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  1. Compression of women's reproductive spans in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Hutter, [No Value; Willekens, F

    CONTEXT. The total fertility rate in Andhra Pradesh, India, has recently decreased to near-replacement level; however, the reasons for the fertility decline are unknown. METHODS: Data from the second round of the National Family Health Survey were used to examine the reproductive span-the duration

  2. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K

    2013-01-01

    Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  3. Tuberculosis management practices by private practitioners in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Shanta Achanta

    Full Text Available SETTING: Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC, and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. DESIGN: Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68% were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6% followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14% private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment. Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. CONCLUSION: Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.V.K.; Reddy, C.G.; Reddy, P.Y.; Reddy, K.R.; Reddy, B.S.; Sagar, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years, there has been a great deal of concern and awareness all over the world about the exposure from environmental radiation and its perceived detrimental effects. Therefore, it becomes mandatory to estimate the radiation levels not only for the purpose of prospecting for nuclear fuels but also for determination of safe human habitat regions. In the present study, an attempt is made to estimate the natural radioactivity levels in the soils of Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India using NaI(Tl) gamma scintillation spectrometer. The mean uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations in soils of the district are found to be 27±17, 81±51 and 726±289 Bq Kg -1 , respectively. The gamma dose rates are calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR 2000. The gamma radiation dose in air is also measured directly by using thermoluminescence dosimetry and G.M.(Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. The correlation between the dose rates derived from these two techniques is discussed. The dose variation with the geology has been analysed. (authors)

  5. Games for groundwater governance: field experiments in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ruth Meinzen-Dick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a common-pool resource that is subject to depletion in many places around the world as a result of increased use of irrigation and water-demanding cash crops. Where state capacity to control groundwater use is limited, collective action is important to increase recharge and restrict highly water-consumptive crops. We present results of field experiments in hard rock areas of Andhra Pradesh, India, to examine factors affecting groundwater use. Two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs ran the games in communities where they were working to improve watershed and water management. Results indicate that, when the links between crop choice and groundwater depletion is made explicit, farmers can act cooperatively to address this problem. Longer NGO involvement in the villages was associated with more cooperative outcomes in the games. Individuals with more education and higher perceived community social capital played more cooperatively, but neither gender nor method of payment had a significantly effect on individual behavior. When participants could repeat the game with communication, similar crop choice patterns were observed. The games provided an entry point for discussion on the understanding of communities of the interconnectedness of groundwater use and crop choice.

  6. Combining Work and School: The Dynamics of Girls' Involvement in Agricultural Work in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Morrow, Virginia; Vennam, Uma

    2010-01-01

    Child labour in India has long been the focus of research, policy concern and intervention. This article presents an analysis of children's involvement in agricultural work, particularly cottonseed production, drawing on evidence gathered for Young Lives in 2007 and 2008. In parts of Andhra Pradesh, children work in cotton fields for two or three…

  7. Organizational Climate as Perceived by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons of Andhra Pradesh in India

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    Ratnayake, Talata Chandrakanthi; Gupta, Jancy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify various organizational climatic factors responsible for role performances of veterinary officers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Design/methodology/approach: Study was conducted in 11 selected districts. Data were collected from 220 respondents through a pretested interview schedule and subjected to correlation and multiple…

  8. Additions to black mildews of Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of seven black mildew fungi belonging to the genera Asterina, Prillieuxina, Sarcinella and Schiffnerula. Of these, Sarcinella chloroxyli and Sarcinella strychni are the new species while the others are reported for the first time from Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  9. Blocked learning in development aid? Reporting success rather than failure in Andhra Pradesh, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Pasgaard, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to understand why development organizations tend to report project success rather than failure which blocks learning from project problems. Drawing on the case of a World Bank forestry project in Andhra Pradesh, India, the article analyses different interlinked sites of project...

  10. New population of Cycas spheric Roxb. (Cycadaceae discovered in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    J.P. Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycas sphaerica Roxb., an Eastern Ghats endemic, known from different localities of Odisha and Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh is located in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 700 individuals were observed in the study area. Present report extends the distribution range of the species in Andhra Pradesh.

  11. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  12. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  13. Feminist Collective Activism in Telangana, South India: Exemplary by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ms Julia Guenther

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at contributing to the ongoing debate of feminist standpoint epistemology by introducing a study on feminist collective activism in Sangareddy and Yellareddy, two districts of the newly established 29th state of India, Telangana. The purpose here is to document the work of two sanghams (collectives) by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society (APMSS). The focus lies on songs created by Dalit and indigenous women, which are used as a form of, protest against societal and ge...

  14. First report of Eutropis innovate (Blanford, 1870 (Reptilia: Scincidae from Nallamalai Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K.T. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Eutropis innotata (Blanford, 1870 based on a specimen collected in 2002 from Gundla Brahmeswaram Metta Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. The habitat from where it was collected is relatively undisturbed patch of forest in the Nallamalai Hills of Eastern Ghats. This constitutes the range extension of this species from central India to Nallamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats in peninsular India. We provide details on its diagnosis, habits and habitat, and key to species belonging to the genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843.

  15. Distribution of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 (Reptilia: Scincidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879, hitherto a Western Ghats endemic species, has been recently recorded from the central Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh based on a specimen collected in the Nallamalai Hills in 2003. Our herpetological surveys in Andhra Pradesh reveal the presence of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in a few more localities other than the Nallamalai Hills. This paper deals with the distribution and status of Lygosoma guentheri (Peter, 1879 in Andhra Pradesh based on recent sightings and collections.

  16. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  17. Ecology and conservation status of canebrakes in Warangal District of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    S. Suthari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes cane-cum-bat roost site at Palampet (Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Although notified as a cane reserve by the state government, it is not spared off the usual habitat depletion and destruction. The functional pyramid formed of Calamus-Terminalia-Pteropus is reported here as first of its kind. This article also places on record seven more cane sites besides noting the importance of the ecology of Morancha Vagu and stressing the need for preserving its banks by planting Calamus rotang L. Ecological education to the local people about biodiversity value and conservation at all levels of its organization is called for.

  18. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Raju, M. M.; Kumar, A.; Bisht, D.; Rao, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    The rapid escalation in the prices of oil and gas as well as increasing demand for energy has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers to explore the possibility of generating and utilizing the alternative and renewable sources of wind energy in the long coastal belt of India with considerable wind energy resources. A detailed analysis of wind potential is a prerequisite to harvest the wind energy resources efficiently. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyze the wind energy potential to assess feasibility of the wind-pump operated irrigation system in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, where high ground water table conditions are available. The stochastic analysis of wind speed data were tested to fit a probability distribution, which describes the wind energy potential in the region. The normal and Weibull probability distributions were tested; and on the basis of Chi square test, the Weibull distribution gave better results. Hence, it was concluded that the Weibull probability distribution may be used to stochastically describe the annual wind speed data of coastal Andhra Pradesh with better accuracy. The size as well as the complete irrigation system with mass curve analysis was determined to satisfy various daily irrigation demands at different risk levels.

  19. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  20. Aliiglaciecola coringensis sp. nov., isolated from a water sample collected from mangrove forest in Coringa, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Gupta, V.; Sharma, G.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain AK49(T) was isolated from a water sample from a mangrove forest in Coringa village, Andhra Pradesh, India. Strain AK49(T) was observed to form yellow coloured, smooth...

  1. Addition to araneofauna of Andhra Pradesh, India: occurrence of three species of Argyrodes Simon, 1864 (Araneae: Theridiidae

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    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three spider species, namely, Argyrodes nephilae Taczanowski, 1872, A. argentatus O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 and A. flavescens O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 from the family Theridiidae from Andhra Pradesh for the first time. A. nephilae constitutes the first record of this species from India. All the species have been recorded from the webs of Araneidae spiders.

  2. Diet & nutrition profile of Chenchu population - A vulnerable tribe in Telangana & Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Rao, K Mallikharjuna; Kumar, R Hari; Krishna, K Sreerama; Bhaskar, V; Laxmaiah, A

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have documented high prevalence of undernutrition, morbidity and mortality among Chenchus, a tribal population in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India. The present study was carried out to assess diet and nutritional status of Chenchus and cause of death. A total of 42 Chenchu villages (gudems) were covered using systematic random sampling procedure. In each gudem, all the households with at least one child under the age of five years were covered for various investigations. Weighment diet survey was carried out on a sub-sample of households. In addition, information on cause of death in the selected 42 gudems was collected for past one year using verbal autopsy method. A total of 1396 subjects of all age groups were covered for various investigations. The intakes of food and nutrients were lower than the recommended levels. The prevalences of underweight, stunting and wasting among under five children were 42 per cent (CI: 37.9-46.1), 53 and 13 per cent, respectively, while 41 per cent (CI: 37.8-47.2) men and 42 per cent (34.4-47.8) women had chronic energy deficiency (BMIpopulation was comparable with other tribal and rural counterparts in Andhra Pradesh, however, the crude death rate (11.7/1000) was higher among the Chenchus. Steps may be taken to promote consumption of balanced diet and utilization of optimal healthcare facilities to control morbidity and mortality.

  3. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Reddy Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies.

  4. Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Reddy, Srinivas Gosla; Reddy, Rajgopal R.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Prasad, Rajendra; Ettema, Anke M.; Sailer, Hermann F.; Bergé, Stefaan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence of cleft lip and palate defects in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Design Setting: The study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The state has a population of 76 million. Three districts, Cuddapah, Medak and Krishna, were identified for this study owing to their diversity. They were urban, semi-urban and rural, respectively. Literacy rates and consanguinity of the parents was elicited and was compared to national averages to find correlations to cleft births. Type and side of cleft were recorded to compare with other studies around the world and other parts of India. Results: The birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births. This study found that 65% of the children born with clefts were males. The distribution of the type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts. Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients. Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided. There was a significant correlation of children with clefts being born to parents who shared a consanguineous relationship and those who were illiterate with the odds ratio between 5.25 and 7.21 for consanguinity and between 1.55 and 5.85 for illiteracy, respectively. Conclusion: The birth rate of clefts was found to be comparable with other Asian studies, but lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations and higher than in African populations. The incidence was found to be similar to other studies done in other parts of India. The distribution over the various types of cleft was comparable to that found in other studies. PMID:21217978

  5. KIR genotyping in the selected population in Andhra Pradesh (India).

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    Vaishnav, G; Krupanidhi, S; Sanjeevi, C B

    2014-01-01

    The population is not always homogeneous in relation to the representation and functioning of genes. Therefore, the presence of allogenicity is a universal phenomenon. The profound variability is noticed among the members of the human population with reference to the resistance against infections and late onset of diseases. In this line, a few sets of alleles which come under the domain of immune function namely KIRs (Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genes) and HLA-I have been chosen to report in the population of Puttaparthi (India). The genotyping of the population is the current ongoing focus of our team wherein the distribution of the following alleles has been taken up in the mixed ethnic groups of Puttaparthi as a prelude to earmark them as genotypic markers in future studies relating to susceptible diseases. The PCR protocols for the identified immune related genes viz., KIR- 2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 2DP1, 3DP1; HLA- C1 and HLA-C2 have been standardized. In the present study, except KIR 2DL2, the other non-framework inhibitory KIR genes were represented at higher percentage and ranged from 57% to 80% in the chosen population which would suggest its higher survival adaptation. Interestingly, the majority of activating KIR genes were least represented and varied between 5% to 32.5% which is also in compliance with the survival adaptation of the chosen population. The carrier gene frequencies of KIRs were compared with the other populations' viz., Chinese Mongolian, Chinese Han, Greek and Brazilian data. The expected heterozygosity of KIR alleles and their rank in gene diversity among the population of Puttaparthi were also discussed.

  6. Traditional food consumption and nutritional status of Dalit mothers in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India.

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    Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V

    2006-11-01

    To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies to improve nutritional status.

  7. Finger ridge count correlations among four tribes of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Kusuma, Y S; Babu, B V; Naidu, J M

    2002-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of finger ridge count correlations among four tribal populations from Andhra Pradesh, India viz., Dulia, Kotia, Manne Dora and Manzai Mali, and examines the intra and inter population variation. Higher correlations are recorded in left hands compared to right hands, but they are not significant. The homologous fingers exhibit a stronger correlation. In all the tribes, the correlations between right hand fingers are relatively higher among women when compared to men. Regarding inter population variation Dulia men differ significantly from the men of Manne Dora and the Manzai Mali tribes, and Kotia women also differ from the women of the Manne Dora significantly. The average correlation coefficient of the present populations is similar to other Indian populations reported earlier but lower than African and European populations.

  8. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  9. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

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    Kumar G Anil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

  11. Indoor thoron studies along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sudarshan, A.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The beach sands of the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh are well known for heavy metal mineralization. The process of extraction of the metals can enhance the natural background radiation levels and hence it is essential to establish the radiological base-line data to take necessary remedial action to preserve and protect the coastal environment. The assessment of indoor radioactivity levels has been carried out by choosing 13 villages long the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh covering around 150 km from Vishakapattanam to Kalingapattanam. The present paper discusses the indoor thoron levels in the areas along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh. The SSNTD based twin chamber dosimeters were employed for the assessment of the concentration of thoron and its progeny levels. The average indoor thoron concentrations in this area are found to be 44.1 ± 28.2 Bq.m -3 . The inhalation dose due to thoron has been evaluated using equilibrium factors and discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Geospatial monitoring and prioritization of forest fire incidences in Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Manaswini, G; Sudhakar Reddy, C

    2015-10-01

    Forest fire has been identified as one of the key environmental issue for long-term conservation of biodiversity and has impact on global climate. Spatially multiple observations are necessary for monitoring of forest fires in tropics for understanding conservation efficacy and sustaining biodiversity in protected areas. The present work was carried out to estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas and fire frequency using Resourcesat Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that an area of 7514.10 km(2) (29.22% of total forest cover) has been affected by forest fires. Six major forest types are distributed in Andhra Pradesh, i.e. semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, dry evergreen, thorn and mangroves. Of the total forest burnt area, dry deciduous forests account for >75%. District-wise analysis shows that Kurnool, Prakasam and Cuddapah have shown >100 km(2) of burnt area every year. The total forest burnt area estimate covering protected areas ranges between 6.9 and 22.3% during the study period. Spatial burnt area analysis for protected areas in 2014 indicates 37.2% of fire incidences in the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve followed by 20.2 % in the Sri Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, 20.1% in the Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and 17.4% in the Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The analysis of cumulative fire occurrences from 2009 to 2014 has helped in delineation of conservation priority hotspots using a spatial grid cell approach. Conservation priority hotspots I and II are distributed in major parts of study area including protected areas of the Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve and Gundla Brahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary. The spatial database generated will be useful in studies related to influence of fires on species adaptability, ecological damage assessment and conservation planning.

