft sediments deform and mix complexly by seismically induced fluidization. Such geological soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs) recorded in boring cores were imaged by X-ray computed tomography (CT), which enables visualization of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of iron-bearing mineral grains as strong X-ray absorbers in the deformed strata. Multifractal analysis was applied to the two-dimensional (2D) CT images with various degrees of deformation and mixing. The results show that the distribution of the iron-bearing mineral grains is multifractal for less deformed/mixed strata and almost monofractal for fully mixed (i.e. almost homogenized) strata. Computer simulations of deformation of real and synthetic digital images were performed using the egg-beater flow model. The simulations successfully reproduced the transformation from the multifractal spectra into almost monofractal spectra (i.e. almost convergence on a single point) with an increase in deformation/mixing intensity. The present study demonstrates that multifractal analysis coupled with X-ray CT and the mixing flow model is useful to quantify the complexity of seismically induced SSDSs, standing as a novel method for the evaluation of cores for seismic risk assessment.

  19. Experimental studies on local damage of reinforced concrete structures by the impact of deformable missiles-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Tachikawa, H.; Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kobayshi, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Tsujimoto, T.


    Structural damage induced by an accidental aircraft crash into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the engine, the rigid portion of the aircraft, and the global elasto-plastic structural response caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the front face of the target together with missile penetration into the target, scabbing of concrete from the rear face of the target and perforation of the missile through the target. The engine is a soft missile that deforms during impact. An experimental research program has been planned and executed to establish a rational evaluation method of the local damage by the deformable engine missiles

  20. Wave propagation and instabilities in monolithic and periodically structured elastomeric materials undergoing large deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoldi, Katia; Boyce, M.C.


    Wave propagation in elastomeric materials undergoing large deformations is relevant in numerous application areas, including nondestructive testing of materials and ultrasound techniques, where finite deformations and corresponding stress states can influence wave propagation and hence

  1. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  2. Deformation of Aztec Sandstone at Valley of Fire of Nevada: failure modes, sequence of deformation, structural products and their interplay with paleo fluids (United States)

    Aydin, A.


    The Valley of Fire State Park, 60 km NE of Las Vegas, is a beacon of knowledge for deformation of Aztec Sandstone, a cross-bedded quartz arenite deposited in the Aztec-Navajo-Nugget erg in early Jurassic. It displays great diversity of physical properties, different localization types and micromechanics. The two deformation episodes, the Sevier folding & thrusting and the Basin & Range extension affected the area. The appearance of compaction bands marks the earliest deformation structure and their distribution, orientation, and dimension are controlled by the depositional architecture and loading. The earliest shear structures in the area are the Muddy Mountain, Summit, and Willow Tank thrusts and numerous small-scale bed-parallel faults. They altogether produced several kilometers of E-SE transport and shortening in the late Cretaceous and display numerous shear bands in its damage zone within the Aztec Sandstone. Shear bands also occur along dune boundaries and cross-bed interfaces. These observations indicate that the early deformation of the sandstone was accommodated by strain localization with various kinematics. The younger generation of faults in the area is of mid-Miocene age, and crops out pervasively. It includes a series of small offset normal faults (less than a few ten meters) which can be identified at steep cliff faces. These faults are highly segmented and are surrounded by a dense population of splay fractures. A large number of these splays were later sheared sequentially resulting in a well-defined network of left- and right-lateral strike-slip faults with slip magnitudes up to a few kilometers in the Park. The formation mechanisms of both the normal and strike-slip faults can be characterized as the sliding along planes of initial weaknesses and the accompanying cataclastic deformation. Some of the initial weak planes are associated with the depositional elements such as interdune boundaries and cross-bed interfaces while others are joint

  3. Finite Macro-Element Mesh Deformation in a Structured Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Code (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.


    A mesh deformation scheme is developed for a structured multi-block Navier-Stokes code consisting of two steps. The first step is a finite element solution of either user defined or automatically generated macro-elements. Macro-elements are hexagonal finite elements created from a subset of points from the full mesh. When assembled, the finite element system spans the complete flow domain. Macro-element moduli vary according to the distance to the nearest surface, resulting in extremely stiff elements near a moving surface and very pliable elements away from boundaries. Solution of the finite element system for the imposed boundary deflections generally produces smoothly varying nodal deflections. The manner in which distance to the nearest surface has been found to critically influence the quality of the element deformation. The second step is a transfinite interpolation which distributes the macro-element nodal deflections to the remaining fluid mesh points. The scheme is demonstrated for several two-dimensional applications.

  4. Real-time structured light-based otoscopy for quantitative measurement of eardrum deformation (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Dirckx, Joris J. J.


    An otological profilometry device based on real-time structured light triangulation is presented. A clinical otoscope head is mounted onto a custom-handheld unit containing both a small digital light projector and a high-speed digital camera. Digital fringe patterns are projected onto the eardrum surface and are recorded at a rate of 120 unique frames per second. The relative angle between projection and camera axes causes the projected patterns to appear deformed by the eardrum shape, allowing its full-field three-dimensional (3-D) surface map to be reconstructed. By combining hardware triggering between projector and camera with a dedicated parallel processing pipeline, the proposed system is capable of acquiring a live stream of point clouds of over 300,000 data points per frame at a rate of 40 Hz. Real-time eardrum profilometry adds an additional dimension of depth to the standard two-dimensional otoscopy image and provides a noninvasive tool to enhance the qualitative depth perception of the clinical operator with quantitative 3-D data. Visualization of the eardrum from different perspectives can improve the diagnosis of existing and the detection of impending middle ear pathology. The capability of the device to detect small middle ear pressure changes by monitoring eardrum deformation in real time is demonstrated.

  5. Resurgence structure to all orders of multi-bions in deformed SUSY quantum mechanics (United States)

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Kamata, Syo; Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke


    We investigate the resurgence structure in quantum mechanical models originating in 2d nonlinear sigma models with emphasis on nearly supersymmetric and quasi-exactly solvable parameter regimes. By expanding the ground state energy in powers of a supersymmetry-breaking deformation parameter δ ɛ, we derive exact results for the expansion coefficients. In the class of models described by real multiplets, the O(δɛ) ground state energy has a non-Borel summable asymptotic series, which gives rise to imaginary ambiguities leading to rich resurgence structure. We discuss sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (QM) as an example and show that the semiclassical contributions from complex multi-bion solutions correctly reproduce the corresponding part in the exact result including the imaginary ambiguities. As a typical model described by chiral multiplets, we discuss CP^{N-1} QM and show that the exact O(δɛ) ground state energy can be completely reconstructed from the semiclassical multi-bion contributions. Although the O(δɛ) ground state energy has trivial resurgence structure, a simple but rich resurgence structure appears at O(δɛ2). We show the complete cancelation between the O(δɛ2) imaginary ambiguities arising from the non-Borel summable perturbation series and those in the semiclassical contributions of N-1 complex bion solutions. We also discuss the resurgence structure of a squashed {C}P^1 QM.

  6. Analysis of the overall structural behavior due to the impact of deformable missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, M.M.; Radini, R.R.; Hsueh, P.S.


    This paper presents a method of analysis to evaluate the overall behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to impact from deformable missiles. This method approaches the analysis in a very simple and practical way. The analysis is based on approximating the structure-missile system by a two-degree of freedom model. The two degrees of freedom model represents the missile and the structure, respectively. The hysteretic damping effects are considered implicitly through the nonlinearity of the two springs. Empirical formulas are presented for the evaluation of the dynamic properties of the nonlinear spring representing the concrete structure. The impact is simulated by applying an impulse on the two degrees of freedom system, then by the method of step by step numerical time integration (central difference formula is used) the time histories of the displacements and velocities of both the missile and structure are obtained. The numerical procedure is simple enough to be programmed by a hand or desk calculator which makes the method handy for most engineers and analysis. (orig.)

  7. Dislocation structure evolution and characterization in the compression deformed Mn-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Yin, F.; Sakaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yang, K.


    Dislocation densities and dislocation structure arrangements in cold compressed polycrystalline commercial M2052 (Mn-20Cu-5Ni-2Fe) high damping alloy with various strains were determined in scanning mode by X-ray peak profile analysis and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe alloy has an evolution behavior quite similar to the dislocation structure in copper. The dislocation arrangement parameter shows a local minimum in the transition range between stages III and IV that can be related to the transformation of the dislocation arrangement in the cell walls from a polarized dipole wall (PDW) into a polarized tile wall (PTW) structure. This evolution is further confirmed by the results of local misorientation determined by EBSD. In addition, during deformation, the multiplication of dislocation densities in the MnCu alloy is significantly slower than that in copper, and the transition of the dislocation structure is strongly retarded in the MnCu alloy compared with copper. These results can be explained by the mechanism of elastic anisotropy on the dislocation dynamics, as the elastic anisotropy in the MnCu alloy is larger than that in copper, which can strongly retard the multiplication of the dislocation population and the transformation of the dislocation structure. These results are important for research into the plastic working behavior of Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe high damping alloy

  8. Geodynamic movements and deformations of the Sudetic structural unit of the Bohemian Massif (United States)

    Schenk, V.; Jechumtálová, Z.; Schenková, Z.; Kottnauer, P.


    The African plate pushes to European orogenic Alpine structures that transfer the compression further to Variscan structural units, including the Bohemian Massif. Central parts of the Bohemian Massif are relatively deep-seated and, therefore, some of marginal parts of the Massif and its border geological structures should be affected intensively and moved distinctly with respect to the central parts. The geodynamical GPS network EAST SUDETEN is located just over the area mentioned above, i.e. it covers both kinetically quasi-effected and quasi-non-effected structural blocks. GPS data observed already for six annual campaigns (1997-2002) were processed and movement vectors of individual network sites were assessed. Applied data processing did not allow errors in the horizontal direction 2 mm and in the vertical direction 5-6 mm to be exceeded. Since time series of coordinate changes for several network sites gave rather pronounce movement trends, preliminary deformations among individual structural blocks were evaluated and compared to other geological, geophysical and geodetic materials. The investigation has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, projects 205/97/0679 and 205/01/0480, and by the research programme of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, project LN00A005 "Dynamics of the Earth".

  9. Three-dimensional printing and deformation behavior of low-density target structures by two-photon polymerization (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Stein, Ori; Campbell, John H.; Jiang, Lijia; Petta, Nicole; Lu, Yongfeng


    Two-photon polymerization (2PP), a 3D nano to microscale additive manufacturing process, is being used for the first time to fabricate small custom experimental packages ("targets") to support laser-driven high-energy-density (HED) physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print low-density, low atomic-number (CHO) polymer matrices ("foams") at millimeter scale with sub-micrometer resolution. Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial photo-resins; here we compare use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. The mechanical strength of polymeric beam and foam structures is examined particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage in the two resins in quantified by printing sample structures and by use of FEA to simulate the deformation. Capillary drying forces are shown to be small and likely below the elastic limit of the core foam structure. In contrast the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip ( 5-10%) cause large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation particularly near constrained boundaries such as the substrate and locations with sharp density variation. The inherent weakness of stitching boundaries is also evident and in certain cases can lead to delamination. Use of IP-S shows marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of print resolution

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial 3D-deformation in cardiomyocytes during active contraction reveals passive structural anisotropy of orthogonal short axes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available The cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton, composed of rigid and elastic elements, maintains the isolated cell in an elongated cylindrical shape with an elliptical cross-section, even during contraction-relaxation cycles. Cardiomyocyte mitochondria are micron-sized, fluid-filled passive spheres distributed throughout the cell in a crystal-like lattice, arranged in pairs sandwiched between the sarcomere contractile machinery, both longitudinally and radially. Their shape represents the extant 3-dimensional (3D force-balance. We developed a novel method to examine mitochondrial 3D-deformation in response to contraction and relaxation to understand how dynamic forces are balanced inside cardiomyocytes. The variation in transmitted light intensity induced by the periodic lattice of myofilaments alternating with mitochondrial rows can be analyzed by Fourier transformation along a given cardiomyocyte axis to measure mitochondrial deformation along that axis. This technique enables precise detection of changes in dimension of ∼1% in ∼1 µm (long-axis structures with 8 ms time-resolution. During active contraction (1 Hz stimulation, mitochondria deform along the length- and width-axes of the cell with similar deformation kinetics in both sarcomere and mitochondrial structures. However, significant deformation anisotropy (without hysteresis was observed between the orthogonal short-axes (i.e., width and depth of mitochondria during electrical stimulation. The same degree of deformation anisotropy was also found between the myocyte orthogonal short-axes during electrical stimulation. Therefore, the deformation of the mitochondria reflects the overall deformation of the cell, and the apparent stiffness and stress/strain characteristics of the cytoskeleton differ appreciably between the two cardiomyocyte orthogonal short-axes. This method may be applied to obtaining a better understanding of the dynamic force-balance inside cardiomyocytes and of changes in the

  11. Post-assessment of pre-stressed containment structures by evaluation of monitored long term deformation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, B.


    The comparison of monitored long term deformations of containment structures with calculated values achieved by using design material parameters shows occasionally considerable deviations, partly caused by conservative assumptions in the containments design phase. Systematic post-assessment and adaption of the decisive parameters attains better coincidence. In the present investigation measured long-term deformations are first of all compared to pre-calculated values based on the material parameters defined in the design phase. Afterwards, the deformations deviations are minimized by repeating the calculation with assessed material parameters. This method appears to be a suitable method to predict the future containment structure long-term behavior and to achieve a possible life-time extension. The presented investigation was performed as part of NUGENIA ACCEPPT project which researches the ageing of concrete containment structures in nuclear power plants

  12. Investigating the Importance of 3D Structure & Topography in Seismic Deformation Modeling: Case Study of the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake (United States)

    Langer, L.; Gharti, H. N.; Tromp, J.


    In recent years, observations of deformation at plate boundaries have been greatly improved by the development of techniques in space geodesy. However, models of seismic deformation remain limited and are unable to account for realistic 3D structure in topography and material properties. We demonstrate the importance of 3D structure using a spectral-element method that incorporates fault geometry, topography, and heterogeneous material properties in a (non)linear viscoelastic domain. Our method is benchmarked against Okada's analytical technique and the PyLith software package. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake is used as a case study to examine whether 3D structure can affect the predictions of seismic deformation models. We find that the inclusion of topography has a significant effect on our results.

  13. U-V 0,2 wt% alloy deformation contribution study. Hydroforming structural states definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuriot, Roger.


    The plastic deformation of the alpha phase U-V 0.2wt alloy is a twinning and slip process. Hot direct rolling in alpha phase greatly changes the mechanical properties of the alloy and gives an anisotropic texture in the sheet plane. After complete recristallisation heat treatment the α rolled alloy has mechanical properties highly isotropic in the sheet plane. The ability to forming is important at room temperature. This grain refined method using strain hardening-recristallisation, can be successfully applied to a 400.10 -6 carbon alloy: the alpha structure is then refined up to 15μm grain size and tensile properties are improved (R>850MPa, A=25%) [fr

  14. Contribution on the influence of transformation structures under consideration of austenite deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisker, D.; Doktorowski, A.; Dittrich, D.


    Hot forming represents a substantial part of the manufacturing process of many steel products. The crucial microstructural transformation process, which influences the characteristics of a steel considerably, is undisputed the γ/α-transformation. A successful aid to the interpretation of possible microstructural transformation processes during cooling from the austenitizing or deformation temperature is the determination and handling of CCT diagrams. In this article two steels are examined which differ only in their titanium content. Dilatometric investigations were performed varying the three parameters' transformation temperature, strain and cooling strategy. The insights gathered are illustrated and discussed with the aid of CCT diagrams. An additional transformation below A c1 with a brief curing reheat up to A c3 + 20 K leads to a substantially finer structure. The exploitation of this effect may be of great industrial importance. (orig.)

  15. Effects of deformations and orientations on neutron-halo structure of light-halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Gudveen; Gupta, Raj K.; Sharma, Manoj K.


    The availability of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled to study the structure of nuclei far from the stability line, which in turn led to the discovery of neutron-halo nuclei. These nuclei, located near the neutron drip-line exhibit a high probability of presence of one or two loosely bound neutrons at a large distance from the rest of nucleons. The fragmentation behavior is studied for 13 cases of 1n-halo nuclei, which include 11 Be, 14 B, 15 C, 17 C, 19 C, 22 N, 22 O, 23 O, 24 O, 24 F, 26 F, 29 Ne and 31 Ne, using the cluster-core model (CCM) extended to include the deformations and orientations of nuclei

  16. Structural damping values as a function of dynamic response stress and deformation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.


    Damping as it is normally defined is the means by which the response motion of a structural system is reduced as the result of energy losses. However, as used in the context of nuclear plant design, the effects of changes in structural stiffness, geometry, support configuration, and modulus of elasticity are also usually lumped under the general heading of damping in current design methods. For convenience in structural design, damping in usually assumed as viscous in nature and in recognition of its use in modal response spectrum dynamic analysis is normally expressed as a percent of critical. In general, it should be understood that damping as used in design or analysis of nuclear plants is an experimentally determined factor which is used to make the results of linear elasticity analysis of dynamic systems agree reasonably well with observed experimental results. In this paper, damping data existing in the open literature applicable to nuclear power plant structures and equipment is summarized and statistically analyzed. Results of this analysis are used to develop damping trend curves which predict applicable damping values to be used in design at various levels of stress or deformation. (orig.)

  17. Seismically-generated hydroplastic deformation structures in the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits of the Malatya Basin, eastern Turkey (United States)

    Koç Taşgın, Calibe


    The Late Miocene succession of continental deposits in the Malatya Basin, eastern Anatolia, comprises alluvial-fan, lacustrine and fluvial facies associations. This fault-bounded basin formed in a tectonically active region, notorious for strong earthquakes still today. The lacustrine deposits in the northern part of the basin show several isolated horizons of soft-sediment deformation, including such structures as slump folds, load and flame features, sand dikes and small-scale synsedimentary reverse faults with associated folds. There is no direct evidence supporting instabilities due to unequal loading or overloading, wave-induced cyclical and/or impulsive stresses, sudden changes in groundwater level or bioturbation capable of producing these deformation structures. The soft-sediment deformation structures described in the lacustrine deposits are interpreted as having developed as a result of seismic activity taking place along the Malatya fault zone, based on the tectonic setting of the basin, the lateral extent of the soft-sediment deformation structures over hundreds of metres, their confinement by undeformed layers, the presence of complex structures, and similarities with structures interpreted as being seismically induced in other areas and those obtained experimentally.

  18. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure and deformation in east-central China (United States)

    Li, H.; Yang, X.; Ouyang, L.; Li, J.


    We conduct a non-linear joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to obtain the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure in east-central China. In the meanwhile, the lithosphere and upper mantle deformation beneath east-central China is also evaluated with teleseismic shear wave splitting measurements. The resulting velocity model reveals that to the east of the North-South Gravity Lineament, the crust and the lithosphere are significantly thinned. Furthermore, three extensive crustal/lithospheric thinning sub-regions are clearly identified within the study area. This indicates that the modification of the crust and lithosphere in central-eastern China is non-uniform due to the heterogeneity of the lithospheric strength. Extensive crustal and lithospheric thinning could occur in some weak zones such as the basin-range junction belts and large faults. The structure beneath the Dabie orogenic belt is complex due to the collision between the North and South China Blocks during the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. The Dabie orogenic belt is generally delineated by a thick crust with a mid-crust low-velocity zone and a two-directional convergence in the lithospheric scale. Obvious velocity contrast exhibits in the crust and upper mantle at both sides of the Tanlu fault, which suggests the deep penetration of this lithospheric-scale fault. Most of our splitting measurements show nearly E-W trending fast polarization direction which is slightly deviating from the direction of plate motion. The similar present-day lithosphere structure and upper mantle deformation may imply that the eastern NCC and the eastern SCB were dominated by a common dynamic process after late Mesozoic, i.e., the westward subduction of Pacific plate and the retreat of the subduction plate. The westward subduction of the Philippine plate and the long-range effects of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasia plate during Cenozoic may have also contributed to the present

  19. Growth and deformation structure of gradient and layer-gradient Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, Stanislav V., E-mail:; Pinzhin, Yurii P., E-mail: [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Korotaev, Alexandr D., E-mail: [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)


    The features of the growth structure and modification of gradient and layer-gradient Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N coatings in the areas of deformation and fracture during indentation and scratch testing were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods. The influence of the concentration of alloying elements and displacement potential in the substrate on the secondary sputtering, phase composition and the level of combined torsion and bending of the crystal lattice of doped TiN were determined. It was found out that the size of the crystals in deformation location bands grows with deformation of gradient nanocrystal coatings. The article shows that layer-gradient coatings combining submicrocrystalline and nanocrystalline structures have the increased plasticity and fracture toughness due to enhanced density of interfaces and formation of the soft metal phase (Cu) in the surface layer.

  20. Growth and deformation structure of gradient and layer-gradient Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, Stanislav V.; Pinzhin, Yurii P.; Korotaev, Alexandr D.


    The features of the growth structure and modification of gradient and layer-gradient Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N coatings in the areas of deformation and fracture during indentation and scratch testing were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy methods. The influence of the concentration of alloying elements and displacement potential in the substrate on the secondary sputtering, phase composition and the level of combined torsion and bending of the crystal lattice of doped TiN were determined. It was found out that the size of the crystals in deformation location bands grows with deformation of gradient nanocrystal coatings. The article shows that layer-gradient coatings combining submicrocrystalline and nanocrystalline structures have the increased plasticity and fracture toughness due to enhanced density of interfaces and formation of the soft metal phase (Cu) in the surface layer

  1. Location and extent of Tertiary structures in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, and mantle dynamics that focus deformation and subsidence (United States)

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.


    This report is a new compilation of the location and extent of folds and faults in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska. Data sources are previously published maps, well locations, and seismic-reflection data. We also utilize interpretation of new aeromagnetic data and some proprietary seismic-reflection data. Some structures are remarkably well displayed on frequency-filtered aeromagnetic maps, which are a useful tool for constraining the length of some structures. Most anticlines in and around the basin have at least shows of oil or gas, and some structures are considered to be seismically active. The new map better displays the pattern of faulting and folding. Deformation is greatest in upper Cook Inlet, where structures are oriented slightly counterclockwise of the basin bounding faults. The north ends of these structures bend to the northeast, which gives a pattern consistent with right-transpressional deformation.

  2. Gamma-ray beam attenuation to assess the influence of soil texture on structure deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.F.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Dias, N.M.P.


    Gamma-ray beam attenuation is a non-invasive technique that permits analysis of soil porosity without disturbing the region of interest of the core sample. The technique has as additional advantage to allow measurements point by point on a millimetric scale in contrast to other methodologies that are invasive and analyze the soil properties in the bulk sample volume. Soil porosity can be used as an important parameter to quantify soil structural damages, which affect soil aeration, water movement and retention. In this study, porosities of three soils different in texture were measured at various positions in order to analyze the impact of the sampling procedure on the structure of each particular soil texture. The gamma-ray attenuation system consisted of an 241 Am radioactive source having an activity of 3.7 GBq, collimated with cylindrical lead collimators of 2 mm diameter. The results obtained show the presence of dense regions near the edges of samples and that different soil textures can suffer distinct deformations at sampling. (author)

  3. Emergence of coherent localized structures in shear deformations of temperature dependent fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros


    Shear localization occurs in various instances of material instability in solid mechanics and is typically associated with Hadamard-instability for an underlying model. While Hadamard instability indicates the catastrophic growth of oscillations around a mean state, it does not by itself explain the formation of coherent structures typically observed in localization. The latter is a nonlinear effect and its analysis is the main objective of this article. We consider a model that captures the main mechanisms observed in high strain-rate deformation of metals, and describes shear motions of temperature dependent non-Newtonian fluids. For a special dependence of the viscosity on the temperature, we carry out a linearized stability analysis around a base state of uniform shearing solutions, and quantitatively assess the effects of the various mechanisms affecting the problem: thermal softening, momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. Then, we turn to the nonlinear model, and construct localized states - in the form of similarity solutions - that emerge as coherent structures in the localization process. This justifies a scenario for localization that is proposed on the basis of asymptotic analysis in \\\\cite{KT}.

  4. Effects of Sn on defect structures in high-speed deformed Ni-Sn alloy (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Xu, Qiu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa


    Defect structures in compressed and fractured pure Ni and Ni-2 at.%Sn alloy were investigated. The dislocation cell size of high-speed compressed Ni was smaller than that of low-speed compressed Ni. In Ni-Sn, the cell structure was small and independent of compression speed. The effect of solute Sn was very strong, and Sn trapped a high density of dislocations. At the saw-tooth-like fracture tips formed by high-speed elongation, the observed dislocation density was low in both metals, but was lower in Ni than in Ni-Sn. The number of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) formed at the tips was almost the same in Ni as in Ni-Sn. Because the density of the dislocations was very low despite the strong effect of solute Sn, and because the density of formed SFTs was almost the same in both metals at the saw-tooth-like fracture tips, the formation of SFTs likely involves a dislocation-free mechanism during high-speed deformation.

  5. A deformation of Sasakian structure in the presence of torsion and supergravity solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yasui, Yukinori


    A deformation of Sasakian structure in the presence of totally skew-symmetric torsion is discussed on odd-dimensional manifolds whose metric cones are Kähler with torsion. It is shown that such a geometry inherits similar properties to those of Sasakian geometry. As their example, we present an explicit expression of local metrics. It is also demonstrated that our example of the metrics admits the existence of hidden symmetry described by non-trivial odd-rank generalized closed conformal Killing–Yano tensors. Furthermore, using these metrics as an ansatz, we construct exact solutions in five-dimensional minimal gauged/ungauged supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity. Finally, the global structures of the solutions are discussed. We obtain regular metrics on compact manifolds in five dimensions, which give natural generalizations of Sasaki–Einstein manifolds Y p,q and L a,b,c . We also briefly discuss regular metrics on non-compact manifolds in 11 dimensions. (paper)

  6. Impact of acoustic velocity structure to measurement of ocean bottom crustal deformation (United States)

    Ikuta, R.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Eto, S.; Ando, M.


    We are developing a geodetic method of monitoring crustal deformation under the ocean using kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging. The goal of our research is to achieve sub-centimeter accuracy in measuring oceanic crustal deformation by a very short-time measurement like 10 hours. In this study, we focused on lateral variation of acoustic velocity structure in seawater and introduced an inclined acoustic velocity structure model to improve accuracy of the measurement. We have a few measurement sites along Nankai trough, Japan. In each sites, we deployed a trio of transponders on ocean floor (seafloor benchmark units) within distance comparable with the depth. An ultrasonic signal is generated from a surface vessel drifting over the benchmark unit, which is received and replied by the benchmark unit. In this system, both acoustic velocity structure and the benchmark unit positions were determined simultaneously for the each measurement using a tomographic technique. This tomographic technique was adopted on an assumption that the acoustic velocity structure is horizontally layered and changes only in time, not in space. Ikuta et al., (AGU fall meeting 2009) reported an approach to improve accuracy of benchmark positioning using a new additional assumption. The additional assumption was that the configuration of the transponders trio constituting one benchmark unit does not change. They determined the time evolution of weight center for the fixed transponder triangle between different measurements using all repetitively obtained data sets at once. This is contrasting to the previous method in which each data set for different measurement was solved independently. This assumption worked well in reducing number of unknown parameters. As a result, repeatability of benchmark positioning improved from 5 cm to 3 cm. We conducted numerical experiments synthesizing acoustic travel-time data to evaluate the robustness of this new approach. When acoustic travel-time data is

  7. Deformation behavior of carbon-fiber reinforced shape-memory-polymer composites used for deployable structures (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lan, Xin; Liu, Liwu; Li, Fengfeng; Pan, Chengtong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a new type of smart material, they perform large reversible deformation with a certain external stimulus (e.g., heat and electricity). The properties (e.g., stiffness, strength and other mechanically static or quasi-static load-bearing capacity) are primarily considered for conventional resin-based composite materials which are mainly used for structural materials. By contrast, the mechanical actuating performance with finite deformation is considered for the shape memory polymers and their composites which can be used for both structural materials and functional materials. For shape memory polymers and their composites, the performance of active deformation is expected to further promote the development in smart active deformation structures, such as deployable space structures and morphing wing aircraft. The shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) are also one type of High Strain Composite (HSC). The space deployable structures based on carbon fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) show great prospects. Considering the problems that SMPCs are difficult to meet the practical applications in space deployable structures in the recent ten years, this paper aims to research the mechanics of deformation, actuation and failure of SMPCs. In the overall view of the shape memory polymer material's nonlinearity (nonlinearity and stress softening in the process of pre-deformation and recovery, relaxation in storage process, irreversible deformation), by the multiple verifications among theory, finite element and experiments, one obtains the deformation and actuation mechanism for the process of "pre-deformation, energy storage and actuation" and its non-fracture constraint domain. Then, the parameters of SMPCs will be optimized. Theoretical analysis is realized by the strain energy function, additionally considering the interaction strain energy between the fiber and the matrix. For the common resin-based or soft

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Structural Characterization of Elastic and Inelastic Deformation in ZrCu Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Feng


    Full Text Available The nanoscopic deformation behaviors in a ZrCu metallic glass model during loading-unloading process under uniaxial compression have been analyzed on the basis of the molecular dynamics (MD. The reversible degree of shear origin zones (SOZs is used as the structural indicator to distinguish the elastic deformation and inelastic deformation of ZrCu metallic glass at the atomic level. We find that the formation of SOZs is reversible at the elastic stage but irreversible at the inelastic stage during the loading and unloading processes. At the inelastic stage, the full-icosahedra fraction in SOZs is quickly reduced with increased strain and the decreasing process is also irreversible during the unloading processes.

  9. Twist deformation in anticlinic antiferroelectric structure in smectic B.sub.2./sub. imposed by the surface anchoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor; Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada


    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-19 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0431 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : smectic liquid crystals * bent-shaped molecules * anticlinic antiferroelectric structure * ferroelectric structure * twist deformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2008

  10. Nonlinearly deformed W∞ algebra and second hamiltonian structure of KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Feng; Wu Yongshi


    The characteristic nonlinearity of W N algebras, appropriate for their many applications in two-dimensional quantum physics, is lost in the usual large-N limits. In this paper we search for nonlinear extensions of the Virasoro algebra that incorporate all higher-spin currents with spin s≥2. We show that under certain natural homogeneity requirements, the Jacobi identities lead to a unique nonlinear, centerless deformation of classical w ∞ and W ∞ . The latter, which we call dW/dt ∞ , constitutes a universal W-algebra which is very likely to contain all W N algebras by reduction. Also it is closely related to the linear W 1+∞ by a set of interesting recursion relations, which suggests the isomorphism of dW/dt ∞ to the second hamiltonian structure of the KP hierarchy proposed by Dickey. The implications for the symmetries in two-dimensional quantum gravity and noncritical c≤1 strings in the context of the KP approach are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji


    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  12. Structural Evolution and Mobile Shale Deformation in the Eastern Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, R. W.; Aikhionbare, D. O. L.


    Regional cross-sections and restorations of the eastern delta constructed from 2D and 3D seismic data show the structural evolution of paired extensional contractional belts and the kinematic and geometric evolution of mobile shale. The delta consists of an updip extensional belt and downdip zones of transitional and contractional deformation linked by a regional detachment. The extensional belt is characterized by zones of N-dipping (counterregional) and S-dipping (regional) normal faults.In the regional fault trend, sediment accommodation space is created largely by lateral movement of mobile substrate due to sediment loading and gravity. The transitional belt is characterized by low relief, shale-cored detachment folds and normal faults. The contractional belt consists of 2 parts, the high relief shale-cored detachment fold belt (mobile shale) and the fold/thrust belt: In the mobile shale belt, anticlines are generally symmetric and characterized by parallel-folded cover and highly variable thickness in the underlying ductile shale zone.Palinspastic restoration of the mobile shale by area balance shows a high degree of lateral and vertical mobility. Isostatic restoration of the depositional wedge that is the precursor to the mobile shale suggests lateral movement of 10s of kms from the extensional to the contractional domain. The fold and thrust belt is characterized by a train of asymmetric fault-related folds. The zone of ductile substrate is thin in this area, which may account for the change in structural style from high relief detachment folds in the mobile shale belt to a more classic fold/thrust belt style to the south

  13. Effect of friction-induced deformation and oxidation on the structure and microhardness of surface aluminum and silumin layers (United States)

    Korshunov, L. G.; Chernenko, N. L.; Brodova, I. G.; Shirinkina, I. G.


    Metallography, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate structural transformations that take place in a 10-μm-thick surface layer in aluminum and Al-17% Si alloy under conditions of sliding friction and subsequent oxidation at 100 and 200°C for 1 h. Friction-induced deformation has been carried out at room temperature in air and at-196°C in liquid nitrogen by reciprocating sliding of a cylindrical indenter made of cubic boron nitride at a rate of 0.014 m/s and a load of 98 N. It is shown that deformation under these conditions forms nanocrystalline structures in the surface layer in aluminum and Al-17% Si alloy and increases their microhardness by a factor of 1.8-3.5. A high contact deformation and a high affinity of oxygen to aluminum and silicon cause the formation of anomalously supersaturated solid solutions of oxygen in aluminum and silicon in the surface layer of the alloy during friction. Oxidation at 100°C (1 h) of the deformed Al-17% Si alloy increases its microhardness due to the decomposition of anomalously supersaturated solid solutions of oxygen in aluminum and silicon and the formation of their oxides.

  14. Characterizing Cracking and Permanent Deformation; An Attempt for Predicting the End of the Structural Pavement Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.


    Durable, therefore sustainable, road needs to attain specific characteristics, among others, resistance to permanent deformation and cracking. Determining the development of both characteristics are important to be able to predict pavement life and performance. In this research, permanent

  15. Structural analysis and implicit 3D modelling of Jwaneng Mine: Insights into deformation of the Transvaal Supergroup in SE Botswana (United States)

    Creus, P. K.; Basson, I. J.; Stoch, B.; Mogorosi, O.; Gabanakgosi, K.; Ramsden, F.; Gaegopolwe, P.


    Country rock at Jwaneng Diamond Mine provides a rare insight into the deformational history of the Transvaal Supergroup in southern Botswana. The ca. 235 Ma kimberlite diatremes intruded into late Archaean to Early Proterozoic, mixed, siliciclastic-carbonate sediments, that were subjected to at least three deformational events. The first deformational event (D1), caused by NW-SE directed compression, is responsible for NE-trending, open folds (F1) with associated diverging, fanning, axial planar cleavage. The second deformational event (D2) is probably progressive, involving a clockwise rotation of the principal stress to NE-SW trends. Early D2, which was N-S directed, involved left-lateral, oblique shearing along cleavage planes that developed around F1 folds, along with the development of antithetic structures. Progressive clockwise rotation of far-field forces saw the development of NW-trending folds (F2) and its associated, weak, axial planar cleavage. D3 is an extensional event in which normal faulting, along pre-existing cleavage planes, created a series of rhomboid-shaped, fault-bounded blocks. Normal faults, which bound these blocks, are the dominant structures at Jwaneng Mine. Combined with block rotation and NW-dipping bedding, a horst-like structure on the northwestern limb of a broad, gentle, NE-trending anticline is indicated. The early compressional and subsequent extensional events are consistent throughout the Jwaneng-Ramotswa-Lobatse-Thabazimbi area, suggesting that a large area records the same fault geometry and, consequently, deformational history. It is proposed that Jwaneng Mine is at or near the northernmost limit of the initial, northwards-directed compressional event.

  16. Delineating shallow Neogene deformation structures in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilce F. Rossetti


    Full Text Available The geological characterization of shallow subsurface Neogene deposits in northeastern Pará State using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR revealed normal and reverse faults, as well as folds, not yet well documented by field studies. The faults are identified mostly by steeply-dipping reflections that sharply cut the nearby reflections causing bed offsets, drags and rollovers. The folds are recognized by reflections that are highly undulating, configuring broad concave and convex-up features that are up to 50 m wide and 80 to 90 ns deep. These deformation structures are mostly developed within deposits of Miocene age, though some of the faults might continue into younger deposits as well. Although the studied GPR sections show several diffractions caused by trees, differential degrees of moisture, and underground artifacts, the structures recorded here can not be explained by any of these ''noises''. The detailed analysis of the GPR sections reveals that they are attributed to bed distortion caused by brittle deformation and folding. The record of faults and folds are not widespread in the Neogene deposits of the Bragantina area. These GPR data are in agreement with structural models, which have proposed a complex evolution including strike-slip motion for this area from the Miocene to present.A caracterização geológica de depósitos neógenos ocorrentes em sub-superfície rasa no nordeste do Estado do Pará, usando Radar de Penetração no Solo (GPR, revelou a presença de falhas normais e reversas, bem como dobras, ainda não documentadas em estudos de campo prévios. As falhas são identificadas por reflexões inclinadas que cortam bruscamente reflexões vizinhas, causando freqüentes deslocamentos de camadas. As dobras são reconhecidas por reflexões fortemente ondulantes, configurando feições côncavas e convexas que medem até 50 m de amplitude e 80 a 90 m de profundidade. Estas estruturas deformacionais desenvolvem-se, principalmente

  17. Structural properties, deformation behavior and thermal stability of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, Matthias


    Ti-Nb alloys are characterized by a diverse metallurgy which allows obtaining a wide palette of microstructural configurations and physical properties via careful selection of chemical composition, heat treatment and mechanical processing routes. The present work aims to expand the current state of knowledge about martensite forming Ti-Nb alloys by studying 15 binary Ti-c{sub Nb}Nb (9 wt.% ≤ c{sub Nb} ≤ 44.5 wt.%) alloy formulations in terms of their structural and mechanical properties, as well as their thermal stability. The crystal structures of the martensitic phases, α{sup '} and α'', and the influence of the Nb content on the lattice (Bain) strain and on the volume change related to the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations are analyzed on the basis of Rietveld-refinements. The magnitude of the shuffle component of the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations is quantified in relation to the chemical composition. The largest transformation lattice strains are operative in Nb-lean alloys. Depending on the composition, both a volume dilatation and contraction are encountered and the volume change may influence whether hexagonal martensite α{sup '} or orthorhombic martensite α'' forms from β upon quenching. The mechanical properties and the deformation behavior of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys are studied by complementary methods including monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compression, nanoindentation, microhardness and impulse excitation technique. The results show that the Nb content strongly influences the mechanical properties of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. The elastic moduli, hardness and strength are minimal in the vicinity of the limiting compositions bounding the interval in which orthorhombic martensite α'' forms by quenching. Uniaxial cyclic compressive testing demonstrates that the elastic properties of strained samples are different than those of unstrained ones

  18. Steel Processing Properties and Their Effect on Impact Deformation of Lightweight Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, S


    The objective of the research was to perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the effects of material and process modeling approaches on performance of UltraLight Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) vehicle models. The research addressed numerous material related effects, impact conditions as well as analyzed the performance of the ULSAB vehicles in crashes against designs representing the current US vehicle fleet. This report is organized into three main sections. The first section describes the results of the computational analysis of ULSAB crash simulations that were performed using advanced material modeling techniques. The effects of strain-rate sensitivity on a high strength steel (HSS) intensive vehicle were analyzed. Frontal and frontal offset crash scenarios were used in a finite element parametric study of the ULSAB body structure. Comparisons are made between the crash results using the piece-wise-linear isotropic plasticity strain-rate dependent material model, and the isotropic plasticity material model based on quasi-static properties. The simulation results show the importance of advanced material modeling techniques for vehicle crash simulations due to strain-rate sensitivity and rapid hardening characteristics of advanced high strength steels. Material substitution was investigated for the main frontal crush structure using the material of similar yield stress a significantly different strain-rate and hardening characteristics. The objective of the research presented in Section 2 was to assess the influence of stamping process on crash response of ULSAB vehicle. Considered forming effects included thickness variations and plastic strain hardening imparted in the part forming process. The as-formed thickness and plastic strain for front crash parts were used as input data for vehicle crash analysis. Differences in structural performance between crash models with and without forming data were analyzed in order to determine the effects and feasibility of

  19. Effects of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the electronic structure of LaFe4Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph


    First-principles density functional based electronic structure calculations are performed in order to clarify the influence of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the structural and electronic structure properties of LaFe 4Sb12. Our results show that octahedral tiltings correlate with the band dispersions and, consequently, the band masses. While total energy variation points at an enhanced role of lattice anharmonicity, flat bands emerge from a redistribution of the electronic states. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao


    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  1. Parameter Identification of Piecewise Linear Plasticity Metal Models Used in Numerical Modeling of Structures Under Plastic Deformation and Failure


    A. V. Shmeliov; A. G. Kononov; A. V. Omelusik


    The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials a...

  2. Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures [Thermo-mechanical modeling of laser-induced structural relaxation and deformation of SiO2 glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignes, Ryan M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Soules, Thomas F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Stolken, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). National Ignition Facility and Photon Sciences; Mauro, J.


    In a fully coupled thermomechanical model of the nanoscale deformation in amorphous SiO2 due to laser heating is presented. Direct measurement of the transient, nonuniform temperature profiles was used to first validate a nonlinear thermal transport model. Densification due to structural relaxation above the glass transition point was modeled using the Tool-Narayanaswamy (TN) formulation for the evolution of structural relaxation times and fictive temperature. TN relaxation parameters were derived from spatially resolved confocal Raman scattering measurements of Si–O–Si stretching mode frequencies. These thermal and microstructural data were used to simulate fictive temperatures which are shown to scale nearly linearly with density, consistent with previous measurements from Shelby et al. Volumetric relaxation coupled with thermal expansion occurring in the liquid-like and solid-like glassy states lead to residual stresses and permanent deformation which could be quantified. But, experimental surface deformation profiles between 1700 and 2000 K could only be reconciled with our simulation by assuming a roughly 2 × larger liquid thermal expansion for a-SiO2 with a temperature of maximum density ~150 K higher than previously estimated by Bruckner et al. Calculated stress fields agreed well with recent laser-induced critical fracture measurements, demonstrating accurate material response prediction under processing conditions of practical interest.

  3. Elastic-plastic deformation of fiber composites with a tetragonal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, E.IU.; Svistkova, L.A. (Permskii Politekhnicheskii Institut, Perm (USSR))


    Results of numerical solutions are presented for elastic-plastic problems concerning arbitrary loading of unidirectional composites in the transverse plane. The nucleation and evolution of microplastic zones in the matrix and the effect of this process on the macroscopic characteristics of the composite are discussed. Attention is also given to the effect of the fiber shape on the elastic-plastic deformation of the matrix and to deformation paths realized in simple microdeformation processes. The discussion is illustrated by results obtained for a composite consisting of a VT1-0 titanium alloy matrix reinforced by Ti-Mo fibers.

  4. Existing Resources, Standards, and Procedures for Precise Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Deformations. Volume 2. Appendices (United States)


    most vital groups of FIG Commission 6. This is not surprising because deformation surveys have always been of major importance in engineering surveys...radiodlectrique do signos au do beforehand with respect to their operational ability and have aons. utilliss dans tes installations dalarme-eau ou

  5. 3D EBSD charactyerization of deformation structures in commercial purity aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengxiang, Lin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    A method to map the microstructure in deformed aluminum in three dimensions is presented. The method employs serial sectioning by mechanical polishing, and electropolishing to obtain a good surface quality, and orientation mapping of individual grains in each section by electron backscattered...

  6. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.


    The microstructure and softening behaviour have been investigated in an aluminum plate heavily deformed by equal channel angular extrusion and subsequently annealed at 170 °C. It is found that at this temperature the microstructure evolves by coarsening with no apparent signs of recrystallization...

  7. Surface layers' real structure of metals exposed to inhomogeneous thermal fields and plastic deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pala, Z.; Ganev, N.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Sveshnikov, Alexey


    Roč. 163, - (2010), s. 59-63 ISSN 1012-0394. [21st Conference on Applied Crystallography. Zakopane, 20.09.2009-24.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : residual stress * grain size * surface treatment * thermal fields * plastic deformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue ;Slope Tectonics: Inherited Structures, Morphology of Deformation and Catastrophic Failure; (United States)

    Hermanns, R. L.; Oppikofer, T.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Clague, J. J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.


    The "Conference on Slope Tectonics" has become an international scientific meeting point to present and discuss a variety of topics related to slope deformation and the deposits of related failures. The first conference took place on February 15-16, 2008 at University of Lausanne (Switzerland). It was followed by a second conference on September 6-10, 2011, in Austria (organized by the Geological Survey of Austria) and a third on September 8-12, 2014, in Norway (organized by the Geological Survey of Norway). The two later events included field trips. It has become a tradition that selected papers from these conference are published - papers from the first conference were published by the Geological Society as Special Publication 351 (Jaboyedoff, 2011), and those from the second conference were published in a special issue of Tectonophysics (Baron and Jaboyedoff, 2013). This special issue of Geomorphology is a collection of papers presented at the Norwegian Conference on Slope Tectonics. This collection of papers focuses on the role of tectonics in gravitationally induced rock-slope instabilities. The slopes either deform over long periods as deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) or more rapidly as rockslides or rock avalanches. The reconstruction of slope deformation is an integral part of the studies captured in this special issue.

  9. Effects of Fault Segmentation, Mechanical Interaction, and Structural Complexity on Earthquake-Generated Deformation (United States)

    Haddad, David Elias


    Earth's topographic surface forms an interface across which the geodynamic and geomorphic engines interact. This interaction is best observed along crustal margins where topography is created by active faulting and sculpted by geomorphic processes. Crustal deformation manifests as earthquakes at centennial to millennial timescales. Given that…

  10. Structural deformation and sedimentation in an active Caldera, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary; Tiffin, D.L.; McKee, C.O.


    Recent seismic and tectonic activity in Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea, suggests that magma is accumulating at a shallow depth beneath this partially submerged structure and that a new volcano may be developing. Changes in onshore elevation since 1971 (as much as 2 m on south Matupit Island) indicate that rapid and large-scale uplifts have occurred on the seafloor near the center of the caldera. The frequency of seismic events within the caldera has also increased during this period. Earthquake locations define an elliptical ring surrounding the center of this uplift within the caldera. A marine geophysical survey in 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey's R/V "S.P. Lee" in Rabaul Caldera shows the development of a bulge in the seafloor near the center of the caldera. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that this bulge consists of two domal uplifts bounded and separated by two major north-south-trending fault zones. Deformed sediments overlie these zones; a prominent slump flanks the area of the bulge. Five major acoustic units were identified in the seismic reflection profiles: an acoustic basement and four sedimentary units consisting of irregularly layered, cross-layered, contorted, and well-layered sequences. The acoustic basement is probably composed of crystalline volcanic rocks, and the layered acoustic units are probably sediments, primarily ash deposited in different environments. The cross-layered, irregularly layered, and contorted units appear to have been deposited in a dynamic environment subjected to strong currents, seismicity, and/or mass wasting, while the well-layered units were deposited in a low-energy environment. Locally, well-layered sequences interfinger with the other sedimentary units, indicating a transitional environment that alternated between high-energy and low-energy depositional processes. A submarine channel cuts most of the acoustic units and appears to be the conduit for sediment transport out of the caldera; it

  11. Kinetics deformation of current-voltage characteristics of the varistor oxide structures due to overcharging of the localized states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonkoshkur A. S.


    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure of zinc oxide varistors to the electrical load leads to current-voltage characteristics (CVC deformation, which is associated with a change in the height and width of the intergranular barriers, which are main structural element of the varistors. Polarization phenomena in zinc oxide ceramics are studied in a number of works, but those are mainly limited to the study of the physics of the CVC deformation process and to determining the parameters of localized electronic states involved in this process. This paper presents the results on the simulation of the deformation of pulse CVC of a separate intergranular potential barrier at transient polarization/depolarization, associated with recharging of surface electronic states (SES, which cause this barrier. It is found that at high density of SES their degree of electron filling is small and the effect of DC voltage leads to a shift of pulse current-voltage characteristics into the region of small currents. Conversely, the low density SES are almost completely filled with electrons, and after crystallite polarization CVC is shifted to high currents. Experimental studies have confirmed the possibility of applying the discovered laws to ceramic varistor structures. The proposed model allows interpreting the «anomalous» effects (such as increase in the classification voltage and reduction of active losses power observed during the varistors accelerated aging test.

  12. Direct investigations of deformation and yield induced structure transitions in polyamide 6 below glass transition temperature with WAXS and SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Huilong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhou, Chengbo


    Deformation and yield induced structure transitions of polyamide 6 (PA6) were detected with the combination of the wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS) at 30 degrees C below glass transition temperature (T-g) of PA6. During deformation, gamma-alpha phase transition was found...... at elastic stage. The concentrated stress in crystals at elastic stage provided adequate energy for the direct gamma-alpha phase transition under T-g. The force to promote the gamma-phase into a phase directly is insufficient at the yield stage and a transient phase as a compromise was formed. The transient...... phase was confirmed by DSC measurements and assisted the gamma-alpha phase transition indirectly. The gamma-phase slips into incomplete fragments at yield point, and the parts along tensile direction are responsible for the formation of transient phase. The gamma-fragments after yield is oriented...

  13. Comparison of Interfacial Strengthening in Creep Deformation and Radiation Damage Processes of Advanced Structural Materials for Nuclear Applications (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang


    The mechanisms for microstructural strengthening in creep deformation and radiation damage processes of advanced structural materials for nuclear applications are compared. During creep and irradiation, various defects are generated and move in the microstructure. Any microstructural features that can retard such defect movement may improve both creep and radiation damage resistance. Interfaces in the microstructure are important barriers for preventing defect motion. To achieve ultrahigh strength and enhanced radiation damage resistance, an extremely high density of interfaces has been designed in recently developed nanostructured materials. However, interface-mediated processes may govern the deformation of these materials, decreasing their creep properties. Methods for improving the creep resistance of nanostructured materials are reviewed and discussed.

  14. First-principles approaches to intrinsic strength and deformation of materials: perfect crystals, nano-structures, surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Shigenobu; Umeno, Yoshitaka; Kohyama, Masanori


    First-principles studies on the intrinsic mechanical properties of various materials and systems through ab initio tensile and shear testing simulations based on density-functional theory are reviewed. For various materials, ideal tensile and shear strength and features of the deformation of bulk crystals without any defects have been examined, and the relation with the bonding nature has been analyzed. The surfaces or low-dimensional nano-structures reveal peculiar strength and deformation behavior due to local different bonding nature. For grain boundaries and metal/ceramic interfaces, tensile and shear behaviors depend on the interface bonding, which impacts on the research of real engineering materials. Remaining problems and future directions in this research field are discussed. (topical review)

  15. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, G.; Juul Jensen, D.; Liu, Q.


    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε = 0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within the grains. Large grains have microstructure and orientation scatters similar to those observed in single crystals of similar orientation. The observations are interpreted based on a slip system analysis, considering the relative effects of the initial grain orientation and the interaction between neighbouring grains as well.

  16. A crystal plasticity model of a formation of a deformation band structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin


    Roč. 95, č. 32 (2015), s. 3621-3639 ISSN 1478-6435 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/12/0121 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : deformation substructure * rigid-plastic crystal plasticity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.632, year: 2015 0456300.pdf

  17. First combined electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy study of grain boundary structure of deformed quartzite. (United States)

    Shigematsu, N; Prior, D J; Wheeler, J


    The structures of boundaries in a deformed and dynamically recovered and recrystallized quartz polycrystal (mylonite) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, after the misorientation angles across the same grain boundaries had been analysed using electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. In this new approach, a specific sample area is mapped with electron backscatter diffraction, and the mapped area is then attached to a foil, and by the ion beam thinned for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Dislocations in grain boundaries were recognized as periodic and parallel fringes. The fringes associated with dislocations are observed in boundaries with misorientations less than 9 degrees , whereas such fringes cannot be seen in the boundaries with misorientations larger than 17 degrees . Some boundaries with misorientations between 9 degrees and 17 degrees generally have no structures associated with dislocation. One segment of a boundary with a misorientation of 13.5 degrees has structures associated with dislocations. It is likely that the transition from low-angle to high-angle boundaries occurs at misorientations ranging from approximately 9 degrees to 14 degrees . Change in the grain boundary structure presumably influences the mobility of the boundaries. In the studied deformed quartz vein, a relative dearth of boundaries between misorientation angles of theta = 2 degrees and theta = 15 degrees has previously been reported, and high-angle boundaries form cusps where they intersect low-angle boundaries, suggesting substantial mobility of high-angle boundaries.

  18. The influence of geologic structures on deformation due to ground water withdrawal. (United States)

    Burbey, Thomas J


    A 62 day controlled aquifer test was conducted in thick alluvial deposits at Mesquite, Nevada, for the purpose of monitoring horizontal and vertical surface deformations using a high-precision global positioning system (GPS) network. Initial analysis of the data indicated an anisotropic aquifer system on the basis of the observed radial and tangential deformations. However, new InSAR data seem to indicate that the site may be bounded by an oblique normal fault as the subsidence bowl is both truncated to the northwest and offset from the pumping well to the south. A finite-element numerical model was developed using ABAQUS to evaluate the potential location and hydromechanical properties of the fault based on the observed horizontal deformations. Simulation results indicate that for the magnitude and direction of motion at the pumping well and at other GPS stations, which is toward the southeast (away from the inferred fault), the fault zone (5 m wide) must possess a very high permeability and storage coefficient and cross the study area in a northeast-southwest direction. Simulated horizontal and vertical displacements that include the fault zone closely match observed displacements and indicate the likelihood of the presence of the inferred fault. This analysis shows how monitoring horizontal displacements can provide valuable information about faults, and boundary conditions in general, in evaluating aquifer systems during an aquifer test.

  19. Fault structure analysis by means of large deformation simulator; Daihenkei simulator ni yoru danso kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y.; Shi, B. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Large deformation of the crust is generated by relatively large displacement of the mediums on both sides along a fault. In the conventional finite element method, faults are dealt with by special elements which are called joint elements, but joint elements, elements microscopic in width, generate numerical instability if large shear displacement is given. Therefore, by introducing the master slave (MO) method used for contact analysis in the metal processing field, developed was a large deformation simulator for analyzing diastrophism including large displacement along the fault. Analysis examples were shown in case the upper basement and lower basement were relatively dislocated with the fault as a boundary. The bottom surface and right end boundary of the lower basement are fixed boundaries. The left end boundary of the lower basement is fixed, and to the left end boundary of the upper basement, the horizontal speed, 3{times}10{sup -7}m/s, was given. In accordance with the horizontal movement of the upper basement, the boundary surface largely deformed. Stress is almost at right angles at the boundary surface. As to the analysis of faults by the MO method, it has been used for a single simple fault, but should be spread to lots of faults in the future. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  20. NOMAD-Ref: visualization, deformation and refinement of macromolecular structures based on all-atom normal mode analysis. (United States)

    Lindahl, Erik; Azuara, Cyril; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc


    Normal mode analysis (NMA) is an efficient way to study collective motions in biomolecules that bypasses the computational costs and many limitations associated with full dynamics simulations. The NOMAD-Ref web server presented here provides tools for online calculation of the normal modes of large molecules (up to 100,000 atoms) maintaining a full all-atom representation of their structures, as well as access to a number of programs that utilize these collective motions for deformation and refinement of biomolecular structures. Applications include the generation of sets of decoys with correct stereochemistry but arbitrary large amplitude movements, the quantification of the overlap between alternative conformations of a molecule, refinement of structures against experimental data, such as X-ray diffraction structure factors or Cryo-EM maps and optimization of docked complexes by modeling receptor/ligand flexibility through normal mode motions. The server can be accessed at the URL

  1. Influence of deformation temperature on structural variation and shape-memory effect of a thermoplastic semi-crystalline multiblock copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yan


    Full Text Available A multiblock copolymer termed as PCL-PIBMD, consisting of crystallizable poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL segments and crystallizable poly(3S-isobutyl-morpholine-2,5-dione (PIBMD segments, has been reported as a material showing a thermally-induced shape-memory effect. While PIBMD crystalline domains act as netpoints to determine the permanent shape, both PCL crystalline domains and PIBMD amorphous domains, which have similar transition temperatures (Ttrans can act as switching domains. In this work, the influence of the deformation temperature (Tdeform = 50 or 20°C, which was above or below Ttrans, on the structural changes of PCL-PIBMD during uniaxial deformation and the shapememory properties were investigated. Furthermore, the relative contribution of crystalline PCL and PIBMD amorphous phases to the fixation of the temporary shape were distinguished by a toluene vapor treatment approach. The results indicated that at 50°C, both PCL and PIBMD amorphous phases can be orientated during deformation, resulting in thermallyinduced crystals of PCL domains and joint contribution to the switching domains. In contrast at 20°C, the temporary shape was mainly fixed by PCL crystals generated via strain-induced crystallization.

  2. Subgrain and dislocation structure changes in hot-deformed high-temperature Fe-Ni austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducki, K.J.; Rodak, K.; Hetmanczyk, M.; Kuc, D


    The influence of plastic deformation on the substructure of a high-temperature austenitic Fe-Ni alloy has been presented. Hot-torsion tests were executed at constant strain rates of 0.1 and 1.0 s{sup -1}, at testing temperatures in the range 900-1150 deg. C. The examination of the microstructure was carried out, using transmission electron microscopy. Direct measurements on the micrographs allowed the calculation of structural parameters: the average subgrain area, and the mean dislocation density. A detailed investigation has shown that the microstructure is inhomogeneous, consisting of dense dislocation walls, subgrains and recrystallized regions.

  3. Subgrain and dislocation structure changes in hot-deformed high-temperature Fe-Ni austenitic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducki, K.J.; Rodak, K.; Hetmanczyk, M.; Kuc, D.


    The influence of plastic deformation on the substructure of a high-temperature austenitic Fe-Ni alloy has been presented. Hot-torsion tests were executed at constant strain rates of 0.1 and 1.0 s -1 , at testing temperatures in the range 900-1150 deg. C. The examination of the microstructure was carried out, using transmission electron microscopy. Direct measurements on the micrographs allowed the calculation of structural parameters: the average subgrain area, and the mean dislocation density. A detailed investigation has shown that the microstructure is inhomogeneous, consisting of dense dislocation walls, subgrains and recrystallized regions

  4. Comparison of computer simulated and observed force deformation characteristics of anti-seismic devices and isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.; Muralikrishna, R.; Salvaraj, T.


    The paper discusses the finite element analysis of the force deformation characteristics of high damping rubber bearings, lead rubber bearings and natural rubber bearings. The dynamic response of structures isolated using bearings is also presented. The general purpose finite element program ABAQUS has been used for the numerical predictions under monotonic loads. For computing the dynamic response, a simplified model of the rubber bearing in the form of elasto-plastic system is used. This equivalent model is implemented using the computer code CASTEM-2000 and the dynamic response is obtained. The numerical results are found to match well with the experimental results. (author)

  5. Effect of bimodal harmonic structure design on the deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy. (United States)

    Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar; Sawangrat, Choncharoen; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Ciuca, Octav Paul; Ameyama, Kei


    In the present work, Co-Cr-Mo alloy compacts with a unique bimodal microstructural design, harmonic structure design, were successfully prepared via a powder metallurgy route consisting of controlled mechanical milling of pre-alloyed powders followed by spark plasma sintering. The harmonic structured Co-Cr-Mo alloy with bimodal grain size distribution exhibited relatively higher strength together with higher ductility as compared to the coarse-grained specimens. The harmonic Co-Cr-Mo alloy exhibited a very complex deformation behavior wherein it was found that the higher strength and the high retained ductility are derived from fine-grained shell and coarse-grained core regions, respectively. Finally, it was observed that the peculiar spatial/topological arrangement of stronger fine-grained and ductile coarse-grained regions in the harmonic structure promotes uniformity of strain distribution, leading to improved mechanical properties by suppressing the localized plastic deformation during straining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of the mathematical model of the diagram of deformation of the compressed composite steel and concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Stanislav


    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the stress-strain ratio of compressed concrete at elevated temperatures for composite structures described in Eurocode EN 1994-1-2:2005 Eurocode 4 divided in two stages: Stage 1 - represents the ascending branch and is defined by two parameters: compressive strength fc, θ and corresponding deformations εcu,θ, stage II - the descending branch which is accepted for numerical methods. The design practice showed deficiencies in the provisions on models of deformation diagrams given in Eurocode 2. Part 1-2 General provisions. Structural Fire Design. (EN 1992-1-2:2004, (ENV 1992-1-2:1995, which were reflected in the national standards in the process of harmonization. A technique for determining the refined diagrams “σc,θ – εc,θ” was developed for the design of composite reinforced concrete structures in case of fire. Diagram parameter values were adjusted for concretes based on silicate filler at high temperatures, the mathematical stress-strain model of the concrete under compression and high temperatures was specified.

  7. Soft-sediment deformation structures in seismically affected deep-sea Miocene turbidites (Cilento Basin, southern Italy) (United States)

    Valente, Alessio; Ślączka, Andrzej; Cavuoto, Giuseppe


    Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) are widespread in the upper part of the S. Mauro Formation (Cilento Group, Middle-Late Miocene). The succession is represented mainly by thick and very thick, massive, coarse-grained sandstones, deposited by rapid sedimentation of high-density turbidity currents. The most common SSDS are short pillars, dishes, sedimentary sills and convolutions. They occur mostly in the upper parts of sandstone beds. Vertical tubes of 4-5 cm in diameter and up to 50 cm long constitute the most striking structures. They begin in the middle part of sandstone beds, which are basically massive or contain faint dish structures. These tubes can bifurcate upwards and/ or pass into bedding-parallel veins or dikes. The vertical tubes sometimes form sand volcanoes on the then sedimentary surface. The SSDS are interpreted as the result of earthquake-triggered liquefaction and/or fluidisation of the turbidites that were affected by the seismic shocks. This implies that the deformed layers should be considered as seismites.

  8. Micro-Structural Evolution and Size-Effects in Plastically Deformed Single Crystals: Strain Gradient Continuum Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah

    An extensive amount of research has been devoted to the development of micro-mechanics based gradient plasticity continuum theories, which are necessary for modeling micron-scale plasticity when large spatial gradients of plastic strain appear. While many models have proven successful in capturing...... the macroscopic effects related to strain gradients, most predict smooth micro-structures. The evolution of dislocation micro-structures, during plastic straining of ductile crystalline materials, is highly complex and nonuniform. Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct......, to focus on their ability to capture realistic micro-structural evolution. This challenge is the main focus of the present thesis, which takes as starting point a non-work conjugate type back stress based higher order crystal plasticity theory. Within this framework, several possibilities for the back...

  9. Lifetime Reliability Estimate and Extreme Permanent Deformations of Randomly Excited Elasto-Plastic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle


    to be the outcome of identically distributed, independent stochastic variables,for which a model is suggested. Further assuming the interarrival times of the elementary loading histories to be specified by a Poisson process, and the duration of these to be small compared to the designed life-time, the accumulated...... plastic deformation during several loadings can be modelled as a filtered Poisson process. Using the Markov property of this quantity the considered first-passage problem as well as the related extreme distribution problems are then solved numerically, and the results are compared to simulation studies....

  10. Foliated Structure of The Kuranishi Space and Isomorphisms of Deformation Families of Compact Complex Manifolds


    Meersseman, Laurent


    Consider the following uniformization problem. Take two holomorphic (parametrized by some analytic set defined on a neighborhood of $0$ in $\\Bbb C^p$, for some $p>0$) or differentiable (parametrized by an open neighborhood of $0$ in $\\Bbb R^p$, for some $p>0$) deformation families of compact complex manifolds. Assume they are pointwise isomorphic, that is for each point $t$ of the parameter space, the fiber over $t$ of the first family is biholomorphic to the fiber over $t$ of the second fami...

  11. Modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity improves structural integrity after rotator cuff repair. (United States)

    Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jae Hwa


    The arthroscopic suture-bridge technique has proved to provide biomechanically firm fixation of the torn rotator cuff to the tuberosity by increasing the footprint contact area and pressure. However, a marginal dog-ear deformity is encountered not infrequently when this technique is used, impeding full restoration of the torn cuff. To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes of the use of a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity compared with a conventional suture-bridge method in rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence 2. A consecutive series of 71 patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness medium-sized to massive tears was evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to repair technique: a conventional suture-bridge technique (34 patients; group A) versus a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity (37 patients; group B). Radiographic evaluations included postoperative cuff integrity using MRI. Functional evaluations included pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, the Constant score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. All patients were followed up clinically at a minimum of 1 year. When the 2 surgical techniques were compared, postoperative structural integrity by Sugaya classification showed the distribution of types I:II:III:IV:V to be 4:20:2:4:4 in group A and 20:12:4:0:1 in group B. More subjects in group B had a favorable Sugaya type compared with group A (P bridge technique repairs were found in the retear group (P = .03). There were significant differences between healed and retear groups in functional outcome scores, with worse results in the retear group. A modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity provided better structural outcomes than a

  12. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China (United States)

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing


    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the

  13. Composites based on cellulose fiber nonwovens and a water soluble polymer 1. Structure and strength-deformation characteristics of cellulose fiber nonwovens and structural characteristics of the composites (United States)

    Cerpakovska, D.; Kalnins, M.


    The results of a study on the strength-deformation characteristics (tensile elastic modulus, ultimate strength, elongation at break, and punching and tearing strengths) of two kinds of cellulose fiber nonwovens (CFNs) with dissimilar void content and different geometrical parameters of cellulose fibers are discussed. The structural characteristics of composites prepared by impregnation with poly(vinyl alcohol) water solutions are analyzed, too. Composites with volume fractions of polymer up to 0.4% and volume fractions of voids up to 0.3% were prepared. Filling of voids by the polymer occurred without significant changes in the structure of CFNs. The fraction of closed voids increased with polymer content.

  14. Multi-matrix loop equations: algebraic and differential structures and an approximation based on deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.


    Large-N multi-matrix loop equations are formulated as quadratic difference equations in concatenation of gluon correlations. Though non-linear, they involve highest rank correlations linearly. They are underdetermined in many cases. Additional linear equations for gluon correlations, associated to symmetries of action and measure are found. Loop equations aren't differential equations as they involve left annihilation, which doesn't satisfy the Leibnitz rule with concatenation. But left annihilation is a derivation of the commutative shuffle product. Moreover shuffle and concatenation combine to define a bialgebra. Motivated by deformation quantization, we expand concatenation around shuffle in powers of q, whose physical value is 1. At zeroth order the loop equations become quadratic PDEs in the shuffle algebra. If the variation of the action is linear in iterated commutators of left annihilations, these quadratic PDEs linearize by passage to shuffle reciprocal of correlations. Remarkably, this is true for regularized versions of the Yang-Mills, Chern-Simons and Gaussian actions. But the linear equations are underdetermined just as the loop equations were. For any particular solution, the shuffle reciprocal is explicitly inverted to get the zeroth order gluon correlations. To go beyond zeroth order, we find a Poisson bracket on the shuffle algebra and associative q-products interpolating between shuffle and concatenation. This method, and a complementary one of deforming annihilation rather than product are shown to give over and underestimates for correlations of a gaussian matrix model

  15. Structural Phase Diagram for Multi-lamellar Tubular Deformations of Lipid Mesophases (United States)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Parikh, Atul


    Stable multi-lamellar cylindrical tubules protrude readily from concentrated mass of amphiphilic molecules in response to a variety of external stresses. Using energetic considerations, we have developed an phase diagram, predicting various types of morphologies of equilibrium multilamellar tubular deformations that stabilize for a broad range of their bending rigidity and surface tension values. Tubular morphologies are described in terms of core radius(rc) and number of lamellae(N). Results of the calculations reveal that emergent tubular morphologies can be classified into three major classes: (1) thin tethers (small rc and low N); (2) solid tubes (high N); and (3) hollow tubes (large rc and and low N). Experimental validation of these predictions is obtained in experiments involving hydration of dry stack lipids Here, tubular deformations, referred to as myelin figures, of all predicted morphologies form in separate populations. Furthermore, the phase diagram also sheds light on a long-standing question of the determinants of the thickness of such myelin figures.

  16. Fluid–structure coupling analysis of deformation and stress in impeller of an axial-flow pump with two-way passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Pei


    Full Text Available Axial-flow pump with a two-way passage has been widely employed in irrigation and drainage projects. Because of the shape of the two-way inlet passage, the impeller easily induces vibration due to unstable turbulent flow. This vibration results in structural cracks and even hinders the safe operation of the pump. Deformation and stress distributions in the impeller were calculated using two-way coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations, and a quantitative analysis of blade deformation and stress is carried out to determine the structure critical region. The results show that the values of deformation and stress significantly decrease with an increasing flow rate and a decreasing head, and the maximum total deformation can be found in the impeller rim, while the maximum equivalent stress can be obtained near the impeller hub. The total deformations in the blade rim decrease from blade leading edge to trailing edge, and the equivalent stress in the blade hub initially increases and then declines, and in the end, it rapidly increases from the blade outlet to inlet. These results reveal the deformation and stress in the impeller to ensure reliability and specific theoretical guidance for the structural optimization design of a pump device.