  13. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

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    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  14. Tree species diversity in the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India

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    M. Tarakeswara Naidu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to analyze tree species diversity in the tropical forests of the Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh, India.  A total of 270 species of trees (≥15cm girth at breast height pertaining to 177 genera belonging to 55 families were recorded.  Among the 270 species, 141 species were observed to be common, 78 were occasional and 51 species were rare in the study area.  Fabaceae was the dominant family with 33 species followed by Rubiaceae with 15 species and Malvaceae, Moraceae and Phyllanthaceae with 13 species each.  The genera with the highest number of species include Ficus (12 species, Diospyros (8 species, Albizia and Grewia (6 species each, Acacia and Bauhinia (5 species each.  Forty-five percent of the species were indigenous. This illustrates the diversity of the tree species in the studied area of the Eastern Ghats and also emphasizes the need for their conservation. 

  15. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  16. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi- structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  17. Feminist Collective Activism in Telangana, South India: Exemplary by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society

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    Ms Julia Guenther

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at contributing to the ongoing debate of feminist standpoint epistemology by introducing a study on feminist collective activism in Sangareddy and Yellareddy, two districts of the newly established 29th state of India, Telangana. The purpose here is to document the work of two sanghams (collectives by the Andhra Pradesh Mahila Samatha Society (APMSS. The focus lies on songs created by Dalit and indigenous women, which are used as a form of, protest against societal and gender inequality. Those songs contribute in making a positive difference on a local level. Analysis of two group interviews strengthens this argument. The sanghams have shown that despite all societal differences, solidarity among women for a common cause can make a difference in combating social issues on a local level. Taking the APMSS as an example, this research shows that the use of a holistic approach to education to support women in their responses to social issues has an overall positive effect on women. Furthermore, and most importantly, women are strengthened in believing that their life-experiences matter. My research shows that literacy is not necessarily needed to be a successful advocate for women´s rights. What is needed, however, is an understanding of local contexts, social issues and ultimately the ability to link them to life-experiences.

  18. Seasonal Distribution of Phytoplankton in Riwada Reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi KAPARAPU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with seasonal variations, correlation coefficient and biodiversity indices of phytoplankton during April 2011 to March 2012 in the Riwada reservoir, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sampling was performed at five stations during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon. There were a total of 57 genera belonging to four major groups i.e., Chlorophyceae (27 genera, Bacillariophyceae (14 genera, Cyanophyceae (13 genera and Euglenophyceae (three genera. Maximum and minimum total phytoplankton population and percentages were recorded at station three in pre monsoon and at station two during monsoon. The maximum and minimum species richness (Menhinick index R2 were found to be 1.29 at station one and 1.10 at station three respectively. Maximum and minimum species diversity (H1 were found at station four (3.98 and station two (3.71. Maximum species evenness was recorded at stations one, being four and five; minimum species evenness was recorded at station two. Correlation coefficient matrix indicated significant positive relationship with water temperature, pH, transparency, biological oxygen demand and chlorides, negative relationship with electric conductivity, total solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, sulphates and phosphates of water. The diversity indices showed that the reservoir have a well balanced phytoplankton community.

  19. Groundwater quality from a part of Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, N.

    2018-03-01

    Quality of groundwater is assessed from a part of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Groundwater samples collected from thirty locations from the study area were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), bicarbonate ( {HCO}3^{ - } ), chloride (Cl-), sulphate ( {SO}4^{2 - } ), nitrate ( {NO}3^{ - } ) and fluoride (F-). The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater is alkaline in nature and are mainly characterized by Na+- {HCO}3^{ - } and Na+-Cl- facies. Groundwater chemistry reflects the dominance of rock weathering and is subsequently modified by human activities, which are supported by genetic geochemical evolution and hydrogeochemical relations. Further, the chemical parameters (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - } , {NO}3^{ - } and F-) were compared with the drinking water quality standards. The sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, permeability index, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio and Kelly's ratio were computed and USSL, Wilcox and Doneen's diagrams were also used for evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation. For industrial purpose, the pH, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - } , Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } were used to assess the impact of incrustation and corrosion activities on metal surfaces. As a whole, it is observed that the groundwater quality is not suitable for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes due to one or more chemical parameters exceeding their standard limits. Therefore, groundwater management measures were suggested to improve the water quality.

  20. A study of infant deaths in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushashree Garikipati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of neonatal deaths and its underlying correlates in tribal area of Andhra Pradesh, India Methods We conducted a two phase cross-sectional study (N=230. Semi-structured questionnaire schedules (in the vernacular-Telugu were used in the initial qualitative phase, to obtain specific information from mothers who delivered in a one year period prior to the study. Information from the analysed qualitative data was used to construct a questionnaire-schedule for the 2nd phase which used quantitative survey techniques. Results It was observed that Infant Mortality ratio (IMR in Vizianagaram district was 239 per 1000 live births in the tribal areas under study. This was ten times higher than that reported by the district (22/1000 and 4-5 times higher than SRS data of 2011 for AP. It was observed that 28% of infants died within first day, 68% within first week (including the first day and 81% within first month. Conclusions The high IMR observed in the within first month of life in tribal areas, interventions to tackle them should be prioritized in this ‘golden period’. The health workers should be re-trained to identify and manage the early warning signs of neonatal complications.

  1. External gamma radiation dose studies in the proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.; Reddy, K.; Reddy, C.; Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation sources contribute the largest component to the total effective dose received by the human population. Among these sources, natural background gamma radiation shares a noteworthy amount. The present study aims at the establishment of baseline environmental gamma radiation data in the environs of proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. To this end, a systematic study has been undertaken using Thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters and G.M. (Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. These levels are estimated both indoors and outdoors in the study area covering about 23 villages surrounding the proposed mining sites. The estimated external gamma radiation levels (air kerma) varied from 0.605 to 4.39 mGy.y -1 . The mean indoor to outdoor radiation level ratio is found to be 1.1 ± 0.1. The estimated mean equivalent doses due to external background radiation in the villages of the study area range from 1.03 to 2.83 mSv.y -1 with a mean of 2.34 ± 0.39 mSv.y -1 . (authors)

  2. Palynological dating of a coal seam in Ayyanapalem area, Khamman District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Ramanujam, C.G.K. (Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad (India). Southern Region)

    1990-05-25

    A palynological study of five subsurface samples of a coal seam near Ayyanapalem, Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, was carried out. Twenty-five genera, including monosaccate, striate and nonstriate bisaccate, and trilete sporomorphs were identified; striate bisaccates predominate. Based on occurrence of {ital Rhizomaspora, Microbaculispora, Indotriradites, Crucisaccites ital} and {ital Corisaccites}, the coal seam is inferred to be similar in age to the Permian age Barakar Formation of the Lower Gondwana. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae, Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae, Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae, Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae, Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae. These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.

  4. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  5. Increasing Choice or Inequality? Pathways through Early Education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 58. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streuli, Natalia; Vennam, Uma; Woodhead, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This working paper is part of the Studies in Early Transitions series emerging from "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. It explores recent trends for children growing up in Andhra Pradesh, one of India's most populous states, based on Young Lives survey data collected for…

  6. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus--a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Shukla, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Rao, A P; Saksena, Deepti; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is expressed in the central nervous system and has a high affinity for many antipsychotic drugs. Besides several epidemiological investigations on association of DRD2 locus polymorphism(s) with neuropsychiatric problems and addictive behavior, a few polymorphisms in this locus have also been used to understand genomic diversity and population migratory histories globally. The present study attempts to understand the genomic diversity/affinity among four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh (India) against the backdrop of diversity studies from other parts of India and the rest of the world, with special reference to DRD2 locus. The four population groups from Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh, namely, Brahmin (n=50), Nayakpod (n=49), Thoti (n=52), and Kolam (n=53), were included in the study. The DRD2 markers typed for the present study are three biallelic restriction fragments, that is, TaqI A (rs1800497), TaqI B (rs1079597), and TaqI D (rs1800498). Scoring of DRD2 haplotypes with respect to the three TaqI sites shows that five out of eight possible haplotypes are shared by the four populations. Ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 is most frequent among Thotis (0.359). The results of the present study indicate a differential gene flow into South India followed by certain important demographic events resulting in diversified peopling of India.

  7. Applications of Self-Organising Map (SOM) for prioritisation of endemic zones of filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Upadhayula Suryanaryana; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Sriram, K; Rao, K Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Entomological and epidemiological data of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) was collected from 120 villages of four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Self-Organising Maps (SOMs), data-mining techniques, was used to classify and prioritise the endemic zones of filariasis. The results show that, SOMs classified all the villages into three major clusters by considering the data of Microfilaria (MF) rate, infection, infectivity rate and Per Man Hour (PMH). By considering the patterns of cluster, appropriate decision can be drawn for each parameter that is responsible for disease transmission of filariasis. Hence, SOM will certainly be a suitable tool for management of filariasis. The detailed application of SOM is discussed in this paper.

  8. Consanguinity and its relationship to differential fertility and mortality in the Kotia: a tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim; Naidu, J M; Mascie-Taylor, C G

    1997-04-01

    Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The mean inbreeding coefficient for the sample (F) was 0.0172. Women in consanguineous marriages had a lower mean number of total conceptions, live births and living offspring (net fertility) than women in non-consanguineous marriages. Significant heterogeneity was found in the means of living offspring for FSD, MBD and non-consanguineous couples, but not for conceptions and live births.

  9. Correlation of indoor radon levels with physical properties of local soil in Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Bhaskar Reddy, G.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon contributes significantly to the total radiation exposure caused to human beings. As might be expected, the physical characteristics of soil play key roles in determining the radon concentration in nearby buildings. The physical characteristics of soil, such as density, specific gravity and porosity in the vicinity of the dwellings of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, have been determined using core cutter and specific gravity bottle. In the present paper, these parameters are correlated with the average indoor radon levels estimated for a year using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author)

  10. Profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripi, Sunita Bhargavi; Thadepalli, Venu Gopala Rao; Khagga, Mukkanti; Tripuraribhatla, Prasanna Krishna; Bharadwaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Data on antibiotic usage and susceptibility patterns were collected from public and private health centres in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, through the use of questionnaires. The data collected were then coded, tabulated, computed and evaluated using statistical analysis. The consumption profile of the different categories of drugs used in public and private hospitals was as follows: nutrition and metabolism products 19.0%; gastrointestinal disorder-related drugs 18.5%; antibiotics 16.8%; anti-pyretics and anti-analgesics 20.6%. These drugs were found to be in high demand. Among the antibiotics, aminoglycosides (amikacin), quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline), penicillin (ampicillin) and sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for antibiotic therapy. 46% of the culture laboratory reports were positive with the following organism profile: Escherichia coli (36%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%). In terms of the sensitivity profile of antibacterials, amikacin (66.9%) was the only antibiotic showing sensitivity patterns, while the majority of antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin, had acquired a resistance rate of 55.1%-80.6%. The results of this study suggest that indiscriminate prescription and consumption of new broad-spectrum antibiotics against sensitive organisms results in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to curb the excessive use of antibiotics in local hospitals in order to control the trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.

  11. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  12. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  13. Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs

  14. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  15. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  16. Prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    B Hari Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%. Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.

  17. Learning networks matter: challenges to developing learning-based competence in mango production and post-harvest in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, L.P.; Odame, H.H.; Hall, A.; Sulaiman, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    This discussion paper explores aspects of innovation systems ideas in the analysis of mango production and export by smallscale farmers in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The paper shows how despite favourable agro-ecological conditions and being the largest international mango producer, India still struggles to build momentum in rapidly emerging export markets. An analysis of the sector's recent history combined with an empirical account of inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral linkage...

  18. Coastal processes along north Kakinada Coast, Andhra Pradesh based on short-term study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raju, N.S.N.; AshokKumar, K.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Kakinada is situated in the central part of the Andhra Pradesh State on the east coast of India. To cater to recreational activities of the people in this coastal town, the Andhra Pradesh State Government has taken up an interactive to develop...

  19. What influences the decision to undergo institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants? A cohort study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M; Ariana, P; Webster, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuing efforts to promote skilled institutional delivery, eight women die every hour in India due to causes related to pregnancy and child birth. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and the determinants of institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants in a rural population in Andhra Pradesh, India. This cross-sectional study used data from 'Young Lives', a longitudinal study on childhood poverty, and the study population was a cohort of 1419 rural, economically deprived women (from the Young Lives study) in Andhra Pradesh, India. The data are from round-1 of Young Lives younger cohort recruited in 2002 and followed until 2015. The participation rate of households was 99.5%. Prevalence of skilled institutional delivery was 36.8%. Women's education (odds ratio [OR] for secondary education 2.06; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.33-3.19), desire to be pregnant (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.12-3.22) and adequate prenatal care (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.30-2.21) were found to be the positive determinants of skilled institutional delivery. High birth order (OR for second birth 0.44; 95% CI 0.32-0.60, OR for third birth 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.72 and OR for ≥fourth 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.81), schedule caste/schedule tribe social background (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.93) and poor economic status of the household (OR for the poorest households 0.67; 95% CI 0.46-0.99) were negatively associated with skilled institutional delivery. Despite existence of supporting schemes, the utilisation of skilled institutional delivery services was low in the study population. Educated women and women with adequate prenatal care who have a desired pregnancy were more likely to utilise health institutions and skilled delivery care. There is a need for integrated approaches through maternal health, family planning and education programs, and a focus on uneducated, poor women belonging to disadvantaged social groups.

  20. Detection and confirmation of PPR virus antigen in sheep and goats by sandwich-ELISA and RT-PCR in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Rapid and accurate laboratory assay are essential to enable the implementation of appropriate control strategies to restrict the spread of PPR. The present study was designed to detect the PPR virus (PPRV antigen (N-gene in nasal swabs and tissue samples. A total of 195 samples comprising of 138 nasal swabs from PPR suspected sheep (n=72 and goats (n=66, and 57 tissue samples comprising of lymph nodes from dead sheep (n=39 and goats (n=18 were collected from certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The samples were subjected to sandwich-ELISA followed by RT-PCR for confirmatory diagnosis. In this study, PPRV could be detected in 27.53% (n=38/138 nasal swabs and 49.12% (n=28/57 tissue samples. Data showed that PPRV infection is widespread in the Andhra Pradesh, India.

  1. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  2. Institutional dynamics and barriers in wind energy development. A case study of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesh, Anumakonda

    1999-09-01

    In India, there was a boom in 1995-96 when 282 MW windfarms were set up in Tamil Nadu and the capacity in Andhra Pradesh increased by 39 MW. Then there was a steady decline in the windfarm development in both states. The case study described in this report attempts to trace the reasons for the boom and the factors that have contributed to the slump in windfarm development in these two states. The role of institutions in determining the effectiveness of national and regional public sector initiatives to promote and disseminate wind energy in the two states is discussed. The study also examines the financial, technical, transaction and institutional barriers, which inhibit the diffusion of wind energy in the states. It is suggested that important measures must be taken if wind energy is to develop rapidly in the two states. The result of the case study may be used to improve public policy intervention in disseminating wind energy in India. It may also be relevant to multilateral and bilateral aid agencies in their projects and/or programmes to promote cost-effective wind energy technology dissemination in developing countries. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Udayagiri area, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, South India Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

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    Arveti Nagaraju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in and around Udayagiri area of Andhra Pradesh in order to assess the chemistry of the groundwater and to identify the dominant hydrogeochemical processes and mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the chemical composition of the groundwater. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrices, principal component analysis (PCA, together with cluster analysis (CA were used to gain an understanding of the hydrogeochemical processes in the study area. PCA has identified 4 main processes influencing the groundwater chemistry viz., mineral precipitation and dissolution, seawater intrusion, cation exchange, and carbonate balance. Further, three clusters C1, C2 and C3 were obtained. Samples from C1 contain high level of Cl− and may be due to the intensive evaporation and contamination from landfill leachate. Most of the samples from C2 are located closer to the sea and the high level of Na+ +K+ in these samples may be attributed to seawater intrusion. The geochemistry of water samples in C3 are more likely to originate from rock weathering. This has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The groundwater geochemistry in the study area is mostly of natural origin, but is influenced to some degree by human activity.    Evaluación de la calidad del agua subterránea a través de técnicas estadísticas multivariadas en el área Udayagiri, distrito Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, en el sur de India Resumen Se realizaron estudios hidrogeoquímicos en y alrededor del área Udayagiri de Andhra Pradesh para evaluar la química del agua subterránea e identificar los procesos hidrogeoquímicos dominantes y los mecanismos responsables de la evolución en la composición química del agua subterránea. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas, matrices de correlación, análisis de componentes principales, al igual que análisis de grupos, para obtener y entender los procesos hidrogeoquímicos en el área de estudio. Los an

  4. Methodological issues in developing a community forestry greenhouse gas emissions mitigation project in Mancherial forest division of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, I.K.; Hegde, G.T.; Sudha, P.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are several contentious issues related to forestry mitigation projects. The special report of the IPCC and literature published so far have shown that permanence, leakage, baseline establishment, measurement, monitoring, etc., could be addressed satisfactorily using existing scientific methods and accounting rules. To understand the methodological issues of developing community forestry projects, a case study was conducted in Mancherial forest division of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This paper addresses: the setting of project boundaries, baseline selection, establishment of additionality and the calculation of carbon sequestration as a result of the project, prior to project implementation. The steps involved in development of the project and the different methods used for establishing baseline, estimating leakage and transaction cost of developing a community forestry project are presented. The stock is projected to increase by 1480 x 10 3 t C during 2000-2012 over the baseline scenario under the modeling approach and the cost of establishing a baseline and project formulation for a project extending over 32,956 ha is estimated to be US$ 1.25 ha -1 and US$ 4 t C -1

  5. On the fission track dating and annealing behaviour of accessory minerals of Eastern Ghats (Andhra Pradesh, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the etching of fission fragment damage tracks for an estimation of the uranium content of apatite and zircon crystals is described. The etching conditions have been studied for which visible tracks are developed. Fission track determined ages of 25 samples of apatite and zircon crystals from four widely separated regions of India; the Borra mines (Vishakapatanam), Kashipatnam (Vishakapatnam), the Khamam area (Andhra Pradesh) and the Kodrama mines (Bihar) have been determined. Mean ages for these regions are 456 +- 5, 389 +- 4, 486 +- 7 and 664 +- 7 million years respectively. It is concluded that the fission track ages of the minerals date the last metamorphic event of the Eastern Ghats, known as the Indian Ocean Cycle. Annealing studies confirm that radiation damaged fossil tracks can be erased in minerals under intense metamorphic episodes, thus resetting the geological clock. Extrapolation of the experimentally determined temperatures for annealing suggest that a temperature of 170 0 C in 10 6 years will erase all the tracks in the apatite mineral. The uranium concentration has been estimated to be approximately 10 -8 gm/gm in apatite and approximately 10 -6 gm/gm in zircon. (Auth.)

  6. Poverty and development in a marginal community: case study of a settlement of the Sugali Tribe in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Eswarappa

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.

  7. Rearranging social space: Boundary-making and boundary-work in a joint forest management project, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito-Jensen Moeko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing trend in developing countries to shift from state driven approaches to Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM. In order to ensure sustainability of resources, the need for creating and maintaining clear resource use boundaries has been emphasised, both theoretically and in practice. However, there has been less attention to the varied social consequences for involved villages (whose inhabitants can access resources within the new boundaries and for excluded villages (whose inhabitants are prevented from accessing resources due to these boundaries. Drawing on a case study of three villages affected by the Joint Forest Management project in Andhra Pradesh, India, this article shows how resource use boundaries interact with social categories such as caste, gender and livelihood occupation in ways that facilitate asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits among local people. The article calls for more consultative processes in constituting new resources use boundaries and for flexible interventions to reconcile conflicts arising from boundary-making.

  8. Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Suryawanshi, Dipak; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2017-11-01

    Accessibility and frequency of use of health care services among female sex workers (FSWs) are constrained by various factors. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of frequency of using health care services under targeted interventions among FSWs. A sample of FSWs (N = 1,973) was obtained from a second round (2012) of Behavioral Tracking Survey, conducted in five districts of Andhra Pradesh, a high-HIV-prevalence state in southern India. We used negative binomial regression models to analyze frequency of utilization of health care services among FSWs. Based on our analysis, we suggest that various predisposing and enabling factors were found to be significantly associated with the visit to NGO clinics for treatment of any health problem, any sexually transmitted infection symptom, and the number of condoms received from the peer worker or condom depot. We suggest the need for further research with respect to various correlates of frequency of using health care among FSWs to develop effective intervention strategies in countries that have high HIV prevalence among FSWs and targeted interventions need more diligent implementation to reach the unreached.

  9. The timing of death in patients with tuberculosis who die during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Andhra Pradesh, South India

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    Jonnalagada Subbanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB-related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India:- i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with "early" death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methods This was a retrospective study in 16 selected Designated Microscopy Centres (DMCs in Hyderabad, Krishna and Adilabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, South India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2005 to September 2009. Results There were 8,240 TB patients (5183 males of whom 492 (6% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (12% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (2%. There was an even distribution of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment, with 28% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with "early death". Conclusion In this large cohort of TB patients, deaths occurred with an even frequency throughout anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed.

  10. A Single-hole stone anchor from Kottapatnam: Early historic port site of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, K.P.; Kumari, S.; Imsong, O.; Vanlalhruaitluangi, V.

    of Kottapatnam and this is the first stone anchor reported from Andhra coast. In this paper the single hole stone anchor has been detailed along with its probable period and the trade contacts of Kottapatnam as a port...

  11. Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Inundation and Velocity Hazard Mapping of the State of Andhra Pradesh (India) using ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.

  12. Maritime History of Andhra Pradesh and Prospects for Marine Archaeological Research

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Archaeological, epigraphical, numismatic and other sources confirm that similar to ports in other coastal states of India, the ports of Andhra Pradesh had played a significant role in spreading Indian culture overseas to other countries. In course...

  13. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  15. Groundwater targeting in a hard-rock terrain using fracture-pattern modeling, Niva River basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, Y.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Nayudu, P. T.

    2000-09-01

    In hard-rock terrain, due to the lack of primary porosity in the bedrock, joints, fault zones, and weathered zones are the sources for groundwater occurrence and movement. To study the groundwater potential in the hard-rock terrain and drought-prone area in the Niva River basin, southern Andhra Pradesh state, India, Landsat 5 photographic data were used to prepare an integrated hydrogeomorphology map. Larsson's integrated deformation model was applied to identify the various fracture systems, to pinpoint those younger tensile fracture sets that are the main groundwater reservoirs, and to understand the importance of fracture density in groundwater prospecting. N35°-55°E fractures were identified as tensile and N35°-55°W fractures as both tensile and shear in the study area. Apparently, these fractures are the youngest open fractures. Wherever N35°-55°E and N35°-55°W fracture densities are high, weathered-zone thickness is greater, water-table fluctuations are small, and well yields are high. Groundwater-potential zones were delineated and classified as very good, good to very good, moderate to good, and poor. Résumé. Dans les roches de socle, l'absence de porosité primaire dans la roche fait que les fractures, les zones de faille et les zones d'altération sont les sites où l'eau souterraine est présente et s'écoule. Pour étudier le potentiel en eau souterraine dans la région de socle sujette à la sécheresse du bassin de la rivière Niva (sud de l'État d'Andhra Pradesh, Inde), des données photographiques de Landsat 5 ont été utilisées pour préparer une carte hydro-géomorphologique. Le modèle intégré de déformation de Larssons a été mis en œuvre pour identifier les différents systèmes de fractures, pour mettre l'accent sur les ensembles de fractures en extension les plus jeunes qui constituent les principaux réservoirs d'eau souterraine, et pour comprendre l'importance de la densité de fractures pour la prospection de l

  16. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PREVALENT IN SMALL VILLAGES OF NORTH COASTAL , ANDHRA PRADESH , INDIA , UDDANAM NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri Satya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hamlets in and around Uddanam , Gunupalli , Kaviti of Srikakulam District , a North Coastal Andhra P radesh region with high prevalence of CKD presenting clinically or sub clinically ultimately leading to high mortality and morbidity with RRT and other types of conservative management , we were detected some facts during our survey in these villages. The many of them who are living in that belt eat Dry salted fish , less water intake , hardworking people , these peo ple approach quacks , using illicit drugs etc.

  17. NRAMP1 and VDR gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis among Andhra Pradesh population in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Rooth Vasantha; Suvvari, Sridevi; Godi, Sudhakar; Gangisetti, Paddaiah

    2017-06-05

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of NRAMP1 -3'UTR, 274-CT,VDR- Fok1 VDR-Taq1 Polymorphisms with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. A case -control study was conducted on Andhra Pradesh Population of India. Analysis of gene polymorphisms of NRAMP1 gene (3'UTR, 274CT) and VDR gene (Fok1 and Taq1) was done by using Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy controls. The obtained results were observed using 2% Agarose Gel electrophoresis and analysed statistically using Chi-square test and Odds Ratio. Statistical significance was observed between the patients and the controls in the NRAMP1-3'UTR (P = 0.005; OR = 2.997; 95% CI = 1.019-8.813) and VDR-Taq1 (P  0.05). 3'UTR-NRAMP1 gene and VDR-Taq1 gene Polymorphisms are statistically associated with the susceptibility of TB in Andhra Pradesh Population in India.

  18. Population based outcomes of cataract surgery in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: risk factors for poor outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit C Khanna

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects. Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5-34.2% and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3-21.3%, respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4-16% and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1-11.1%, respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9-23% and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9-10.9%, respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8-6% and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4-4.2%, respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9-5.1%. In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002 and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05 and being illiterate (p = 0.05 were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18. CONCLUSIONS: There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue, especially for those

  19. Personnel monitoring of DAE workers in Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Reddy, K.S.; Chourasiya, G.