  17. Numerical analysis on interactions between fluid flow and structure deformation in plate-fin heat exchanger by Galerkin method (United States)

    Liu, Jing-cheng; Wei, Xiu-ting; Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wei, Zhen-wen


    The fluid-structure interaction performance of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) with serrated fins in large scale air-separation equipment was investigated in this paper. The stress and deformation of fins were analyzed, besides, the interaction equations were deduced by Galerkin method. The governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer in PFHE were deduced by finite volume method (FVM). The distribution of strain and stress were calculated in large scale air separation equipment and the coupling situation of serrated fins under laminar situation was analyzed. The results indicated that the interactions between fins and fluid flow in the exchanger have significant impacts on heat transfer enhancement, meanwhile, the strain and stress of fins includes dynamic pressure of the sealing head and flow impact with the increase of flow velocity. The impacts are especially significant at the conjunction of two fins because of the non-alignment fins. It can be concluded that the soldering process and channel width led to structure deformation of fins in the exchanger, and degraded heat transfer efficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Stepashko


    Full Text Available  The evolution and specific features of seismogynamics of the Baikal zones are reviewed in the context of interactions between deep deformation waves and the regional structure of the lithospheric mantle. The study is based on a model of the mantle structure with reference to chemical compositions of mantle peridotites from ophiolotic series located in the south-western framing of the Siberian craton (Fig. 1. The chemical zonation of the lithospheric mantle at the regional scale is determined from results of analyses of the heterogeneity of compositions of peridotites (Fig. 2, Table 1 and variations of contents of whole rock major components, such as iron, magnesium and silica (Fig. 3. According to spatial variations of the compositions of peridotites, the mantle has the concentric zonal structure, and the content of SiO2 is regularly decreasing, while concentrations of FeO∑ and MgO are increasing towards the centre of such structure (Fig. 4. This structure belongs to the mantle of the Siberian craton, which deep edge extends beyond the surface contour of the craton and underlies the north-western segment of the Central Asian orogenic belt.Results of the studies of peridotites of the Baikal region are consistent with modern concepts [Snyder, 2002; O’Reilly, Griffin, 2006; Chen et al., 2009] that suggest that large mantle lenses underlie the Archaean cratons (Fig. 5. The lenses are distinguished by high-density ultrabasic rocks and compose high-velocity roots of cratons which have remained isolated from technic processes. Edges of the mantle lenses may extend a few hundred kilometers beyond the limits of the cratons and underlie orogenic belts that frame the cratons, and this takes place in the south-western segment of the Siberian craton.The revealed structure of the lithospheric mantle is consistent with independent results of seismic and magmatectonical studies of the region. The Angara geoblock is located above the central part of the

  19. Development of a structural model for the nonlinear shear deformation behavior of a seismic isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, Bong


    The seismic excitation test results of an isolated test structure for artificial time history excitation are summarized for structure models of the isolated structure and isolation bearing. To simulate the response characteristic of isolated structure, shear hysteresis curves of isolators are analyzed. A simple analysis model is developed representing the actual dynamic behaviors of the test model, and the seismic responses using the simple model of the isolated structure and structure models, which are developed such as linear and bilinear models for isolators, are performed and compared with those of the seismic tests. The developed bilinear model is well applicable only to large shear strain area of LLRB

  20. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy (United States)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele


    Remote sensing techniques have demonstrated to be effective tools to support natural and man-made risk mitigation activities. Among these, the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) technology is largely exploited in geoscience, oil and gas extraction, and landslide fields. Recently, thanks to the large availability of high resolution SAR systems (10 m or less), as well as to the development of advanced data processing techniques, DInSAR products have also started to be effectively used for applications in urban areas to detect localized displacements affecting single buildings and infrastructures. The advanced DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) (Lanari et al., 2004) allows us to generate very long deformation time series, by exploiting large SAR datasets spanning up to 20 years (Bonano et al., 2012). Thanks to its capability to investigate wide areas, the SBAS-DInSAR technique is particularly suitable to remotely analyse the structural conditions of buildings located in densely urbanized zones. In this work, we fully exploit the results achieved over the city of Rome, Italy, through the well-established SBAS-DInSAR approach, aimed at performing a quantitative assessment of structural damage in urban areas affected by ground deformation (Arangio et al., 2013). More in details, we present an innovative methodology that integrates the SBAS-DInSAR measurements within an existing model, in order to assess the damage, and possibly estimate the future structural conditions, of single buildings affected by significant foundation settlements. In particular, a semi-empirical approach, based on a laminated beam model (Finno et al., 2005), is applied to investigate the damage of buildings located in the southern part of the city. The obtained results are in substantial agreement with in situ surveys, proving that the presented approach is an effective tool for the preliminary evaluation of the structural conditions in

  1. Latest Paleozoic early Mesozoic structures in the central Oaxaca Terrane of southern Mexico: deformation near a triple junction (United States)

    Centeno-Garcia, E.; Keppie, J. Duncan


    Paleozoic rocks in the Oaxaca Terrane of southern Mexico occur as two outliers (Rio Salinas and Santiago Ixtaltepec) unconformably overlying the 1-Ga Oaxaca Complex. They consist of the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Tiñu Formation, Mississippian Santiago Formation, lower-middle Pennsylvanian Ixtaltepec Formation and the unfossiliferous Yododeñe Formation of presumed Permian or younger age. These Paleozoic rocks have been deformed by several sets of structures. Three moderately westerly-dipping, bedding-parallel shear zones displaying dextral kinematic indicators (C-S fabrics, curvilinear isoclinal folds, en-echelon boudinage, en-echelon veins, and strained amygdales) occur along the boundaries between the Tiñu and Santiago formations, between the Santiago and Ixtaltepec formations, and within the Ixtaltepec Formation in the Santiago Ixtaltepec outlier. The bedding and these bedding-parallel shear zones are deformed by N-S, upright-asymmetric, subhorizontal folds accompanied by a slaty or spaced cleavage, that are in turn deformed by several sets of kink bands: subhorizontal and steeply dipping E-W, NW-SE and NE-SW. In the northern part of the Santiago Ixtaltepec outlier, the stratigraphy, bedding-parallel shear zones and slaty cleavage are displaced by NW-SE normal faults, all of which are truncated by the angular unconformity at the base of the Cretaceous, which brackets their age as post-Early Permian and pre-Cretaceous. Geometric correlation of the major N-S folds with E-vergent thrusting of the Oaxacan Complex over the Juarez Terrane suggests that they are older than Middle Jurassic. No age constraints are available for the kink and chevron folds; however, most may be related to Laramide structures in the overlying Cretaceous rocks. Unfolding the major structures in the Paleozoic rocks reorients the bedding-parallel shear zones to subhorizontal detachment shear zones or faults with a top-to-the-north sense of displacement. They may be related to either

  2. Effect of Structural Heterogeneity of 17Mn1Si Steel on the Temperature Dependence of Impact Deformation and Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Moiseenko


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between the microstructural parameters, mechanical properties, and impact deformation and fracture of steels using the example of 17Mn1Si pipe steel. A model for the behavior of a polycrystalline grain conglomerate under impact loading at different temperatures was proposed within a cellular automata framework. It was shown that the intensity of dissipation processes explicitly depends on temperature and these processes play an important role in stress relaxation at the boundaries of structural elements. The Experimental study reveals the relationship between pendulum impact test temperature and the deformation/fracture energy of the steel. The impact toughness was shown to decrease almost linearly with the decreasing test temperature, which agrees with the fractographic analysis data confirming the increase in the fraction of brittle fracture in this case. It was shown with the aid of the proposed model and numerical simulations that the use of the excitable cellular automata method and an explicit account of test temperature through the possibility of energy release at internal interfaces help to explain the experimentally observed features of impact failure at different temperatures.

  3. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.


    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  4. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rajabi

    Full Text Available Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs.

  5. Numerical modeling anti-personnel blast mines coupled to a deformable leg structure (United States)

    Cronin, Duane; Worswick, Mike; Williams, Kevin; Bourget, Daniel; Pageau, Gilles


    The development of improved landmine protective footwear requires an understanding of the physics and damage mechanisms associated with a close proximity blast event. Numerical models have been developed to model surrogate mines buried in soil using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique to model the explosive and surrounding air, while the soil is modeled as a deformable Lagrangian solid. The advantage of the ALE model is the ability to model large deformations, such as the expanding gases of a high explosive. This model has been validated using the available experimental data [1]. The effect of varying depth of burial and soil conditions has been investigated with these numerical models and compares favorably to data in the literature. The surrogate landmine model has been coupled to a numerical model of a Simplified Lower Leg (SLL), which is designed to mimic the response and failure mechanisms of a human leg. The SLL consists of a bone and tissue simulant arranged as concentric cylinders. A new strain-rate dependant hyperelastic material model for the tissue simulant, ballistic gelatin, has been developed to model the tissue simulant response. The polymeric bone simulant material has been characterized and implemented as a strain-rate dependent material in the numerical model. The numerical model results agree with the measured response of the SLL during experimental blast tests [2]. The numerical model results are used to explain the experimental data. These models predict that, for a surface or sub-surface buried anti-personnel mine, the coupling between the mine and SLL is an important effect. In addition, the soil properties have a significant effect on the load transmitted to the leg. [1] Bergeron, D., Walker, R. and Coffey, C., 1998, “Detonation of 100-Gram Anti-Personnel Mine Surrogate Charges in Sand”, Report number SR 668, Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Canada. [2] Bourget, D., Williams, K., Pageau, G., and Cronin, D.,

  6. Constraining the Late Mesozoic and Early Tertiary Tectonic Evolution of Southern Mexico: Structure and Deformation History of the Tierra Caliente Region. (United States)

    Cabral-Cano; Draper; Lang; Harrison


    We analyze the structure and assess the deformation history of the Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex (TCMC) of southern Mexico, where Laramide accretion of exotic terranes is in debate. The TCMC consists of a south-plunging antiform fault that is bounded on both its eastern and western flanks. Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex rocks show at least two phases of compressional deformation. The first and most prominent records a mean tectonic transport direction of 068 degrees. This phase is responsible for east-verging asymmetrical folding and thrusting of both metamorphic and superjacent sedimentary rocks. The second phase has an average transport direction of 232 degrees and is restricted to the western portion of the TCMC. A third phase is responsible for normal faulting. Lack of discernible deformation before Late Cretaceous time indicates that the main deformation phase is coincident with Laramide orogenesis elsewhere in the North American Cordillera. The stratigraphy, structure, and deformational history of the TCMC do not require accretion of exotic terranes. We explain the Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the TCMC in terms of deposition and deformation of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary strata over the attenuated continental crust of the North American plate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted the effect of the final deformation temperature in the intercritical interval on the structure and properties of heavy plate, produced by the controlled rolling method. Methodology. There are used the methods: qualitative and quantitative metallography, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, testing of mechanical properties. The purpose of the study - based on theoretical and experimental results to formulate the requirements for temperature and deformation parameters of production, providing higher strength and plastic properties than the existing industrial versions of controlled rolling. Results. It is shown that at a fixed degree of deformation the simultaneous increase in strength and plastic properties versus temperature has a weakly expressed extremum. Practical value. It is proposed the regim of controlled rolling at temperatures of finite deformation 785 ... 810° C with accelerated controlled cooling and the regime that increases insufficiently high plastic properties, which are obtained in heavy plates by random deviations of the standard technology

  8. Deformation of Ordered Mesoporous Silica Structures on Exposure to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Lowe


    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous silica materials are of interest for a wide range of applications. In many of these, elevated temperatures are used either in the preparation of the material or during its use. Therefore, an understanding of the effect of high temperature treatments on these materials is desirable. In this work, a detailed structural study is performed on silicas with three representative pore structures: a 2-D hexagonal pore arrangement (SBA-15, a continuous 3D cubic bimodal pore structure (KIT-6, and a 3D large cage pore structure (FDU-12. Each silica is studied as prepared and after treatment at a series of temperatures between 300 and 900°C. Pore structures are imaged using Transmission Electron Microscopy. This technique is used in conjunction with Small-Angle X-ray Diffraction, gas physisorption, and 29Si solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Using these techniques, the pore size distributions, the unit cell dimensions of the mesoporous structures, and the relative occupancy of the distinct chemical environments of Si within them are cross correlated for the three silicas and their evolution with treatment temperature is elucidated. The physical and chemical properties before, during, and after collapse of these structures at high temperatures are described as are the differences in behavior between the three silica structures.

  9. Analysis of Manufacturing-Induced Defects and Structural Deformations in Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wu


    Full Text Available Premature battery drain, swelling and fires/explosions in lithium-ion batteries have caused wide-scale customer concerns, product recalls, and huge financial losses in a wide range of products including smartphones, laptops, e-cigarettes, hoverboards, cars, and commercial aircraft. Most of these problems are caused by defects which are difficult to detect using conventional nondestructive electrical methods and disassembly-based destructive analysis. This paper develops an effective computed tomography (CT-based nondestructive approach to assess battery quality and identify manufacturing-induced defects and structural deformations in batteries. Several unique case studies from commercial e-cigarette and smartphone applications are presented to show where CT analysis methods work.

  10. Structural Stability and Deformation of Solvated Sm@C2(45)-C90 under High Pressure (United States)

    Cui, Jinxing; Yao, Mingguang; Yang, Hua; Liu, Ziyang; Liu, Shijie; Du, Mingrun; Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing


    Solvated fullerenes recently have been shown to exhibit novel compression behaviors compared with the pristine fullerenes. However, less attention has been focused on the large cage endohedral metallofullerenes. Here, we have firstly synthesized solvated Sm@C90 microrods by a solution drop-drying method, and then studied the transformations under high pressure. The pressure-induced structural evolutions of Sm@C90 molecules both undergo deformation and collapse. The band gaps of both samples decrease with increasing pressure. The trapped Sm atom plays a role in restraining the compression of the adjacent bonds. The solvent plays a role in protecting Sm@C90 against collapse in the region of 12-20 GPa, decreasing and postponing the change of band gap. Above 30 GPa, the carbon cages collapse. Released from 45 GPa, the compressed solvated Sm@C90 forms a new ordered amorphous carbon cluster (OACC) structure with metal atoms trapped in the units of amorphous carbon clusters, which is different from the OACC structure formed by compressing solvated C60 and C70. This discovery opens the door for the creation of new carbon materials with desirable structural and physical properties when suitable starting materials are selected.

  11. Micro-structure and chemical composition of vateritic deformities occurring in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774). (United States)

    Frenzel, Max; Harper, Elizabeth M


    Vateritic deformities occurring in the invasive heterodont bivalve Corbicula fluminea from several locations in the UK were characterised in detail for the first time using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and different geochemical techniques (electron microprobe, ICP-AES, and mass spectrometry). Large volumes of vaterite are produced abnormally in the animals' shells in the form of yellow-green bulges. These are distinguished from the aragonitic parts of the shell by their characteristic micro-structures, content of organic material, trace elemental composition and carbon stable isotope signatures. The most commonly observed micro-structures include columnar vaterite, lamellar vaterite and different irregular structures occurring in all parts of the shell. There are indications that organic material is present largely as intracrystalline impurities or nano-scale phases and not as envelopes around microstructural units. These micro-structures are novel, nothing equivalent having yet been described for other vateritic systems. Euhedral vaterite crystals also occur occasionally. The vaterite has generally higher Mg/Ca and lower Na/Ca, K/Ca than the aragonite. In addition, δ¹³C is also always lower. Microstructural characteristics would suggest loss of biological control probably due to physiological stress(es) inducing the switch to vaterite production. The vaterite might be stabilised by its higher content of organic material and magnesium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Update of the equations of the limit state of the structural material with the realization of their deformation (United States)

    Zenkov, E. V.


    Two methods are given in the article by considering the type of stressed-Deformed state (SDS) based on equations limit condition and analyzing the results of laboratory tests of special specimens for mechanical testing, focus having destruction thereof in the same view of SDS as in focus possible destruction of the structural member. The considered limited use of these methods in terms of considering physically consistent strength criterion type Pisarenko-Lebedev. A revised design-experimental procedure for determining the strength of the material of the structure, combining therein the elements of these two methods, consisting in determining the strength parameters of construction material, entering criterion equation Pisarenko-Lebedev, considering the actual appearance of the region-of-interest SDS structure. The implementation of the procedure is performed on the basis of the selection of the respective experimental laboratory specimens for mechanical testing, plan SDS in working zone coinciding with a SDS: structure whose strength is evaluated. The refinement process limit state equations demonstrated in determining 50CrV4 steel strength parameters, being in a state of biaxial stretching. Design-experimentally determined by, that steel for a given voltage limit value is almost a quarter of its value is reduced compared to the conventional tensile strength. value is reduced compared to the conventional tensile strength.

  13. Molecular structure and benzene ring deformation of three cyanobenzenes from gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations. (United States)

    Campanelli, Anna Rita; Domenicano, Aldo; Ramondo, Fabio; Hargittai, István


    The molecular structures of cyanobenzene, p-dicyanobenzene, and 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene have been accurately determined by gas-phase electron diffraction and ab initio/DFT MO calculations. The equilibrium structures of these molecules are planar, but their average geometries in the gaseous phase are nonplanar because of large-amplitude vibrational motions of the substituents out of the plane of the benzene ring. The use of nonplanar models in electron diffraction analysis is necessary to yield ring angles consistent with the results of MO calculations. The angular deformation of the benzene ring in the three molecules is found to be much smaller than obtained from previous electron diffraction studies, as well as from microwave spectroscopy studies of cyanobenzene. While the deformation of the ring CC bonds and CCC angles in p-dicyanobenzene is well interpreted as arising from the superposition of independent effects from each substituent, considerable deviation from additivity occurs in 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene. The changes in the ring geometry and C ipso-C cyano bond lengths in this molecule indicate an enhanced ability of the cyano group to withdraw pi-electrons from the benzene ring, compared with cyanobenzene and p-dicyanobenzene. In particular, gas-phase electron diffraction and MP2 or B3LYP calculations show a small but consistent increase in the mean length of the ring CC bonds for each cyano group and a further increase in 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene. Comparison with accurate results from X-ray and neutron crystallography indicates that in p-dicyanobenzene the internal ring angle at the place of substitution opens slightly as the molecule is frozen in the crystal. The small geometrical change, about 0.6 degrees , is shown to be real and to originate from intermolecular C identical withN...HC interactions in the solid state.

  14. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam


    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  15. Use of a deformable atlas to identify cryptic critical structures in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Weksberg

    Full Text Available Dose constraints for traditional neural critical structures (e.g. optic chiasm, brain stem are a standard component of planning radiation therapy to the central nervous system. Increasingly, investigators are becoming interested in accounting for the dose delivered to other non-target neural structures (e.g. hippocampi, which are not easily identified on axial imaging. In this pilot study, a commercially available digital atlas was used to identify cryptic neural structures (hippocampus, optic radiations, and visual cortices in 6 patients who received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT as part of multimodal management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. The patient's original IMRT plans were re-optimized, with avoidance parameters for the newly identified critical structures. Re-optimization was able to reduce both mean and maximum dose to the volumes of interest, with a more pronounced effect for contralateral structures. Mean dose was reduced by 11% and 3% to contralateral and ipsilateral structures, respectively, with comparable reduction in maximum dose of 10% and 2%, respectively. Importantly, target coverage was not compromised, with an average change in coverage of 0.2%. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating tools for cryptic critical structure identification into the treatment planning process for GBM.

  16. Seismically-triggered soft-sediment deformation structures close to a major strike-slip fault system in the Eastern Alps (Hirlatz cave, Austria) (United States)

    Salomon, Martina Lan; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Gier, Susanne; Schöpfer, Martin P. J.


    We investigate episodic soft-sediment deformation structures cross-cut by normal faults preserved in unlithified finely laminated calcite rich sediments in the Hirlatz cave in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria). These sediments comprise varve-like alternations of brighter carbonate/quartz rich layers, and darker clay mineral rich layers. The deformed sediments contain abundant millimeter to centimeter-scale soft-sediment structures (load casts, ball-and-pillow structures), sheet slumps (thrust faults and folds), erosive channels filled with slides and chaotic slumps. After deposition and soft-sediment deformation normal faults developed within the entire sedimentary succession, an event that probably correlates with an offset of c. 10 cm of the passage wall above the outcrop. Our major conclusions are: (i) The sediments have a glacial origin and were deposited in the Hirlatz cave under phreatic fluvio-lacustrine conditions. The deposition and the soft-sediment deformation occurred most likely during the last glaciation (i.e. around 25 ka ago); (ii) The liquefaction and formation of the soft-sediment structures in water-saturated stratified layers was triggered by episodic seismic events; (iii) The internally deformed sediments were later displaced by normal faults; (iv) A possible source for the seismic events is the active sinistral Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazeller-Puchberger (SEMP) strike-slip fault which is located about 10 km south of the outcrop and plays a major role in accommodating the extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin. To our knowledge, the described structures are the first report of liquefaction and seismically induced soft-sediment deformations in Quaternary sediments in the Eastern Alps.

  17. Kinematics of an oblique deformation front using paleomagnetic data; the Altomira-Loranca structures (Iberian Chain, Central Spain) (United States)

    Valcarcel, M.


    Manoel Valcárcel1, 5, Ruth Soto2, Elisabet Beamud3, Belén Oliva-Urcia4 and Josep Anton Muñoz5 1 IGME, Departamento de Investigación y Prospección Geocientífica. C/ La Calera, 1, 28760 Tres Cantos; 2 IGME, Unidad de Zaragoza, C/ Manuel Lasala 44, 9 B, 50006 Zaragoza, Spain 3 Lab. Paleomagnetisme (CCiT UB-CSIC). ICT "Jaume Almera", Solé i Sabarís, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 4 IPE-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain 5 Grup Geodinàmica i Anàlisi de Conques, Universitat de Barcelona, Zona Universitària Pedralbes, 08028 Barcelona, Spain The Altomira and Loranca structures consist of a fold-and-thrust system detached on Triassic evaporites. They are oriented N-S to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE at its northern and southern end, respectively, forming a subtle arc, oblique with respect to the general NW-SE trend of the Iberian Chain. The aim of this work is to characterize with paleomagnetic data the kinematic evolution of the the Altomira Range, located at the southwestern deformation front of the Iberian Chain, and of the structures within its associated piggy-back basin, the Loranca basin. This approach will also give clues regarding the primary and/or secondary origin of these structures to better characterize them in further studies (3D reconstruction and restoration, fault pattern). A total of 180 samples were obtained from 19 sites in Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene rocks (including clays, fine sandstones and limestones). They were analyzed by means of stepwise thermal demagnetization and subsequent measurement of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Although fold tests are not statistically significant, a primary origin of the magnetization is deduced by samples showing either normal or reverse polarity after bedding correction of the calculated characteristic components. Declinations of the site mean directions appear scattered after bedding correction suggesting differential vertical-axis rotations. Sites located at the

  18. Tooth axis and skeletal structures in mandibular molar vertical sections in jaw deformity with facial asymmetry using MPR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Yokose, Taishi; Ishii, Takenobu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishii, Yasushi


    The objective of the present study was to investigate frontal morphological asymmetry in the mandibular molar region in terms of tooth axis and skeletal structures using vertical MPR sections in jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry. Subjects consisted of 15 patients with jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry aged 17.4 years to 37.8 years. There were four men and eleven women. Based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer software was used to prepare multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) sections. The mandible was then positioned on a reference plane based on the menton and left and right gonions, and a vertical MPR section passing through the mesial root of the first mandibular molar was prepared. The following measurements were made on both the shifted and non-shifted sides: maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body; height of the mandibular body; inclination angle of the mandibular body; degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body; and inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar. Furthermore, degree of median deviation in the menton was measured using frontal cephalograms. Differences in morphological parameters between the shifted and non-shifted sides were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between median deviation and asymmetry were statistically analyzed. There was no significant asymmetry in the maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body, the height of the mandibular body or the degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body. However, when compared to the shifted side, the inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar for the non-shifted side was significantly greater. There was a relatively strong correlation between median deviation and inclination angle of the mandibular body. The above findings clarified that, in orthognathic surgery for jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry, actively improving

  19. The effect of temperature on the deformation structure of single crystal nickel based superalloys (United States)

    Dollar, M.; Bernstein, I. M.


    Results for the temperature dependence of the yield and flow stress were obtained for the superalloys PWA 1480 and CMSX-2. An extended Copley-Kear (1967) model is used to predict flow stresses from the dislocation densities measured at different strains and temperatures. Differences found between the two superalloys include the development of their dislocation structure, their ductility, and their work hardening characteristics.

  20. Fabrication, Characterization, And Deformation of 3D Structural Meta-Materials (United States)

    Montemayor, Lauren C.

    Current technological advances in fabrication methods have provided pathways to creating architected structural meta-materials similar to those found in natural organisms that are structurally robust and lightweight, such as diatoms. Structural meta-materials are materials with mechanical properties that are determined by material properties at various length scales, which range from the material microstructure (nm) to the macro-scale architecture (mum -- mm). It is now possible to exploit material size effect, which emerge at the nanometer length scale, as well as structural effects to tune the material properties and failure mechanisms of small-scale cellular solids, such as nanolattices. This work demonstrates the fabrication and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional hollow nanolattices in both tension and compression. Hollow gold nanolattices loaded in uniaxial compression demonstrate that strength and stiffness vary as a function of geometry and tube wall thickness. Structural effects were explored by increasing the unit cell angle from 30° to 60° while keeping all other parameters constant; material size effects were probed by varying the tube wall thickness, t, from 200nm to 635nm, at a constant relative density and grain size. In-situ uniaxial compression experiments reveal an order-of-magnitude increase in yield stress and modulus in nanolattices with greater lattice angles, and a 150% increase in the yield strength without a concomitant change in modulus in thicker-walled nanolattices for fixed lattice angles. These results imply that independent control of structural and material size effects enables tunability of mechanical properties of 3-dimensional architected meta-materials and highlight the importance of material, geometric, and microstructural effects in small-scale mechanics. This work also explores the flaw tolerance of 3D hollow-tube alumina kagome nanolattices with and without pre-fabricated notches, both in experiment and simulation

  1. Influence of a bending or tensile deformation on the toughness of a Mn-Ni-Mo structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadno Azizi, G.R.; Montheillet, F.


    Bending or tensile deformation on toughness of a steel, used for fabrication of pressurizers or steam generators of PWR reactors, is analyzed. Impact tests are realized on samples taken in the elongated and the compressed zones of 2 sheets with a deformation of 5 and 10% and in 2 test bars with the same deformation. Results show that cold bending increase brittle-ductile transition temperature. Nevertheless this effect is considerably lowered by heat treatment [fr

  2. Effect of deformation structure on fatigue behavior of an Al-Mg-Sc alloy (United States)

    Zhemchuzhnikova, Daria; Kaibyshev, Rustam


    Effect of initial grain size on fatigue behavior of an Al-6%Mg-0.35%Mn-0.2%Sc- 0.08%Zr-0.07%Cr alloy was examined. The initial CG microstructure with an average grain size of ~ 22 μm was manufactured by casting followed by solution treatment at 360 °C for 12 h. To produce the UFG condition, the alloy was subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 320 °C up to a total strain of ~ 14. Extensive grain refinement provided the formation of fully recrystallized structure with an average grain size of 700 nm. It was shown that the formation of UFG structure provided +60% increases in yield stress and +25% increases in fatigue strength. Fundamentals of this effect of microstructure on the static strength, fatigue resistance and fracture modes are discussed.

  3. Elasto-plastic investigation of stresses and deformations of structures in case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacharzina, B.; Pache, M.


    Complex mechanical support structures show a complete different behavior in case of fire (temperatures at 500 C) compared to their behavior at lower temperatures, for instance due to restricted thermal expansion and temperature dependent changes of the material characteristics, including plastification. It is possible that the strongest loads emerge during temperature increase and not at the maximum temperature, therefore it is not sufficient to demonstrate the structural integrity only for the maximum temperature. These effects can only be incorporated into the stress analysis by using temperature dependent elasto-plastic finite-element-modeling. The authors demonstrate the technique for the case of an air-duct attachment at the ceiling of the control room.

  4. Documenting feedbacks between surface processes and structural deformation in East Timor using stream profile and drainage network analysis (United States)

    Tate, G. W.; Willett, S.; McQuarrie, N.; Goren, L.; Fox, M.


    While river profile analyses have long been used to evaluate the development of landforms, recent advances in analyzing drainage networks have significantly improved the ability to positively link stream profiles with surface uplift. In one such method, Perron and Royden (2012) define the value chi, an integral quantity based on the steady-state stream power equation which aids in determining the conformity of rivers and drainage basins to steady-state behavior. East Timor is an ideal location to test new methods using chi, as it is an active and unglaciated orogen with independent constraints of the deformational history through thermochronology and structural geology. We utilize the calculation of chi in our analyses of the drainage network to provide new constraints on the most recent uplift history of the island of Timor. Discontinuities in chi across drainage divides imply different steady state baselevel for hillslopes and therefore active migration of the divide. We confirm this by noting visible landslides in satellite images and asymmetries in hillslope steepness. Analyses of chi and elevation reveal in some locations that tributaries within a single basin have experienced distinctly different histories, documenting instances where previous river capture has occurred. In other locations the relationships between chi and elevation along single rivers denote spatial changes in surface uplift rate. Many of these observations from the drainage network correspond well to patterns of recent exhumation identified from thermochronologic analyses as well as structural constraints from field mapping and balanced cross-sections. Much of the fastest exhumation on the island (as indicated by zircon (U-Th)/He ages of 1.5-3.8 Ma and modeled exhumation rates of 1-3 mm/yr) is in the hinterland slate belt, which also contains the most stream profile remnants of paleo-capture events. Many locations of active river capture correspond well to independently constrained

  5. Structure of boron carbide after applying shear deformations under a pressure to 55 GPa (United States)

    Annenkov, M. R.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Ovsyannikov, D. A.; Popov, M. Yu.; Blank, V. D.


    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the structural features of boron carbide treated in a high-pressure shear chamber with diamond anvils in the pressure range 25-55 GPa. Such a treatment has been shown to lead to the predominant crack formation along planes {10 11 } and {10 12} and also the formation of polytypes in the {10 11} planes and strain bands in the {10 12} planes.

  6. A novel approach to modeling plate deformations in fluid–structure interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T.K.; Marcum, W.R.; Jones, W.F.


    Highlights: • A new method for computing fluid structure interactions of flat plates is presented herein. • The method is validated through consideration of a single plate subject to hydraulic loading. • The model is compared against solution forms computed via ABAQUS and experimental data. • The model compares well against experimental data and the commercial computational code. - Abstract: As computational power increases, so does the desire to use computational simulations while designing fuel plates. The downside is multi-physics simulations – or more specifically, fluid–structure interactions (FSI) as addressed herein – require a larger amount of computational resources. Current simulations of a single plate can take weeks on a desktop computer, thus requiring the use of multiple servers or a cluster for FSI simulations. While computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes coupled to computational structural mechanics (CSM) codes can provide a wealth of information regarding flow patterns, there should be some skepticism in whether or not they are the only means of achieving the desired solution. When the parameters of interest are the onset of plate collapse and the associated fluid channel velocities, coupled CFD–CSM simulations provide superfluous information. The paper provides an alternative approach to solving FSI problems using a 1-D, semi-analytical model derived from first principles. The results are compared and contrasted to the numerical and experimental work performed by Kennedy et al. (2014. Experimental Investigation of Deflection of Flat Aluminium Plates Under Variable Velocity Parallel Flow, Columbia: University of Missouri TherMec Research Group).

  7. Choosing the geodetic network for a system for tracking deformations of circular engineering structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokov, M.A.; Pupkov, Yu.A.

    This paper examines and evaluates three possible versions of networks for circular structures (curvilinear structures in the general case), for which attention is focused on the accuracy of the positioning of reference points with respect to a specified production axis along the normal to the axis. A significant difference in the tolerances in two mutually perpendicular directions often obtains in setting up the production equipment of flow lines, accelerators and their storage rings, radiotelescope antennas, and others. Observance of one of the tolerances is ensured by the stability of the structure, while observance of the other, more stringent tolerance must be monitored through measurements. A comparison of the alternative networks was made on the basis of three main indices: (a) the rms errors in determining the position of points with respect to the production axis; (b) the correlation coefficients of the errors for the weakest point in the network and for all other points; (c) the rms amplitudes of the Fourier harmonics that characterize the smoothness of the curve obtained and the presence of hidden periodicities as a function of the residual errors

  8. Serviceability limit state related to excessive lateral deformations to account for infill walls in the structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. S. ALVA

    Full Text Available Brazilian Codes NBR 6118 and NBR 15575 provide practical values for interstory drift limits applied to conventional modeling in order to prevent negative effects in masonry infill walls caused by excessive lateral deformability, however these codes do not account for infill walls in the structural model. The inclusion of infill walls in the proposed model allows for a quantitative evaluation of structural stresses in these walls and an assessment of cracking in these elements (sliding shear diagonal tension and diagonal compression cracking. This paper presents the results of simulations of single-story one-bay infilled R/C frames. The main objective is to show how to check the serviceability limit states under lateral loads when the infill walls are included in the modeling. The results of numerical simulations allowed for an evaluation of stresses and the probable cracking pattern in infill walls. The results also allowed an identification of some advantages and limitations of the NBR 6118 practical procedure based on interstory drift limits.

  9. Segmentation of the Aortic Valve Apparatus in 3D Echocardiographic Images: Deformable Modeling of a Branching Medial Structure. (United States)

    Pouch, Alison M; Tian, Sijie; Takabe, Manabu; Wang, Hongzhi; Yuan, Jiefu; Cheung, Albert T; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Yushkevich, Paul A


    3D echocardiographic (3DE) imaging is a useful tool for assessing the complex geometry of the aortic valve apparatus. Segmentation of this structure in 3DE images is a challenging task that benefits from shape-guided deformable modeling methods, which enable inter-subject statistical shape comparison. Prior work demonstrates the efficacy of using continuous medial representation (cm-rep) as a shape descriptor for valve leaflets. However, its application to the entire aortic valve apparatus is limited since the structure has a branching medial geometry that cannot be explicitly parameterized in the original cm-rep framework. In this work, we show that the aortic valve apparatus can be accurately segmented using a new branching medial modeling paradigm. The segmentation method achieves a mean boundary displacement of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm (approximately one voxel) relative to manual segmentation on 11 3DE images of normal open aortic valves. This study demonstrates a promising approach for quantitative 3DE analysis of aortic valve morphology.

  10. Large-Deformation Curling Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotube Composite: Advanced-Structure Design and Biomimetic Application. (United States)

    Chen, Luzhuo; Weng, Mingcen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan


    In recent years, electroactive polymers have been developed as actuator materials. As an important branch of electroactive polymers, electrothermal actuators (ETAs) demonstrate potential applications in the fields of artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, robotics, and so on. Large-shape deformation, low-voltage-driven actuation, and ultrafast fabrication are critical to the development of ETA. However, a simultaneous optimization of all of these advantages has not been realized yet. Practical biomimetic applications are also rare. In this work, we introduce an ultrafast approach to fabricate a curling actuator based on a newly designed carbon nanotube and polymer composite, which completely realizes all of the above required advantages. The actuator shows an ultralarge curling actuation with a curvature greater than 1.0 cm(-1) and bending angle larger than 360°, even curling into a tubular structure. The driving voltage is down to a low voltage of 5 V. The remarkable actuation is attributed not only to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion but also to the mechanical property changes of materials during temperature change. We also construct an S-shape actuator to show the possibility of building advanced-structure actuators. A weightlifting walking robot is further designed that exhibits a fast-moving motion while lifting a sample heavier than itself, demonstrating promising biomimetic applications.

  11. Structural analysis of deformations in the seal region of a radioactive material transport cask under thermal loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, P.; Wang, Z.