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to radiation occurs in an organization, which involves work with radioactive sources directly or indirectly. It is recognized that radiation protection is only one component that must be addressed to protect the overall health and safety of the workers. Radiation monitoring is one of the key issues in radiological protection. TLD Unit, Hyderabad is part of the Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, HS and E group, BARC and has been functioning at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad since 1985. The unit monitors external dose to 1800 occupation workers from six Department of Atomic Energy units namely Nuclear Fuel Complex, Atomic Minerals Division, Electronic Corporation of India Limited, National Centre for Composition and Characterization of Materials, JONAKI, Hospital in Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru of Andhra Pradesh. This paper analyses dose distribution of radiation workers working in DAE facilities of Andhra Pradesh since the services started to the respective institutions. Excessive exposures of radiation cases are also presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Choosing and Changing Schools in India's Private and Government Sectors: Young Lives Evidence from Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Zoe; Woodhead, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The growth and increasing popularity of 'low-fee' private schooling across many parts of India has attracted much research and policy attention. This paper broadens the discussion by drawing attention to the increasing heterogeneity of the educational landscape in many communities. Our specific focus is on the consequences for school choices made…

  1. Sediment fluxes and the littoral drift along northeast Andhra Pradesh Coast, India: estimation by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, Pravin D; Alagarsamy, R; Hursthouse, A S

    2013-06-01

    The littoral drift regime along the northeastern coast of India was investigated by analyzing coastal drift indicators and shoreline changes based on multitemporal satellite images. The study of offshore turbidity patterns and quantitative estimation of suspended sediments was undertaken to understand the magnitude and direction of movement of sediment fluxes. The study revealed that: (1) the character of coastal landforms and sedimentation processes indicate that the sediment transport is bidirectional and monsoon dependent; (2) multidate, multitemporal analysis of satellite images helps to show the nature of sediment transport along the coast. The dominant net sediment transport is in a NE direction along the eastern coast of India. Finally, this assessment demonstrates the potential of remote sensing technology in understanding the coastal morphometric changes, long-term sediment transport, shoreline changes, and offshore turbidity distribution pattern and the implications for the transport of sediment-associated pollutants.

  2. An outbreak of cholera in Medipally village, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Uthappa, Chengappa K.; Allam, Ramesh R.; Nalini, Chava; Gunti, Deepak; Udaragudi, Prasada R.; Tadi, Geetha P.; Murhekar, Manoj V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera continues to remain endemic in over 50 countries and has caused large epidemics with around 3?5 million cases occurring every year in Asia alone. In India, cholera is endemic in many states. However, etiological information and age-specific incidence related to cholera outbreaks is limited. In November 2013, district authorities reported a cluster of diarrheal disease among residents of Medipally to the state surveillance unit. We investigated this cluster to confirm its et...

  3. Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme in Andhra Pradesh, India: a comprehensive analytic view of private public partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunita; Mary, Immaculate

    2013-01-01

    The Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance (RACHI) in Andhra Pradesh (AP) has been very popular social insurance scheme with a private public partnership model to deal with the problems of catastrophic medical expenditures at tertiary level care for the poor households. A brief analysis of the RACHI scheme based on officially available data and media reports has been undertaken from a public health perspective to understand the nature and financing of partnership and the lessons it provides. The analysis of the annual budget spent on the surgeries in private hospitals compared to tertiary public hospitals shows that the current scheme is not sustainable and pose huge burden on the state exchequers. The private hospital association's in AP, further acts as pressure groups to increase the budget or threaten to withdraw services. Thus, profits are privatized and losses are socialized.

  4. Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

  5. An outbreak of cholera in Medipally village, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, Chengappa K; Allam, Ramesh R; Nalini, Chava; Gunti, Deepak; Udaragudi, Prasada R; Tadi, Geetha P; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2015-07-24

    Cholera continues to remain endemic in over 50 countries and has caused large epidemics with around 3-5 million cases occurring every year in Asia alone. In India, cholera is endemic in many states. However, etiological information and age-specific incidence related to cholera outbreaks is limited. In November 2013, district authorities reported a cluster of diarrheal disease among residents of Medipally to the state surveillance unit. We investigated this cluster to confirm its etiology, describe its magnitude, identify potential risk factors, and make recommendations for control. A house-to-house active search was conducted to identify cases of acute diarrhea and collect information on drinking water source. Drinking water samples were collected from common water sources and sampled households to test for bacteriological quality. Ten stool samples were collected for culture. A matched case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors. A total of 138 case-patients of diarrhea (Attack rate: 11.5/100; 15 1,200) and 1 death (Case Fatality Ratio: 0.72/100) were identified. Five of the 10 stool samples were culture positive for V. cholerae, serogroup O1 El Tor. Drinking water from the overhead tank [Adjusted OR (AOR): 31.94, 95% CI: 7.3-139.5] was associated with risk of developing illness. This outbreak affected nearly 11% of the village population and was due to contamination of the main drinking water source. Outbreaks such as this can be prevented by constructing the drain away from the water pipelines and by monitoring regular chlorination of drinking water source and inspection of pipelines for damage.

  6. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakulla Hari Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.

  7. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey...

  8. Micro-Women Entrepreneurship and its potential for hospitality and tourism related enterprises amongst others: a study on YSR District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Saritha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of women and their status in any society is an index of its level of civilization. Women are to be considered as equal partners in the process of development. But, because of centuries of exploitation and subjugation, Indian women have remained at the receiving end. Women in India have been neglected a great deal. The rate of growth of women employment in India is very low when compared to developed nations. This is because of the low growth rate of new and productive employment. There is a scheme which women can access with less effort than the traditional routes to business development in areas such as food production and even hospitality and tourism, and this is the Self Help Group (SHG which is categorized as micro finance. It is a tool to eradicate poverty and improve entrepreneurship and financial support for women in India. An SHG is a small economically homogeneous affinity group of the rural poor which voluntarily comes together to save small amounts of money but on a regular basis. SHGs enhance the equality and status of women as participants, decision-makers and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life. The article focuses on SHG formation, women entrepreneurship and economic empowerment of women after they have joined SHGs in YSR district, A.P. India. YSR district (Kadapa district is one of the pioneering districts for the implementation of the SHG programme as a pilot project in the Andhra Pradesh state. At the present time there are 21 Mandals in YSR district of Andhra Pradesh which consist of a total of 35,338 SHGs. Of these, the best two mandals, namely, Kodur and Ramapuram were selected for this study because of the SHGs in these mandals which are operating very successfully. This success is based on age, education, income level, nature of family, size of the family, reasons for joining SHGs and the amount of loan availed of by the selected women entrepreneurs. There are 19087

  9. Geophysical and Seawater intrusion models to distinguish Modern and Palaeo salinity in the Central Godvari Delta, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagudu, S.; Nandan, M. J.; Durgaprasad, M.; Gurunadha Rao, V. V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Godavari Delta is located in the East coast of Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal. Ample surface water is made available for irrigation and aqua culture through well distributed canals drawn from Godavari River since last 150 years. Groundwater in the area is highly saline though the groundwater levels are very shallow ranging from 1 to 3 m below ground level. Integrated Electrical Resistivity Tomograms (ERT), hydrochemical (pH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, HCO3- and CO3-), isotopic (Br- and δ18O ) and density dependant solute tranport (SEAWAT) modelling studies have been carried out for four years (2006, 2007, 2014 and 2015) to identify the salinity sources and to understand the possible extent of seawater intrusion. The integration of all these data sets revealed that coarse grained sands exhibits resistivity of 4-20 Ωm forming the surface layer, clay layer exhibits Na2++ K+) and (Ca2++Mg2+), (Na+-Cl- ) vs. Ca2++Mg2+-HCO3--SO42-)) and ionic ratios ( Na2+/Cl-, SO42-/Cl-, Mg2+/Ca2+, Mg2+/Cl- and Cl-/Br) and δ18O does not reflect any modern seawater signatures. These models indicated that salinity in the shallow wells is due to dissolution of evaporitic minerals and ion exchange processes. In the pumping wells the salinity is due to upconing of entrapped sea water that belongs to Palaeo origin and wells located near the coast and mudflats is due to physical mixing of marine water. The estimated regional groundwater balance using SEAWAT model indicate significant amount of submarine groundwater discharge as outfall to the Bay of Bengal. Assuming observed hydrological conditions, no considerable advance in seawater intrusion would be expected into the delta region.

  10. Understanding the causes and consequences of injuries to adolescents growing up in poverty in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India), Vietnam and Peru: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia; Barnett, Inka; Vujcich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half of all premature deaths among 15- to 19-year olds can be attributed to injuries with most (95%) fatal injuries occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Yet the evidence base for adolescent injuries in low-income countries is poor. This article uses a mixed method approach to gain an understanding of patterns, causes and consequences of unintentional injuries among adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years in four low-income country settings. Survey data collected in 2009 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam (from ~900 adolescents in each country) were integrated with qualitative research (conducted between 2007 and 2011) with a nested sample of older cohort children in Ethiopia (n = 25) and India (n = 25) using an iterative process. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine potential risk factors for injuries. Injuries were a concern for adolescents in all countries and occurred during work, recreation and sports or transportation. Being male was associated with an increased risk for all types of injuries, whereas being poor was only significantly associated with work injuries. Area of residence (urban vs rural) made a difference in some countries and for some kinds of injuries as did perceived health status. Qualitative findings highlight the consequences of injuries not only for the adolescents but also for the social and economic status of the entire household. Injury prevention programmes need to be specific to cultural and environmental settings, expectations of adolescent's responsibilities and responsive to the context of poverty.

  11. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  12. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers

  13. Hydrogeological and groundwater modeling studies to estimate the groundwater inflows into the coal Mines at different mine development stages using MODFLOW, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Surinaidu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Singareni Collieries Company Ltd (SCCL is exploiting coal in the Godavari valley coal fields spread over 5.33 km2 in Andhra Pradesh, India. In the area, six workable coal seams have been identified in Barakar formation by the analysis of the geologic logs of 183 bore wells. A finite difference based numerical groundwater flow model is developed with twenty conceptual layers and with a total thickness of 320 m. The flow model was calibrated under steady state conditions and predicted groundwater inflows into the mine pits at different mine development stages. The groundwater budget results revealed that the mining area would receive net groundwater inflows of 5877 m3 day−1, 12,818 m3 day−1, 12,910 m3 day−1, 20,428 m3 day−1, 22,617 m3 day−1 and 14,504 m3 day−1 at six mine development stages of +124 m (amsl, +93 m (amsl, +64 m (amsl, +41 m (amsl, +0 m (amsl and −41 m (amsl, respectively. The results of the study can be used to plan optimal groundwater pumping and the possible locations to dewater the groundwater for safe mining at different mine development stages.

  14. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea . From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke's Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents.

  15. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Rao BN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India. We investigated the genotype distribution of high-risk HPV types in squamous cell carcinomas and the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervicovaginal samples in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (AP, India. Methods HPV genotyping was done in cervical cancer specimens (n = 41 obtained from women attending a regional cancer hospital in Hyderabad. HPV-DNA testing was also done in cervicovaginal samples (n = 185 collected from women enrolled in the cervical cancer screening pilot study conducted in the rural community, of Medchal Mandal, twenty kilometers away from Hyderabad. Results High-risk HPV types were found in 87.8% (n = 36/41 of the squamous cell carcinomas using a PCR-based line blot assay. Among the HPV positive cancers, the overall type distribution of the major high-risk HPV types was as follows: HPV 16 (66.7%, HPV 18 (19.4%, HPV 33 (5.6%, HPV 35 (5.6%, HPV 45 (5.6%, HPV 52 (2.8%, HPV 58(2.8%, HPV 59(2.8% and HPV 73 (2.8%. Women participating in the community screening programme provided both a self-collected vaginal swab and a clinician-collected cervical swab for HPV DNA testing. Primary screening for high risk HPV was performed using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2 assay. All hc2 positive samples by any one method of collection were further analyzed using the Roche PCR-based line blot for genotype determination. The prevalence of high risk HPV infection in this community-based screening population was 10.3% (19/185 using the clinician-collected and 7.0% (13/185 using the self-collected samples. The overall agreement between self-collected and clinician

  17. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

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    Ram Bajpai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up. Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for 350 cells/mm3, functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal, and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for 60 kg were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients.

  18. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross checked in Dr. Dukes database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Results: Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke’s phytochemical and ethnobotanical database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens K. pneumonia among bacteria and R. arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke’s database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 158-169

  19. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.

  20. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment and their associated risk factors, in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nakul; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Reddy, Srinivasa; Kanade, Pushkar; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Khanna, Rohit C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI), their associated causes and underlying risk factors in three tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, India and compare this data in conjunction with data from other countries with low and middle income settings. Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology, a two stage sampling survey was performed in these areas involving probability proportionate to size sampling and compact segment sampling methods. Blindness, VI and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as per the WHO guidelines and Indian definitions. Based on a prior enumeration, 7281 (97.1%) subjects were enrolled (mean age = 61.0+/-7.9 years). Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA), the prevalences of VI, SVI and blindness were 16.9% (95% CI: 15.7-18.1), 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5-3.4), and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.9-2.7), respectively. When based on the Pinhole corrected visual acuity (PCVA), the prevalences were lower in VI (6.2%, 95% CI: 5.4-6.9), SVI (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) and blindness (2.1%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.5). Refractive error was the major cause of VI (71.4%), whereas, cataract was the major cause of SVI and blindness (70.3%). Based on the PVA, the odds ratio (OR) of blindness increased in the age groups of 60-69 years (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 5.1), 70-79 years (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 7.2, 15.5) and 80 years and above (OR = 30.7, 95% CI: 19.2, 49). The ORs were relatively higher in females (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6) and illiterate subjects (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.2, 8.5), but lower in those wearing glasses (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4). This is perhaps the first study to assess the prevalence of blindness and VI in these tribal regions and the majority of the causes of blindness and SVI were avoidable (88.5%). These findings may be useful for planning eye care services in these underserved regions.