    In the design of casks for the transport of highly radioactive materials, a major concern is preventing leakage under both the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions specified in the federal regulations. The designs must accommodate various loadings, including thermal loadings. The latter are particularly difficult to withstand because thermal considerations require exceptional structural flexibility, while other design considerations require structural stiffness. To guarantee a design that will be leaktight, the designer needs to quantify and limit the range of possible movement between the cask body and the lid under all conditions. This paper first shows the deformations obtained from a simplified model of the basic configuration of a sample design under selected normal and hypothetical thermal loading conditions. The design is then modified and re-analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of two configuration modifications intended to reduce relative movement at the closure interface between cask body and the lid. Comparisons of required bolting forces demonstrate that accommodating the thermal loadings must be a primary consideration in designing the cask. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Optically induced lattice deformations, electronic structure changes, and enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mankowsky


    Full Text Available Resonant optical excitation of apical oxygen vibrational modes in the normal state of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x induces a transient state with optical properties similar to those of the equilibrium superconducting state. Amongst these, a divergent imaginary conductivity and a plasma edge are transiently observed in the photo-stimulated state. Femtosecond hard x-ray diffraction experiments have been used in the past to identify the transient crystal structure in this non-equilibrium state. Here, we start from these crystallographic features and theoretically predict the corresponding electronic rearrangements that accompany these structural deformations. Using density functional theory, we predict enhanced hole-doping of the CuO2 planes. The empty chain Cu dy2-z2 orbital is calculated to strongly reduce in energy, which would increase c-axis transport and potentially enhance the interlayer Josephson coupling as observed in the THz-frequency response. From these results, we calculate changes in the soft x-ray absorption spectra at the Cu L-edge. Femtosecond x-ray pulses from a free electron laser are used to probe changes in absorption at two photon energies along this spectrum and provide data consistent with these predictions.

  13. Types of soft-sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine Ploužnice member (Stephanian, Gzhelian, Pennsylvanian, Bohemian Massif), their timing, and possible trigger mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stárková, M.; Martínek, K.; Mikuláš, Radek; Rosenau, N.


    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2015), s. 1277-1298 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soft- sediment deformation structures * bioturbation * early diagenetic carbonate * lacustrine facies * Bohemian Massif * Stephanian C * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  14. Structural evidence for strike-slip deformation in the Izmir-Balikesir transfer zone and consequences for late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia (Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, B.; Sözbilir, H.; Özkaymak, T.; Kaymakci, N.; Langereis, C.G.


    The Izmir-Balikesir transfer zone (IBTZ) is a recently recognized strike-slip dominated shear zone that accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean Extensional System. Here, we present new structural and kinematic data obtained from

  15. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Sichuan-Yunnan Region Revealed by receiver Function Data (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Zheng, Y.


    Sichuan-Yunnan and its surrounding areas locates in the southeast side to the Tibetan Plateau, due to the intrusion of the Indian Plate under the Tibetan Plateau, materials escape from the Tibetan Plateau and flow southward to southeastward. Because of such tectonic environment, the Sichuan-Yunnan region is experiencing high tectonic movement, and is capable of highly diffused seismicity. Based on dynamic simulation and field survey investigations, tectonic and geological studies proposed a decoupling model in this region and lower crustal flow may inflate in the crust. However, this idea needs more evidences, especially anisotropic structures to support it, since the anisotropic structures are usually directly related to the movement of materials, or to the tectonic distributions. In the past several years, a number of works have been done on the anisotropic structures in the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings. In usually, previous studies were mainly carried out by two kinds of methods. First, the shear wave splitting of SKS, which mainly reflects the accumulation effect of the anisotropy of the crust to the mantle; the other way is use surface wave to investigate the anisotropic features at different azimuths and depths. In the recent years, receiver function is used to determine the inclination and anisotropy of the subsurface structure, comparing with the other two methods, receiver functions can provide higher resolution and reliable anisotropic features in the crust. Following the method of Liu and Niu(2012), we collected teleseismic data from the Himalayan first term network, and picked out high quality data based on the waveform SNR ratio, as well as the azimuthal distributions. Comparing with previous work (e.g., Sun et al.,2012), our work can provide more receiver functions results with higher reliability. We find that the crust beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan region has a thickness of 30-60 km and Vp/Vs ratio of 1.70-1.80. The Moho depth from northwest to

  16. Hierarchical structure and compressive deformation mechanisms of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) horn. (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zaheri, Alireza; Jung, Jae-Young; Espinosa, Horacio D; Mckittrick, Joanna


    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) rams hurl themselves at each other at speeds of ∼9 m/s (20 mph) to fight for dominance and mating rights. This necessitates impact resistance and energy absorption mechanisms, which stem from material-structure components in horns. In this study, the material hierarchical structure as well as correlations between the structure and mechanical properties are investigated. The major microstructural elements of horns are found as tubules and cell lamellae, which are oriented with (∼30⁰) angle with respect to each other. The cell lamellae contain keratin cells, in the shape of pancakes, possessing an average thickness of ∼2 µm and diameter of ∼20-30 µm. The morphology of keratin cells reveals the presence of keratin fibers and intermediate filaments with diameter of ∼200 nm and ∼12 nm, respectively, parallel to the cell surface. Quasi-static and high strain rate impact experiments, in different loading directions and hydration states, revealed a strong strain rate dependency for both dried and hydrated conditions. A strong anisotropy behavior was observed under impact for the dried state. The results show that the radial direction is the most preferable impact orientation because of its superior energy absorption. Detailed failure mechanisms under the aforementioned conditions are examined by bar impact recovery experiments. Shear banding, buckling of cell lamellae, and delamination in longitudinal and transverse direction were identified as the cause for strain softening under high strain rate impact. While collapse of tubules occurs in both quasi-static and impact tests, in radial and transverse directions, the former leads to more energy absorption and impact resistance. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) horns show remarkable impact resistance and energy absorption when undergoing high speed impact during the intraspecific fights. The present work illustrates the hierarchical structure of bighorn sheep horn at

  17. Structural Model for Tubulin Recognition and Deformation by Kinesin-13 Microtubule Depolymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Asenjo


    Full Text Available To elucidate the structural basis of the mechanism of microtubule depolymerization by kinesin-13s, we analyzed complexes of tubulin and the Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-13 KLP10A by electron microscopy (EM and fluorescence polarization microscopy. We report a nanometer-resolution (1.1 nm cryo-EM three-dimensional structure of the KLP10A head domain (KLP10AHD bound to curved tubulin. We found that binding of KLP10AHD induces a distinct tubulin configuration with displacement (shear between tubulin subunits in addition to curvature. In this configuration, the kinesin-binding site differs from that in straight tubulin, providing an explanation for the distinct interaction modes of kinesin-13s with the microtubule lattice or its ends. The KLP10AHD-tubulin interface comprises three areas of interaction, suggesting a crossbow-type tubulin-bending mechanism. These areas include the kinesin-13 family conserved KVD residues, and as predicted from the crossbow model, mutating these residues changes the orientation and mobility of KLP10AHDs interacting with the microtubule.

  18. Effect of microstructure on the elasto-viscoplastic deformation of dual phase titanium structures (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugce; Rollett, Anthony D.


    The present study is devoted to the creation of a process-structure-property database for dual phase titanium alloys, through a synthetic microstructure generation method and a mesh-free fast Fourier transform based micromechanical model that operates on a discretized image of the microstructure. A sensitivity analysis is performed as a precursor to determine the statistically representative volume element size for creating 3D synthetic microstructures based on additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V characteristics, which are further modified to expand the database for features of interest, e.g., lath thickness. Sets of titanium hardening parameters are extracted from literature, and The relative effect of the chosen microstructural features is quantified through comparisons of average and local field distributions.

  19. Experimental study of structure-forming deformations in obliquely spreading ultra-slow ridges (United States)

    Dubinin, Evgeniy; Kokhan, Andrey; Grokholsky, Andrey


    This paper is dedicated to obliquely spreading ultra-slow ridges of North Atlantic and Arctic. The study covers four ridges: Reikjanes, Kolbeynsey, Mohns and Knipovich They are rather young (spreading initiated 58-60 Myr ago) and angles between their trends and spreading direction are from 33 to 85°. All the ridges have peculiarities in structure patterns, kinematics, and morphology and develop in specific geodynamical environments. Kolbeynsey and Reikjanes ridges are developing under influence of Iceland hotspot. Knipovich ridge is developing in ancient slip zone along the heavily sedimented Spitzbergen margin. Spreading at Mohns ridge occurs in conditions of thick lithosphere and extremely narrow heating zone. In order to study geodynamical features of structure-forming on these ridges we apply experimental modeling The model material used in modeling is a colloidal system composed of mineral oils, solid hydrocarbon and surface-active substances. It has elastic-viscous-plastic properties, under temperature and strain rate, it is capable of failure like a brittle body. Reikjanes (ridge obliquity 60-65°) and Kolbeynsey (80-85°) ridges show changes of morphology with increasing distance from Iceland mantle plume. In proximity with Iceland they are characterized by axial rise with long s-shaped axial volcanic ridges (AVRs) offset by small discontinuities. Far from Iceland the AVRs are short and offset by large non-transform offsets which are situated in axial valley. In conditions of all these features are explained by influence of mantle flow from the Iceland mantle plum initiating the increasing of mantle temperature. It results in decreasing of lithospheric brittle layer with approaching to Iceland. In experimental sets reproducing conditions of proximate to Iceland part of the ridge were reproduced in sets with the widest weak zone and the smallest crustal thickness and vice versa. In sets reproducing conditions of proximate to Iceland received long and non

  20. A numerical approach for simulating fluid structure interaction of flexible thin shells undergoing arbitrarily large deformations in complex domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmanov, Anvar, E-mail: [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Le, Trung Bao, E-mail: [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis, E-mail: [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental and Geo-Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States)


    We present a new numerical methodology for simulating fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems involving thin flexible bodies in an incompressible fluid. The FSI algorithm uses the Dirichlet–Neumann partitioning technique. The curvilinear immersed boundary method (CURVIB) is coupled with a rotation-free finite element (FE) model for thin shells enabling the efficient simulation of FSI problems with arbitrarily large deformation. Turbulent flow problems are handled using large-eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky model in conjunction with a wall model to reconstruct boundary conditions near immersed boundaries. The CURVIB and FE solvers are coupled together on the flexible solid–fluid interfaces where the structural nodal positions, displacements, velocities and loads are calculated and exchanged between the two solvers. Loose and strong coupling FSI schemes are employed enhanced by the Aitken acceleration technique to ensure robust coupling and fast convergence especially for low mass ratio problems. The coupled CURVIB-FE-FSI method is validated by applying it to simulate two FSI problems involving thin flexible structures: 1) vortex-induced vibrations of a cantilever mounted in the wake of a square cylinder at different mass ratios and at low Reynolds number; and 2) the more challenging high Reynolds number problem involving the oscillation of an inverted elastic flag. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with previous numerical simulations and/or experiential measurements. Grid convergence tests/studies are carried out for both the cantilever and inverted flag problems, which show that the CURVIB-FE-FSI method provides their convergence. Finally, the capability of the new methodology in simulations of complex cardiovascular flows is demonstrated by applying it to simulate the FSI of a tri-leaflet, prosthetic heart valve in an anatomic aorta and under physiologic pulsatile conditions.

  1. Crystallite size effect on the monoclinic deformation of the bcc crystal structure of chromium (United States)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.; Wardecki, D.; Sławiński, W. A.; Playford, H. Y.; Hempelmann, R.; Bukowski, M.


    The modulated spin density wave magnetic orderings observed in chromium suggests that the crystal structure of chromium cannot be described by the cubic space group Im 3 bar m. Our experimental studies of polycrystalline and nanocrystalline chromium by synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron powder diffraction show a hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening which can be interpreted by the low-symmetry monoclinic space group P21 / n instead of the high symmetry cubic space group Im 3 bar m. The monoclinic angle is βm = 90.05(1)° and 90.29(1)° for polycrystalline Cr and nanocrystalline Cr, respectively. The relative monoclinic distortion observed in chromium is 5 times larger than those reported for several oxides: BiFeO3, α-Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and calcite. The symmetry of the magnetic transverse spin density wave (TSDW) and the longitudinal spin density wave (LSDW) observed in Cr are described by using the superspace groups P21 / n(0 β 0) 00 and P 21‧ /n‧(0 β 0) 00, respectively. These superspace groups describe both the magnetic modulations and the atomic position modulations reported in the literature. The monoclinic symmetry of chromium is a robust effect which is observed in the paramagnetic as well as in the TSDW and LSDW phases.

  2. Ionic conductivity, structural deformation, and programmable anisotropy of DNA origami in electric field. (United States)

    Li, Chen-Yu; Hemmig, Elisa A; Kong, Jinglin; Yoo, Jejoong; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F; Aksimentiev, Aleksei


    The DNA origami technique can enable functionalization of inorganic structures for single-molecule electric current recordings. Experiments have shown that several layers of DNA molecules, a DNA origami plate, placed on top of a solid-state nanopore is permeable to ions. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the ionic conductivity of DNA origami plates by means of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and nanocapillary electric current recordings. Using the MD method, we characterize the ionic conductivity of several origami constructs, revealing the local distribution of ions, the distribution of the electrostatic potential and contribution of different molecular species to the current. The simulations determine the dependence of the ionic conductivity on the applied voltage, the number of DNA layers, the nucleotide content and the lattice type of the plates. We demonstrate that increasing the concentration of Mg(2+) ions makes the origami plates more compact, reducing their conductivity. The conductance of a DNA origami plate on top of a solid-state nanopore is determined by the two competing effects: bending of the DNA origami plate that reduces the current and separation of the DNA origami layers that increases the current. The latter is produced by the electro-osmotic flow and is reversible at the time scale of a hundred nanoseconds. The conductance of a DNA origami object is found to depend on its orientation, reaching maximum when the electric field aligns with the direction of the DNA helices. Our work demonstrates feasibility of programming the electrical properties of a self-assembled nanoscale object using DNA.

  3. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction. (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Lu, Ping; Yang, Xiulin; Jiang, Chang-Ming; Mariano, Marina; Kaehr, Bryan; Lin, Oliver; Taylor, André; Sharp, Ian D; Li, Lain-Jong; Chou, Stanley S; Tung, Vincent


    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS 2 (ce-MoS 2 ) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Structurally Deformed MoS2 for Electrochemically Stable, Thermally Resistant, and Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yen-Chang


    The emerging molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers intriguing possibilities for realizing a transformative new catalyst for driving the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the trade-off between catalytic activity and long-term stability represents a formidable challenge and has not been extensively addressed. This study reports that metastable and temperature-sensitive chemically exfoliated MoS2 (ce-MoS2) can be made into electrochemically stable (5000 cycles), and thermally robust (300 °C) while maintaining synthetic scalability and excellent catalytic activity through physical-transformation into 3D structurally deformed nanostructures. The dimensional transition enabled by a high throughput electrohydrodynamic process provides highly accessible, and electrochemically active surface area and facilitates efficient transport across various interfaces. Meanwhile, the hierarchically strained morphology is found to improve electronic coupling between active sites and current collecting substrates without the need for selective engineering the electronically heterogeneous interfaces. Specifically, the synergistic combination of high strain load stemmed from capillarity-induced-self-crumpling and sulfur (S) vacancies intrinsic to chemical exfoliation enables simultaneous modulation of active site density and intrinsic HER activity regardless of continuous operation or elevated temperature. These results provide new insights into how catalytic activity, electrochemical-, and thermal stability can be concurrently enhanced through the physical transformation that is reminiscent of nature, in which properties of biological materials emerge from evolved dimensional transitions.

  5. Deformation and Recrystallization Behavior of the Cast Structure in Large Size, High Strength Steel Ingots: Experimentation and Modeling (United States)

    Chadha, K.; Shahriari, D.; Tremblay, R.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.; Jahazi, M.


    Constitutive modeling of the ingot breakdown process of large size ingots of high strength steel was carried out through comprehensive thermomechanical processing using Gleeble 3800® thermomechanical simulator, finite element modeling (FEM), optical and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). For this purpose, hot compression tests in the range of 1473 K to 1323 K (1200 °C to 1050 °C) and strain rates of 0.25 to 2 s-1 were carried out. The stress-strain curves describing the deformation behavior of the dendritic microstructure of the cast ingot were analyzed in terms of the Arrhenius and Hansel-Spittel models which were implemented in Forge NxT 1.0® FEM software. The results indicated that the Arrhenius model was more reliable in predicting microstructure evolution of the as-cast structure during ingot breakdown, particularly the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process which was a vital parameter in estimating the optimum loads for forming of large size components. The accuracy and reliability of both models were compared in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and the average absolute relative error (ARRE).

  6. Effect of hydrogen on deformation structure and properties of CMSX-2 nickel-base single-crystal superalloy (United States)

    Dollar, M.; Bernstein, I. M.; Walston, S.; Prinz, F.; Domnanovich, A.


    Material used in this study was a heat of the alloy CMSX-2. This nickel-based superalloy was provided in the form of oriented single crystals, solutionized for 3 hrs at 1315 C. It was then usually heat treated as follows: 1050 C/16h/air cool + 850 C/48h/air cool. The resulting microstructure is dominated by cuboidal, ordered gamma precipitates with a volume fraction of about 75% and an average size of 0.5 microns. In brief, the most compelling hydrogen induced-changes in deformation structure are: (1) enhanced dislocation accumulation in the gamma matrix; and (2) more extensive cross-slip of superdislocations in the gamma precipitates. The enhanced dislocation density in gamma acts to decrease the mean free path of a superdislocation, while easier cross slip hinders superdislocation movement by providing pinning points in the form of sessile jobs. Both processes contribute to the increase of flow stress and the notable work hardening that occurs prior to fracture.

  7. Using Fourier and Taylor series expansion in semi-analytical deformation analysis of thick-walled isotropic and wound composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiran L.


    Full Text Available Thick-walled tubes made from isotropic and anisotropic materials are subjected to an internal pressure while the semi-analytical method is employed to investigate their elastic deformations. The contribution and novelty of this method is that it works universally for different loads, different boundary conditions, and different geometry of analyzed structures. Moreover, even when composite material is considered, the method requires no simplistic assumptions. The method uses a curvilinear tensor calculus and it works with the analytical expression of the total potential energy while the unknown displacement functions are approximated by using appropriate series expansion. Fourier and Taylor series expansion are involved into analysis in which they are tested and compared. The main potential of the proposed method is in analyses of wound composite structures when a simple description of the geometry is made in a curvilinear coordinate system while material properties are described in their inherent Cartesian coordinate system. Validations of the introduced semi-analytical method are performed by comparing results with those obtained from three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA. Calculations with Fourier series expansion show noticeable disagreement with results from the finite element model because Fourier series expansion is not able to capture the course of radial deformation. Therefore, it can be used only for rough estimations of a shape after deformation. On the other hand, the semi-analytical method with Fourier Taylor series expansion works very well for both types of material. Its predictions of deformations are reliable and widely exploitable.

  8. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.


    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  9. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo


    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  10. Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras


    Remm, Elisabeth


    Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.

  11. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei


    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  12. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra


    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  13. Map showing distribution of small-scale deformation structures in a part of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and adjacent Georgia (United States)

    McDowell, R.C.; Houser, B.B.


    As a contribution to the assessment of neotectonics in the area of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, field traverses were made between Columbia, S.C., and Augusta, Ga., in 1975 and early 1976 in order to locate and describe small-scale deformation structures within exposed Coastal Plain rocks. The study covered most of the area between the Fall Line (northwest margin of the Coastal Plain) and the Orangeburg (Citronelle) escarpment (fig. 1).

  14. Structural evolution during mechanical deformation in high-barrier PVDF-TFE/PET multilayer films using in situ X-ray techniques. (United States)

    Jordan, Alex M; Lenart, William R; Carr, Joel M; Baer, Eric; Korley, Lashanda T J


    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PVDF-TFE) is confined between alternating layers of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) utilizing a unique multilayer processing technology, in which PVDF-TFE and PET are melt-processed in a continuous fashion. Postprocessing techniques including biaxial orientation and melt recrystallization were used to tune the crystal orientation of the PVDF-TFE layers, as well as achieve crystallinity in the PET layers through strain-induced crystallization and thermal annealing during the melt recrystallization step. A volume additive model was used to extract the effect of crystal orientation within the PVDF-TFE layers and revealed a significant enhancement in the modulus from 730 MPa in the as-extruded state (isotropic) to 840 MPa in the biaxially oriented state (on-edge) to 2230 MPa in the melt-recrystallized state (in-plane). Subsequently, in situ wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to observe the crystal structure evolution during uniaxial deformation in both the as-extruded and melt-recrystallized states. It is observed that the low-temperature ferroelectric PVDF-TFE crystal phase in the as-extruded state exhibits equatorial sharpening of the 110 and 200 crystal peaks during deformation, quantified using the Hermans orientation function, while in the melt-recrystallized state, an overall increase in the crystallinity occurs during deformation. Thus, we correlated the mechanical response (strain hardening) of the films to these respective evolved crystal structures and highlighted the ability to tailor mechanical response. With a better understanding of the structural evolution during deformation, it is possible to more fully characterize the structural response to handling during use of the high-barrier PVDF-TFE/PET multilayer films as commercial dielectrics and packaging materials.

  15. Correlation of substructure with mechanical properties of plastically deformed reactor structural materials. Progress report, January 1, 1974--December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteff, J.


    Ratio of the subgrain boundary dislocations to those contributing to creep deformation was found to be independent of applied stress and creep strain after the steady-state creep stage is reached. The observed cell or subgrain sizes are correlated with flow stress in Type 304 ss, and the deformation rate-stress relation obeys the equation epsilon =β lambda 3 (sigma/sub T//E)/sub n/ exp (-Q/sub c//RT), where lambda = subgrain size, sigma/sub T/ = effective true stress, E = Young modulus, and Q/sub c/ = 85 kcal/mole. Well-developed subgrains were observed in TEM on 304 ss tested in creep at 704 0 C. Role of twin boundary-grain boundary intersections in microcracking behavior of 304 ss deformed in slow tension and creep at 650 0 C was investigated. Grain shape analysis show that intragranular deformation becomes more predominant in the grains with the larger intercept distances, and that grain boundary sliding becomes important as the strain rate decreases. RT mechanical properties of austenitic ss are enhanced by subgrains formed during high-temperature deformation. The substructural development during high-temperature low-cycle fatigue of 304 ss was studied using TEM. Fatigue properties of Incoloy 800 tested in bend and push-pull modes are being compared. Effects of hold time on fatigue substructure and fracture of 304 ss are being studied. 31 figures, 53 references

  16. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene alluvial-aeolian sediments caused by GIA induced seismicity along the Osning Thrust (northern Germany) (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta


    Historic sources report that northern Germany was affected by significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker 2009), but the only modern study so far on earthquake related soft-sediment deformation structures was carried out by Hoffmann and Reicherter (2012) for the Baltic Sea coast area of northeastern Germany. We present new data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne (Münsterland Embayment) and link this soft-sediment deformation directly to Late Glacial earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. The reactivation of the Mesozoic Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment during the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial (Brandes et al., 2012). Young tectonic activity in this area is indicated by the 1612 Bielefeld earthquake (Vogt & Grünthal 1994). The analysed soft-sediment deformation structures are exposed in two sand pits in the vicinity of the Osning Thrust and include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dykes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flower- to antler-like dewatering structures, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. There is a distinct variation of the soft-sediment deformation style parallel to the trend of the Osning Thrust. In the northwestern part of the study area, close to Oerlinghausen there is a wide range of structures developed that is mainly related to fluidization processes. In contrast, in the southeast only flower- to antler-like dewatering structures and normal fault-arrays occur. This might indicate that the epicentre of the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial seismic event was close to Oerlinghausen. It is the first time in northern Germany, that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late

  17. Structure and magnetic properties of hot deformed Nd2Fe14B magnets doped with DyHx nanoparticles (United States)

    Wang, C. G.; Yue, M.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.


    Commercial NdFeB powders mixed with DyHx nanoparticles are hot pressed and hot deformed into anisotropic magnets by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The hot deformed magnet exhibits strong c-axis crystallographic texture. The coercivity of the magnet doped with 1.0 wt% DyHx is increased by 66.7%, compared with the magnet without DyHx, while the remanence decreases only by 3%. TEM observation shows that there exists a continuous (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B layer between Nd-rich phase and NdFeB main phase.

  18. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.


    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  19. Cenozoic structural evolution of the southwestern Bükk Mts. and the southern part of the Darnó Deformation Belt (NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Attila


    Full Text Available Extensive structural field observations and seismic interpretation allowed us to delineate 7 deformation phases in the study area for the Cenozoic period. Phase D1 indicates NW–SE compression and perpendicular extension in the Late Oligocene–early Eggenburgian and it was responsible for the development of a wedge-shaped Paleogene sequence in front of north-westward propagating blind reverse faults. D2 is represented by E–W compression and perpendicular extension in the middle Eggenburgian–early Ottnangian. The D1 and D2 phases resulted in the erosion of Paleogene suites on elevated highs. Phase D2 was followed by a counterclockwise rotation, described in earlier publications. When considering the age of sediments deformed by the syn-sedimentary D3 deformation and preliminary geochronological ages of deformed volcanites the time of the first CCW rotation can be shifted slightly younger (~17–16.5 Ma than previously thought (18.5–17.5 Ma. Another consequence of our new timing is that the extrusional tectonics of the ALCAPA unit, the D2 local phase, could also terminate somewhat later by 1 Myr. D4 shows NE–SW extension in the late Karpatian–Early Badenian creating NW–SE trending normal faults which connected the major NNE–SSW trending sinistral faults. The D5 and D6 phases are late syn-rift deformations indicating E–W extension and NW–SE extension, respectively. D5 indicates syn-sedimentary deformation in the Middle Badenian–early Sarmatian and caused the synsedimentary thickening of mid-Miocene suites along NNE–SSW trending transtensional faults. D5 postdates the second CCW rotation which can be bracketed between ~16–15 Ma. This timing is somewhat older than previously considered and is based on new geochronological dates of pyroclastite rocks which were not deformed by this phase. D6 was responsible for further deepening of half-grabens during the Sarmatian. D7 is post-tilt NNW–SSE extension and induced the

  20. Soft-sediment deformation in New Zealand: Structures resulting from the 2010/11 Christchurch earthquakes and comparison with Pleistocene sediments of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) (United States)

    Scholz, C.; Downs, D. T.; Gravley, D.; Quigley, M.; Rowland, J. V.


    The distinction between seismites and other event-related soft-sediment deformation is a challenging problem. Recognition and interpretation is aided by comparison of recent examples produced during known seismic events and those generated experimentally. Seismites are important features, once recognized in a rock, for interpretations of paleotectonic environment, tectonic relationships of sediments in basins, sedimentary facies analysis, evaluation of earthquake frequency and hazard and consequent land managment. Two examples of soft-sediment deformation, potentially generated through ground shaking and associated liquefaction, are described from within the TVZ: 1) Near Matata on the western margin of the Whakatane Graben. This location has a complicated en-echelon fault history and large earthquakes occur from time to time (e.g., 1987 ML6.3 Edgecumbe event). The structures occur in ~550 ka volcanic sediments, and represent soft-sediment deformation within stratigraphically-bounded layers. Based on paleoenvironment, appearance, and diagnostic criteria described by other authors (Sims 1975; Hempton and Dewey 1983), we interpret these features to have formed by ground shaking related to an earthquake and/or possibly accompanying large volcanic eruptions, rather than by slope failure. 2) Near Taupo, 3 km from the active Kaiapo fault. Lakeward dipping, nearly horizontal lacustrine sediments overlay Taupo Ignimbrite (1.8 ka). At one outcrop the lake beds have subsided into the underlying substrate resulting in kidney-shaped features. These structures formed as a result of liquefaction of the underlying substrate, which may have been caused by ground shaking related to either seismic or volcanic activity. However, inferred time relationships are more consistent with seismic-induced ground shaking. We compare and contrast the form and geometry of the above structures with seismites generated during the recent Christchurch earthquakes (Sep. 2010 and Feb. 2011). Hempton, M

  1. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I


    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  2. Parameter Identification of Piecewise Linear Plasticity Metal Models Used in Numerical Modeling of Structures Under Plastic Deformation and Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shmeliov


    Full Text Available The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials are given in the true sense.The paper considers the linear and exponential models of materials, their characteristics, and methods to implement them. It considers the models of Johnson-Cook Steinberg-Guinan, Zerilli-Armstrong, Cowper-Symonds, Gurson-Tvergaard that take into account the strain rate and temperature of the material. Describes their applications, advantages and disadvantages. Considers single- and multi-parameter criteria of materials fracture, the prospects for their use. Gives a rational justification for using a piecewise linear plasticity material model *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (024, LS-DYNA software package for the engineering industry, and presents its main parameters.A technique to identify parameters of piecewise linear plasticity metal material models has been developed. The technique consists of the stages, based on the equations of transition from the conventional stress and strain values to the true ones. Taking into consideration the stressstrain state in the neck of the sample is a distinctive feature of the technique.Tensile tests of the round material samples have been conducted. To test the developed technique in the software package ANSYS LS-DYNA PC have been made tensile sample modeling and results comparison to show high convergence.Further improvement of the technique can be achieved through the development of a statistical approach to the analysis of the results of a series of tests. This will allow a kind of

  3. A multi-electrode and pre-deformed bilayer spring structure electrostatic attractive MEMS actuator with large stroke at low actuation voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fangrong; Li, Zhi; Xiong, Xianming; Niu, Junhao; Peng, Zhiyong; Qian, Yixian; Yao, Jun


    This paper presents a multi-electrode and pre-deformed bilayer spring structure electrostatic attractive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator; it has large stroke at relatively low actuation voltage. Generally, electrostatic-attractive-force-based actuators have small stroke due to the instability resulted from the electrostatic ‘pull-in’ phenomenon. However, in many applications, the electrostatic micro-actuator with large stroke at low voltage is more preferred. By introducing a multi-electrode and a pre-deformed bilayer spring structure, an electrostatic attractive MEMS actuator with large stroke at very low actuation voltage has been successfully demonstrated in this paper. The actuator contains a central plate with a size of 300 µm × 300 µm × 1.5 µm and it is supported by four L-shaped bilayer springs which are pre-deformed due to residual stresses. Each bilayer spring is simultaneously attracted by three adjacent fixed electrodes, and the factors affecting the electrostatic attractive force are analyzed by a finite element analysis method. The prototype of the actuator is fabricated by poly-multi-user-MEMS-process (PolyMUMP) and the static performance is tested using a white light interferometer. The measured stroke of the actuator reaches 2 µm at 13 V dc, and it shows a good agreement with the simulation. (paper)

  4. Full-Field Reconstruction of Structural Deformations and Loads from Measured Strain Data on a Wing Using the Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Manalo, Russel; Tessler, Alexander


    A study was undertaken to investigate the measurement of wing deformation and internal loads using measured strain data. Future aerospace vehicle research depends on the ability to accurately measure the deformation and internal loads during ground testing and in flight. The approach uses the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM). The iFEM is a robust, computationally efficient method that is well suited for real-time measurement of real-time structural deformation and loads. The method has been validated in previous work, but has yet to be applied to a large-scale test article. This work is in preparation for an upcoming loads test of a half-span test wing in the Flight Loads Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). The method has been implemented into an efficient MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts) code for testing different sensor configurations. This report discusses formulation and implementation along with the preliminary results from a representative aerospace structure. The end goal is to investigate the modeling and sensor placement approach so that the best practices can be applied to future aerospace projects.

  5. Internal structure, fault rocks, and inferences regarding deformation, fluid flow, and mineralization in the seismogenic Stillwater normal fault, Dixie Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Bruhn, R.L.; Forster, C.B.


    Outcrop mapping and fault-rock characterization of the Stillwater normal fault zone in Dixie Valley, Nevada are used to document and interpret ancient hydrothermal fluid flow and its possible relationship to seismic deformation. The fault zone is composed of distinct structural and hydrogeological components. Previous work on the fault rocks is extended to the map scale where a distinctive fault core shows a spectrum of different fault-related breccias. These include predominantly clast-supported breccias with angular clasts that are cut by zones containing breccias with rounded clasts that are also clast supported. These are further cut by breccias that are predominantly matrix supported with angular and rounded clasts. The fault-core breccias are surrounded by a heterogeneously fractured damage zone. Breccias are bounded between major, silicified slip surfaces, forming large pod-like structures, systematically oriented with long axes parallel to slip. Matrix-supported breccias have multiply brecciated, angular and rounded clasts revealing episodic deformation and fluid flow. These breccias have a quartz-rich matrix with microcrystalline anhedral, equant, and pervasively conformable mosaic texture. The breccia pods are interpreted to have formed by decompression boiling and rapid precipitation of hydrothermal fluids whose flow was induced by coseismic, hybrid dilatant-shear deformation and hydraulic connection to a geothermal reservoir. The addition of hydrothermal silica cement localized in the core at the map scale causes fault-zone widening, local sealing, and mechanical heterogeneities that impact the evolution of the fault zone throughout the seismic cycle. ?? 2010.

  6. A one-parameter family of hamiltonian structures for the KP hierarchy and a continuous deformation of the nonlinear WKP algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Mas, J.; Ramos, E.


    The KP hierarchy is hamiltonian relative to a one-parameter family of Poisson structures obtained from a generalized Adler map in the space of formal pseudodifferential symbols with noninteger powers. The resulting W-algebra is a one-parameter deformation of W KP admitting a central extension for generic values of the parameter, reducing naturally to W n for special values of the parameter, and contracting to the centrally extended W 1+∞ , W ∞ and further truncations. In the classical limit, all algebras in the one-parameter family are equivalent and isomorphic to W KP . The reduction induced by setting the spin-one field to zero yields a one-parameter deformation of W ∞ which contracts to a new nonlinear algebra of the W ∞ -type. (orig.)

  7. A unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying total power of anatomical and prosthetic below-knee structures during stance in gait. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Kepple, Thomas M; Stanhope, Steven J


    Anatomically-relevant (AR) biomechanical models are traditionally used to quantify joint powers and segmental energies of lower extremity structures during gait. While AR models contain a series of rigid body segments linked together via mechanical joints, prosthetic below-knee structures are often deformable objects without a definable ankle joint. Consequently, the application of AR models for the study of prosthetic limbs has been problematic. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a unified deformable (UD) segment model for quantifying the total power of below-knee structures. Estimates of total below-knee power derived via the UD segment model were compared to those derived via an AR model during stance in gait of eleven healthy subjects. The UD segment model achieved similar results to the AR model. Differences in peak power, total positive work, and total negative work were 1.91±0.31%, 3.97±0.49%, and 1.39±0.33%, relative to the AR model estimates. The main advantage of the UD segment model is that it does not require the definition of an ankle joint or foot structures. Therefore, this technique may be valuable for facilitating direct comparisons between anatomical and disparate prosthetic below-knee structures in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico) (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.


    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  9. Deformation behaviour of turbine foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Klitzing, R.; Pietzonka, R.; Wehr, J.


    The effects of foundation deformation on alignment in turbine generator sets have gained significance with the transition to modern units at the limit of design possibilities. It is therefore necessary to obtain clarification about the remaining operational variations of turbine foundations. Static measurement programmes, which cover both deformation processes as well as individual conditions of deformation are described in the paper. In order to explain the deformations measured structural engineering model calculations are being undertaken which indicate the effect of limiting factors. (orig.) [de

  10. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  11. Geodetic constraints on slip partitioning at a convergent plate boundary: Reconciling long-term structural deformation with earthquake cycle observations in West Java (United States)

    Koulali, A.; McClusky, S.; Susilo, S.; Leonard, Y.; Cummins, P. R.; Tregoning, P.; Meilano, I.; Efendi, J.; Wijanarto, A. B.


    Slip partitioning models have been used extensively to describe the broad zones of deformation in oblique convergence zones. Traditionally these models have exploited course spatial and temporal constraints from geomorphology, seismology and geodesy. However, the development of high resolution geodetic measurements in the recent years have allowed the imaging of multiple transient processes occurring during the seismic cycle ranging from post-seismic relaxation to slow slip events, which raise questions about our ability to understand the long-term patterns of relative motion in actively convergent deforming regions. Here we present the example of West Java, where continuous GPS observations show a time-dependent change in the linear rate of surface motion, which we interpret as an ongoing long-term post-seismic deformation following the 2006 Mw 7.8 Java earthquake. We use a combination of a regional tectonic block model and a viscoelastic relaxation model to consider the post-seismic transient and we propose a kinematic model of convergence of the Australian Plate and the Sunda Block, involving a slip partitioning between the Java Trench and a left-lateral structure extending E-W along Java, with most of the normal component is occurring onto the subduction Thrust and a much smaller parallel motion accommodated along the Barabis ( 5± 0.2 mm/yr) and Kendeng (˜ 0.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr) Thrusts. Our findings correlate with observations from historical seismicity and highlight a new potential seismic hazard in Java Island.

  12. Solution of the Dynamic Interaction Problem between a Framed Structure and an Acoustic Cavity Using Imposed Deformation Functions at the Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Vieira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This article presents an analytical procedure for solution of the dynamic interaction problem of a vibrating framed structure connected to a bidimensional cavity, containing an acoustic fluid. Initially the pressure solution for the fluid domain is developed, using the separation of variables technique. In a next step, this solution is applied to an entirely open cavity and to a closed cavity in the transversal direction, both containing a vibrating boundary with an arbitrary deformation. The generalized parameters of the structure (mass, rigidity, and force are obtained by means of the virtual work principle, with the generalized force represented by the dynamic pressures acting on the interface. The dynamic equilibrium equation of the system is established for an imposed deformation, making a parametric study of the involved variables possible. Finally, it is demonstrated that this procedure can be generalized, allowing the construction of practical abacuses for other boundary conditions of both the structure and the cavity, and that these results allow a reasonable interpretation of the coupling regions, including the prediction of added mass and added stiffness effects, as well as corresponding frequencies and mode shapes of the coupled problem.

  13. Field Monitoring of Deformations and Internal Forces of Surrounding Rocks and Lining Structures in the Construction of the Gangkou Double-Arched Tunnel—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Yan


    Full Text Available Double-arched tunnel is a special and complex underground structure which needs to be monitored carefully during construction. Taking the Gangkou tunnel as the engineering background, this paper presents a case study of field monitoring of a representative double-arched tunnel. Typical cross sections were chosen in each class of surrounding rock masses in the tunnel area and different types of sensors were embedded in designed locations, and the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures were monitored systematically. The dynamic evolution as well as the spatial distribution characteristics of the monitoring data including the internal displacements of surrounding rocks and the contact pressures between surrounding rocks and primary linings, the axial forces in rock bolts and the internal forces in both steel arches and secondary linings were analyzed. The monitoring and analysis results show that the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures are directly related to the construction procedures, geological conditions and locations in the double-arched tunnel. According to the results, some reasonable suggestions were provided for the improvement of the tunnel construction. This study will provide useful reference and guidance for the design, construction and monitoring of similar engineering projects in future.

  14. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique) (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.


    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  15. Formation of diapiric structure in the deformation zone, central Indian Ocean: A model from gravity and seismic reflection data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Neprochnov, Y.P.

    . Ship tracks of bathymetry, gravity and seismic reflection pro les in the deformation zone of the central Indian Ocean. Striped and dotted (about the Ninetyeast Ridge) zones are di use lithospheric plate boundaries in which divergent and convergent... the ODP Leg 116 sites and DSDP Site 215 were acquired in the central Indian Ocean dur- ing the 10th cruise (February { March 1995) of A. A. Sidorenko (AS 10). Two long N-S pro les (AS 10-03 and 10-05) along 83:7 E and 87 E run within the convergent di...

  16. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)


    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS{sub 2} metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the section of changes geotechnical conditions of spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands may have significant structural deformation of running tunnels. It is necessary to identify the cause of deformities develop ways to minimize and based modeling and calculations to prove the effectiveness of measures to reduce deformation.Methodology. To solve the analysis problem of the stress-strain state (SSS of the system «structure array» it was conducted the numerical simulation using the finite element method (FEM. On the basis of the obtained results the graphs were constructed and the dependencies were determined. Findings. The presence of weak water-saturated soils in tray of the tunnel on an area of transition from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sand causes significant increasing in strain construction of tunnels and general vibration liquefaction in soil basis. Also change the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils within the frames of tunnels influences on the level of strain state of most frames. Improved strain state settings of tunnels in areas of change soil characteristics of the array (especially at the bottom of casing can be achieved by chemical consolidation of weak soils. Composition of solutions for fixing the weak soils should be determined based on the study of grain size, porosity, and other parameters of physical and mechanical and physical and chemical characteristics of soils.Originality.The basic cause significant strain on transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands is found, that is explained by saturated phenomenon vibration liquefaction basis under the tunnel.Practical value.The approaches to reduce the strain in the construction of running tunnels in the transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands are developed, as well as in the area ofthe station «Glybochytska»the Kyiv Metro.

  18. Structural and temporal evolution of a reactivated brittle-ductile fault - Part I: Fault architecture, strain localization mechanisms and deformation history (United States)

    Torgersen, E.; Viola, G.


    Faults are by nature dynamic, as their architecture and composition evolve progressively in space and through time steered by the interplay between strain weakening and hardening mechanisms. This study combines structural analysis, geochemistry and chlorite geothermometry to investigate deformation and strain localization mechanisms of the Kvenklubben fault, a Paleozoic brittle-ductile thrust in northern Norway, with the goal to constrain their temporal variations and the consequences thereof on fault architecture development and rheological behavior. The fault evolved from an initially discrete brittle feature slipping mainly by seismogenic ruptures to a wide brittle-ductile phyllonite deforming by aseismic creep. The formation of mechanically weak phyllosilicates by decarbonation of footwall dolostones and carbonation of hanging wall metabasalts was the main weakening mechanism, whereas partitioning of fluid flow and fracture sealing following transient high pore pressure-driven embrittlement caused episodic and localized strain hardening. The interplay between strain weakening and hardening mechanisms caused the fault core to widen. We suggest that the ability for carbonate-hosted faults to slip by seismogenic rupture is also a function of the faults' structural-evolutionary stage, and that it decreases progressively with fault maturity. This study demonstrates the importance of calibrating the present-day fault anatomy against the dynamic character of faults, which evolve geometrically, compositionally and mechanically in space and through time.

  19. Order-disorder transitions of t2g-orbitals of V3+ ions and incommensurate structural deformations in the metallic spinel CuV2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, M.; Tokiwa, N.; Wijesundera, R.P.; Awaka, J.; Nagata, S.; Park, Young Jun; Lee, Ki Bong


    Structural transitions of the spinel CuV 2 S 4 have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The temperature dependence of reflections forbidden in a cubic spinel structure of Fd3m suggests that there are order-disorder transitions of 3d 2 (t 2g ) orbitals of V 3+ ions at about 75 and 210 K. An incommensurate superlattice reflection of (2+3/4,2,2+3/4) shows the structural phase transition occurring at about 90 K, in addition to the superlattice structural modulation at about 30-35 and 55 K. A reduced wavevector q=(3/4-δ,0,3/4-δ) shows the temperature dependence of the δ value from 0.015 to -0.025. A lock-in of δ=0.0 and a crossover of the δ value occur in the region of 40 to 50 K. The incommensurate structural modulation along [110], [011], and [101] directions appearing below about 90 K affects a paramagnetic spin order of V 3+ ions at about 30-35 and 55 K, in addition to the 90 K structural transition. The paramagnetic behavior is interpreted mainly by the structural deformation and the (d xy ,d yz ,d zx ) orbitals in the VS 6 octahedral chains sited along [110], [011], and [101] directions. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. The Impacts of 3-D Earth Structure on GIA-Induced Crustal Deformation and Future Sea-Level Change in the Antarctic (United States)

    Powell, E. M.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Gomez, N. A.; Mitrovica, J. X.


    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models used to constrain the extent of past ice sheets and viscoelastic Earth structure, or to correct geodetic and geological observables for ice age effects, generally only consider depth-dependent variations in Earth viscosity and lithospheric structure. A et al. [2013] argued that 3-D Earth structure could impact GIA observables in Antarctica, but concluded that the presence of such structure contributes less to GIA uncertainty than do differences in Antarctic deglaciation histories. New seismic and geological evidence, however, indicates the Antarctic is underlain by complex, high amplitude variability in viscoelastic structure, including a low viscosity zone (LVZ) under West Antarctica. Hay et al. [2016] showed that sea-level fingerprints of modern melting calculated using such Earth models differ from those based on elastic or 1-D viscoelastic Earth models within decades of melting. Our investigation is motivated by two questions: (1) How does 3-D Earth structure, especially this LVZ, impact observations of GIA-induced crustal deformation associated with the last deglaciation? (2) How will 3-D Earth structure affect predictions of future sea-level rise in Antarctica? We compute the gravitationally self-consistent sea level, uplift, and gravity changes using the finite volume treatment of Latychev et al. [2005]. We consider four viscoelastic Earth models: a global 1-D model; a regional, West Antarctic-like 1-D model; a 3-D model where the lithospheric thickness varies laterally; and a 3-D model where both viscosity and lithospheric thickness vary laterally. For our Last Glacial Maximum to present investigations we employ ICE6g [Peltier et al., 2015]. For our present-future investigations we consider a melt scenario consistent with GRACE satellite gravity derived solutions [Harig et al., 2015]. Our calculations indicate that predictions of crustal deformations due to both GIA and ongoing melting are strongly influenced by 3-D

  1. Magnetic structure of deformation-induced shear bands in amorphous Fe80B16Si4 observed by magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.W.; Hawley, M.E.; Markiewicz, D.J.; Spaepen, F.; Barth, E.P.


    Processing-induced magnetic structures in amorphous metallic alloys are of interest because of their impact on the performance of materials used in electric device applications. Plastic deformation associated with cutting or bending the material to the desired shape occurs through the formation of shear bands. The stress associated with these shear bands induces magnetic domains that can lead to power losses through interaction with the fields and currents involved in normal device operation. These domains have been studied previously using a variety of techniques capable of imaging magnetic domain structures. In an effort to better characterize and understand these issues, we have applied atomic and magnetic force microscopy to these materials to provide three-dimensional nanometer-scale topographic resolution and micrometer-scale magnetic resolution. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. Investigation of the Structural Deformation Behaviour of the Subsoiler and Paraplow Tines by Means of Finitie Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Cagatay Selvi


    Full Text Available In this study, static stress-deformation analyzes (in terms of material strengths were presented comparatively through a FEM-based simulation of the subsoiler and paraplow legs designed in a three-dimensional CAD environment. In general, both soil tillage implements with high energy requirements are being used to remove the soil compaction problem on agricultural land. The operating conditions of the implements were simulated using a FEM-based simulation program (Ansys-16. The results of static analysis obtained from the Finite Element Method (FEM were evaluated on some different materials used in the shank design of both implements and the results were given comparatively. According to the analysis results, the maximum equivalent stress was in paraplow shank foot 122 MPa which is used C-60 material and the maximum vertical dis-placement is 0,00014 mm in the position of shank foot of subsoiler

  3. Fiber optic monitoring methods for composite steel-concrete structures based on determination of neutral axis and deformed shape. (United States)


    Structural Health Monitoring has great potential to provide valuable information about the actual structural condition and can help optimize the management activities. However, few effective and robust monitoring methods exist which hinders a nationw...

  4. Microscopic planar deformation features in quartz of the Vredefort structure: anomalous but still suggestive of an impact origin. (United States)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Coderre, J. M.; Robertson, P. B.; Alexopoulos, J.


    The orientation and distribution of diagnostic shock-produced planar features in quartz has been examined in over 80 samples from both the core and collar rocks of the Vredefort structure in South Africa. It is concluded that, although anomalous, the evidence from planar features in quartz is still consistent with the Vredefort structure being an erosional remnant of a large, complex, impact structure.

  5. Structural analysis of the collar of the Vredefort Dome, South Africa—Significance for impact-related deformation and central uplift formation (United States)

    Wieland, Frank; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe


    Landsat TM, aerial photograph image analysis, and field mapping of Witwatersrand supergroup meta-sedimentary strata in the collar of the Vredefort Dome reveals a highly heterogeneous internal structure involving folds, faults, fractures, and melt breccias that are interpreted as the product of shock deformation and central uplift formation during the 2.02 Ga Vredefort impact event. Broadly radially oriented symmetric and asymmetric folds with wavelengths ranging from tens of meters to kilometers and conjugate radial to oblique faults with strike-slip displacements of, typically, tens to hundreds of meters accommodated tangential shortening of the collar of the dome that decreased from ˜17% at a radius from the dome center of 21 km to shock pulse. In addition to shatter cones, quartzite units show two fracture types—a cmspaced rhomboidal to orthogonal type that may be the product of shock-induced deformation and later joints accomplishing tangential and radial extension. The occurrence of pseudotachylitic breccia within some of these later joints, and the presence of radial and tangential dikes of impact melt rock, confirm the impact timing of these features and are suggestive of late-stage collapse of the central uplift.

  6. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene. (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng


    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  7. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.


    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  8. Structural analysis of the Elbow-Cranberry-Iskwasum lakes area: A multiply reactivated deformation corridor in the trans-Hudson orogen of Manitoba (United States)

    Ryan, James Joseph

    The Elbow-Cranberry-Iskwasum lakes area comprises a large portion of the eastern Amisk collage in the Palaeoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt (southern Trans-Hudson Orogen) of Manitoba, Canada. Deformation episodes recorded in the Flin Flon Belt are divided into pre-, early, late and post-Hudsonian orogeny, and are distinguished by the orientation of structures and changes in metamorphic conditions. Detailed structural analysis, petrography, geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology indicate a structural history spanning 180 m.y. in the Amisk collage. Accretion of the 1.92--1.88 Ga tectonostratigraphic assemblages that constitute the Amisk collage began prior to 1.868 Ga, the age of the oldest dyke to cross-cut the earliest mylonitic fabrics. The deformational history has been discerned, in which six generations of ductile structures F1 - F6 were followed by development of brittle-ductile and brittle structures F7 . Movements along the late structures may have continued until 1.690 Ga, during exhumation of the collage. The macroscopic structural grain in the central Flin Flon Belt is steeply dipping, generally trends north to north-northeast, and is dominated by two regionally pervasive foliations ( S2 and S5 ). Its grain contrasts strongly with the shallowly-dipping, east--west-trending grain in the adjacent Kisseynew domain. Foliations of different generations have been distinguished by their age relative to regional metamorphic mineral growth. Regional metamorphism in the Flin Flon Belt is interpreted as having culminated at moderate pressure and temperature, between 1.820 and 1.805 Ga. The development of S2 between 1.868 and 1.845 Ga was associated with east--west shortening of the successor magmatic arc that overprinted the Amisk collage. S3 and S4 were associated with shear zones, and are not regionally widespread. The S5 regional-scale Elbow Lake shear zone, and a pervasive crenulation cleavage in the wall rocks, developed during an episode of sinistral transpression

  9. MD Simulations of Papillomavirus DNA-E2 Protein Complexes Hints at a Protein Structural Code for DNA Deformation


    Falconi, M.; Oteri, F.; Eliseo, T.; Cicero, D. O.; Desideri, A.


    The structural dynamics of the DNA binding domains of the human papillomavirus strain 16 and the bovine papillomavirus strain 1, complexed with their DNA targets, has been investigated by modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The simulations underline different dynamical features of the protein scaffolds and a different mechanical interaction of the two proteins with DNA. The two protein structures, although very similar, show differences in the re...

  10. Characteristic analysis on the deformation behaviour of shell-like lattice structures subjected to follower forces; Judo kaju wo ukeru kosa arch kozo no daihenkei kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, M. [Namura Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Shiraki, M. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    The deformation mechanisms of submerged shell-like lattice structures with membrane are in principle of a non-conservative nature since the follower type hydrostatic pressure. In the region of large deformations, especially in the case of geometrically deep shell-like lattice structures, the system could be much more accurately defined in a mono-clinically convected coordinate description than the conventional spatial description. Also, a complete analysis of a non-conservative system requires a criterion since the system can have multiple ranges of stability and instability involving buckling and snapping. This paper presents the development of the governing equations for the finite deformations of shell-like lattices defined in a mono-clincally convected coordinate description and applies the same to different cases of lattice deformations. The validity of the formulations is verified for finite deformation. The examples of some geometrically special shell-like lattice structures are presented as well to show the feasibility of the present formulation. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  11. [Preliminary evaluation on 3-demension changes of facial soft tissue with structure light scanning technique before and after orthognathic surgery of Class III deformities]. (United States)

    Peng, Ju-xiang; Jiang, Jiu-hui; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Wang, Yong; Li, Ze; Wang, Ning-ning; Feng, Zhi-min


    To evaluate facial soft tissue 3-deminsion changes of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients after orthognathic surgery using structure light scanning technique. Eight patients [3 males and 5 females, aged (27.08 ± 4.42) years] with Class III dentoskeletal relationship who underwent a bimaxillary orthognathic surgical procedure involving advancement of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty to correct deformity were included. 3D facial images were obtained by structure light scanner for all the patients 2 weeks preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The facial soft tissue changes were evaluated in 3-dimension. The linear distances and angulation changes for facial soft tissue landmarks were analyzed. The soft tissue volumetric changes were assessed too. There were significant differences in the sagittal and vertical changes of soft tissue landmarks. The greatest amount of soft tissue change was close to lips. There were more volumetric changes in the chin than in the maxilla, and fewer in the forehead. After biomaxillary surgery, there were significant facial soft tissue differences mainly in the sagittal and vertical dimension for skeletal Class III patients. The structure light 3D scanning technique can be accurately used to estimate the soft tissue changes in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery.

  12. Resolving the fine-scale deformation structure of continental hyperextension at the deep Galicia rift margin using seismic full waveform inversion. (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bull, J. M.; Bayrakci, G.


    Hyperextension of the continental crust during ultra-slow, magma-poor rifting is accommodated by a series of complex fault geometries, preceding continental breakup. At such margins there exists a discrepancy between the extension observed along these fault systems and the total observed thinning of the continental lithosphere, with several competing hypotheses on the responsible mechanism. Despite this, it is agreed that a significant amount of the observed discrepancy is the result of unaccounted sub-seismic fault structure. In order to seismically image these fine scale structures it is imperative to develop accurate and well resolved velocity models of the subsurface, for the purpose of migrating reflection seismic images. Velocity models with the required resolution are unattainable using classic travel time tomography. However, seismic full waveform inversion could provide a suitable alternative to produce the required velocity models, with the method having the ability to resolve velocity structure up to an order of magnitude greater than that of travel time tomography. In this study we apply acoustic full waveform inversion to a 2D wide-angle seismic data set, collected at the hyperextended domain of the deep Galicia rift margin. Despite the challenging environment and dataset, our results show promising increases in the resolution of existing velocity models, particularly in correlation to the normal faulting associated with highly deformed continental fault blocks in the distal hyperextended domain.

  13. Structure of a Wear-Resistant Medium-Carbon Steel After Hot Deformation in Hammer Dies and Heat Treatment (United States)

    Knyazyuk, T. V.; Petrov, S. N.; Ryabov, V. V.; Khlusova, E. I.


    The structure of model specimens and articles fabricated from medium-carbon high-strength steels is studied for developing modes of forming of working members of tilling machines with cutting edges thinned without the expensive operation of electromachining. The effect of the temperature of heating of billets on the grain size of austenite is determined. The kinetics of recrystallization is studied in the temperature, rate and strain ranges typical for hot forming. A quantitative crystallographic analysis of the microstructure is performed by the EBSD technique. The degrees of distortion of the crystal lattices of structural components and the mean sizes of martensite blocks are determined.

  14. 3D printed, bio-inspired prototypes and analytical models for structured suture interfaces with geometrically-tuned deformation and failure behavior (United States)

    Lin, Erica; Li, Yaning; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.


    Geometrically structured interfaces in nature possess enhanced, and often surprising, mechanical properties, and provide inspiration for materials design. This paper investigates the mechanics of deformation and failure mechanisms of suture interface designs through analytical models and experiments on 3D printed polymer physical prototypes. Suture waveforms with generalized trapezoidal geometries (trapezoidal, rectangular, anti-trapezoidal, and triangular) are studied and characterized by several important geometric parameters: the presence or absence of a bonded tip region, the tip angle, and the geometry. It is shown that a wide range (in some cases as great as an order of magnitude) in stiffness, strength, and toughness is achievable dependent on tip bonding, tip angle, and geometry. Suture interfaces with a bonded tip region exhibit a higher initial stiffness due to the greater load bearing by the skeletal teeth, a double peak in the stress-strain curve corresponding to the failure of the bonded tip and the failure of the slanted interface region or tooth, respectively, and an additional failure and toughening mechanism due to the failure of the bonded tip. Anti-trapezoidal geometries promote the greatest amplification of properties for suture interfaces with a bonded tip due the large tip interface area. The tip angle and geometry govern the stress distributions in the teeth and the ratio of normal to shear stresses in the interfacial layers, which together determine the failure mechanism of the interface and/or the teeth. Rectangular suture interfaces fail by simple shearing of the interfaces. Trapezoidal and triangular suture interfaces fail by a combination of shear and tensile normal stresses in the interface, leading to plastic deformation, cavitation events, and subsequent stretching of interface ligaments with mostly elastic deformation in the teeth. Anti-trapezoidal suture interfaces with small tip angles have high stress concentrations in the teeth

  15. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey) (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin


    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand

  16. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Deformation machining is a hybrid process that combines two manufacturing processes—thin structure machining and ... structures and geometries, which would be rather difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture. A com- prehensive ... sheet metal is deformed locally into plastic stage, enabling creation of complex ...

  17. A method for enabling real-time structural deformation in remote handling control system by utilizing offline simulation results and 3D model morphing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviranta, Sauli; Saarinen, Hannu; Maekinen, Harri; Krassi, Boris


    A full scale physical test facility, DTP2 (Divertor Test Platform 2) has been established in Finland for demonstrating and refining the Remote Handling (RH) equipment designs for ITER. The first prototype RH equipment at DTP2 is the Cassette Multifunctional Mover (CMM) equipped with Second Cassette End Effector (SCEE) delivered to DTP2 in October 2008. The purpose is to prove that CMM/SCEE prototype can be used successfully for the 2nd cassette RH operations. At the end of F4E grant 'DTP2 test facility operation and upgrade preparation', the RH operations of the 2nd cassette were successfully demonstrated to the representatives of Fusion For Energy (F4E). Due to its design, the CMM/SCEE robot has relatively large mechanical flexibilities when the robot carries the nine-ton-weighting 2nd Cassette on the 3.6-m long lever. This leads into a poor absolute accuracy and into the situation where the 3D model, which is used in the control system, does not reflect the actual deformed state of the CMM/SCEE robot. To improve the accuracy, the new method has been developed in order to handle the flexibilities within the control system's virtual environment. The effect of the load on the CMM/SCEE has been measured and minimized in the load compensation model, which is implemented in the control system software. The proposed method accounts for the structural deformations of the robot in the control system through the 3D model morphing by utilizing the finite element method (FEM) analysis for morph targets. This resulted in a considerable improvement of the CMM/SCEE absolute accuracy and the adequacy of the 3D model, which is crucially important in the RH applications, where the visual information of the controlled device in the surrounding environment is limited.

  18. SEM observation of grain boundary structures in quartz-iron oxide rocks deformed at intermediate metamorphic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lagoeiro


    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the effect of a second phase on the distribution of fluid phase and dissolution of quartz grains. However, as most observations came from aggregates deformed under hydrostatic stress conditions and mica-bearing quartz rocks, 3-D distribution of pores on quartz-quartz (QQB and quartz-hematite boundaries (QHB has been studied. Several fracture surfaces oriented according to finite strain ellipsoid were analyzed. The pore distribution characterizes the porosity and grain shape as highly anisotropic, which results from the nature and orientation of boundaries. QHB have physical/chemical properties very different from QQB, once the hematite plates have strong effect on wetting behavior of fluid, likewise micas in quartzites. They are pore-free flat surfaces, normal to compression direction, suggesting that they were once wetted with a continuous fluid film acting as faster diffusion pathway. At QQB, the pores are faceted, isolated, close to its edges reflecting the crystallographic control and an interconnected network of fluid along grain junctions. The QQB facing the extension direction are sites of fluid concentration. As consequence, the anisotropic dissolution and grain growth were responsible for the formation of hematite plates and tabular quartz grains significantly contributing for the generation of the foliation observed in the studied rocks.Muitos estudos têm demonstrado o efeito de uma segunda fase sobre a distribuição de fase fluida e dissolução de grãos de quartzo. Entretanto, como a maioria das observações vêm de agregados deformados sob condições de tensão hidrostática e em rochas quartzosas ricas em mica, a distribuição 3D de poros e bordas quartzo-quartzo (BQQ e quartzo-hematita (BQH tem sido estudada. Várias superfícies de fraturas orientadas segundo o elipsóide de deformação finita foram analisadas. A distribuição dos poros caracteriza a porosidade e a forma dos grãos como

  19. Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J


    "Nonlinear Deformable-body Dynamics" mainly consists in a mathematical treatise of approximate theories for thin deformable bodies, including cables, beams, rods, webs, membranes, plates, and shells. The intent of the book is to stimulate more research in the area of nonlinear deformable-body dynamics not only because of the unsolved theoretical puzzles it presents but also because of its wide spectrum of applications. For instance, the theories for soft webs and rod-reinforced soft structures can be applied to biomechanics for DNA and living tissues, and the nonlinear theory of deformable bodies, based on the Kirchhoff assumptions, is a special case discussed. This book can serve as a reference work for researchers and a textbook for senior and postgraduate students in physics, mathematics, engineering and biophysics. Dr. Albert C.J. Luo is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, USA. Professor Luo is an internationally recognized scientist in the field of non...

  20. Numerical simulation of deformation and fracture of space protective shell structures from concrete and fiber concrete under pulse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, P A; Batuev, S P; Radchenko, A V; Plevkov, V S


    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between aircraft Boeing 747-400 and protective shell of nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as complex multilayered cellular structure comprising layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was held three-dimensionally using the author's algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. The dynamics of stress-strain state and fracture of structure were studied. Destruction is described using two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of shell cellular structure—cells start to destruct in unloading wave, originating after output of compression wave to the free surfaces of cells. (paper)

  1. Weak solutions for the motion of a self-propelled deformable structure in a viscous incompressible fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Takahashi, T.; Tucsnak, M.


    Roč. 116, č. 3 (2011), s. 329-352 ISSN 0167-8019 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * fluid-structure integration * weak solutions * free boundary Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.899, year: 2011

  2. HREM study of the matrix-pirecipitate interface structure and deformation mechanisms in a cobalt based superalloy


    Penisson, J.-M.


    The structure of a Co-Ni-Cr-Nb superalloy has been studied using high resolution electron microscopy. An ordered hexagonal phase precipitates during annealing at temperatures from 700 to 850 °C. The compact planes and compact directions of the fcc matrix and precipitates are mutually parallel. The matrix precipitate interface is constituted by 3 sets of edge dislocations in a triangular distribution. The dislocation strain field has been calculated using the formalism of the Somigliana disloc...

  3. Effect of severe plastic deformation on the structure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy (United States)

    Khafizova, E.; Islamgaliev, R.


    Aluminum Al-Cu-Mg alloy has been subjected to high pressure torsion (HPT) and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at various temperatures. An ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure thermally stable up to a temperature of 175 °C was produced in all the investigated samples. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility has been demonstrated in an ECAPed sample in comparison with a coarse-grained sample subjected to standard treatment.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Dynamic Deformation and Failure in Marine Structures Subjected to Underwater Impulsive Loads (United States)


    M.Y. He, and A.G. Evans, Application of a dynamic constitutive law to multilayer metallic sandwich panels subject to impulsive loads. Journal of...Impulsive Loads. 9th International Conference on Sandwich Structures, ICSS9, 2010. 146 93. Wadley, H., et al., Compressive response of multilayered ... extrusions . International Journal of Crashworthiness, 2004. 9(5): p. 449-463. 103. D’Alembert, J.R., Recherches sur la courbe que forme une corde tenduë

  5. Refined Modeling of Flexural Deformation of Layered Plates with a Regular Structure Made from Nonlinear Hereditary Materials (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.


    On the basis of constitutive equations of the Rabotnov nonlinear hereditary theory of creep, the problem on the rheonomic flexural behavior of layered plates with a regular structure is formu-lated. Equations allowing one to describe, with different degrees of accuracy, the stress-strain state of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shear were ob-tained. From them, the relations of the nonclassical Reissner- and Reddytype theories can be found. For axially loaded annular plates clamped at one edge and loaded quasistatically on the other edge, a simplified version of the refined theory, whose complexity is comparable to that of the Reissner and Reddy theories, is developed. The flexural strains of such metal-composite annular plates in shortterm and long-term loadings at different levels of heat action are calcu-lated. It is shown that, for plates with a relative thickness of order of 1/10, neither the classical theory, nor the traditional nonclassical Reissner and Reddy theories guarantee reliable results for deflections even with the rough 10% accuracy. The accuracy of these theories decreases at elevated temperatures and with time under long-term loadings of structures. On the basic of relations of the refined theory, it is revealed that, in bending of layered metal-composite heat-sensitive plates under elevated temperatures, marked edge effects arise in the neighborhood of the supported edge, which characterize the shear of these structures in the transverse direction

  6. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone (United States)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline


    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  7. Foam rheology at large deformation (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.


    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  8. Crustal structure in high deformation zones: Insights from gravimetric and magnetometric studies in the Guacha Corral shear zone (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) (United States)

    Radice, Stefania; Lince Klinger, Federico; Maffini, M. Natalia; Pinotti, Lucio P.; Demartis, Manuel; D´Eramo, Fernando J.; Giménez, Mario; Coniglio, Jorge E.


    The Guacha Corral shear zone (GCSZ) is represented by mylonites that were developed under amphibolites facies conditions from migmatitic protoliths. In this contribution, geophysical, petrological and structural data were combined to determine the 3D geometry of the GCSZ. New gravimetric, magnetometric and structural studies, along an E-W profile, were integrated with existing magnetotelluric and seismological data from a representative regional database of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The zonation of different fabrics across the GCSZ suggests that the pre-existing heterogeneities of the protoliths played a key role in governing the degree of metamorphism of different regions. The low gravity anomalies observed in the GCSZ suggest a transitional boundary zone between the migmatitic and mylonitic domains, where highly deformed shear bands are interspersed with undeformed rocks, presenting gradual contacts. The mylonites in this shear zone show a considerably reduced density when compared to the migmatite protoliths. The density of the rocks gradually increases with depth until it reaches that of the protolith. These changes in the gravity values in response to density changes allowed us to infer a listric geometry at depth of the GCSZ. Low gravity anomalies in the profiles, in regions where high density rocks (migmatites) outcrop at the surface, modeled as buried granitic plutons.

  9. Structural analysis within the Rožná and Olší uranium deposits (Strážek Moldanubicum) for the estimation of deformation and stress conditions of underground gas storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Melichar, R.; Hájek, Antonín; Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kříž, P.; Lazárek, J.


    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 237-246 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : structural analysis * deformation * stress * underground gas storage Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013

  10. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: TRP 9732Steel Processing Properties and Their Effect on Impact Deformation of Lightweight Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srdan Simunovic; Gustavo Aramayo


    The objective of the research was to perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the effects of material and process modeling approaches on performance of Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) vehicle models. The research addressed numerous material related effects, impact conditions as well as analyzed the performance of the ULSAB vehicles in crashes against designs representing the current US vehicle fleet. Crash modeling simulations show a clear effect of strain-rate sensitivity on high strength steel (HSS) intensive vehicle. The influence of a strain-rate model can be an incremental sensitivity due to the increased flow stress when similar structure collapse modes are predicted. However, significant differences in crash energy management capacity can be predicted if the change in loading on members alters the predicted collapse mode of the structure. From the material substitution study it can be concluded that HSS material substitution cannot be performed on the basis of the material yield point only and that, especially for advanced HSS vehicle designs, the entire region of material plastic response has to be considered. However, the problem of modeling of the overall dynamic crush process still remains open and requires further experimental and theoretical investigation. Crash modeling simulations show a moderate effect of forming on overall crash performance. The design is the determining factor on the vehicle performance and, therefore, the results of this research cannot provide measures that can be used in a general case. However, it has been shown that for materials that have modest strain hardening, the forming effect is observable and that when more complex forming operations are used, especially in combination with rapid strain hardening materials, forming effects should be taken in the consideration in the computational crash models. crash compatibility study between ULSAB and cars of similar geometric characteristics have shown that the U LSAB

  11. Experimental study of structure-forming deformations in ultra-slow spreading Arctic and Polar Atlantic ridges (United States)

    Dubinin, E. P.; Grokholsky, A. L.; Kokhan, A. V.


    unstable relation of slip and extension components. Experimental setting was the following. We emplaced three weak zones according to natural geometry of spreading modeling three neighboring ridges: Knipovich, Mohns, Gakkel. Short spreading segments orthogonal to direction of extension formed in area of Knipovich model zone. They were connected by long slip segments subparallel to extension direction. Under increase of angle between extension direction and trend of "Knipovich" weak zone the length of slip segments gradually decreased and reached minimum under the angle of 50°. The Gakkel ridge is the slowest in all the system of spreading ridges. Spreading velocity is less than 13 mm/year. Spreading is orthogonal here. Areas of volcanism are separated by 100 km long segments with minimal volcanic activity. This volcanic centers form orthogonal rises which has been stable for the last 30 Myr. Also the ridge has practically no discontinuities except the smallest with amplitude less than 13 km. Experiments were held in conditions of orthogonal extension with the smallest velocity. Formation of fractures had a linear pattern. Perpendicular to the ridge lineaments were the basic feature of structure forming. They were inherited from the primary discontinuities of fracture patterns. Thus, experiments let to distinguish key peculiarities of structure-forming in rifting zones of these ridges. For Reikjanes ridge this is a system of s-shaped fractures which are used as channels for eruption and subsequent formation of AVRs. For Knipovich ridge this is an unstable system of pull-aparts. For Gakkel ridge this is a system of linear fractures and stable lineaments perpendicular to the ridge.

  12. Low-energy structure studies of odd-odd deformed nuclei and the coriolis and residual interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.A.