  1. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4

  2. Client-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated violence among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: HIV/STI risk across personal and work contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Erausquin, J T; Groves, Allison K; Salazar, Marissa; Biradavolu, Monica; Blankenship, Kim M

    2016-09-01

    This study examines violence experienced in work and personal contexts and relation to HIV risk factors in these contexts among female sex workers (FSW) in Andhra Pradesh, India. FSW at least 18 years of age (n=2335) were recruited through three rounds of respondent-driven sampling between 2006 and 2010 for a survey on HIV risk. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression models, any sexual/physical violence (last 6 months) perpetrated by clients and husbands were separately assessed in association with accepting more money for sex without a condom (last 30 days), consistent condom use with clients and husbands (last 30 days), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms (last 6 months). The mean age among participants was 32, 22% reported being currently married, and 22% and 21% reported physical/sexual violence by clients and husbands, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who experienced client violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.7; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.6). Women who reported husband violence were more likely to report accepting more money for unprotected sex trades (AOR=2.1; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7), less likely to report consistent condom use with clients (AOR=0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8) and more likely to report STI symptoms (AOR=2.6; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1). Among FSW, experiences of violence in work and personal contexts are associated with sexual HIV risk behaviours with clients as well as STI symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India for conservation and management purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar T

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada. One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff. Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L. Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest. Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in some villages near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Ch Gopal Reddy; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon/thoron and natural background radiation levels were estimated in and surrounding villages of Mallapur area near Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Mallapur village is about 10 km away from the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas, which are identified for uranium mining by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Mallapur area has been proposed for milling and processing of uranium ore. As the present study is undertaken to establish the baseline data before the actual milling operation starts, the observed indoor radon and thoron levels are found to be in the range of 28 to 195 Bq/m 3 and 5 to 277 Bq/m 3 respectively. (author)

  5. Diphtheria in Andhra Pradesh-a clinical-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Meera; M, Rajarao

    2014-02-01

    Clinical diphtheria is on the increase worldwide, mainly affecting developing countries. We sought to understand its presentation among patients at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Diphtheria patients presented with fever, pharyngitis, and a patch in the throat. Data collected for each patient included age, clinical presentation, morbidity, mortality, bacteria isolated from culture, and immunization status. Of 61 950 admissions from January 2008 to December 2012, 2925 (4.7%) had clinical diphtheria; 1194 had been immunized and 1731 were non-immunized. Immunized patients had a milder disease. Culture-positive immunized patients were positive for Corynebacterium other than diphtheriae (COD; n=104) or Corynebacterium diphtheriae (CD; n=23); these patients suffered mild disease and recovered completely. In contrast, culture-positive non-immunized patients were positive for COD (n=11) or CD (n=412). Eighty-one patients (3%) died, 77 of whom were non-immunized; death was usually as a result of myocarditis. Seventy-three percent of deaths were in patients aged diphtheria and its severity and morbidity differ considerably in immunized and non-immunized patients. Disease caused by CD can be deadly, while disease due to COD is mild and responds to treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  7. Genetic variation among the Golla pastoral caste subdivisions of Andhra Pradesh, India, according to the HLA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Reddy, B M; Martinez-Laso, J; Mack, S J; Erlich, H A

    2001-09-01

    The HLA allele frequency distributions have been characterized for the HLA class I and class II loci of the Golla pastoral caste, from Southeast India, subdivided into the subcastes (Puja, Punugu, Kurava, Pokanati, Karnam, and Doddi). Genetic distances, neighbor-joining, correspondence, and haplotype analyses all indicate that the subcastes exhibit a high haplotype variability and that their genetic substratum may be the result of European-Middle East/Asian admixture with the autochthonous populations. The Karnam subcaste seems to be the one that has undergone a higher degree of admixture, when compared with the other subcastes. The Golla speak an old Indian Dravidian language and should theoretically represent the basic Indian substratum that existed before the postulated "Aryan" invasion.

  8. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  9. Inhalation dose due to indoor radon and thoron concentrations in the surrounding villages of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenath Reddy, M.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Inhalation of radon, thoron and their decay products is the major contribution to the total radioactive dose received by the human population from the natural radiation. The indoor inhalation doses due to radon, thoron and their progenies in the surrounding villages of Hyderabad, India are evaluated. The average inhalation dose due to radon and its progeny is found to be 0.26 ± 0.21 mSv y -1 and due to thoron and its progeny is 0.35 ± 0.38 mSv y -1 . The inhalation dose is also analyzed based on the types of floor, roof and walls of the dwellings and it is found that the dwellings with mud type construction materials have higher inhalation dose. Generally, the contribution of thoron and its progeny to the total dose is neglected but in the present study area the fractional dose of thoron and its progeny is found to be comparable to that of radon and its progeny. (author)

  10. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  11. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health-CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Boone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-2000s, neonatal mortality accounted for almost 40% of deaths of children under 5 years worldwide, and constituted 65% of infant deaths in India. The neonatal mortality rate in Andhra Pradesh was 44 per 1,000 live births, and was higher in the rural areas and tribal regions, such as the Nagarkurnool division of Mahabubnagar district (which became Nagarkurnool district in Telangana in 2014. The aim of the CHAMPION trial was to investigate whether a package of interventions comprising community health promotion and provision of health services (including outreach and facility-based care could lead to a reduction of the order of 25% in neonatal mortality.The design was a trial in which villages (clusters in Nagarkurnool with a population < 2,500 were randomised to the CHAMPION package of health interventions or to the control arm (in which children aged 6-9 years were provided with educational interventions-the STRIPES trial. A woman was eligible for the CHAMPION package if she was married and <50 years old, neither she nor her husband had had a family planning operation, and she resided in a trial village at the time of a baseline survey before randomisation or married into the village after randomisation. The CHAMPION intervention package comprised community health promotion (including health education via village health worker-led participatory discussion groups and provision of health services (including outreach, with mobile teams providing antenatal check-ups, and facility-based care, with subsidised access to non-public health centres [NPHCs]. Villages were stratified by travel time to the nearest NPHC and tribal status, and randomised (1:1 within strata. The primary outcome was neonatal mortality. Secondary outcomes included maternal mortality, causes of death, health knowledge, health practices including health service usage, satisfaction with care, and costs. The baseline survey (enumeration was carried out between August and

  12. Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyam, Swarup; Pullikalu, Renuka Somanatha; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sandri, Prashanth; Mutupuru, Balakrishna Prasad; Kokku, Suresh Babu; Parimi, Prabhakar

    2012-10-01

    To examine the association between the presence of community advocacy groups (CAGs) and female sex workers' (FSWs) access to social entitlements and outcomes of police advocacy. Data were used from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010-2011 among 1986 FSWs and 104 NGO outreach workers from five districts of Andhra Pradesh. FSWs were recruited using a probability-based sampling from 104 primary sampling units (PSUs). A PSU is a geographical area covered by one outreach worker and is expected to have an active CAG as per community mobilisation efforts. The presence of active CAGs was defined as the presence of an active committee or advocacy group in the area (PSU). Outcome indicators included acquisition of different social entitlements and measures of police response as reported by FSWs. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Areas with active CAGs compared with their counterparts had a significantly higher mean number of FSWs linked to ration cards (12.8 vs 6.8; p<0.01), bank accounts (9.3 vs 5.9; p=0.05) and health insurance (13.1 vs 7.0; p=0.02). A significantly higher percentage of FSWs from areas with active CAGs as compared with others reported that the police treat them more fairly now than a year before (79.7% vs 70.3%; p<0.05) and the police explained the reasons for arrest when arrested the last time (95.7% vs 87%; p<0.05). FSWs from areas with active CAGs were more likely to access certain social entitlements and to receive a fair response from the police, highlighting the contributions of CAGs in community mobilisation.

  13. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-06-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data.

  14. GIS for public health : A study of Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrinagesh, B; Kalpana, Markandey; Kiran, Baktula

    2014-01-01

    Geographic information systems and remote sensing have capabilities that are ideally suited for use in infectious disease surveillance and control, particularly for the many vector-borne neglected diseases that are often found in poor populations in remote rural areas. They are also highly relevant to meet the demands of outbreak investigation and response, where prompt location of cases, rapid communication of information, and quick mapping of the epidemic's dynamics are vital. The situation has changed dramatically over the past few years. GIS helps in determining geographic distribution of diseases, analysing spatial and temporal trends, Mapping populations at risk, Stratifying risk factors, Assessing resource allocation, Planning and targeting interventions, Monitoring diseases and interventions over time. There are vast disparities in people's health even among the different districts across the state of Andhra Pradesh largely attributed to the resource allocation by the state government. Despite having centers of excellence in healthcare delivery, these facilities are limited and are inadequate in meeting the current healthcare demands. The main objectives are to study the prevalent diseases in Andhra Pradesh, to study the infrastructural facilities available in A.P. The methodology includes the Spatial Database, which will be mostly in the form of digitized format. The Non-Spatial Database includes both secondary data as well as the primary data

  15. Suicide deaths in rural Andhra Pradesh--a cause for global health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohina; Guggilla, Rama; Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K

    2015-02-01

    To determine the proportion of deaths attributable to suicides in rural Andhra Pradesh, India over a 4-year period using a verbal autopsy method. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003 to 2007 by non-physician healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by physicians trained in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. All data were entered and processed electronically using a secure study website. Verbal autopsies were completed for 98.2% (5786) of the deaths (5895) recorded. The crude death rate was 8.0/1000. 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.4) of all deaths were suicides, giving a suicide rate of 37.5/100,000 population. Forty-three percent of suicides occurred in the age group 15-29 years, and 62% were in men. In the younger age groups (10-29 years), suicides by women (56%) were more common than by men (44%). Poisoning (40%) was the most common method of self-harm followed by hanging (12%). The suicide rate in this part of rural Andhra Pradesh is three times higher than the national average of 11.2/100,000, but is in line with that reported in the Million Death Study. There is an urgent need to develop strategies targeted at young individuals to prevent deaths by suicide in India. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ethno – Medico – Botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar District, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. Dharmachandra; Pullaiah, T.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper deals with the ethno-medico-botany of Chenchus of Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. About fourty four plants are enumerated with knowledge of the tribals for their medicinal uses in curing different diseases and ailments. PMID:22556915

  17. Quality assurance in TL monitoring of occupational radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Kamble, M.K.; Roy, Madhumita; Reddy, K.S.; Mahajan, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    TLD Services are rendered for personnel dosimetry to Nuclear Fuel Complex, Atomic Minerals Division, Electronic Corporation of India Limited, National Centre for Characterization of Materials, JONAKI, Medical, Research and Industrial institutions of Andhra Pradesh by TLD Unit, Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the unit, it is mandatory to participate in Quality Assurance Programme periodically. Setting the rules for the Quality Assurance Programme and implementing them systematically in the service requires considerable thought and effort. Quality Assurance and Quality Check Program addressed administrative data/information, equipment checking, issue/processing of dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping, reporting, traceability and reproducibility. In this paper results of Quality Assurance Checks conducted by TLD Unit, NFC as well as C and DRS, RPAD, BARC, Mumbai for the last six years and Internal Quality Checks conducted within TLD Unit, NFC are presented and discussed. Systematic errors in dose evaluation were identified and minimized. Methods to improve the performance are also suggested. (author)

  18. Analysis of female radiation workers dose records in the DAE Units of Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savitri, P.; Kamble, M.K.; Reddy, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Basis for control of occupational exposures of women is same as that of men except for pregnant women. Percentage of women working in radiation areas of DAE has marginally increased in the last three decades. This paper analysed the data on the externally received personal dose equivalent for female radiation workers who have been exposed ti ionizing radiation in different occupations of DAE units in Andhra Pradesh. From this study we can say confidently that it is equally safe for women to work in radiation areas as long as they follow radiation protection principles. Hence, women in India should be made aware that it is safe to work in radiation areas and DAE is taking their care by periodical medical checkups, maintaining dose records, etc

  19. HIV, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, India: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Gupte, Mohan D; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Thomas, Beena E; Kallam, Srinivasan; Girish, C P K

    2008-12-01

    To characterize and describe patterns of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and sexual behaviour of male clients of female sex workers (FSW). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4821 clients of FSW from 12 districts in three states in India: Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. A structured questionnaire was administered to elicit demographic characteristics and sexual behavioural patterns. Blood and urine samples were tested for HIV, syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 serology, gonococcal and chlamydial infection. The median age of clients surveyed was 30 years; 57% were married and 64% had a steady sexual partner; 61% had sex with more than one FSW and 39% had four or more sexual encounters in the past month. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 2.0% to 10.9%, syphilis ranged from 3.1% to 10.1%; gonorrhoea and chlamydia ranged between 0% and 4.5%. Clients older than 30 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.05] and having a different mix of commercial and non-commercial partners (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.25-1.96) had a higher volume of sex acts with FSW. Inconsistent condom use with FSW was significantly associated with older clients (OR 4.2; 95% CI 3.33-5.29), illiteracy (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.14-1.69), age sex (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.24-2.70) and having different FSW partners in the past month (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.23-2.18). Clients of FSW studied here constitute a significant bridge group for HIV and other STI, because of their high volume of different sexual partners and very low consistent condom use. HIV prevention programmes need to address male clients.

  20. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-11-17

    HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey (2014) among 2400 FSWs and 1200 HR-MSM. Human rights awareness was assessed by asking respondents if they had heard of human rights (yes/no); those reporting awareness of rights were asked to spontaneously name specific rights from the following five pre-defined categories: right to health; dignity/equality; education; property; and freedom from discrimination. Respondents were classified into two groups: more knowledgeable (could identify two or more rights) and less knowledgeable (could identify one or no right). Univariate and bivariate analyses and chi-square tests were used. Data were analyzed using STATA 11.2. Overall 17% FSWs and 8% HR-MSM were not aware of their rights. Among those aware, 62% and 31% respectively were aware of just one or no right (less knowledgeable); only around half (54% vs 57%) were aware of health rights, and fewer (20% vs 16%) aware of their right to freedom from discrimination. Notably, 27% and 17% respectively had not exercised their rights. Barriers to claiming rights among FSWs and HR-MSM were neighbors (35% vs 37%), lack of knowledge (15% vs 14%), stigma (13% vs 22%) and spouse (19% FSWs). Community organizations (COs) were by far the leading facilitator in claiming rights (57% vs 72%). The study findings show that awareness of human rights is limited among FSWs and HR-MSM, and a large proportion have not claimed their rights, elevating their HIV vulnerability. For a sustained HIV response, community mobilization efforts must focus on building key populations

  1. Addressing healthcare needs of people living below the poverty line: a rapid assessment of the Andhra Pradesh Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M; Ramachandra, S S; Bandyopadhyay, S; Chandran, A; Shidhaye, R; Tamisettynarayana, S; Thippaiah, A; Sitamma, M; Sunil George, M; Singh, V; Sivasankaran, S; Bangdiwala, S I

    2011-01-01

    Families living below the poverty line in countries which do not have universal healthcare coverage are drawn into indebtedness and bankruptcy. The state of Andhra Pradesh in India established the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) in 2007 with the aim of breaking this cycle by improving the access of below the poverty line (BPL) families to secondary and tertiary healthcare. It covered a wide range of surgical and medical treatments for serious illnesses requiring specialist healthcare resources not always available at district-level government hospitals. The impact of this scheme was evaluated by a rapid assessment, commissioned by the government of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the assessment was to explore the contribution of the scheme to the reduction of catastrophic health expenditure among the poor and to recommend ways by which delivery of the scheme could be improved. We report the findings of this assessment. Two types of data were used for the assessment. Patient data pertaining to 89 699 treatment requests approved by the scheme during its first 18 months were examined. Second, surveys of scheme beneficiaries and providers were undertaken in 6 randomly selected districts of Andhra Pradesh. This novel scheme was beginning to reach the BPL households in the state and providing access to free secondary and tertiary healthcare to seriously ill poor people. An integrated model encompassing primary, secondary and tertiary care would be of greater benefit to families below the poverty line and more cost-effective for the government. There is considerable potential for the government to build on this successful start and to strengthen equity of access and the quality of care provided by the scheme. Copyright 2011, NMJI.