    The nuclear level structure of /sup 176/Lu, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 160/Tb have been studied by means of the /sup 177/Hf(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 176/Lu, /sup 171/Yb(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 170/Tm, /sup 167/Er(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 166/Ho, and /sup 161/Dy(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 160/Tb reactions and with the use of previously published (d,p) spectroscopy and gamma transitions from the (n,..gamma..) reactions. The (t,..cap alpha..) reactions have been performed and analyzed with 17 MeV tritons and the Los Alamos Q3D spectrometer. Eighty-one new rotational states in excited proton configurations or vibrational excited states are proposed. An independent parameterization of the Coriolis interaction is presented, which leads to satisfactory results in reproducing experimental single-particle transfer reaction cross-sections by theoretical calculations. The anomalous population of the excited neutron configurations (404 reduces to -624 up arrow) in /sup 176/Lu and (411 reduces to +- 512 up arrow) in /sup 170/Tm, and the anomalously low (t,..cap alpha..) cross-sections of the (411 up arrow +- 633 up arrow) configuration in /sup 166/Ho are observed. Qualitative explanation of the anomalies is presented in terms of the mixing of states which satisfy the requirement delta/sub I'/,/sub I/delta/sub K'/,/sub K/. Off-diagonal H/sub INT/ matrix elements are calculated, which show that the residual interaction cannot be used to account for the magnitude of the cross-sections observed.

  13. Structure and properties of an Mg-0.3% ca magnesium alloy after multiaxial deformation and equal-channel angular pressing (United States)

    Dobatkin, S. V.; Rokhlin, L. L.; Salishchev, G. A.; Kopylov, V. I.; Serebryany, V. N.; Stepanov, N. D.; Tarytina, I. E.; Kuroshev, I. S.; Martynenko, N. S.


    Multiaxial deformation (MAD) of an Mg-0.3% Ca alloy is performed when temperature decreases within the ranges 425-375 and 400-325°C. A decrease in the temperature at the end of MAD causes a decrease in the grain size from 7-8 to 0.5-2 μm and the spread of a sharp prismatic texture, which determine a high strength (σu = 194 MPa) and plasticity (δ = 39%). After MAD in the range 425-375°C, the Mg-0.3% Ca alloy is subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at temperatures of 275 and 325°C. ECAP causes a decrease in the grain size from 7-8 μm to 2 and 5 μm, respectively. The texture also changes from prismatic to tilted basal texture. This results in an increase in the strength to 170-160 MPa at plasticity δ = 25-30%. It is shown that MAD can be used as both final and preliminary processing before ECAP to form an ultrafine-grained structure in the Mg-0.3% Ca alloy.

  14. Structural and molecular analysis of pollution-linked deformities in a natural Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) population from the Tunisian coast. (United States)

    Kessabi, Kaouthar; Annabi, Ali; Navarro, Anna; Casado, Marta; Hwas, Zohra; Saïd, Khaled; Messaoudi, Imed; Piña, Benjamin


    The Eastern coast of Tunisia hosts a mosaic of populations of the Mediterranean killifish A. fasciatus, an excellent monitoring species for the analysis of environmental impact in coastal Mediterranean areas. Among these populations, fish from the Sfax area, in the Gulf of Gabès, are known for presenting a high prevalence of different physiological alterations, including spinal deformation. Compared to a reference clean area, Luza, Sfax water and sediments are polluted with heavy metals (20 to 40 times more Cd, for example) and other compounds like PAHs (10 times higher levels). Histological analyses of deformed fish from this area showed an abnormal abundance of collagen fibers infiltrated in the spinal area, either as a physiological mechanism to alleviate the consequences of the deformation of the bones or as a secondary effect of the same pathological/toxicity mechanism inducing bone deformation. Deformed fish from Sfax showed elevated (4-5 fold) levels of transcripts from the collagen COL1A2 gene in bone tissue, compared to either non-deformed animals from the same location or normal animals from the reference Luza site. These results are consistent with an overexpression of collagen in the bone tissue, in agreement with the histological results. We propose that the deformation observed in the Sfax Aphanius population is a degenerative process occurring in adult animals and probably terminal, as it results in severe limitations on the fish capacity to swim, to catch food, and ultimately to survive.

  15. Mosaic dislocation structures in aluminium crystals deformed in multiple slip at 0.5 to 0.8TM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theyssier, M.C.; Chenal, B.; Driver, J.H.


    Deformation microstructures are characterised in high purity aluminium crystals deformed in multiple slip by channel die compression up to strains of 1.5, temperatures of 473 to 773 K, and strain rates of 10(-1) to 10(-3) s(-1). Four single crystal orientations are examined: three orientations...... corresponding to the stable rolling texture components of polycrystalline f.c.c. metals, C {112} [111], S {421} [112] and B {110} [112] and one recrystallisation component {001} [250]. The deformation microstructures are investigated by different techniques over a wide range of scales and the local orientations...

  16. Hydrothermal quartz formation during fluctuations of brittle shear-zone activity and fluid flow: grain growth and deformation structures of the Pfahl shear zone (Germany) (United States)

    Yilmaz, T.; Prosser, G.; Liotta, D.; Kruhl, J. H.


    , crosscutting the first generations of fine-grained quartz mass and the wall rocks, in connection to intense fracturing and brecciation. The complex geometry of the vein sets points to multiple fluid injections and brecciation, as additionally indicated by coarse quartz with different inclusion and CL intensity. Temporal changes of strain rate are indicated by crystal plastic deformation structures in quartz, which overprint brittle structures. (iv) The fourth quartz generation occurs in mm- to dm-thick quartz veins, partly open as geodes, filling N-S oriented cm- to dm-spaced fractures that crosscut the earlier quartz masses and veins and extend at least several meters into the wall rock. They indicate the last activity of the shear-zone in a constant kinematic framework. Summarizing, the Pfahl shear zone shows brittle-ductile deformation during the long-term activity of a large-scale hydrothermal system. Consequently, it represents an excellent example where different generations of quartz precipitation can be connected to fluctuations of fluid flow and strain rate.

  17. SU-G-JeP3-04: Estimating 4D CBCT from Prior Information and Extremely Limited Angle Projections Using Structural PCA and Weighted Free-Form Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using structure-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion-model extracted by global PCA and a free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural-PCA method was developed to build a structural motion-model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the Volume-Percent-Difference (VPD)/Center-of-Mass-Shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and “ground-truth” on board 4D-CBCT. Results: Among 6 different XCAT scenarios corresponding to respirational and anatomical changes from planning CT to on-board using single 30° on-board projections, the VPD/COMS for SMM-WFD was reduced to 10.64±3.04%/1.20±0.45mm from 21.72±9.24%/1.80±0.53mm for GMM-FD. Using 15° orthogonal projections, the VPD/COMS was

  18. Influence of synthesis methods on tungsten dispersion, structural deformation, and surface acidity in binary WO3-ZrO2 system. (United States)

    Cortés-Jácome, M A; Toledo, J A; Angeles-Chavez, C; Aguilar, M; Wang, J A


    WO3-ZrO2 catalysts were synthesized by precipitating the aqueous solutions of zirconium oxynitrate and ammonium metatungstate with ammonium hydroxide. The white slurry precipitate was treated under three different conditions. In the as-made materials, the amorphous phase was formed in the aged and refluxed samples, while well-crystallized tetragonal and monoclinic phases were obtained in the hydrothermally treated sample. The real amount of tungsten loaded in the samples was similar for the three samples, independently of the treatments; however, the tungsten surface atomic density in the annealed WO3-ZrO2 samples varied between 6 and 9 W atoms/nm2. Two different contrast types of aggregates were determined by scanning electron microscopy, the white particles which are rich in W, and the gray ones which are rich in zirconium; both of them were formed in the calcined solids prepared under aging or reflux condition. A very high dispersion of tungsten species on the zirconia surface was achieved in the hydrothermally treated sample. The degree of the interaction between WO(x) and ZrO2 surface strongly modified the Zr-O bond lengths and bond angles in the structure of tetragonal zirconia as proved by X-ray diffraction analysis and the Rietveld refinement. The catalyst obtained under hydrothermal condition exhibited the highest dispersion of tungsten species in the zirconia, which in turn causes strong structural deformation of the tetragonal ZrO2 phase responsible of the strongest surface acidity and, consequently, the optimum catalytic activity for n-hexane isomerization.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarda, V.


    The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt

  20. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  1. Static response of deformable microchannels (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.


    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  2. Mechanical and deformation analyses of pile foundation for supporting structure of off-shore wind turbine at Changhua coast in Taiwan (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Lin, D. G.


    This study investigates the bearing capacities and mechanical behaviors of pile foundation installed on the seabed of wind farm near Chang-Hua coast of western Taiwan for the supporting structure of offshore wind turbine. A series of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of pile foundation subjected to various types of combined loading were carried out using Plaix-3D finite element program to investigate the interactive behaviors between soil and pile. In the numerical modeling, pile diameter, pile length and pile spacing were selected as design parameters to inspect their effects on the bearing capacities and deformation behaviors of the pile foundation. For a specific design parameter combination, one can obtain the corresponding loading-displacement curve, various ultimate bearing capacities, V-H (Vertical-Horizontal combined loading) ultimate bearing capacity envelope, and p-ycurve of pile foundation. Numerical results indicate that: (1) Large displacement and plastic points at ultimate state mostly distribute and concentrate in the topsoil of seabed and around pile head. (2) The soil resistance on the soil-pile interface is ascending with the increases of depth, pile diameter and pile length. (3) The vertical and horizontal bearing capacities of pile group increase significantly with the increase of pile diameter. (4) The vertical and bending moment capacities of pile group increase greatly with the increase of pile length whereas the horizontal capacity is almost insensitive to pile length. (5) The bending moment of pile is highly influenced by the pile spacing. (6) For different design parameters, the shape of ultimate bearing capacity envelopes of pile group on V-H plane is similar while the envelopes will expand as the design parameters increase. For different loading levels of bending moment, the envelopes on V-H plane will contract gradually as the bending moment loading increasing.

  3. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor. (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna


    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.


    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  5. Quantum deformation of the affine transformation algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, N.; Sato, Haru-Tada


    We discuss a quantum deformation of the affine transformation algebra in one-dimensional space. It is shown that the quantum algebra has a non-cocommutative Hopf algebra structure, simple realizations and quantum tensor operators. (orig.)

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of hot deformed Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets doped with DyH{sub x} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.G.; Yue, M., E-mail:; Zhang, D.T.; Liu, W.Q.; Zhang, J.X.


    Commercial NdFeB powders mixed with DyH{sub x} nanoparticles are hot pressed and hot deformed into anisotropic magnets by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The hot deformed magnet exhibits strong c-axis crystallographic texture. The coercivity of the magnet doped with 1.0 wt% DyH{sub x} is increased by 66.7%, compared with the magnet without DyH{sub x}, while the remanence decreases only by 3%. TEM observation shows that there exists a continuous (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layer between Nd-rich phase and NdFeB main phase. - Highlights: • The hot deformed magnet exhibits strong c-axis crystallographic texture. • The coercivity of the magnet significantly improved, and the remanence decreases slight. • TEM observation shows that there exists a continuous (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layer.

  7. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.


    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  8. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев


    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  9. An experimental study of plastic deformation of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tine

    The thesis falls in three parts, focusing on different aspects of plastic deformation of metals. Part I investigates the dislocation structures induced by hot deformation and compares these with the structures after cold deformation. In particular, it is shown that the dislocation structures...... after cold deformation by calorimetry and by analysis of the dislocation structure. The stored energy measured by calorimetry is found to be larger than that determined from the dislocation structure by a factor between 1.9 and 2.7, and this factor decreases with the plastic strain. Part III aimed...

  10. Deformations of superconformal theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth


    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d≥3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.

  11. Rock types and ductile structures on a rock domain basis, and fracture orientation and mineralogy on a deformation zone basis. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)


    This report presents the results of the analysis of base geological data in order to establish the dominant rock type, the subordinate rock types and the orientation of ductile mineral fabrics within each rock domain included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. An assessment of the degree of homogeneity of each domain is also provided. The analytical work has utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values or best-fit great circles and corresponding pole values have been calculated for the ductile structural data. These values have been used in the geometric modelling of rock domains in the regional model, version 1.2. Furthermore, all analytical results have been used in the assignment of properties to rock domains in this model. A second analytical component reported here addresses the orientation and mineralogy of fractures in the deterministic deformation zones that are included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. The analytical work has once again utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values are presented for the orientation of fracture sets in the deterministic deformation zones that have been identified with the help of new borehole data. The frequencies of occurrence of different minerals along the fractures in these deformation zones as well as the orientation of fractures in the zones, along which different minerals occur, are also presented. The results of the analyses have been used in the establishment of a conceptual structural model for the Forsmark site and in the assignment of properties to deterministic deformation zones in model version 1.2.

  12. Mechanics of deformable bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm


    Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

  13. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus


    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...

  14. Deformed Open Quantum Systems (United States)

    Isar, A.


    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is obtained in the microscopic model, using perturbation theory. The coefficients of the master equation depend on the deformation function. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is derived and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  15. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  16. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Gabella, Maxime; Graña, Mariana; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel


    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS 5 flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS 5 flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  17. Deformation Prediction Using Linear Polynomial Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By Deformation, we mean change of shape of any structure from its original shape and by monitoring over time using Geodetic means, the change in shape, size and the overall structural dynamics behaviors of structure can be detected. Prediction is therefor based on the epochs measurement obtained during monitoring, ...

  18. Multiscale modeling of plastic deformation of molybdenum and tungsten: I. Atomistic studies of the core structure and glide of 1/2<111> screw dislocations at 0 K


    Gröger, R.; Bailey, A. G.; Vitek, V.


    Owing to their non-planar cores 1/2 screw dislocations govern the plastic deformation of BCC metals. Atomistic studies of the glide of these dislocations at 0 K have been performed using Bond Order Potentials for molybdenum and tungsten that account for the mixed metallic and covalent bonding in transition metals. When applying pure shear stress in the slip direction it displays significant twinning-antitwinning asymmetry for molybdenum but not for tungsten. However, for tensile/compressive l...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Goodarzy


    Full Text Available Variation in microstructural features of 2024 aluminum alloy plastically deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature, was investigated by X-Ray diffraction in this work. These include dislocation density dislocation characteristic and the cell size of crystalline domains. Dislocations contrast factor was calculated using elastic constants of the alloy such as C 11, C 22 and C 44 . The effect of dislocations contrast factor on the anisotropic strain broadening of diffraction profiles was considered for measuring the microstructural features on the base of the modified Williamson-Hall and Warren-Averbach methods. Results showed that the dislocations density of the solution annealed sample increased from 4.28×10 12m-2 to 2.41×10 14m-2 after one pass of cold ECAP and the fraction of edge dislocations in the solution annealed sample increased from 43% to 74% after deformation. This means that deformation changed the overall dislocations characteristic more to edge dislocations. Also the crystalline cell size of the solution annealed sample decreased from 0.83μm to about 210nm after one pass of ECAP process at room temperature

  20. Investigation of the three-dimensional thermoelastic deformation of the core structure of a fast breeder reactor under stationary working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Su, Hoang.


    In this study a method is described which has been developed in order to calculate three-dimensional deformation of the reactor core, taking into account thermal expansion. Two problem areas are of particular importance: 1) The spatial deflection of subassemblies in specified flexible supports and with specified clearances; 2) The investigation of the equilibrium configurations of the subassemblies in the planes of clamping (problem of clamping plane). - The elementary theory of beam deflection has been used to calculate the deformation of subassemblies. However, particular problems have been encountered as a result of flexibly designed support configurations having some spatial clearances. The problem has essentially been solved in two steps: a) Uniqueness analysis of the beam-support configuration; b) Calculation of the support loads and bending line for the unique beam-support configuration. - Basic difficulties currently prevent the problem of clamping plane being solved in a satisfactory manner. Therefore, a simplified clamping model was used for supports without spatial clearance and a parametric study was performed for supports having spatial clearance. The computation method developed is applied to the MARK I core of SNR 300. Core deformations are calculated under different support conditions for the subassemblies in the grid plate and in the upper clamping plane. (orig./HR) [de

  1. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, J.H.P. de


    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where

  2. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos


    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  3. New field and geophysical data about transpressional deformation: An improved model for the structural style of Sha Gou fault area in southern Ningxia, northeastern edge of Tibetan Plateau, China (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Haihua; Wang, Jun; Xiang, Peng; Liu, Jingjing; Cui, Hongzhuang; Ji, Jianqing


    Situated near the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, the Sha Gou fault area (SGFA) represents an important area to understand Cenozoic regional interactions between northeastern (NE) Tibetan Plateau and southwestern (SW) Liupan Shan Basin. Within this region, several km-scale arcuate fault systems such as the Lijun fault and the Madong Shan piedmont fault accommodate the transpressive deformation, but their structural style is still controversial. Predecessors regarded these bow-like faults as southwest-dipping thrust systems with large-scale nappes, however, this opinion is not compatible with the new field and geophysical data. In this study, we aim to ascertain the structural pattern of this area based on the analyses of field observation data, interpretation of seismic reflection profiles and two-dimensional gravity forward modeling. According to the present fieldwork, the structural cleavages, low-angle slickenlines, sub-vertical fault surfaces, "ribbon effect" as well as the linear geomorphic features in plane view indicate that these faults belong to a strike-slip system. Newly acquired seismic profiles, characterized by distinct positive flower structures, strongly suggest that this area is again a strike-slip fault system rather than a thrusting system. Furthermore, gravity forward modeling results show that the reverse strike-slip model without large-scale thrust nappes is closer to the present structural style of this area. The gravity forward modeling is an effective method to identify km-scale thrust nappes, which could be used for reference by the structural style analysis in other similar regions. Based on these evidences, a new transpressional shear model for the structural pattern is proposed. The overall structural style of the SGFA is not characterized by large-scale thrust nappes, but is dominated by a transpressional shear system with significant strike-slip faulting. Such a new model can be an additional evidence for the tectonic escape

  4. Plastic Deformation of Pressured Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Cheng


    Full Text Available Although pressured metallic glass (MG has been reported in the literature; there are few studies focusing on pressure effects on the structure; dynamics and its plastic deformation. In this paper; we report on and characterize; via molecular dynamics simulation, the structure and dynamics heterogeneity of pressured MGs, and explore a causal link between local structures and plastic deformation mechanism of pressured glass. The results exhibit that the dynamical heterogeneity of metallic liquid is more pronounced at high pressure, while the MGs were less fragile after the release of external pressure, reflected by the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP. High pressure glass shows better plastic deformation; and the local strain zone distributed more uniformly than of in normal glass. Further research indicates that although the number of icosahedrons in pressured glass was much larger than that in normal glass, while the interpenetrating connections of icosahedra (ICOI exhibited spatial correlations were rather poor; In addition, the number of ‘fast’ atoms indexed by the atoms’ moving distance is larger than that in normal glass; leading to the sharp decreasing in number of icosahedrons during deformation. An uniform distribution of ‘fast’ atoms also contributed to better plastic deformation ability in the pressured glass. These findings may suggest a link between the deformation and destruction of icosahedra with short-range order.

  5. Analysis of structure and deformation behavior of AISI 316L tensile specimens from the second operational target module at the Spallation Neutron Source (United States)

    Gussev, M. N.; McClintock, D. A.; Garner, F. A.


    In an earlier publication, tensile testing was performed on specimens removed from the first two operational targets of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There were several anomalous features in the results. First, some specimens had very large elongations (up to 57%) while others had significantly smaller values (10-30%). Second, there was a larger than the usual amount of data scatter in the elongation results. Third, the stress-strain diagrams of nominally similar specimens spanned a wide range of behavior ranging from expected irradiation-induced hardening to varying levels of force drop after yield point and indirect signs of "traveling deformation wave" behavior associated with strain-induced martensite formation. To investigate the cause(s) of such variable tensile behavior, several specimens from Target 2, spanning the range of observed tensile behavior, were chosen for detailed microstructural examination using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. It was shown that the steel employed in the construction of the target contained an unexpected bimodal grain size distribution, containing very large out-of-specification grains surrounded by "necklaces" of grains of within-specification sizes. The large grains were frequently comparable to the width of the gauge section of the tensile specimen. The propensity to form martensite during deformation was shown to be accelerated by radiation but also to be very sensitive to the relative orientation of the grains with respect to the tensile axis. Specimens having large grains in the gauge that were most favorably oriented for production of martensite strongly exhibited the traveling deformation wave phenomenon, while those specimens with less favorably oriented grains had lesser or no degree of the wave effect, thereby accounting for the observed data scatter.

  6. Calcaneo-valgus deformity. (United States)

    Evans, D


    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  7. Flow characteristics around a deformable stenosis under pulsatile flow condition (United States)

    Choi, Woorak; Park, Jun Hong; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon


    A specific portion of a vulnerable stenosis is deformed periodically under a pulsatile blood flow condition. Detailed analysis of such deformable stenosis is important because stenotic deformation can increase the likelihood of rupture, which may lead to sudden cardiac death or stroke. Various diagnostic indices have been developed for a nondeformable stenosis by using flow characteristics and resultant pressure drop across the stenosis. However, the effects of the stenotic deformation on the flow characteristics remain poorly understood. In this study, the flows around a deformable stenosis model and two different rigid stenosis models were investigated under a pulsatile flow condition. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure flow structures around the three stenosis models. The deformable stenosis model was deformed to achieve high geometrical slope and height when the flow rate was increased. The deformation of the stenotic shape enhanced jet deflection toward the opposite vessel wall of the stenosis. The jet deflection in the deformable model increased the rate of jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production as compared with those in the rigid models. The effect of stenotic deformation on the pulsating waveform related with the pressure drop was analyzed using the TKE production rate. The deformable stenosis model exhibited a phase delay of the peak point in the waveform. These results revealed the potential use of pressure drop waveform as a diagnostic index for deformable stenosis.

  8. Experimental force modeling for deformation machining stretching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deformation machining is a hybrid process that combines two manufacturing processes—thin structure machining and single-point incremental forming. This process enables the creation of complex structures and geometries, which would be rather difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture. A comprehensive ...

  9. Recovery by triple junction motion in heavily deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu


    A number of processes may occur during recovery, which reduce the stored energy and coarsen the structure, paving the way for the nucleation of recrystallization. In this review, recovery is discussed based on the initial deformed structure. Recovery in samples deformed to low-to-medium strains i...

  10. Transition in Deformation Mechanism of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during High-Temperature Tensile Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Noda


    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys can be used for reducing the weight of various structural products, because of their high specific strength. They have attracted considerable attention as materials with a reduced environmental load, since they help to save both resources and energy. In order to use Mg alloys for manufacturing vehicles, it is important to investigate the deformation mechanism and transition point for optimizing the material and vehicle design. In this study, we investigated the transition of the deformation mechanism during the high-temperature uniaxial tensile deformation of the AZ31 Mg alloy. At a test temperature of 523 K and an initial strain rate of 3×10−3 s-1, the AZ31 Mg alloy (mean grain size: ~5 μm exhibited stable deformation behavior and the deformation mechanism changed to one dominated by grain boundary sliding.

  11. Vibrations in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprahamian, A.


    Quadrupole oscillations around a deformed shape give rise to vibrations in deformed nuclei. Single phonon vibrations of K = 0 (β) and K = 2 (γ) are a systematic feature in deformed nuclei, but the existence of multi-phonon vibrations had remained an open question until the recently reported results in 168 Er. In this nucleus, a two-phonon K = 4(γγ) band was observed at approximately 2.5 times the energy of the single γ vibration. The authors have studied several deformed rare-earth nuclei using the ( 4 He,2n) reaction in order to map out the systematic behavior of these multi-phonon vibrations. Recently, they have identified a similar K = 4 band in 154 Gd

  12. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H L; Xu, C; Zuo, M Z; Wu, Q B


    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation

  13. The thermal and mechanical deformation study of up-stream pumping mechanical seal (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Xu, C.; Zuo, M. Z.; Wu, Q. B.


    Taking the viscosity-temperature relationship of the fluid film into consideration, a 3-D numerical model was established by ANSYS software which can simulate the heat transfer between the upstream pumping mechanical seal stationary and rotational rings and the fluid film between them as well as simulate the thermal deformation, structure deformation and the coupling deformation of them. According to the calculation result, thermal deformation causes the seal face expansion and the maximum thermal deformation appears at the inside of the seal ring. Pressure results in a mechanical deformation, the maximum deformation occurs at the top of the spiral groove and the overall trend is inward the mating face, opposite to the thermal deformation. The coupling deformation indicate that the thermal deformation can be partly counteracted by pressure deformation. Using this model, the relationship between deformation and shaft speed and the sealing liquid pressure was studied. It's found that the shaft speed will both enhance the thermal and structure deformation and the fluid pressure will enhance the structure deformation but has little to do with the thermal deformation. By changing the sealing material, it's found that material with low thermal expansion coefficient and low elastic modulus will suffer less thermal-pressure deformation.

  14. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar


    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...... a single central section of the object. We use maximum-likelihood-based inference for this purpose and demonstrate the suggested methods on real data....

  15. Shapeable sheet without plastic deformation (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Witten, Thomas A.


    Randomly crumpled sheets have shape memory. In order to understand the basis of this form of memory, we simulate triangular lattices of springs whose lengths are altered to create a topography with multiple potential energy minima. We then deform these lattices into different shapes and investigate their ability to retain the imposed shape when the energy is relaxed. The lattices are able to retain a range of curvatures. Under moderate forcing from a state of local equilibrium, the lattices deform by several percent but return to their retained shape when the forces are removed. By increasing the forcing until an irreversible motion occurs, we find that the transitions between remembered shapes show cooperativity among several springs. For fixed lattice structures, the shape memory tends to decrease as the lattice is enlarged; we propose ways to counter this decrease by modifying the lattice geometry. We survey the energy landscape by displacing individual nodes. An extensive fraction of these nodes proves to be bistable; they retain their displaced position when the energy is relaxed. Bending the lattice to a stable curved state alters the pattern of bistable nodes. We discuss this shapeability in the context of other forms of material memory and contrast it with the shapeability of plastic deformation. We outline the prospects for making real materials based on these principles.

  16. Micromechanisms of deformation in shales (United States)

    Bonnelye, A.; Gharbi, H.; Hallais, S.; Dimanov, A.; Bornert, M.; Picard, D.; Mezni, M.; Conil, N.


    One of the envisaged solutions for nuclear wastes disposal is underground repository in shales. For this purpose, the Callovo Oxfordian (Cox) argillaceous formation is extensively studied. The hydro-mechanical behavior of the argillaceous rock is complex, like the multiphase and multi-scale structured material itself. The argilaceous matrix is composed of interstratified illite-smectite particles, it contains detritic quartz and calcite, accessory pyrite, and the rock porosity ranges from micrometre to nanometre scales. Besides the bedding anisotropy, structural variabilities exist at all scales, from the decametric-metric scales of the geological formation to the respectively millimetric and micrometric scales of the aggregates of particles and clay particles Our study aims at understanding the complex mechanisms which are activated at the micro-scale and are involved in the macroscopic inelastic deformation of such a complex material. Two sets of experiments were performed, at two scales on three bedding orientations (90°, 45° and 0°). The first set was dedicated to uniaxial deformation followed with an optical set-up with a pixel resolution of 0.55µm. These experiments allowed us to see the fracture propagation with different patterns depending on the bedding orientation. For the second set of experiments, an experimental protocol was developed in order to perform uniaxial deformation experiment at controlled displacement rate, inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), under controlled relative humidity, in order to preserve as much as possible the natural state of saturation of shales. We aimed at characterizing the mechanical anisotropy and the mechanisms involved in the deformation, with an image resolution below the micormeter. The observed sample surfaces were polished by broad ion beam in order to reveal the fine microstructures of the argillaceous matrix. In both cases, digital images were acquired at different loading stages during

  17. Producing a gradient-composition nanocrystalline structure on nitrided surfaces of invar-type Fe-Ni alloys using megaplastic deformation (United States)

    Shabashov, V. A.; Borisov, S. V.; Litvinov, A. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Afanas'ev, S. V.; Titova, S. G.


    A nanocrystalline Fe-Ni matrix strengthened by dispersed CrN and TiN nitrides has been produced on the ion-plasma-nitrided surfaces of the austenitic Fe-Ni38-Cr15 and Fe-Ni36-Ti4 alloys using cyclic "nitride dissolution-nitride precipitation" phase transformations induced by megaplastic deformation. The high-pressure torsion of the nitrided alloys has led to the dissolution of the CrN nitrides and Ni3Ti intermetallic compounds, which appeared in the matrix, in the surface layer and to the mechanical alloying of the nitrided subsurface layer and the unnitriderd bulk of the specimens. Subsequent annealing has resulted in the formation of secondary nitrides, which propagated to a depth substantially exceeding the thickness of the original nitrided layer.

  18. Effect of internal architecture on microgel deformation in microfluidic constrictions. (United States)

    Chen, Lynna; Wang, Kai Xi; Doyle, Patrick S


    The study of how soft particles deform to pass through narrow openings is important for understanding the transit of biological cells, as well as for designing deformable drug delivery carriers. In this work, we systematically explore how soft microparticles with various internal architectures deform during passage through microfluidic constrictions. We synthesize hydrogel particles with well-defined internal structure using lithography-based UV polymerization in microfluidic channels (stop-flow lithography). Using this in situ technique, we explore a range of 2D particle architectures and their effect on particle deformation. We observe that particles undergo buckling of internal supports and reorient at the constriction entrance in order to adopt preferred shapes that correspond to minimum energy configurations. Using finite element simulations of elastic deformation under compression, we accurately predict the optimal deformation configuration of these structured particles.

  19. Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lam, Christopher N.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Wang, Weiyu; Liu, Jianning; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Stanley, Christopher B.; Zhao, Zhichen; Hong, Kunlun; Wang, Yangyang


    The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.

  20. Fingerprinting Molecular Relaxation in Deformed Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang


    Full Text Available The flow and deformation of macromolecules is ubiquitous in nature and industry, and an understanding of this phenomenon at both macroscopic and microscopic length scales is of fundamental and practical importance. Here, we present the formulation of a general mathematical framework, which could be used to extract, from scattering experiments, the molecular relaxation of deformed polymers. By combining and modestly extending several key conceptual ingredients in the literature, we show how the anisotropic single-chain structure factor can be decomposed by spherical harmonics and experimentally reconstructed from its cross sections on the scattering planes. The resulting wave-number-dependent expansion coefficients constitute a characteristic fingerprint of the macromolecular deformation, permitting detailed examinations of polymer dynamics at the microscopic level. We apply this approach to survey a long-standing problem in polymer physics regarding the molecular relaxation in entangled polymers after a large step deformation. The classical tube theory of Doi and Edwards predicts a fast chain retraction process immediately after the deformation, followed by a slow orientation relaxation through the reptation mechanism. This chain retraction hypothesis, which is the keystone of the tube theory for macromolecular flow and deformation, is critically examined by analyzing the fine features of the two-dimensional anisotropic spectra from small-angle neutron scattering by entangled polystyrenes. We show that the unique scattering patterns associated with the chain retraction mechanism are not experimentally observed. This result calls for a fundamental revision of the current theoretical picture for nonlinear rheological behavior of entangled polymeric liquids.

  1. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  2. Packings of deformable spheres (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Peixinho, Jorge


    We present an experimental study of disordered packings of deformable spheres. Fluorescent hydrogel spheres immersed in water together with a tomography technique enabled the imaging of the three-dimensional arrangement. The mechanical behavior of single spheres subjected to compression is first examined. Then the properties of packings of a randomized collection of deformable spheres in a box with a moving lid are tested. The transition to a state where the packing withstands finite stresses before yielding is observed. Starting from random packed states, the power law dependence of the normal force versus packing fraction or strain at different velocities is quantified. Furthermore, a compression-decompression sequence at low velocities resulted in rearrangements of the spheres. At larger packing fractions, a saturation of the mean coordination number took place, indicating the deformation and faceting of the spheres.

  3. Searching for the effects of the May-June 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (northern Italy: medium-depth deformation structures at the periphery of the epicentral area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Borgatti


    Full Text Available In 2012, a seismic sequence occurred in the lowlands of the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy, between the borders of the Modena, Ferrara and Bologna Provinces. It consisted of seven mainshocks (5.9 > Ml > 5 that were recorded between May 20 and 29, 2012 [INGV 2012a] and 2,200 minor earthquakes [INGV 2012b]. An interferometric analysis [Bignami et al. 2012, Salvi et al. 2012, this volume] highlighted three main deformation areas, each of which was 12 km wide (from S to N and 10 km to 20 km long in an ESE-WNW to E-W direction, thus affecting an area of about 600 km2 (Figure 1. Field and aerial geological surveys recorded numerous surficial effects, such as: (i sediment liquefaction [Crespellani et al. 2012]; (ii localized ground fissures resembling surficial faulting [Fioravante and Giretti 2012] (Figure 2; (iii groundwater levels rising up to 400 cm above the local ground level in phreatic wells during the mainshocks (lower values were observed in confined aquifers; and (iv dormancy of previously known sinkholes [Borgatti et al. 2010, Cremonini 2010a, and references therein]. Some of the observed surface phenomena were previously recorded as coseismic effects during the earthquakes of Ferrara (1570 and Argenta (1624 [Boschi et al. 1995, Galli 2000], together with the early rising of the water level of the Po River in the Stellata section. […

  4. Detection of time-varying structures by large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to aid reading of high-resolution CT images of the lung. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryo; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori


    To evaluate the accuracy of advanced non-linear registration of serial lung Computed Tomography (CT) images using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). FIFTEEN CASES OF LUNG CANCER WITH SERIAL LUNG CT IMAGES (INTERVAL: 62.2±26.9 days) were used. After affine transformation, three dimensional, non-linear volume registration was conducted using LDDMM with or without cascading elasticity control. Registration accuracy was evaluated by measuring the displacement of landmarks placed on vessel bifurcations for each lung segment. Subtraction images and Jacobian color maps, calculated from the transformation matrix derived from image warping, were generated, which were used to evaluate time-course changes of the tumors. The average displacement of landmarks was 0.02±0.16 mm and 0.12±0.60 mm for proximal and distal landmarks after LDDMM transformation with cascading elasticity control, which was significantly smaller than 3.11±2.47 mm and 3.99±3.05 mm, respectively, after affine transformation. Emerged or vanished nodules were visualized on subtraction images, and enlarging or shrinking nodules were displayed on Jacobian maps enabled by highly accurate registration of the nodules using LDDMM. However, some residual misalignments were observed, even with non-linear transformation when substantial changes existed between the image pairs. LDDMM provides accurate registration of serial lung CT images, and temporal subtraction images with Jacobian maps help radiologists to find changes in pulmonary nodules.

  5. Shock melting of K-feldspar and interlacing with cataclastically deformed plagioclase in granitic rocks at Toqqusap Nunaa, southern West Greenland: Implications for the genesis of the Maniitsoq structure (United States)

    Keulen, Nynke; Garde, Adam A.; Jørgart, Tommy


    Folded sheets of Mesoarchaean, leucocratic plagioclase-K-feldspar-mesoperthite-bearing granitic rocks in the Toqqusap Nunaa area of the Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland, are characterised by their very fine grain sizes and microstructures without normal igneous or planar/linear tectonic fabrics. Quartz forms equidimensional and branching, ductilely deformed aggregates and bifurcating panels with protrusions, constrictions and chains of ball-shaped grains with healed, radiating intergranular fractures. Plagioclase (An10-20) was cataclastically deformed and comminuted, whereas K-feldspar and mesoperthite are devoid of cataclastic microstructures. K-feldspar forms dispersed, highly irregular grains with numerous cusps and saddles, indicating almost ubiquitous direct (shock) melting of this mineral. It is commonly located along former fractures in plagioclase, resulting in an 'interlaced' feldspar microstructure with contact shapes indicating subsequent melting of plagioclase directly adjacent to K-feldspar. Mesoperthite forms separate, rounded, and irregular grains with protrusions and cusped margins indicating crystallisation from melts. Some mesoperthite grains are texturally and compositionally heterogeneous and contain internal lenses of K-feldspar and/or plagioclase. Other mesoperthite grains comprise coarsened, 'unzipped' areas, presumably due to localised, fluid-controlled dissolution-reprecipitation processes. The ternary feldspar precursor of the mesoperthite is interpreted as having crystallised from variably effectively mixed K-feldspar shock melts and plagioclase contact melts. Direct melting of K-feldspar, but no whole-rock melting, requires shock metamorphism with a short-lived temperature excursion to above the melting temperature of K-feldspar (~ 1300 °C). The presence of three different feldspar species and absence of chemical zonation, magmatic mantling, or metamorphic coronas furthermore hinders interpretations solely by means of endogenic

  6. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco


    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  7. Deformation Prediction Using Linear Polynomial Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predictions are compared with measured data reported in literature and the results are discussed. The computational aspects of implementation of the model are also discussed briefly. Keywords: Linear Polynomial, Structural Deformation, Prediction Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume ...

  8. Deformable nematic droplets in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.H.J.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.


    We present a Frank-Oseen elasticity theory for the shape and structure of deformable nematic droplets with homeotropic surface anchoring in the presence of a magnetic field. Inspired by recent experimental observations, we focus on the case where the magnetic susceptibility is negative, and find

  9. Poludnista Dorsa, Venus: History and context of a deformation belt (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Hansen, V. L.


    Rolling lowlands comprise 80% of Venus's surface, and thus developing a geological understating of resurfacing and tectonism is critical for our understanding of Venus' evolution. In this paper, global, regional, and local approaches to interpreting Magellan synthetic aperture radar and altimetry radar data are used to constrain modes of lowland evolution, convection processes, and lithospheric structure. Detailed geologic mapping is combined with altimetry data test models of deformation belt evolution in Venus's lowlands. Poludnista Dorsa, a complex 2000-km-long deformation belt, is highly segmented and broadly time transgressive. Long-wavelength deformation is spatially independent of local short-wavelength deformation within the deformation belt and temporally predates regional deformation marked by wrinkle ridges. A mechanically layered lithosphere of regional extent is not required by the local geologic history; local lithospheric thinning or progressive regional thickening of the mechanical layer better explains the observed sequence of events.

  10. Post Deformation at Room and Cryogenic Temperature Cooling Media on Severely Deformed 1050-Aluminum (United States)

    Khorrami, M. Sarkari; Kazeminezhad, M.


    The annealed 1050-aluminum sheets were initially subjected to the severe plastic deformation through two passes of constrained groove pressing (CGP) process. The obtained specimens were post-deformed by friction stir processing at room and cryogenic temperature cooling media. The microstructure evolutions during mentioned processes in terms of grain structure, misorientation distribution, and grain orientation spread (GOS) were characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The annealed sample contained a large number of "recrystallized" grains and relatively large fraction (78%) of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). When CGP process was applied on the annealed specimen, the elongated grains with interior substructure were developed, which was responsible for the formation of 80% low-angle grain boundaries. The GOS map of the severely deformed specimen manifested the formation of 43% "distorted" and 51% "substructured" grains. The post deformation of severely deformed aluminum at room temperature led to the increase in the fraction of HAGBs from 20 to 60%. Also, it gave rise to the formation of "recrystallized" grains with the average size of 13 μm, which were coarser than the grains predicted by Zener-Hollomon parameter. This was attributed to the occurrence of appreciable grain growth during post deformation. In the case of post deformation at cryogenic temperature cooling medium, the grain size was decreased, which was in well agreement with the predicted grain size. The cumulative distribution of misorientation was the same for both processing routes. Mechanical properties characterizations in terms of nano-indentation and tensile tests revealed that the post deformation process led to the reduction in hardness, yield stress, and ultimate tensile strength of the severely deformed aluminum.

  11. Effect of alloy deformation on the average spacing parameters of non-deforming particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.; Gurland, J.


    It is shown on the basis of stereological definitions and a few simple experiments that the commonly used average dispersion parameters, area fraction (A/sub A/)/sub β/, areal particle density N/sub Aβ/ and mean free path lambda/sub α/, remain invariant during plastic deformation in the case of non-deforming equiaxed particles. Directional effects on the spacing parameters N/sub Aβ/ and lambda/sub α/ arise during uniaxial deformation by rotation and preferred orientation of nonequiaxed particles. Particle arrangement in stringered or layered structures and the effect of deformation on nearest neighbor distances of particles and voids are briefly discussed in relation to strength and fracture theories

  12. Computing the stresses and deformations of the human eye components due to a high explosive detonation using fluid-structure interaction model. (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu


    In spite the fact that a very small human body surface area is comprised by the eye, its wounds due to detonation have recently been dramatically amplified. Although many efforts have been devoted to measure injury of the globe, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury mechanism due to Primary Blast Wave (PBW). The goal of this study was to determine the stresses and deformations of the human eye components, including the cornea, aqueous, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, retina, sclera, optic nerve, and muscles, attributed to PBW induced by trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosion via a Lagrangian-Eulerian computational coupling model. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was employed to establish a Finite Element (FE) model of the human eye according to a normal human eye. The solid components of the eye were modelled as Lagrangian mesh, while an explosive TNT, air domain, and aqueous were modelled using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh. Nonlinear dynamic FE simulations were accomplished using the explicit FE code, namely LS-DYNA. In order to simulate the blast wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the eye, the ALE formulation with Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation defining the explosive material were employed. The results revealed a peak stress of 135.70kPa brought about by detonation upsurge on the cornea at the distance of 25cm. The highest von Mises stresses were observed on the sclera (267.3kPa), whereas the lowest one was seen on the vitreous body (0.002kPa). The results also showed a relatively high resultant displacement for the macula as well as a high variation for the radius of curvature for the cornea and lens, which can result in both macular holes, optic nerve damage and, consequently, vision loss. These results may have implications not only for understanding the value of stresses and strains in the human eye components but also giving an outlook about the process of PBW triggers damage to the eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.


    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  14. Variscan deformation along the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone in SE Poland: Thick-skinned structural inheritance or thin-skinned thrusting? (United States)

    Krzywiec, P.; Gągała, Ł.; Mazur, S.; Słonka, Ł.; Kufrasa, M.; Malinowski, M.; Pietsch, K.; Golonka, J.


    Recently acquired seismic reflection data provide better insight in the structural style of extensive sedimentary series overlying the SW slope of the East European Craton (EEC) in Poland. The two main seismic datasets - the POLCRUST-01 profile and PolandSPAN survey - yielded contrasting thick - and thin-skinned structural models for the same structural units in SE Poland. We reattempt an interpretation of the POLCRUST-01 profile using techniques of cross-section balancing and restoration aided by 2D forward seismic modelling. An outcome is the thin-skinned structural model is. This solution relies on a continuous top of the EEC crystalline basement well represented in the seismic data as well as on fragmentary, yet conclusive seismic geometries in shallow depth intervals proving the Ediacaran-Palaeozoic series to be thrust and folded. A Variscan (late Carboniferous) compressional regime is consequently invoked to explain thin-skinned structuring of the pre-Permian sedimentary pile and > 20 km of calculated shortening. We demonstrate an ambiguous nature of the top-basement irregularities previously used as indicators of basement-rooted vertical faulting. The tilt and abrupt increase of the top-basement taper under the thin-skinned belt are attributed to pre-Ordovician tectonic processes operating along the SW margin of the EEC. Post-rift subsidence and/or flexural loading giving rise to a broken foreland plate are invoked.

  15. Q-deformed systems and constrained dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanov, S.V.


    It is shown that quantum theories of the q-deformed harmonic oscillator and one-dimensional free q-particle (a free particle on the 'quantum' line) can be obtained by the canonical quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems with commutative phase-space variables and a non-trivial symplectic structure. In the framework of this approach, classical dynamics of a particle on the q-line coincides with the one of a free particle with friction. It is argued that q-deformed systems can be treated as ordinary mechanical systems with the second-class constraints. In particular, second-class constrained systems corresponding to the q-oscillator and q-particle are given. A possibility of formulating q-deformed systems via gauge theories (first-class constrained systems) is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  17. q-Deformed Kink solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F. de


    The q-deformed kink of the λφ 4 -model is obtained via the normalisable ground state eigenfunction of a fluctuation operator associated with the q-deformed hyperbolic functions. The kink mass, the bosonic zero-mode and the q-deformed potential in 1+1 dimensions are found. (author)

  18. On deformations of the dispersionless Hirota equation (United States)

    Kryński, Wojciech


    The class of hyper-CR Einstein-Weyl structures on R3 can be described in terms of the solutions to the dispersionless Hirota equation. In the present paper we show that simple geometric constructions on the associated twistor space lead to deformations of the Hirota equation that have been introduced recently by B. Kruglikov and A. Panasyuk. Our method produces also the hyper-CR equation and can be applied to other geometric structures related to different twistor constructions.

  19. [Babies with cranial deformity]. (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  20. Deformation Theory ( Lecture Notes )

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubek, M.; Markl, Martin; Zima, P.


    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 333-371 ISSN 0044-8753. [Winter School Geometry and Physics/27./. Srní, 13.01.2007-20.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : deformation * Mauerer-Cartan equation * strongly homotopy Lie algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.


    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  2. Deformation-induced structural changes of amorphous Ni{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5} in molecular-dynamic simulations; Verformungsinduzierte Strukturaenderungen bei amorphen Ni{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5} in Molekulardynamik-Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, K.


    The present work investigates the plastic deformation of metallic glasses by the aid of molecular-dynamic simulations. The parameters for the model system are adapted to those for a NiZr-alloy. In particular, the composition Ni{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5} is used. The analyzed deformation simulations are conducted for small systems with 5184 atoms and large systems with 17500 atoms in a periodic simulation cell. The deformation simulations of pre-deformed samples are carried out either at constant shear-rate or at constant load, the latter mode modeling a creep experiment. Stress-strain curves for pre-deformed samples show a less pronounced stress-overshoot phenomenon. Creep-simulations of samples deformed beyond the yield region indicate a drastically reduced viscosity in these systems when compared to samples pre-deformed only up to the linear regime of the stress-strain curve. From analyzing the local atomic topology it is found that the transition from the highly viscous, hard-to-deform state of the undeformed or only weakly strained system into the easy-to-deform flow-state, present if the system is strained far beyond the yielding regime of the stress-strain curve, is connected with the formation of a region containing atoms with massive changes in their topology which is oriented along a diagonal plane of the simulation cell. The degree of localization of these deformation bands is influenced by temperature and shear-rate. In subsequent deformations of pre-deformed samples the regions with massive changes in the atomic topology are again susceptible to changes in the local atomic topology. By using methods from statistics, a significant difference in the distribution of atomic properties for the group of atoms with massive topology changes on the one hand and the group of atoms without changes in their topology on the other gets quantitatively ascertainable. From the differences in structural properties, e.g. potential energy, cage volumes, angular order parameters

  3. Rift brittle deformation of SE-Brazilian continental margin: Kinematic analysis of onshore structures relative to the transfer and accommodation zones of southern Campos Basin (United States)

    Savastano, Vítor Lamy Mesiano; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Araújo, Mário Neto Cavalcanti de; Inocêncio, Leonardo Campos


    High-resolution drone-supported mapping and traditional field work were used to refine the hierarchy and kinematics of rift-related faults in the basement rocks and Early Cretaceous mafic dikes onshore of the Campos Basin, SE-Brazil. Two sets of structures were identified. The most significant fault set is NE-SW oriented with predominantly normal displacement. At mesoscale, this fault set is arranged in a rhombic pattern, interpreted here as a breached relay ramp system. The rhombic pattern is a penetrative fabric from the thin-section to regional scale. The second-order set of structures is an E-W/ESE-WNW system of normal faults with sinistral component. These E-W structures are oriented parallel with regional intrabasinal transfer zones associated with the earliest stages of Campos Basin's rift system. The crosscutting relationship between the two fault sets and tholeiitic dikes implies that the NE-SW fault set is the older feature, but remained active until the final stages of rifting in this region as the second-order fault set is older than the tholeiitic dikes. Paleostresses estimated from fault slip inversion method indicated that extension was originally NW-SE, with formation of the E-W transfer, followed by ESE-WNW oblique opening associated with a relay ramp system and related accommodation zones.

  4. An Overview of Prognosis Health Management Research at Glenn Research Center for Gas Turbine Engine Structures With Special Emphasis on Deformation and Damage Modeling (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.


    Herein a general, multimechanism, physics-based viscoelastoplastic model is presented in the context of an integrated diagnosis and prognosis methodology which is proposed for structural health monitoring, with particular applicability to gas turbine engine structures. In this methodology, diagnostics and prognostics will be linked through state awareness variable(s). Key technologies which comprise the proposed integrated approach include (1) diagnostic/detection methodology, (2) prognosis/lifing methodology, (3) diagnostic/prognosis linkage, (4) experimental validation, and (5) material data information management system. A specific prognosis lifing methodology, experimental characterization and validation and data information management are the focal point of current activities being pursued within this integrated approach. The prognostic lifing methodology is based on an advanced multimechanism viscoelastoplastic model which accounts for both stiffness and/or strength reduction damage variables. Methods to characterize both the reversible and irreversible portions of the model are discussed. Once the multiscale model is validated the intent is to link it to appropriate diagnostic methods to provide a full-featured structural health monitoring system.

  5. An Overview of Prognosis Health Management Research at GRC for Gas Turbine Engine Structures With Special Emphasis on Deformation and Damage Modeling (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Saleeb, Atef F.


    Herein a general, multimechanism, physics-based viscoelastoplastic model is presented in the context of an integrated diagnosis and prognosis methodology which is proposed for structural health monitoring, with particular applicability to gas turbine engine structures. In this methodology, diagnostics and prognostics will be linked through state awareness variable(s). Key technologies which comprise the proposed integrated approach include 1) diagnostic/detection methodology, 2) prognosis/lifing methodology, 3) diagnostic/prognosis linkage, 4) experimental validation and 5) material data information management system. A specific prognosis lifing methodology, experimental characterization and validation and data information management are the focal point of current activities being pursued within this integrated approach. The prognostic lifing methodology is based on an advanced multi-mechanism viscoelastoplastic model which accounts for both stiffness and/or strength reduction damage variables. Methods to characterize both the reversible and irreversible portions of the model are discussed. Once the multiscale model is validated the intent is to link it to appropriate diagnostic methods to provide a full-featured structural health monitoring system.

  6. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads


    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  7. Nanoscale Deformable Optics (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.


    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  8. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera (United States)

    Smith, R. B.


    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  9. Mechanical controls on collision related compressional intraplate deformation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, P.A.; van Wees, J.D.A.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    Intraplate compressional features, such as inverted extensional basins, upthrust basement blocks and whole lithospheric folds, play an important role in the structural framework of many cratons. Although compressional intraplate deformation can occur in a number of dynamic settings, stresses related

  10. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.


    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified...

  11. Compression strain-induced folding at intersecting deformation macrobands on the copper single crystals (United States)

    Chumaevskii, A. V.; Lychagin, D. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.


    Compression strain-induced surface pattern on copper single crystal faces was studied by means of optical, confocal laser and scanning electron microscopies. It was shown that apart from work-hardening effect of previously formed deformation macrobands there is a pure geometrical (size) effect which serves for changing the conditions for further deformation within the deformation macroband zones by folded structure formation.

  12. Geomorphic and Structural Evidence for Rolling Hinge Style Deformation in the Footwall of an Active Low Angle Normal Fault, Mai'iu Fault, Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Mizera, M.; Little, T.; Norton, K. P.; Webber, S.; Ellis, S. M.; Oesterle, J.


    While shown to operate in oceanic crust, rolling hinge style deformation remains a debated process in metamorpic core complexes (MCCs) in the continents. The model predicts that unloading and isostatic uplift during slip causes a progressive back-tilting in the upper crust of a normal fault that is more steeply dipping at depth. The Mai'iu Fault in the Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea, is one of the best-exposed and fastest slipping (probably >7 mm/yr) active low-angle normal faults (LANFs) on Earth. We analysed structural field data from this fault's exhumed slip surface and footwall, together with geomorphic data interpreted from aerial photographs and GeoSAR-derived digital elevation models (gridded at 5-30 m spacing), to evaluate deformational processes affecting the rapidly exhuming, domal-shaped detachment fault. The exhumed fault surface emerges from the ground at the rangefront near sea level with a northward dip of 21°. Up-dip, it is well-preserved, smooth and corrugated, with some fault remnants extending at least 29 km in the slip direction. The surface flattens over the crest of the dome, beyond where it dips S at up to 15°. Windgaps perched on the crestal main divide of the dome, indicate both up-dip tectonic advection and progressive back-tilting of the exhuming fault surface. We infer that slip on a serial array of m-to-km scale up-to-the-north, steeply S-dipping ( 75°) antithetic-sense normal faults accommodated some of the exhumation-related, inelastic bending of the footwall. These geomorphically well expressed faults strike parallel to the main Mai'iu fault at 110.9±5°, have a mean cross-strike spacing of 1520 m, and slip with a consistent up-to-the-north sense of throw ranging from <5 m to 120 m. Apparently the Mai'iu Fault was able to continue slipping despite having to negotiate this added fault-roughness. We interpret the antithetic faulting to result from bending stresses, and to provide the first clear examples of rolling hinge

  13. Atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning in severely deformed Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, X. H., E-mail:, E-mail:; Cao, Y.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zhu, S. M.; Nie, J. F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Kawasaki, M. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Langdon, T. G. [Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1453 (United States); Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zhu, Y. T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)


    We report an atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning behaviour in Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites. Profuse twinning activities in Ag supply partial dislocations to directly transmit across the Ag-Cu lamellar interface that promotes deformation twinning in the neighbouring Cu lamellae although the interface is severely deformed. The trans-interface twin bands change the local structure at the interface. Our analysis suggests that the orientation relationship and interfacial structure between neighbouring Ag-Cu lamellae play a crucial role in such special interface-facilitated twinning behaviour.

  14. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  15. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, U. J.; Taylor, M. L.; Dunn, L.; Kron, T.; Smith, R. L.; Franich, R. D.


    Purpose: Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. Methods: A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Results: Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all

  16. A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry. (United States)

    Yeo, U J; Taylor, M L; Dunn, L; Kron, T; Smith, R L; Franich, R D


    Interfraction and intrafraction variation in anatomic structures is a significant challenge in contemporary radiotherapy. The objective of this work is to develop a novel tool for deformable structure dosimetry, using a tissue-equivalent deformable gel dosimeter that can reproducibly simulate targets subject to deformation. This will enable direct measurement of integrated doses delivered in different deformation states, and the verification of dose deforming algorithms. A modified version of the nPAG polymer gel has been used as a deformable 3D dosimeter and phantom to investigate doses delivered to deforming tissue-equivalent geometry. The deformable gel (DEFGEL) dosimeter/phantom is comprised of polymer gel in a latex membrane, moulded (in this case) into a cylindrical geometry, and deformed with an acrylic compressor. Fifteen aluminium fiducial markers (FM) were implanted into DEFGEL phantoms and the reproducibility of deformation was determined via multiple computed tomography (CT) scans in deformed and nondeformed states before and after multiple (up to 150) deformations. Dose was delivered to the DEFGEL phantom in three arrangements: (i) without deformation, (ii) with deformation, and (iii) cumulative exposures with and without deformation, i.e., dose integration. Irradiations included both square field and a stereotactic multiple dynamic arc treatment adapted from a patient plan. Doses delivered to the DEFGEL phantom were read out using cone beam optical CT. Reproducibility was verified by observation of interscan shifts of FM locations (as determined via CT), measured from an absolute reference point and in terms of inter-FM distance. The majority (76%) of points exhibited zero shift, with others shifting by one pixel size consistent with setup error as confirmed with a control sample. Comparison of dose profiles and 2D isodose distributions from the three arrangements illustrated complex spatial redistribution of dose in all three dimensions occurring as

  17. Knowledge representation of rock plastic deformation (United States)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan


    The first iteration of the Rock Plastic Deformation (RPD) ontology models the semantics of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and mechanisms that occur during the deformation of the generally inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The ontology represents the knowledge about the production, reconfiguration, displacement, and consumption of the structural components that participate in these processes. It also formalizes the properties that are known by the structural geology and metamorphic petrology communities to hold between the instances of the spatial components and the dynamic processes, the state and system variables, the empirical flow laws that relate the variables, and the laboratory testing conditions and procedures. The modeling of some of the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts and relations of the RPD ontology is based on the class and property structure of some well-established top-level ontologies. The flexible and extensible design of the initial version of the RPD ontology allows it to develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of rocks under different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in solid Earth. The ontology will be used to annotate the datasets related to the microstructures and physical-chemical processes that involve them. This will help the autonomous and globally distributed communities of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and enhanced data integration and software interoperability.

  18. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.


    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  19. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kononova


    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.

  20. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul


    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected

  1. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.

  2. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang


    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  3. Radiologic evaluation of foot deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.


    In order to analyze foot deformities, the foot is divided into three compartments. Their normal and pathological positions are defined by the alignment of the bones' axes. The various foot deformities can be put down to a malalignment of the particular compartments. X-ray analysis of the malalignment allows a diagnosis to be made. The most important congenital and acquired foot deformities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Deformation and instabilities in dielectric elastomer composites (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Landis, Chad M.


    The deformation behavior in dielectric elastomer composites due to applied mechanical and electrical loadings is investigated using finite element methods. The composite structure consists of a dielectric elastomer matrix with a regular square array of cylindrical holes or rigid conducting inclusions. The dielectric elastomer material is represented with either a compressible Neo-Hookean model for the elasticity or a compressible Gent model. Following previous work, the dielectric constant relating the true electric displacement to the true electric field is taken to be independent of the deformation. The finite element method is used to analyze the electromechanical behavior of representative unit cells of the composite material structure. Results are presented for the stress-strain, electric field-electric displacement and coupled electromechanical responses of the different composite types.

  5. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  6. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip (United States)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.


    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  7. Local microstructure and flow stress in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Nielsen, Chris Valentin


    boundaries. The method is demonstrated for two heterogeneous structures: (i) a gradient (sub)surface structure in steel deformed by shot peening; (ii) a heterogeneous structure introduced by friction between a tool and a workpiece of aluminum. Flow stress data are calculated based on the microstructural...

  8. EBSD characterization of deformed lath martensite in if steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Z.A.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Rolling deformation results in the transformation of a lath martensite structure to a lamellar structure characteristic to that of IF steel cold-rolled to medium and high strains. The structural transition takes place from low to medium strain, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows ...

  9. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes


    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  10. Elevated temperature cyclic deformation of stainless-steel and interaction effects with other modes of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.P.L.


    Since pertinent information concerning the deformation history of a material is stored in its current structure, an attempt has been made to determine the number of state variables necessary to uniquely describe the material's present condition. An experimental program has been carried out to determine the number of state variables which is required to describe the tensile test, cyclic, and creep behavior of 304 stainless steel at elevated temperature. Tests have been conducted at 300 0 C and 560 0 C which correspond to homologous temperatures of 1 / 3 and 1 / 2 , respectively. The experiments consisted of subjecting samples to deformation histories during which the mode of deformation was changed so that two material responses could be measured for the same state of the material. Results strongly suggest that at least two state variables are necessary

  11. Microplastic Deformation of Submicrocrystalline Copper at Room and Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Dudarev, E. F.; Pochivalova, G. P.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Maletkina, T. Yu.; Skosyrskii, A. B.; Osipov, D. A.


    of investigations of submicrocrystalline copper subjected to cold rolling after abc pressing by methods of backscatter electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction analysis are presented. It is demonstrated that after such combined intensive plastic deformation, the submicrocrystalline structure with average grain-subgrain structure elements having sizes of 0.63 μm is formed with relative fraction of high-angle grain boundaries of 70% with texture typical for rolled copper. Results of investigation of microplastic deformation of copper with such structure at temperatures in the interval 295-473 K and with submicrocrystalline structure formed by cold rolling of coarse-grained copper are presented.

  12. Fundamental geodesic deformations in spaces of treelike shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads


    is a quotient of a normed vector space with a metric inherited from the vector space norm. We give examples of geodesic paths in tree-space corresponding to fundamental deformations of small trees, and discuss how these deformations are key building blocks for understanding deformations between larger trees.......This paper presents a new geometric framework for analysis of planar treelike shapes for applications such as shape matching, recognition and morphology, using the geometry of the space of treelike shapes. Mathematically, the shape space is given the structure of a stratified set which...

  13. Analysis of Scalar Field Cosmology with Phase Space Deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Payan, Sinuhe; Mena, E.; Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.


    Phase space deformations on scalar field cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. The effects of the deformation are studied in the “C-frame” and the “NC-frame.” In order to remove the ambiguities of working on different frames, a new principle is introduced. When we impose that both frames should be physically equivalent, we conclude that the only possibility for this model, is to have an effective cosmological constant Λ eff ≥0. Finally we bound the parameter space for θ and β.

  14. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu


    Plastic deformation of metal surfaces by sliding and abrasion between moving parts can be detrimental. However, when the plastic deformation is controlled for example by applying different peening techniques hard surfaces can be produced which can increase the fracture resistance and fatigue life...

  15. Offshore Deformation Front in Miaoli Area (United States)

    Chiang, P.; Gwo-shyn, S.


    Taiwan is located at the junction of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. It's because arc-continent collision occurs in the western Taiwan, resulting in the orogeny has formed a fold-and-thrust belt, developing a series of thrusts aligned in north-south direction. The thrust faults, locating in the central island, are the oldest and have almost inactive. Westward to the island, the faults become younger, dipping angles are smaller, and motions were stronger. On the west side, the foot of the Taiwan Western Foothill is considered the youngest thrust faults located along west Taiwan. Scholars recognized them as so-called the deformation front, and they also believed that the deformation front is located in between the compressive terrain uplifted area and the extensional subsidence area. Therefore, this front line is on the boundary of two different tectonic zones. This study investigates the trace of the deformation front in Miaoli area. Previous studies suggested that the west side of Miaoli collision zone should be fault-bounded, and is located in the seabed. However, in the geological map, there is no geologic evidence that appears on land and so-called active faults related with this deformation front. In the near coast seafloor, according to the reflection earthquakes data from the Institute of Oceanography of NTU, we can only see the offshore strata have been uplifted, and the data also shows that seabed is only covered by thin layer of sediments. This study indicates that in offshore place within three kilometers, shallow formations show a special layer of slime which was extruded to be corrugated transversely. Accordingly, we believe that this slime layer should be pressurized and filled with muddy water. Such features should be further investigated with other geological and geophysical survey data to check if they belong to the structural product of the deformation front.

  16. Nuclear deformation at finite temperature. (United States)

    Alhassid, Y; Gilbreth, C N; Bertsch, G F


    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.

  17. Nuclear Deformation at Finite Temperature (United States)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Bertsch, G. F.


    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.

  18. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed


    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  19. Sugawara construction and the q-deformation of Virasoro (super)algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Presnajder, P. (Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia))


    The q-deformed Virasoro algebra is obtained using the bosonic annihilation and creation operators of the q-deformed infinite Heisenberg algebra H({infinity}){sub q}, which has the Hopf structure. The generators of the q-deformed Virasoro algebra are expressed as a Sugawara construction in terms of normal ordered binomials in these annihilation and creation operators and become double indexed as the reminiscence of a degeneracy removal. The obtained q-deformed Virasoro algebra with central extension reduces to the standard one in the non-deformed limit and in special representations (but not in general) possesses a simple (cocommutative) Hopf structure (not related to the one in H({infinity}){sub q}). The fermionic annihilation and creation operators corresponding to the q-deformed infinite Heisenberg superalgebra s-H({infinity}){sub q} necessary for a similar construction of the q-deformed Virasoro superalgebra are presented. (orig.).

  20. Particle physics phenomenology from Q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.; Choudhury, R.R.


    In their search for non-linearities in quantum physics, physicists have turned to q-deformed generalizations of group algebras. The latest approach is to look for such deformations in the space time structure itself, i.e. In Poincare algebra. Can one find any empirical evidence in favour of this from available particle data. The affirmative seems to be the answer. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Effect of combined tensile, bending and torsion deformation on medium carbon steel wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Marina


    Full Text Available Such schemes of plastic deformation as bending, torsion, tension, compression etc. are considered to be the basic schemes for metal processing methods. Each of these types of deformation has specific influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of the processed metal. For the optimal result of plastic deformation impact on metal structure and properties the mechanism of plastic processing should follow the definite requirements. The effect of different kinds of deformation on medium carbon steel wire was studied using several methods: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic hardness testing. The obtained results can be used in the design of combined methods of deformation processing of carbon steel.

  2. Gauge Field Localization on Deformed Branes (United States)

    Tofighi, A.; Moazzen, M.; Farokhtabar, A.


    In this paper, we utilise the Chumbes-Holf da Silva-Hott (CHH) mechanism to investigate the issue of gauge field localization on a deformed brane constructed with one scalar field, which can be coupled to gravity minimally or non-minimally. The study of deformed defects is important because they contain internal structures which may have implications in braneworld models. With the CHH mechanism, we find that the massless zero mode of gauge field, in the case of minimal or non-minimal coupling is localized on the brane. Moreover, in the case of non-minimal coupling, it is shown that, when the non-minimal coupling constant is larger than its critical value, then the zero mode is localized on each sub brane.

  3. Supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traikia, M. H.; Mebarki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Mathematique et Subatomique, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)


    A supersymmetric q-deformed quantum mechanics is studied in the weak deformation approximation of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra. The corresponding supersymmetric q-deformed hamiltonians and charges are constructed explicitly.

  4. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко


    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  5. MR imaging in congenital lower limb deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Jaramillo, D.; Hoffer, F.A.; Kasser, J.R.


    Treatment for children with cogenital deformities of the lower extremities may vary, depending on the state of the unossified skeletal structures and surrounding soft tissues. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the spectrum of the osteochondral and extrasosseous abnormalities as depicted with MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed MR examinations of 13 limbs of ten children (aged 1 month-9 years, mean 2.1 years) with longitudinal and transverse deformities of the lower extremities. The lesions imaged were fibular hemimelia (n=5), tibial hemimelia (n=5), and congenital constriction bands (n=3). Each examination was assessed for abnormalities in the osteocartilaginous and extraosseous (articular or periarticular components such as ligaments, tendons, and menisci; the muscles and the arteries) structures. Abnormalities were seen in all patients. Osteocartilaginous abnormalities in the patients with longitudinal deformities included abnormal distal femoral epiphyses, abnormal proximal tribial physes, hypertrophied and dislocated proximal fibular epiphyses, unsuspected fibular and tibial remnants, and absence or coalition of the tarsal bones. No osteocartilaginous abnormalities were seen in the patients with congential constriction bands. Articular abormalities in patients with either form of hemimelia included absent cruciate ligaments and menisci, dislocated or absent cartilaginous patellae, absent patellar tendons, and abnormal collateral ligaments. All but one limb imaged had absent or attenuated muscle groups. Of the nine MR arteriograms performed at the level of the knee, eight were abnormal. The normal popliteal trifurcation was absent or in an abnormal location. We conclude that MR imaging of children with congenital lower extremity deformities shows many osteochondral and extraosseous abnormalities that are not depicted by conventional radiogrpahy. This information can help to plan early surgical intervention and prosthetic rehabilitation. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging in congenital lower limb deformities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jaramillo, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kasser, J.R. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Treatment for children with cogenital deformities of the lower extremities may vary, depending on the state of the unossified skeletal structures and surrounding soft tissues. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the spectrum of the osteochondral and extrasosseous abnormalities as depicted with MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed MR examinations of 13 limbs of ten children (aged 1 month-9 years, mean 2.1 years) with longitudinal and transverse deformities of the lower extremities. The lesions imaged were fibular hemimelia (n=5), tibial hemimelia (n=5), and congenital constriction bands (n=3). Each examination was assessed for abnormalities in the osteocartilaginous and extraosseous (articular or periarticular components such as ligaments, tendons, and menisci; the muscles and the arteries) structures. Abnormalities were seen in all patients. Osteocartilaginous abnormalities in the patients with longitudinal deformities included abnormal distal femoral epiphyses, abnormal proximal tribial physes, hypertrophied and dislocated proximal fibular epiphyses, unsuspected fibular and tibial remnants, and absence or coalition of the tarsal bones. No osteocartilaginous abnormalities were seen in the patients with congential constriction bands. Articular abormalities in patients with either form of hemimelia included absent cruciate ligaments and menisci, dislocated or absent cartilaginous patellae, absent patellar tendons, and abnormal collateral ligaments. All but one limb imaged had absent or attenuated muscle groups. Of the nine MR arteriograms performed at the level of the knee, eight were abnormal. The normal popliteal trifurcation was absent or in an abnormal location. We conclude that MR imaging of children with congenital lower extremity deformities shows many osteochondral and extraosseous abnormalities that are not depicted by conventional radiogrpahy. This information can help to plan early surgical intervention and prosthetic rehabilitation. (orig.)

  7. Spacetimes for λ-deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfetsos, Konstadinos [Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens,Athens 15784 (Greece); Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel andThe International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)


    We examine a recently proposed class of integrable deformations to two-dimensional conformal field theories. These λ-deformations interpolate between a WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of a Principal Chiral Model on a group G or, between a G/H gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the geometric coset G/H. λ-deformations have been conjectured to represent quantum group q-deformations for the case where the deformation parameter is a root of unity. In this work we show how such deformations can be given an embedding as full string backgrounds whose target spaces satisfy the equations of type-II supergravity. One illustrative example is a deformation of the Sl(2,ℝ)/U(1) black-hole CFT. A further example interpolates between the ((SU(2)×SU(2))/(SU(2)))×((SL(2,ℝ)×SL(2,ℝ))/(SL(2,ℝ)))×U(1){sup 4} gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×T{sup 4} supported with Ramond flux.

  8. Robust brain ROI segmentation by deformation regression and deformable shape model. (United States)

    Wu, Zhengwang; Guo, Yanrong; Park, Sang Hyun; Gao, Yaozong; Dong, Pei; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang


    We propose a robust and efficient learning-based deformable model for segmenting regions of interest (ROIs) from structural MR brain images. Different from the conventional deformable-model-based methods that deform a shape model locally around the initialization location, we learn an image-based regressor to guide the deformable model to fit for the target ROI. Specifically, given any voxel in a new image, the image-based regressor can predict the displacement vector from this voxel towards the boundary of target ROI, which can be used to guide the deformable segmentation. By predicting the displacement vector maps for the whole image, our deformable model is able to use multiple non-boundary predictions to jointly determine and iteratively converge the initial shape model to the target ROI boundary, which is more robust to the local prediction error and initialization. In addition, by introducing the prior shape model, our segmentation avoids the isolated segmentations as often occurred in the previous multi-atlas-based methods. In order to learn an image-based regressor for displacement vector prediction, we adopt the following novel strategies in the learning procedure: (1) a joint classification and regression random forest is proposed to learn an image-based regressor together with an ROI classifier in a multi-task manner; (2) high-level context features are extracted from intermediate (estimated) displacement vector and classification maps to enforce the relationship between predicted displacement vectors at neighboring voxels. To validate our method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art multi-atlas-based methods and other learning-based methods on three public brain MR datasets. The results consistently show that our method is better in terms of both segmentation accuracy and computational efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.