  2. 'First we go to the small doctor': First contact for curative health care sought by rural communities in Andhra Pradesh & Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gautham (Meenakshi); E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground & objectives: Against the backdrop of insufficient public supply of primary care and reports of informal providers, the present study sought to collect descriptive evidence on 1 st contact curative health care seeking choices among rural communities in two States of India -

  3. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  4. Baseline studies of radon/thoron concentration levels in and around the Lambapur and Peddagattu areas in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sreenivasa Reddy, B.; Sreenath Reddy, M.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2003-01-01

    Studies conducted by Atomic Minerals Directorate of Exploration and Research (AMD) of Hyderabad, India had established the presence of higher concentrations of uranium in Lambapur and Peddagattu areas of Nalgonda district, AP, India and it was estimated that it could be a viable source for commercial extraction. The envisaged extraction process involves dispersion of radioactive particulate matter into atmosphere. Environmental radioactive studies in and around proposed mining areas at this point of time will be extremely useful for establishing base line data before a large scale uranium extraction process comes into existence. To this end, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were installed to evaluate indoor radon and thoron concentration levels in the dwellings of the area. The geometric means of radon and thoron concentration levels were found to be (7.1±0.2)x10 1 and (6.7±0.3)x10 1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. Simultaneously, natural background radiation measurements were also made and these levels are found to vary from 770 to 3995 μGy/y in the spatial distribution

  5. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P protective effect (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.7; P Protecting the eyes from sunlight may decrease the risk of pterygium. However, the important public health challenge is to encourage the use of this protection as a routine in developing countries such as India.

  6. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Subramanyam K.S.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC, found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB. The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g of platinum group elements (PGE, and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  7. Quantitative trait loci at the 11q23.3 chromosomal region related to dyslipidemia in the population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranavchand, Rayabarapu; Reddy, Battini Mohan

    2017-06-13

    Given the characteristic atherogenic dyslipidemia of south Indian population and crucial role of APOA1, APOC3, APOA4 and APOA5 genes clustered in 11q23.3 chromosomal region in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis, a large number of recently identified variants are to be explored for their role in regulating the serum lipid parameters among south Indians. Using fluidigm SNP genotyping platform, a prioritized set of 96 SNPs of the 11q23.3 chromosomal region were genotyped on 516 individuals from Hyderabad, India, and its vicinity and aged >45 years. The linear regression analysis of the individual lipid traits viz., TC, LDLC, HDLC, VLDL and TG with each of the 78 SNPs that confirm to HWE and with minor allele frequency > 1%, suggests 23 of those to be significantly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with at least one of these quantitative traits. Most importantly, the variant rs632153 is involved in elevating TC, LDLC, TG and VLDLs and probably playing a crucial role in the manifestation of dyslipidemia. Additionally, another three SNPs rs633389, rs2187126 and rs1263163 are found risk conferring to dyslipidemia by elevating LDLC and TC levels in the present population. Further, the ROC (receiver operating curve) analysis for the risk scores and dyslipidemia status yielded a significant area under curve (AUC) = 0.675, suggesting high discriminative power of the risk variants towards the condition. The interaction analysis suggests rs10488699-rs2187126 pair of the BUD13 gene to confer significant risk (Interaction odds ratio = 14.38, P = 7.17 × 10 5 ) towards dyslipidemia by elevating the TC levels (β = 37.13, p = 6.614 × 10 5 ). On the other hand, the interaction between variants of APOA1 gene and BUD13 and/or ZPR1 regulatory genes at this region are associated with elevated TG and VLDL. The variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region seem to determine the quantitative lipid traits and in turn dyslipidemia in the population of Hyderabad

  8. Community managed services for persons with intellectual disability: Andhra Pradesh experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Jayanthi; Pratapkumar, Raja; Reddy, Sudhakara P

    2017-09-01

    In resource poor settings innovative and bottom-up approaches are required to provide services to people with with disabilities. In this context, the present paper explains a community-based model of manpower development and coordination of services for people with intellectual disabilities in unified state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Women with disabilities from the village were identified, and those willing to be trained to work as community resource persons (CRPs) were selected and given hands-on training in a phased manner. A total of 130 women were trained in five groups of 25-30 per group and were deployed in the community to screen, identify and refer children with intellectual disabilities. The training content included basic stimulation and interface with functionaries of other government departments of health, education and welfare to ensure comprehensive service delivery. Neighbourhood centres (NHCs) were established where the CRPs could meet with families collectively. The results indicated that the CRPs were welcomed by the families. The NHCs established primarily as recreation centres, promoted inclusion and functioned as information dissemination centre. The services provided by the CRPs were owned and monitored by the Women's self-help group and the disability groups thus ensuring sustainability of the model.

  9. The Best Laid Plans: Access to the Rajiv Aarogyasri community health insurance scheme of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Narasimhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative assessment of a public health insurance scheme in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India, called the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (or Aarogyasri, using the case-study method. Focusing on inpatient hospital care and especially on surgical treatments leaves the scheme wanting in meeting the health care needs of and addressing the impoverishing health expenditure incurred by the poor, especially those living in rural areas. Though well-intentioned, people from vulnerable sections of society may find the scheme ultimately unhelpful for their needs. Through an in-depth qualitative approach, the paper highlights not just financial difficulties but also the non-financial barriers to accessing health care, despite the existence of a scheme such as Aarogyasri. Narrative evidence from poor households offers powerful insights into why even the most innovative state health insurance schemes may not achieve their goals and systemic corrections needed to address barriers to health care.

  10. Microfinance Impact on Socio-Economic Empowerment: A special Reference to Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vachya L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the role of microfinance and its impact on economic and social empowerment of women. There are great debates going on whether forming groups, membership for women, providing credit and imparting some business skills would change the social equations in the society or whether provision of credit may lead to pervasively entrenched political and economic relations among the genders. The proponents argue that providing credit, targeting women can prove to be a suitable mechanism in ameliorating poor women’s socio-economic conditions and thereby can alter the relations between gender and class. Undoubtedly, there have been significant advances in women empowerment in recent years and the concept and practice of SHG-based microfinance has now developed deep roots in many parts of the country. Impact assessment being rather limited so far, it is hard to measure and quantify the effect the Indian microfinance experience so far had on the poverty situation in rural India. The present study seeks to examine the process of women empowerment and changes in the economic status of SHG members in particular and rural women in general. For this study, multi-stage stratified proportionate random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the representative districts, mandals/talukas, villages and households. The primary data was collected from six villages in the three regions (Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Tabular and statistical analyses were applied for examining the data. Empirically acclaimed logistic regression model has been employed for analyzing significant impact of plausible socio-economic factors on women empowerment. The study found that the socio-economic indicators have changed. It also emerged that there has been an increase in women participation in the household decision making process. The study has suggested that the government should prepare suitable plans and programmes

  11. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  12. Role of Database Management Systems in Selected Engineering Institutions of Andhra Pradesh: An Analytical Survey

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    Kutty Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the function of database management systems from the perspective of librarians working in engineering institutions in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety-eight librarians from one hundred thirty engineering institutions participated in the study. The paper reveals that training by computer suppliers and software packages are the significant mode of acquiring DBMS skills by librarians; three-fourths of the librarians are postgraduate degree holders. Most colleges use database applications for automation purposes and content value. Electrical problems and untrained staff seem to be major constraints faced by respondents for managing library databases.

  13. AWARENESS OF TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF A TOWN IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Shankar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is an age old disease which has remained as a major global public health problem with socioeconomic implications in developing countries. The interaction with HIV/AIDS and emergence of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis bacilli has worsened the situation. India has a high burden of tuberculosis in terms of incidence, prevalence and mortality. RNTCP in India follows a passive case detection method for case finding in chest symptomatics. This makes it essential for the community at large and the younger generation in particular to have adequate knowledge and awareness regarding tuberculosis since it is highly infectious. High school children can be effectively sensitised and motivated to be change agents in the community and play a key role in combating tuberculosis. AIM To assess the awareness levels of 8 th to 10 th grade school students in Amalapuram, a town in coastal area of Andhra Pradesh regarding tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS After the study protocol was cleared by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, permission was sought from the authorities of five private schools and one government school in Amalapuram to carry out this study among the 8 th to 10 th grade students of these schools. A predesigned, pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to capture information related to basic demographic details of the participants followed by questions related tuberculosis to assess their awareness. A cross-sectional survey was carried out and once the filled-in questionnaires were collected, an interactive session was held where various aspects of tuberculosis were elaborately explained, the answers to the questions were told in detail and doubts of the students were clarified. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected was entered into a template created in computer using Microsoft Excel 2007. EPI INFO 6 software was used for

  14. Spatial distribution of uranium in groundwater around proposed NPP site at Kovvada Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Patra, A.C.; Tripathi, R.M.; Rama Rao, D.; Yungndhar, M.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2018-01-01

    Uranium is the basic nuclear fuel of the present nuclear power programme. To meet the demand of electrical energy, it is proposed for establishment of two atomic power stations (2 x 1000 MW LWR) at Kovvada, Ranasthalam mandal of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. It is mandatory to generate the prevailing baseline levels of natural and manmade radionuclides along with conventional water and air quality parameters of the site. Under the baseline study, a comprehensive groundwater quality of the site is taken to establish the radionuclide levels in ground water samples of the coastal site. Natural radiation and radioactivity is a present in all the ecosystems naturally. Uranium is a naturally occurring low specific activity radionuclide present in the rock since the inception of the earth. Groundwater interact with the host rocks and the wet weathering process facilitate the solubility of uranium in groundwater. The physiochemical characteristics of the host rock and groundwater influence the leachability of uranium from rock to water and the contact time, temperature, salinity are also few influencing parameters. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of uranium in groundwater around the proposed NPP site at Kovvada, Andhra Pradesh

  15. SPECTRUM OF THYROID CARCINOMAS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Madhuri Sepuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases. In the Indian subcontinent, thyroid carcinoma exhibits a varied disease profile and geographic differences in the pattern of cancer, the knowledge of which impacts a more favourable clinical outcome. The present study aims to profile Thyroid carcinoma in areas of age, gender, geographic domicile, morphology & clinical features and referral paradigm of cases in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, the tertiary referral hospital for coastal Andhra Pradesh. METHODS & MATERIALS The Retrospective Study 1988-2004 includes 188 patients who attended Department of Nuclear Medicine for pre & postoperative nuclear scan, thyroid carcinoma treatment protocol, whose clinical features, relevant laboratory data, histopathological reports & prognosis were analysed. RESULTS Papillary thyroid carcinoma was present in 79% and Follicular thyroid carcinoma in 19%, Anaplastic & Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in 2% of cases (n=188, male to female ratio 1:0.62. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest 59% of cases who were in their 3rd and 4th decades. West Godavari District had lowest at 5%. Clinical presentation of cases of Thyroid carcinoma as a Nodule (61% which was the most common form lead to maximum number of referrals (n=82 from the Department of Surgery, King George Hospital. CONCLUSION In coastal Andhra Pradesh, papillary thyroid carcinoma was the most dominant form. Women were more affected than men. Painless thyroid nodule was the most common clinical feature. Coastal city of Visakhapatnam recorded highest number of cases and maximum referrals were from Department of Surgery.

  16. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

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    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  17. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Gayatri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpions live in warm, dry regions throughout India. They inhabit commonly the crevices of dwellings, underground burrows, under logs or debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, coconut and banana. Scorpion stings are primarily due to accidental contact with scorpion. Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is delta of Godavari river. Because of good irrigation there is rich cultivation of banana and paddy and there are plenty of coconut plantations, so that is a good habitat for scorpions. METHOD Present study is a hospital based retrospective study. All the data related to the scorpion sting in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences admitted during Jan 2012 to Jan 2016 has been collected. RESULT Total 54 patients of all the age group and both the sexes were included in to the study. Out of 54 patients, 32 were male and 22 were female. Regarding signs of scorpion sting, tachycardia was present in 40 patients, ten patients developed hypertension. Six patients developed arrhythmia. Dyspnoea and convulsion was present in 6 and 2 patients respectively. DISCUSSION Scorpion venom is classified as per its structure, mode of action and binding site. Regarding complications of scorpion sting, four patients developed pulmonary oedema and 3 having convulsion. Out of all 54 patients, 53 were recovered and 1 patient died. CONCLUSION With the availability of potent vasodilators like prazosin and good ICU facilities, the incidence of death and complication due to scorpion bite has reduced.