    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  10. Analysis and test of a piezoelectric deformable mirror (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Chaoming; Wu, Jianhong


    Adaptive optics is concerned with correcting a distorted wavefront by introducing a counter aberration into an element of the optical system, it use widely in astronomy and there are also applications in microscopy, the writing of 3D optical bit memory and photo-fabrication now. As an active correction element in adaptive optics, a deformable mirror can be used to modify the phase of the beam actively. In this paper, the active wave front correction method of adaptive optics system is studied, types and characteristics of the actuators of deformable mirror are analyzed, and mainly introduces piezoelectric deformable mirror. According to the conclusion of theoretical analysis, if the material is selected, diameter and thickness of the deformable mirror are given, the displacement of the deformable mirror is directly proportional to the initial loads. A deformable mirror has been manufactured with silica. The silica plate is 100mm in diameter and 10mm in thick. 37-electrode piezoelectric actuators are selected to correct low-order aberrations. Based on the ANSYS software, the finite element analysis model of deformable mirror is calculated. The influence of the major structural parameters is discussed. The calculated result and the conclusion of theoretical analysis are compared. Results show that, the endless improvement of finite element model is necessary and feasible. The value of optimization design and the conclusion of theoretical analysis are consistent with each other. The research we do lay the foundation for the further study with more actuators and correcting high-frequency aberration.

  11. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W


    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  12. Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.W.


    Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.

  13. Deterritorializing Drawing - transformation/deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    and deformation as two very different categories. Moves of transformation produce new places or singularities in a series, making a Figure emerge that switches between force and form and between transformation and deformation. Deformation is acted out by sensation, passing from one ‘order’ to another. Bacon...... deformation, about painting the sensation, which is essentially rhythm, making Figure-rhythm relations appear as vibrations that flow through the body - making resonance. Deleuze, with Bergson, argues that art extracts ’a little time in a pure state’ from the everyday repetitions, and thereby opens...... the capacity of the body to be affected by change. The everyday and the ceremonial body, the ordinary and the aberrant movement – these poles generate a passage rather than a difference from the one to the other: from attitude or position to gesture or kinaesthetic twist. Known from without through perception...

  14. Shape Deformations in Atomic Nuclei


    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Mottelson, Ben R.


    The ground states of some nuclei are described by densities and mean fields that are spherical, while others are deformed. The existence of non-spherical shape in nuclei represents a spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  15. M theory on deformed superspace (United States)

    Faizal, Mir


    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  16. 6. International FIG-symposium on deformation measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.; Heer, R. [eds.


    Due to the diversified fields of specialization of the authors, the papers span a very wide spectrum of theories, applications and case studies, concerning various problems of deformation studies in structural, geotechnical and mining engineering, in rock mechanics and earth crustal movements, covering such topics as: Design and analysis of deformations surveys; Integration of terrestrial, and space measurement techniques; New instrumental developements for automatic, continuous and telemetric data-acquisition with respect to geotechnical and geodetic applications; Monitoring and prediction of ground subsidence in mining areas, land slides and tectonic movements; Modeling and computation of deformations by Kalman-filtering techniques, finite element analysis and a special view to continuum mechanics; Application of expert systems and artificial intelligence; Description and analysis of dynamical deformation problems; special views in rock- and groundmechanics; Demonstration of mechanical engineering problems with respect to the supervision of industrial production and quality control. (orig.)

  17. Direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ishida


    Full Text Available Ionospheric blobs are localized plasma density enhancements, which are mainly produced by the transportation process of plasma. To understand the deformation process of a blob, observations of plasma parameters with good spatial–temporal resolution are desirable. Thus, we conducted the European Incoherent Scatter radar observations with high-speed meridional scans (60–80 s during October and December 2013, and observed the temporal evolution of a blob during a substorm on 4 December 2013. This paper is the first report of direct observations of blob deformation during a substorm. The blob deformation arose from an enhanced plasma flow shear during the substorm expansion phase, and then the blob split into two smaller-scale blobs, whose scale sizes were more than ~100 km in latitude. Our analysis indicates that the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and dissociative recombination could have deformed the blob structure.

  18. Deformations of soap bubbles in a uniform electric field (United States)

    Mawet, Sebastien; Caps, Herve; Dorbolo, Stephane

    The study of the deformations undergone by a soap bubble submitted to an electrical force began with Taylor and Wilson and the observation of so-called Taylor's cones. Beyond this particular structure, few studies analyzed the bubble deformations. For example, what is the link between the deformations and the electrical force or how do charges move in the thin soap film formed by the bubble ? To answer those questions, we characterize the shape variations of the surface of the bubble immersed in the uniform electric field of a plan capacitor. In particular, our study focuses on hemispherical bubbles lying on the bottom electrode of a plane capacitor. This study allows us to observe some interesting phenomena like the appearance of a hysteresis cycle in the deformation amplitude.

  19. On q-deformed infinite-dimensional n-algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ding


    Full Text Available The q-deformation of the infinite-dimensional n-algebras is investigated. Based on the structure of the q-deformed Virasoro–Witt algebra, we derive a nontrivial q-deformed Virasoro–Witt n-algebra which is nothing but a sh-n-Lie algebra. Furthermore in terms of the pseud-differential operators, we construct the (cosine n-algebra and the q-deformed SDiff(T2 n-algebra. We find that they are the sh-n-Lie algebras for the n even case. In terms of the magnetic translation operators, an explicit physical realization of the (cosine n-algebra is given.

  20. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspiris Angelos


    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years.

  1. Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos


    Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

  2. Unitary deformations of counterdiabatic driving (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka


    We study a deformation of the counterdiabatic-driving Hamiltonian as a systematic strategy for an adiabatic control of quantum states. Using a unitary transformation, we design a convenient form of the driver Hamiltonian. We apply the method to a particle in a confining potential and discrete systems to find explicit forms of the Hamiltonian and discuss the general properties. The method is derived by using the quantum brachistochrone equation, which shows the existence of a nontrivial dynamical invariant in the deformed system.

  3. Highly Deformable Origami Paper Photodetector Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chun-Ho


    Flexible electronics will form the basis of many next-generation technologies, such as wearable devices, biomedical sensors, the Internet of things, and more. However, most flexible devices can bear strains of less than 300% as a result of stretching. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost paper-based photodetector array featuring superior deformability using printable ZnO nanowires, carbon electrodes, and origami-based techniques. With a folded Miura structure, the paper photodetector array can be oriented in four different directions via tessellated parallelograms to provide the device with excellent omnidirectional light harvesting capabilities. Additionally, we demonstrate that the device can be repeatedly stretched (up to 1000% strain), bent (bending angle ±30°), and twisted (up to 360°) without degrading performance as a result of the paper folding technique, which enables the ZnO nanowire layers to remain rigid even as the device is deformed. The origami-based strategy described herein suggests avenues for the development of next-generation deformable optoelectronic applications.

  4. Deformation and failure of curved colloidal crystal shells. (United States)

    Negri, Carlotta; Sellerio, Alessandro L; Zapperi, Stefano; Miguel, M Carmen


    Designing and controlling particle self-assembly into robust and reliable high-performance smart materials often involves crystalline ordering in curved spaces. Examples include carbon allotropes like graphene, synthetic materials such as colloidosomes, or biological systems like lipid membranes, solid domains on vesicles, or viral capsids. Despite the relevance of these structures, the irreversible deformation and failure of curved crystals is still mostly unexplored. Here, we report simulation results of the mechanical deformation of colloidal crystalline shells that illustrate the subtle role played by geometrically necessary topological defects in controlling plastic yielding and failure. We observe plastic deformation attributable to the migration and reorientation of grain boundary scars, a collective process assisted by the intermittent proliferation of disclination pairs or abrupt structural failure induced by crack nucleating at defects. Our results provide general guiding principles to optimize the structural and mechanical stability of curved colloidal crystals.

  5. Remarks on variational sensitivity analysis of elastoplastic deformations (United States)

    Barthold, Franz-Joseph; Liedmann, Jan


    Design optimisation of structures and materials becomes more important in most engineering disciplines, especially in forming. The treatment of inelastic, path-dependent materials is a recent topic in this connection. Unlike purely elastic materials, it is necessary to store and analyse the deformation history in order to appropriately describe path-dependent material behaviour. For structural optimisation with design variables such as the outer shape of a structure, the boundary conditions and the material properties, it is necessary to compute sensitivities of all quantities of influence to use gradient based optimisation algorithms. Considering path-dependent materials, this includes the sensitivities of internal variables that represent the deformation history. We present an algorithm to compute afore-mentioned sensitivities, based on variational principles, in the context of finite deformation elastoplasticity. The novel approach establishes the possibility of design exploration using singular value decomposition.

  6. Crustal Structure, Seismic Anisotropy and Deformations of the Ediacaran/Cambrian of the Małopolska Block in SE Poland Based on Data from Two Seismic Wide-Angle Experiments (United States)

    Środa, Piotr


    The area of SE Poland represents a complex contact of tectonic units of different consolidation age—from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform (including Małopolska Block) to Cenozoic Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. In order to investigate the anisotropic properties of the upper crust of the Małopolska Block and their relation to tectonic evolution of the area, two seismic datasets were used: seismic wide-angle off-line recordings from POLCRUST-01 deep seismic reflection profile and recordings from active deep seismic experiment CELEBRATION 2000. During acquisition of deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01 in 2010, a 35-km-long line of 14 recorders (PA-14), oriented perpendicularly to the profile, was deployed to record the refractions from the upper crust (Pg) at wide range of azimuths. These data were used for an analysis of the azimuthal anisotropy of the MB with the modified delay-time inversion method. The results of modelling of the off-line refractions from the MB suggest 6% HTI anisotropy of the Cambrian/Ediacaran basement, with 130º azimuth of the fast velocity axis and mean Vp of 4.9 km/s. To compare this result with previous, independent information about anisotropy at larger depth, a subset of previously modelled data from CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, recorded in the MB area, was also analysed by inversion. The recordings of Pg phase at up to 120 km offsets were analysed using anisotropic delay-time inversion, providing information down to 12 km depth. The CELEBRATION 2000 model shows 9% HTI anisotropy with 126º orientation of the fast axis. Thus, local-scale anisotropy of this part of MB confirms the large-scale anisotropy suggested by previous studies based on data from a broader area and larger depth interval. The azimuthal anisotropy (i.e. HTI symmetry of the medium) is interpreted as a result of strong compressional deformation during the accretion of terranes to the EEC margin, leading to

  7. Porosity reduction within shear deformation bands in unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Tanner, David


    Deformation bands are important structural elements that occur in the upper crust and develop in porous sandstones and even in unconsolidated sands. In contrast to discrete surfaces such as faults, deformation bands represent tabular zones of continuous displacement over several centimeters (Fossen et al., 2007). We present an outcrop-based study on the internal fabric of shear deformation bands that developed in Pleistocene unconsolidated sands in northern Germany. The deformation bands formed in an extensional stress regime, have a normal sense of displacement in a range of centimeters to decimeters, and form conjugate sets that intersect at angles between 70° and 90° (Brandes & Tanner, 2012). Due to their near-surface position, they are a perfect target for the study of deformation band formation prior to burial and diagenesis. Thin section analysis show a significant pore space reduction from the host sediment to the shear deformation band. The boundary between the host sediment and the shear deformation bands can be very sharp. The grains within the deformation band are of the same grain size as the host sediment. Grain shape varies from angular to well-rounded. Many elliptic grains have a long-axis orientation parallel to the trend of the deformation band. The grains in the analysed thin sections are all intact, i.e., there is no evidence for cataclasis. We believe the shear deformation bands are created by a grain-sliding process that decreases the porosity and leads to a denser packing of the sand. This is a porosity reduction mechanism in sandstone that occurs prior to burial without cataclasis. This can have an impact on fluid-flow in unconsolidated sediments in the near-surface. References: Brandes, C. & Tanner, D.C. (2012) Three-dimensional geometry and fabric of shear deformation bands in unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments. Tectonophysics, 518-521, 84-92. Fossen, H., Schultz, R.A., Shipton, Z.K., & Mair, K. (2007) Deformation bands in sandstone: a

  8. Non-localized deformation in Cu−Zr multi-layer amorphous films under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, C. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, H. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Cao, Q.P.; Wang, X.D. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, D.X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu, J.W. [Hangzhou Workers Amateur University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    In metallic glasses (MGs), plastic deformation at room temperature is dominated by highly localized shear bands. Here we report the non-localized deformation under tension in Cu−Zr multi-layer MGs with a pure amorphous structure using large-scale atomistic simulations. It is demonstrated that amorphous samples with high layer numbers, composed of Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 60}, or Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}, present obviously non-localized deformation behavior. We reveal that the deformation behavior of the multi-layer-structured MG films is related but not determined by the deformation behavior of the composed individual layers. The criterion for the deformation mode change for MGs with a pure amorphous structure, in generally, was suggested, i.e., the competition between the elastic-energy density stored and the energy density needed for forming one mature shear band in MGs. Our results provide a promising strategy for designing tensile ductile MGs with a pure amorphous structure at room temperature. - Highlights: • Tensile deformation behaviors in multi-layer MG films. • Films with high layer numbers confirmed with a non-localized deformation behavior. • The deformation mode is reasonably controlled by whether U{sub p} larger than U{sub SB.}.

  9. Different Rols of Modified Organoclay in Deformation Mechanism Control of Polymeric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Akbari


    Full Text Available The effect of organically modified clay on the structure and deformation mechanism of polymeric matrices was investigated. For this purpose, the role of organoclay in deformation control of polymeric matrices, with different deformation mechanisms, has been studied methodically in order to determine a relationship between the structure and deformation mechanisms. In this respect polypropylene and polystyrene composites systems were designed using montmorillonite through melt intercalation technique using a twin, co-rotating extruder with starve feeding system. Also an epoxy was employed to design a nanocomposite system prepared by in-situ polymerization technique. The structure and deformation mechanism of nanocomposites were investigated using appropriate techniques. X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to explore the structure of various systems while, the reflection and transmission optical microscopy were used in order to study their corresponding deformation mechanisms. The bulk polymer was also studied for its deformation mechanism by reflection optical microscopy and the notch tip of the samples were examined by transmission optical microscopy. The results of experiments showed that organoclays acted as initiator sites for shear yielding mechanism as the dominant deformation mechanism in epoxies. It may be noted that, these particles may act as initiator sites for crazing, the dominant deformation mechanism of polystyrene, and alter the mechanism from local to massive. In polypropylene systems, which may exhibit both shear yielding and crazing organoclays can facilitate or postpone both mechanisms in different conditions, related to PP morphology and other conditions.

  10. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun


    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  11. Time dependent deformation in prestressed concrete girder: Measurement and prediction (United States)

    Sokal, Y. J.; Tyrer, P.


    Prestressed concrete girders which are intended for composite construction in bridges and other similar structures are often stored unloaded for some time before being placed in their final positions where top deck is being poured over. During that free storage the girders are subjected to creep and shrinkage which manifests itself through increased upward deformation usually defined as camber. The analytical estimation of this deformation is important as it controls the minimum thickness of the top deck. An attempt was made to correlate on site measurements with continuous computer modeling of the time-dependent behavior using data from recently adopted international standard for concrete structures.

  12. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  13. Shear zone nucleation and deformation transient: effect of heterogeneities and loading conditions in experimentally deformed calcite (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.; Kilian, R.


    In the Earth's middle to lower crust, strain is frequently localized along ductile shear zones, which commonly nucleate at structural and material heterogeneities. To investigate shear zone nucleation and development due to heterogeneities, we performed constant strain-rate (CSR) and constant stress (CS) simple shear (torsion) deformation experiments on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) inclusions. The experiments were conducted in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure and maximum bulk shear strains of 3. Peak shear stress was about 20 MPa for all the samples, followed by smooth weakening and steady state behavior. The strain is predominantly localized in the host marble within the process zone in front of the inclusion, defined by a zone of intense grain size reduction due to dynamic recrystallization. In CS tests a narrow shear zone developed in front of the inclusion, whereas in CSR experiments the deformation is more heterogeneously distributed, up to g=3.. In the later, secondary foliations oblique to the process zone and alternating thin, high-strain layers are common. In samples deformed at the same shear strain (g=1), the average recrystallized grain size in the process zone is similar for CS and CSR conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements shows that different grain sizes have slightly different CPO patterns. CPO strength varies for different grain sizes, with a CPO strength peak between 40-50 μm, decreasing progressively within smaller grain size, but with secondary peaks for different coarse-grained sizes. Our observations suggest that the initial formation and transient deformation of shear zones is strongly affected by loading conditions.

  14. Plate boundary deformation of the Pacific plate. Two case studies. (1) Crustal structure of the northwestern Vizcaino block and Gorda escarpment, offshore northern California, and implications for postsubduction deformation of a paleoaccretionary margin. (2) A focused look at the Alpine fault, New Zealand: Seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress observations (United States)

    Leitner, Beate

    Two examples of Pacific rim plate boundary deformation are presented. In the first part of the thesis crustal models are derived for the northwestern part of the Vizcaino block in California using marine seismic and gravity data collected by the Mendocino Triple Junction Seismic Experiment. A northwest-southeast trending kink in the Moho is imaged and interpreted to have formed under compression by reactivation of preexisting thrust faults in the paleoaccretionary prism at the seaward margin of the Vizcaino block. The study suggests that the deformation resulted from mainly north-south compression between the Pacific-Juan de Fuca plates across the Mendocino transform fault and predates late Pliocene Pacific-North America plate convergence. In the second part, 195 earthquakes recorded during the duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) are analysed. Precise earthquake locations and focal mechanisms provide unprecedented detail of the seismotectonics in the central South Island. The short term (6 month) SAPSE seismicity is compared with long term (8 years) seismicity recorded by the New Zealand National Seismic network and the Lake Pukaki network. The seismicity rate of the Alpine fault is low, but comparable to locked sections of the San Andreas fault, with large earthquakes expected. Changes of the depth of the seismogenic zone, generally uniform at about 10--12 km, occur only localised over distances smaller than 30 km, suggesting that thermal perturbations must be of similar scale. This implies that the thermal effects of the uplift of the Southern Alps do not change the seismogenic depth significantly and are not in accordance with most of the present thermal models. Both the Hope and Porters Pass fault zones are seismically active and deformation is accommodated near the fault zones and in the adjacent crust. North of Mt Cook, a triangular shaped region along the Alpine fault is characterised by absence of earthquakes. We interpret this

  15. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.


    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  16. Tensile deformation of polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber membranes used for water purification. (United States)

    Yonezu, Akio; Iio, Shouichi; Itonaga, Takehiro; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Chen, Xi


    The tensile deformation behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membranes is studied. PTFE membranes at present have sub-micron pores with an open cell structure, which plays a critical role in water purification. One of the main challenges in water purification is that the pore structure becomes covered with biofouling, leading to blocked pores. To maintain the capacity for water purification, physical cleaning along with mechanical deformation is usually conducted. Thus, it is crucial to understand the mechanical properties, in particular the deformation behavior, of the membrane fibers. Using uniaxial tension experiments, we established a fundamental discrete model to describe the deformation behavior of a porous structure using a finite element method. The present model enables the prediction of the macroscopic deformation behavior of the membrane, by taking into account the changes of pore structure. The insight may be useful for porous membrane fabrication and provide insights for the reliable operation of water purification.

  17. Adaptive soft tissue deformation for a virtual reality surgical trainer. (United States)

    Jerabkova, Lenka; Wolter, Timm P; Pallua, Norbert; Kuhlen, Torsten


    Real time tissue deformation is an important aspect of interactive virtual reality (VR) environments such as medical trainers. Most approaches in deformable modelling use a fixed space discretization. A surgical trainer requires high plausibility of the deformations especially in the area close to the instrument. As the area of intervention is not known a priori, adaptive techniques have to be applied. We present an approach for real time deformation of soft tissue based on a regular FEM mesh of cube elements as opposed to a mesh of tetrahedral elements used by the majority of soft tissue simulators. A regular mesh structure simplifies the local refinement operation as the elements topology and stiffness are known implicitly. We propose an octree-based adaptive multiresolution extension of our basic approach. The volumetric representation of the deformed object is created automatically from medical images or by voxelization of a surface model. The resolution of the volumetric representation is independent of the surface geometry resolution. The surface is deformed according to the simulation performed on the underlying volumetric mesh.

  18. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Drosos, V.; Georgarakos, T.; Kourkoulis, R.


    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions, but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset. The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan, offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting, have (re)fueled the interest on the subject. This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation. The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps: the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil, and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner; and the second (at the global level) investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1. A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges, founded on piles or caissons. Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation. End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm. Floating piles perform better, and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections, they could survive much larger offsets. Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress. Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful. Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable, while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress). For large-span cantilever-construction bridges, where a statically determinate system is hardly an option, inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports. An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge, demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  19. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune


    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template......Deformable template models are a very popular and powerful tool within the field of image processing and computer vision. This thesis treats this type of models extensively with special focus on handling their common difficulties, i.e. model parameter selection, initialization and optimization....... A proper handling of the common difficulties is essential for making the models operational by a non-expert user, which is a requirement for intensifying and commercializing the use of deformable template models. The thesis is organized as a collection of the most important articles, which has been...

  20. Preparation of microstructured and nanostructured magnetic materials by mechanical deformation (United States)

    Giguère, Alexandre; Hai, Nguyen Hoang; Dempsey, Nora; Givord, Dominique


    A novel hydrostatic extrusion process utilising sacrificial Al billets has been developed to allow the size reduction by deformation of samples of various cross-sectional shape (e.g. square, rectangular). Cyclic deformation of a stack of sub-mm thick foils of magnetic and non-magnetic metals (Fe and Ag), combining extrusion with cold-rolling, has been used to prepare nanoscaled multilayered structures. 6% GMR was measured in the Fe/Ag multilayer system, after 4 deformation cycles, in the current-in-plane geometry at 4 K. Extrusion was also used to prepare micro-composite Sm/Fe structures which were subsequently heat treated to form magnetostrictive SmFe 2 rods with room temperature magnetostriction values as large as -800 ppm in the extrusion direction.

  1. First, Second Quantization and Q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillator (United States)

    Van Ngu, Man; Gia Vinh, Ngo; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Thanh, Luu Thi Kim; Viet, Nguyen Ai


    Relations between the first, the second quantized representations and deform algebra are investigated. In the case of harmonic oscillator, the axiom of first quantization (the commutation relation between coordinate and momentum operators) and the axiom of second quantization (the commutation relation between creation and annihilation operators) are equivalent. We shown that in the case of q-deformed harmonic oscillator, a violence of the axiom of second quantization leads to a violence of the axiom of first quantization, and inverse. Using the coordinate representation, we study fine structures of the vacuum state wave function depend in the deformation parameter q. A comparison with fine structures of Cooper pair of superconductivity in the coordinate representation is also performed.

  2. Deformed Gauge Theories (United States)

    Wess, Julius

    Gauge theories are studied on a space of functions with the Moyal product. The development of these ideas follows the differential geometry of the usual gauge theories, but several changes are forced upon us. The Leibniz rule has to be changed such that the theory is now based on a twisted Hopf algebra. Nevertheless, this twisted symmetry structure leads to conservation laws. The symmetry has to be extended from Lie algebra valued to enveloping algebra valued and new vector potentials have to be introduced. As usual, field equations are subjected to consistency conditions that restrict the possible models. Some examples are studied.

  3. Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies. (United States)

    Du, Gang; Sun, Mao


    We investigated the aerodynamic effects of wing deformation and corrugation of a three-dimensional model hoverfly wing at a hovering condition by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a dynamically deforming grid. Various corrugated wing models were tested. Insight into whether or not there existed significant aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation (camber and twist) and wing corrugation was obtained by comparing aerodynamic forces of four cases: a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid flat-plate wing in flapping motion); a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion with deformation; a corrugated wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid corrugated wing in flapping motion); a corrugated wing in flapping motion with deformation. There was little aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation and corrugation: the aerodynamic effect of wing deformation and corrugation acting together was approximately a superposition of those of deformation and corrugation acting separately. When acting alone, the effect of wing deformation was to increase the lift by 9.7% and decrease the torque (or aerodynamic power) by 5.2%, and that of wing corrugation was to decrease the lift by 6.5% and increase the torque by 2.2%. But when acting together, the wing deformation and corrugation only increased the lift by ~3% and decreased the torque by ~3%. That is, the combined aerodynamic effect of deformation and corrugation is rather small. Thus, wing corrugation is mainly for structural, not aerodynamic, purpose, and in computing or measuring the aerodynamic forces, using a rigid flat-plate wing to model the corrugated deforming wing at hovering condition can be a good approximation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han


    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  5. Comparison of Structural Disease Burden to Health-related Quality of Life Scores in 264 Adult Spinal Deformity Patients With 2-Year Follow-up: Novel Insights into Drivers of Disability. (United States)

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Scheer, Justin K; Gum, Jeffrey L; Horner, Lance; Hostin, Richard; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Burton, Douglas C; Keefe, Malla; Hart, Robert A; Mundis, Gregory M; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P


    This is a review of a prospective multicenter database. To investigate the relationship between preoperative disability and sagittal deformity in patients with high Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and no sagittal malalignment, or low ODI and high sagittal malalignment. The relationship between ODI and sagittal malalignment varies between each adult spinal deformity (ASD) patient. A prospective multicenter database of 365 patients with ASD undergoing surgical reconstruction was analyzed. Inclusion criteria entailed: age 18 years or above and the presence of spinal deformity as defined by a coronal Cobb angle≥20 degrees, sagittal vertical axis (SVA)≥5 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) angle≥25 degrees, or thoracic kyphosis≥60 degrees. Radiographic and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) variables were examined and compared, preoperatively and at 2-year postoperative follow-up. Group 1 (low disability high sagittal-LDHS) consisted of ODI40 and SVAneurological disorder. Both groups had similar 2-year improvements in HRQOL (P>0.05), except only HDLS had a significant Scoliosis Research Society Mental improvement and a significantly higher rate of reaching minimal clinically important differences in Scoliosis Research Society Mental scores (Pmental disease in HDLS. Furthermore, HDLS patients demonstrated similar improvements to LDHS. However, HDLS had greater improvements in the mental domains, perhaps indicating the responsiveness of the mental disability to surgical treatment. Level III.

  6. Ruthenium Aluminides: Deformation Mechanisms and Substructure Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresa M. Pollock


    Structural and functional materials that can operate in severe, high temperature environments are key to the operation of a wide range of energy generation systems. Because continued improvements in the energy efficiency of these systems is critical, the need for new materials with higher temperature capabilities is inevitable. Intermetallic compounds, with strong bonding and generally high melting points offer this possibility for a broad array of components such as coatings, electrode materials, actuators and/or structural elements. RuAl is a very unusual intermetallic compound among the large number of B2compounds that have been identified and investigated to date. This material has a very high melting temperature of 2050?C, low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and good corrosion resistance. Unlike most other high temperature B2 intermetallics, RuAl possesses good intrinsic deformability at low temperatures. In this program fundamental aspects of low and high temperature mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms in binary and higher order RuAl-based systems have been investigated. Alloying additions of interest included platinum, boron and niobium. Additionally, preliminary studies on high temperature oxidation behavior of these materials have been conducted.

  7. Deformation behavior of vanadium alloys containing hydrogen at constant stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiming Chen; Hui Cong; Yong Chen; Cong Li; Shaoyu Qiu


    Vanadium alloy, one of the candidates for next fusion reactors as structural materials, has the issue of mechanical property degradation by hydrogen absorption. In the present paper, V-4Cr-4Ti and an alternative V-6W-2.5Ti were studied for their tensile deformation behaviors at room temperature under constant load. The alloys contained 33-341 wppm H by a previous exposure in hydrogen gas at 500-800 o C for hours. Results showed hydrogen release during the tensile loading, which caused shrinkage of the specimens and the increase of elastic modulus and the decrease of tensile strength. Tensile holding the specimen at stress higher than yield strength led to a three-stage deformation behavior, similar to the traditional thermal creep but show stable deformation in the 3 rd stage. The steady deformation rate in this stage is much higher than that in the 2 nd one, and it increased with increasing hold stress and the increase of the hydrogen concentration. As the test temperature is fairly low, the deformation should be dislocation glide assisted and could be enhanced by hydrogen release. Hydrogen absorption and hydrogen release would bring about an issue of dimensional instability of structural components, which should be taken into account in the design. (author)

  8. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.


    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs

  9. Experimental characterization of heterogeneous deformation due to phase transformations, twinning, and slip deformation using digital image correlation (United States)

    Efstathiou, Christos

    In traditional continuum plasticity models, deformation heterogeneities are averaged out above the length scale of a representative volume element (RVE). Below this length scale, heterogeneities are permitted but must average out over the volume of the RVE. This is the so-called homogenization technique. In recent years, the emergence of systematic experimental investigations and numerical simulations have challenged traditional continuum plasticity models, which suggest homogeneous loads produce spatially homogeneous deformations in the absence of plastic instabilities. Knowledge of strain heterogeneities is important to enhance the performance of engineering devices and components. For example, as devices and components are miniaturized, strain heterogeneities may lead to structural instability, or even product failure. Manufacturing difficulties such as those commonly found in metal forming operations which include tearing, necking, edge cracking, and surface roughening are often attributed to heterogeneous deformation. It is also speculated that strain heterogeneities may develop into fatigue damage initiation sites as well as corrosion sites. The current work is focused on characterizing the spatial strain heterogeneity due to phase transformations, twinning, and slip deformation. Using digital image correlation to obtain full-field strain measurements at multiple length scales (ranging from micrometer to millimeter), it was shown that despite uniform microstructures and boundary conditions, each deformation mechanism manifested heterogeneously. Specifically, increasing strain heterogeneity was observed concurrent with decreasing the measurement length scale. It is shown that an appropriate length scale to obtain measurements can be determined for phase transformations, and twinning deformation, but not for slip deformation. No inherent length scale could be determined for slip deformation because no discrete boundaries between slipped and un-slipped domains

  10. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore


    geophysical data, such as teleseismic waveforms, strong motion records and GPS, have also been used by geophysicists for improved rupture models. Many models use equations for a uniform elastic half space stemming from the Okada formulation, but improved data constraints and the use of increasingly sophisticated modeling and inverse methods allowed for the exploration of models with variation of elastic properties in layers or more complex representation of fault and lithosphere structure and rheology. In volcanic studies the role of GPS and InSAR lies in the measurement of pre-eruptive inflation, co-eruptive deflation and the post-eruptive response. The spatio-temporal evolution of volcanic processes, the "breathing" of a volcano, can be monitored with temporal series of InSAR interferograms using multitemporal InSAR techniques. The measured deformation can be used as constraints for the formulation of the inverse problem, to retrieve information concerning the depth, size, shape of the magma chamber (and pressure change) and magma supply dynamics. Deformation modeling commonly relies on simple point sources, dikes and sills; or more complex volume-change sources to produce the different surface deformation patterns caused by magma intrusion.

  11. Spatiotemporal deformations of reflectionless potentials (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Longhi, S.


    Reflectionless potentials for classical or matter waves represent an important class of scatteringless systems encountered in different areas of physics. Here we mathematically demonstrate that there is a family of non-Hermitian potentials that, in contrast to their Hermitian counterparts, remain reflectionless even when deformed in space or time. These are the profiles that satisfy the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We start by considering scattering of matter waves for the Schrödinger equation with an external field, where a moving potential is observed in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. We then generalize this result to the case of electromagnetic waves, by considering a slab of reflectionless material that both is scaled and has its center displaced as an arbitrary function of position. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the backscattering from these profiles remains zero, even for extreme deformations. Our results indicate the supremacy of non-Hermitian Kramers-Kronig potentials over reflectionless Hermitian potentials in keeping their reflectionless property under deformation and could find applications to, e.g., reflectionless optical coatings of highly deformed surfaces based on perfect absorption.

  12. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  13. Cleft deformities (lip and palate)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Background: Cleft deformities (lip and palate) have been reported to be the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly in several settings. In Uganda, though two previous studies were conducted to determine the incidence of cleft lip and palate, the estimates obtained from those studies may not be precise given the ...

  14. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros


    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  16. Theoretical study on effect of radial and axial deformation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, localization of the electronic state near the Fermi level is weak in .... ods (32 C atoms and 32 Si atoms), 2 periods (16 C atoms and 16 Si atoms) and 2 periods (16 C atoms and .... tribute to conduction in deformed structures; FMOs are weakly localized that facilitates tunneling. 1·05 distortion are shown in figure 5.

  17. Full Core Multiphysics Simulation with Offline Mesh Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzari, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Obabko, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferencz, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitesides, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In this report, building on previous reports issued in FY13 we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core. The focus of the present report is a full core simulation with off-line mesh deformation.

  18. Small and large deformation behaviour of mixtures of xanthan and enzyme modified galactomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Luyten, H.; Vliet, van T.


    Small and large deformation properties of aqueous mixtures of xanthan with enzyme modified galactomannans at low ionic strength are discussed in terms of the theory of rubber elasticity and the structure of the galactomannans. The linear deformation region of the gels is small indicating that the

  19. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several...

  20. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. (United States)

    Fraissler, Lukas; Konrads, Christian; Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Walcher, Matthias


    Hallux valgus deformity is a very common pathological condition which commonly produces painful disability. It is characterised as a combined deformity with a malpositioning of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by a lateral deviation of the great toe and a medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone.Taking the patient's history and a thorough physical examination are important steps. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs of the entire foot are crucial for adequate assessment in the treatment of hallux valgus.Non-operative treatment of the hallux valgus cannot correct the deformity. However, insoles and physiotherapy in combination with good footwear can help to control the symptoms.There are many operative techniques for hallux valgus correction. The decision on which surgical technique is used depends on the degree of deformity, the extent of degenerative changes of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the shape and size of the metatarsal bone and phalangeal deviation. The role of stability of the first tarsometatarsal joint is controversial.Surgical techniques include the modified McBride procedure, distal metatarsal osteotomies, metatarsal shaft osteotomies, the Akin osteotomy, proximal metatarsal osteotomies, the modified Lapidus fusion and the hallux joint fusion. Recently, minimally invasive percutaneous techniques have gained importance and are currently being evaluated more scientifically.Hallux valgus correction is followed by corrective dressings of the great toe post-operatively. Depending on the procedure, partial or full weight-bearing in a post-operative shoe or cast immobilisation is advised. Post-operative radiographs are taken in regular intervals until osseous healing is achieved. Cite this article: Fraissler L, Konrads C, Hoberg M, Rudert M, Walcher M. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:295-302. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000005.