  18. STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Suryaprakasa Rao Salla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO was defined in 1961 by Petersdorf RG and Beeson PB2 as the following- A temperature greater than 38.3°C (101°F on several occasions; more than 3 weeks' duration of illness; and failure to reach a diagnosis despite 1 week of inpatient investigation. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of cases of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO/Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO in a tertiary care hospital in coastal Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients with PUO admitted under the Department of General Medicine in the NRI Institute of Medical Sciences (Anil Neerukonda Hospital Sangivalasa, Visakhapatnam, during the period from 1st September, 2016, to 31st August, 2017, and who fulfil inclusion and exclusion criteria of classic PUO defined by Durrack and AC street1 were selected for the study. RESULTS The present study included 34 patients with pyrexia of unknown origin in which the patients’ age ranged from 15 years to 77 years. Most of the cases, 41.2% were in the age group 21 to 40 years and 35.3% in the age group 41 to 60 yrs. This indicates PUO is common in middle age group in our study. CONCLUSION Noninfectious causes like collagen vascular disease and neoplasms are becoming important differential diagnosis. But, in India, infections like tuberculosis, enteric fever are still the most common cause of FUO.

  19. Difficulties in accessing and availing of public health care systems among rural population in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha Lakshmi Sreerama; Sai Varun Matavalum; Paraiveedu Arumugam Chandresekharan; Veronica Thunga

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite policies to make health care accessible to all, it is not universally accessible. Frequent evaluation of barriers to accessibility of health care services paves path for improvement. Hence, present study is undertaken to evaluate the factors and public health policies influencing health care access to rural people in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, which can be interpolated for other regions. Aims: To assess knowledge, perceptions, availing of public health care services, ...

  20. Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis by Studying the Ground Water Quality in some Villages of Nalgonda, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    , Ishrath Aish; , B.L.P. Babu; , K. Sreenu

    2011-01-01

    The fluoride content of ground water was determined in eight villages of Shalsher vagu, Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, where it is the only source for drinking water. Various water quality parameters such as Hydrogen potential, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Total Alkalies and Fluoride were determined. The results indicated considerable variations among the analysed samples with respect to the above parameters the concentration of Fluoride in groundwater ...

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception Regarding Biostatistics Among Postgraduate Students in Dental Institutions of Andhra Pradesh

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    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biostatistics is a discipline concerned with how we ought to make decisions when analysing biomedical data. As statistics is desirable at every stage of research to obtain scientifically important information and reliable results, the importance of biostatistics should definitely be informed to the researchers in health sciences. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and perception of dental professionals towards biostatistics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception regarding biostatistics among 721 postgraduate students in dental institutions of Andhra Pradesh. All the participants were provided with a pre-structured questionnaire comprising 21 questions, and answering was completely self-paced. Results: Among the respondents, 86% were aware of the importance of biostatistics in research. Forty-five percent of the respondents attempted to perform statistical analysis on their own. Of all the students, 53% were unable to identify the commonly used parametric tests in clinical trials. Conclusion: Majority of the participants were aware of the importance of biostatistics, but only a few of them attempted to perform statistical analysis. Therefore, dental institutions should take initiatives in organising workshops and training programmes for learning and application of biostatistics, concomitantly encourage research activity to conduct valuable research and add up evidence to literature.

  2. Awareness of association between periodontitis and PLBW among selected population of practising gynecologists in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekhar Nutalapati

    2011-01-01

    Settings and Design: Random, cross-sectional study in a population of practicing gynecologists from Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A random study population was selected from the practicing gynecologists in Khammam and Hyderabad. Sixty practicing gynecologists, 30 each in Khammam and Hyderabad, were approached and they consented to join the study. Data were collected in questionnaire format from the subject population. Collected data were statistically analyzed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was used to analyze the data. A " P" value of <0.05 was taken as a significant difference. Results: 73.3% of the gynecologists said that their patients complain of bleeding gums, swellings and mobility. 58.3% of the gynecologists were aware that gum diseases occur at a higher rate in pregnant females. 38.3% of the gynecologists were aware that periodontal diseases can affect the outcome of delivery. No significant difference was found between the awareness levels of gynecologists in Khammam and in Hyderabad. Conclusions: There is a need for interdisciplinary approach for the prevention of PLBW cases by the integration of periodontal care into obstetric management. Effort should be made to increase awareness among the gynecologists.

  3. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME OF SNAKE BITE IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Sai Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.

  4. Has the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh Addressed the Educational Divide in Accessing Health Care?

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    Mala Rao

    Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  6. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance.

  7. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  8. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  9. Separation of zircon from the beach sand deposit of Srikurmam area, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.S.U.; Sharma, A.K.; Seshadrinath, S.T.; Fahmi, Sohail; William Prasad, Ch.; Nagabhushanam, B.

    2011-01-01

    Beach sand placer deposits occur along the eastern and western coasts of India, which contain heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, garnet, monazite, zircon and sillimanite. Among these, zircon is used in zircaloys (nuclear industry), ceramics, refractories, abrasives, etc. Separation and chemical characterization of pure zircon is a prelude for understanding the different elements and impurities present and its industrial application. In recent times, several methods are developed for beneficiation and separation of individual heavy minerals from beach sands. In this paper, separation of zircon from beach sand of Srikurmam area, Andhra Pradesh was taken up as a case study. The process flow sheet adopted for separation and isolation of pure zircon from beach sand sample consists of desliming of beach sand, wet tabling of sand fraction, removal of magnetite by low intensity magnetic separation from table concentrate, perm roll magnetic separation and induced roll magnetic separation of table concentrate. The concentrates were further subjected to iso-dynamic magnetic separator after observing impurity present in the sample under binocular stereomicroscope. In the present process, about 95% pure zircon was obtained. Further concentration of zircon was carried out under the binocular stereomicroscope by hand picking of impurity to obtain 99.5% pure zircon concentrate. The pure zircon concentrate was analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by chemical method for characterization of zircon and cross validation of physical processes through which the zircon concentrate was obtained. Chemical analysis of the pure zircon concentrate indicated 63.15 to 64.79% ZrO 2 and 32.2 to 32.8% SiO 2 . These values are nearer to that of pure zircon, which stoichiometrically contains 67.2% ZrO 2 and 32.8 % SiO 2 with little iron. In the present study, ZrO 2 +HfO 2 content varies from 65.27 to 66.17% and hafnium from 1.25 to 1.46% HfO 2 in the zircon concentrate. The variation

  10. A STUDY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND KIDNEY FUNCTION TEST IN NEWLYDIAGNOSED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IN COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Ramswaroop

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As per the fact sheet published by World Health Organisation, South East Asia, nearly one billion people have high blood pressure and are one of the most common causes of premature death worldwide. About one third of the adult population in the South East Asia region is having hypertension. In our country, the number of people with hypertension are undiagnosed and untreated, so early detection and treatment of hypertension will decrease the complication of hypertension and premature death due to it. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, from May 2015 to August 2017. This study was started with an aim to know that electrocardiographic abnormalities and kidney function at the time of diagnosis of hypertension in a patient in coastal Andhra Pradesh. RESULTS We have found ECG changes in both the stages of hypertensive group patients. In stage-1 hypertensive group patients, out of 80 patients, 6 patients having sinus tachycardia, 2 having sinus bradycardia, 4 patients having left bundle-branch block and 6 having right bundle-branch block. ST elevation was found in 1 patient and ST depression was found in 8 patients. AV block was present in 2 patients. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present in 1 patient and left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 4 patients. T-wave inversion was found in 4 patients. In stage-2 hypertensive patients, sinus tachycardia in 6 patients and bradycardia in 1 patient, LBBB was found in 8 patients. ST depression was found in 6 patients and ST elevation was found in 2 patients out of 40 patients. AV block was present in 3 patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy patients 16 out of 40, but right ventricular hypertrophy was only 1. T-wave inversion was found in 6 patients. CONCLUSION In our study, we have found that stage-2 hypertensive patients have higher BMI, serum urea and creatinine than stage-1

  11. Fungal infection in freshwater fishes of Andhra Pradesh, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... pieces of mycelia taken out from infected parts of fish body were washed thoroughly with distilled water. They were placed in a Petri dish containing 20 to 30 ml distilled water and baited on different baits viz. Hemp seeds, and Mustered seeds. These Petri dishes were incubated at 15 to 22°C tem for a week.

  12. Groundwater quality around Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Y.; Nagaraju, A.

    2017-11-01

    The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed in Tummalapalle area. Forty groundwater samples were analysed for major cations, anions and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and total hardness (TH). The parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio, adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), per cent sodium, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated for the evaluation of irrigation water quality. Groundwater chemistry was also analysed by statistical analysis, USSL, Wilcox, Doneen, Piper and Chadhas diagrams, to find out their suitability for irrigation. TDS and TH were used as main parameters to interpret the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficient matrix between the hydrochemical parameters was carried out using Pearson's correlation to infer the possible water-rock interactions responsible for the variation of groundwater chemistry and this has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The results indicate that the groundwater in Tummalapalle area is alkaline in nature. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. Water chemistry of the study area strongly reflects the dominance of weathering of rock-forming minerals such as bicarbonates and silicates. All parameters and diagrams suggest that the water samples of the study are good for irrigation, and the plots of TDS and TH suggest that 12.5% of the samples are good for human consumption.

  13. Uraniferous monazite from Ambativalasa, Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganga Rao, B.S.; Ramesh Kumar, P.V.; Raju, K.K.V.S.

    1992-01-01

    Monazite bearing cordierite gniesses of the Ambativalasa area are retrograde metamorphosed differentiates. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the new minerals produced were one phase multicomponent solid solutions containing U, Th and Y. Low cell parameters with high refractive index. La/Nd versus Σ(La+Ce+Pr) > 58 atom % suggesting LREE dominant with coupled substitution of Th and U by cerium family. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinra, S; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Smith, G D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13-18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m(2) for boys and 17.8 kg/m(2) for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m(2); 95% CI: 0.05-0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (-0.04; 95% CI: -0.06 to -0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (-0.05; 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and evaluation of the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Sullivan, Ruth; Ekelund, Ulf; Krishna, K V Radha; Kulkarni, Bharati; Collier, Tim; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Kuper, Hannah

    2016-01-19

    There is limited availability of context-specific physical activity questionnaires in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the validity of a new Indian physical activity questionnaire, the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ). The current study was conducted with the cohort from the Hyderabad DXA Study (n = 2321), recruited in 2009-2010. Criterion validity (n = 245) was examined by comparing the APCAPS-PAQ to a combined heart rate and motion sensor worn for 8 days. Construct validity (n = 2321) was assessed with linear regression, comparing APCAPS-PAQ against BMI, percent body fat, and pulse rate. The APCAPS-PAQ criterion validity was variable depending on the PA intensity groups (ρ = 0.26, 0.07, 0.39; к = 0.14, 0.04, 0.16 for sedentary, light, moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) respectively). Sedentary and light intensity activities from the questionnaire were underestimated when compared to the criterion data while MVPA in APCAPS-PAQ was overestimated. Higher time spent in sedentary activity in APCAPS-PAQ was associated with higher BMI and percent body fat, suggesting construct validity. The APCAPS-PAQ validity is comparable to other physical activity questionnaires. This tool is able to assess sedentary behavior, moderate/vigorous activity and physical activity energy expenditure on a group level with reasonable validity. This new questionnaire may be used for ranking individuals according to their sedentary time and physical activity in southern India.

  16. Periodontal health awareness and self-perceived halitosis among various professional students of West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautami S Penmetsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential part of maintaining overall health, and poor oral health can have a profound effect on the quality of life. Among the various sections of the population present in the society, professional students include a large group of population and are believed to have a better awareness pertaining to oral health than the common population. Aim: This study aims to determine the periodontal health awareness levels along with the self-perception of halitosis among the medical, pharmacy, and engineering students in the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1230 students from medical, engineering, and pharmacy professions. A self-administered 27-item structured questionnaire was used to assess periodontal health and knowledge pertaining to oral hygiene practices along with the assessment of self-perceived halitosis. Tests of the association between self-perceived halitosis and the risk factors were conducted using Chi-square test. Intergroup comparison was conducted by ANOVA and t-test. Results: Self-perceived malodor reported was 50%, 54%, and 60% by medical, pharmacy, and engineering students, respectively. The difference in the levels of overall periodontal health awareness was statistically significant among the different specialities with the highest score gained by medical students (4.1 ± 2.0, followed by the pharmacy (2.9 ± 1.6, and engineering (1.6 ± 1.3 students. Conclusions: Even though professional students do have an acceptable level of knowledge regarding oral health, the level of awareness pertaining to periodontal health in particular is lacking. Hence, there is a need to extend the horizon for oral healthcare to other professional students at an elementary level.

  17. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on nearshore processes at Yarada beach (South of Visakhapatnam harbour) east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, B.P.

    Influence of breakwaters on Yarada Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India (3.5 km length) stability and distribution on wave induced longshore currents in this region were studied. Monthly observations on variation in beach levels, distribution of wave...

  19. Evaluation of telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Surya; Gupta, Arti; Khan, Asif; Pakhare, Abhijit

    2016-04-01

    In a developing country such as India, there is substantial inequality in health care distribution. Telemedicine facilities were established in Madhya Pradesh in 2007-2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the infrastructure, equipment, manpower, and functional status of Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) telemedicine nodes in Madhya Pradesh. All district hospitals and medical colleges with nodes were visited by a team of three members. The study was conducted from December 2013-January 2014. The team recorded the structural facility situation and physical conditions on a predesigned pro forma. The team also conducted interviews with the nodal officers, data entry operator and other relevant people at these centres. Of the six specialist nodes, four were functional and two were non-functional. Of 10 patient nodes, two nodes were functional, four were semi-functional and four were non-functional. Most of the centres were not working due to a problem with their satellite modem. The overall condition of ISRO run telemedicine centres in Madhya Pradesh was found to be poor. Most of these centres failed to provide telemedicine consultations. We recommend replacing this system with another cost effective system available in the state wide area network (SWAN). We suggest the concept of the virtual out-patient department. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  1. Gondwana sedimentation in the Chintalapudi sub-basin, Godavari Valley, Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshminarayana, G. [Geological Survey of India, Calcutta (India). Division of Monitoring

    1995-10-01

    A 3000 m thick Gondwana lithic fill consisting of multifacies associations were preserved in a NW-SE oriented intracratonic Chintalapudi sub-basin set across the Eastern Chat Complex (EGC). Sedimentation commenced with the deposition of diamictite-rhythmite sequence of the Talchir Formation in glacio-lacustrine environment. The succeeding sandstone-coal cyclothems of the Barakar Formation were formed in fluvial-coal swamps complex. The fluvial streams flowed across the EGC, originating somewhere in the southeast beyond the East Coast of India. Phase wise upliftment of the EGC during Mesozoic imparted changes to the Permian intercontinental drainage system which started supplying increased amount of detritus to the basin. Basin marginal faults were first formed at the beginning of Triassic. Alluvial fans originated in the east and southeast and northwesterly flowing braided streams deposited the conglomerate sandstone sequence of the Kamthi Formation. The Early Jurassic uplift of the Mailaram high in the north imparted westerly shift to the braided rivers during the Kota sedimentation. Due to prominence of Kamavarapukota ridge in the south by Early Cretaceous, the drainage pattern became centripetal and short-lived high sinuous rivers debouched into the basin. The silting up of the Chintalapudi sub-basin with the sandstone-claystone sequence of the Gangapur Formation marks the culmination of the Gondwana sedimentation, perhaps, coinciding with the breakup of India from the Gondwanaland.

  2. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Himadri; Harikrishnan, T.; Hanumanthappa, D.; Rengarajan, M.; Saravanan, B.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Mahendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U 3 O 8 ) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  3. Predictors of no-scalpel vasectomy acceptance in Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh

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    Sameer Valsangkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Karimnagar District has consistently achieved highest rates of no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV in the past decade when compared to state and national rates. This study was conducted to elucidate the underlying causes for higher acceptance of NSV in the district. Materials and Methods: A community-based, case control study was conducted. Sampling techniques used were purposive and simple random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the socio-demographic, family characteristics, contraceptive history and predictors of contraceptive choice in 116 NSV acceptors and 120 other contraceptive users (OCUs. Postoperative complications and experiences were ascertained in NSV acceptors. Results: Age (χ2 =11.79, P value = 0.008, literacy (χ2 =17.95, P value = 0.03, duration of marriage (χ2 =14.23, P value = 0.008 and number of children (χ2 =10.45, P value = 0.01 were significant for acceptance of NSV. Among the predictors, method suggested by peer/ health worker (OR = 1.5, P value = 0.01, method does not require regular intervention (OR = 1.3, P value = 0.004 and permanence of the method (OR = 1.2, P value = 0.031 were significant. Acceptors were most satisfied with the shorter duration required to return to work and the most common complication was persistent postoperative pain among 12 (10.34% of the acceptors. Conclusion: Advocating and implementing family planning is of high significance in view of the population growth in India and drawing from the demographic profile, predictors, pool of trainers and experiences in Karimnagar District, a similar achievement of higher rates of this simple procedure with few complications can be replicated.

  4. Predictors of no-scalpel vasectomy acceptance in Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsangkar, Sameer; Sai, Surendranath K; Bele, Samir D; Bodhare, Trupti N

    2012-07-01

    Karimnagar District has consistently achieved highest rates of no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) in the past decade when compared to state and national rates. This study was conducted to elucidate the underlying causes for higher acceptance of NSV in the district. A community-based, case control study was conducted. Sampling techniques used were purposive and simple random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the socio-demographic, family characteristics, contraceptive history and predictors of contraceptive choice in 116 NSV acceptors and 120 other contraceptive users (OCUs). Postoperative complications and experiences were ascertained in NSV acceptors. Age (χ(2)=11.79, P value = 0.008), literacy (χ(2)=17.95, P value = 0.03), duration of marriage (χ(2)=14.23, P value = 0.008) and number of children (χ(2)=10.45, P value = 0.01) were significant for acceptance of NSV. Among the predictors, method suggested by peer/ health worker (OR = 1.5, P value = 0.01), method does not require regular intervention (OR = 1.3, P value = 0.004) and permanence of the method (OR = 1.2, P value = 0.031) were significant. Acceptors were most satisfied with the shorter duration required to return to work and the most common complication was persistent postoperative pain among 12 (10.34%) of the acceptors. Advocating and implementing family planning is of high significance in view of the population growth in India and drawing from the demographic profile, predictors, pool of trainers and experiences in Karimnagar District, a similar achievement of higher rates of this simple procedure with few complications can be replicated.

  5. IDENTIFYING THE ROTATIONAL AXES OF DISTAL FEMUR IN SOUTH ANDHRA POPULATION OF INDIA USING IMAGE TOOL SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To study the normal relationship of the anteroposterior (APA, transepicondylar (TEA and posterior condylar (PCA axis of normal cadaveric femoral bones using digital technology and special computer program. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study comprised of 196 dry adult femora from 98 right and 98 left sides irrespective of sex and age b elonging to Andhra Pradesh population of India. The bone collections were obtained from the Anatomy department, Narayana medical college, Nellore, India. The femurs were kept in normal anatomical position on OB. The photographs were taken from the distal e nd of all the femurs placing the camera lens 10cm constantly away from it with a digital camera. Using the reference points, angle between APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were identified. The statistical significance of difference between the right and left g roups was evaluated by using Student paired t - test. Data were presented as mean±SD. P - value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS : The relationship of the angle between the APA - TEA, APA - PCA and TEA - PCA were observed. The angle o f AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 94.84±3.43°, 87.64±1.62° and 6.84±2.71° respectively on right side. On the left side, the angle of AP - TE, AP - PC and TE - PC was 92.36±4.06°, 93.61±2.54° and 3.19±0.99° respectively. CONCLUSION: The normal femoral rotational alignment from cadaveric bone study using computer aided software can be helpful to the surgeon in selecting appropriate reference axis in any particular knee surgeries. In this regard the present data can be taken into consi deration for the femoral rotational alignment during any intraoperative surgeries of knee and in total knee arthroplasty

  6. Re-discovery of Calinaga aborica Tytler, 1915 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Calinaginae from Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly Calinaga aborica Tytler, 1915 has been re-discovered a hundred years after its original description, and its range extended by 200km westwards into western Arunachal Pradesh, India.  

  7. Comparative study of gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay of boreholes in block-I of Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, M.; Mandal, G.; Bhaumik, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data of boreholes in Block-I of Tummalapalle area, South Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods. The product of average grade (in %eU 3 O 8 ) and thickness (in m) of uranium mineralization has been used for this purpose. The outcome of statistical analysis revealed a strong relation between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data. Slope of the line is close to 1.0 and intercept is not different from 0.0. It ensures homogeneity of uranium ore distribution in the host rock. The calculated value from t-test is well within the limit and ensures the negligibility in the difference of means. This indicates that either of the data can be used for ore reserve calculation. (author)

  8. Herpetofauna of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Abhijit Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A herpetofaunal inventory based on field surveys, literature records and photographic records is presented for Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and its environs, situated in the Terai region of Uttar Pradesh, India. We list a total of 10 species of amphibians and 42 species of reptiles from the area. Compiled observations presented here include biological notes on the Critically Endangered Gavialis gangeticus and new locality records and natural history information of poorly known species including Polypedates taeniatus and Sibynophis sagittarius. Besides recording members of currently recognized species complexes, the study also documents species that were either conferred to closely related species (e.g., Fejervarya cf. teraiensis or their identity remains to be ascertained (e.g., Kaloula sp.. The present study indicates that species count at Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary is likely to increase with additional surveys and systematic work.

  9. Dust Quantization and Effects on Agriculture Over Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Pavel; Tiwari, Shubhansh

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a very important role in the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this communication, the effect of atmospheric dust on the yields of certain crops grown in Uttar Pradesh, India is assessed. Coherent physical and thermodynamic fingerprints of dust parameters such as from Satellite data- KALPANA-1, MODIS, OMI, CALIPSO; Model data- DREAM, HYSPLIT, ECMWF; have been considered to run the APSIM model to derive the impacts. This paper assesses dust as a physical atmospheric phenomenon including its Long Range Transport (LRT) and dispersion along with considerable variations of Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over the subcontinent of India. While AODs significantly increase by more dust concentration, the local dispersion of pollutants is a major concern with deposition of atmospheric dust such as sulphates and other chemical constituents that affect agricultural land. An approach in atmospheric physics is also taken to parameterize the model outputs. This communication indicates dust to be a positive factor for the cultivation of certain crops such as wheat, maize in the experimental location. Initial results suggest that LRT dust is a viable counterpart to decrease the concentration of soil acidity and related parameters thus enhancing the vitality of crops.

  10. Coping Strategies for Stress Adopted by Undergraduate Students of Private Universities in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bishwas Acharya; Gokul Pathak; Hoshiar Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress affects the health and academic career of students. Students adopt different coping methods and strategies to deal with stress. Objective: To assess the coping strategies adopted by the undergraduate students of private universities in Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 422 undergraduate students of two selected private universities in Himachal Pradesh in March-April using self administered questionnaire. Brief cope...

  11. Assessment of satellite and model derived long term solar radiation for spatial crop models: A case study using DSSAT in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop Simulation models are mathematical representations of the soil plant-atmosphere system that calculate crop growth and yield, as well as the soil and plant water and nutrient balances, as a function of environmental conditions and crop management practices on daily time scale. Crop simulation models require meteorological data as inputs, but data availability and quality are often problematic particularly in spatialising the model for a regional studies. Among these weather variables, daily total solar radiation and air temperature (Tmax and Tmin have the greatest influence on crop phenology and yield potential. The scarcity of good quality solar radiation data can be a major limitation to the use of crop models. Satellite-sensed weather data have been proposed as an alternative when weather station data are not available. These satellite and modeled based products are global and, in general, contiguous in time and also been shown to be accurate enough to provide reliable solar and meteorological resource data over large regions where surface measurements are sparse or nonexistent. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the satellite and model derived daily solar radiation for simulating groundnut crop growth in the rainfed distrcits of Andhra Pradesh. From our preliminary investigation, we propose that satellite derived daily solar radiation data could be used along with ground observed temperature and rainfall data for regional crop simulation studies where the information on ground observed solar radiation is missing or not available.

  12. Should Governments engage health insurance intermediaries? A comparison of benefits with and without insurance intermediary in a large tax funded community health insurance scheme in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagulapalli, Srikant; Rokkam, Sudarsana Rao

    2015-09-10

    A peculiar phenomenon of engaging insurance intermediaries for government funded health insurance schemes for the poor, not usually found globally, is gaining ground in India. Rajiv Aarogyasri Scheme launched in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, is first largest tax funded community health insurance scheme in the country covering more than 20 million poor families. Aarogyasri Health Care Trust (trust), the scheme administrator, transfers funds to hospitals through two routes one, directly and the other through an insurance intermediary. The objective of this paper is to find out if engaging an insurance intermediary has any effect on cost efficiency of the insurance scheme. We used payment data of RAS for the period 2007-12, to find out the influence of insurance intermediary on the two variables, benefit cost ratio defined as benefit payment divided by premium payment, and claim denial ratio defined as benefit payment divided by treatment cost. Relationship between scheme expenditure and number of beds empanelled under the scheme is examined. OLS regression is used to perform all analyses. We found that adding an additional layer of insurance intermediary between the trust and hospitals reduced the benefit cost ratio under the scheme by 12.2% (p-value = 0.06). Every addition of 100 beds under the scheme increases the scheme payments by US$ 0.75 million (p-value insurance and trust modes narrowed down from 2.84% in government hospitals to 0.41% in private hospitals (p-value insurance intermediary has the twin effects of reduction in benefit payments to beneficiaries, and chocking fund flow to government hospitals. The idea of engaging insurance intermediary should be abandoned.

  13. Management of childhood diarrhea among private providers in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L. Fisher Walker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, a new initiative to introduce zinc and reinvigorate ORS for diarrhea treatment in the public and private sectors was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation of the program that included assessing the knowledge and practices of private sector providers 6 months after the initial program rollout.

  14. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE NUTRIENT FORAMINA OF UNKNOWN RADIUS AND ULNA AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPORTANCE IN THE REGION OF KADAPA [RAYALASEEMA], ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthi Reddy Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of the present study is to determine the number, direction of nutrient foramina in human bones of forearm and to determine the most common location of nutrient foramina of bones in the forearm and to calculate the foramen index (FI of the bones of the forearm. PLACE OF THE STUDY This study was done in the Department of Anatomy of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences[RIMS], Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. PERIOD OF STUDY This study was conducted during the month of September-October 2015 (Two months study. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and four unknown dry human forearm bones namely radius and ulna constituted the materials for the present study. These bones were studied [radii 54 (28Lt+26Rt, ulnae 50 (28Lt+22Rt] from the Dept. of Anatomy of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. Andhra Pradesh. Each bone was studied for the presence of nutrient foramina, their number, location and the direction were carefully studied and recorded in various tables. RESULTS Twenty eight radii of the left side were studied. A single nutrient foramen was present in 27 bones, double nutrient foramina seen in only one bone (Specimen No. 20, (Figure No. 1. Nutrient foramina were present on the anterior surface in 26 bones (Figure No. 2, and in two bones they were seen on the interosseous border (Specimen Nos. 6 and 14, (Figure No. 3. Twenty six radii of the right side were studied. A single nutrient foramen was present in twenty five bones, double NF seen in one bone. (Specimen No. 10. Nutrient foramen was present on the anterior surface in twenty three bones and in two bones, they were present on the interosseous border (Specimen Nos. 14 and 19 and in one bone on the posterior surface (Specimen No. 15, (Figure No. 4. The mean length of radius on left side was 23.6 cm; mean distance of NF from proximal end of bone was 7.8 cm. (Figure Nos. 8 and 9. The mean length of radius on right side was 24.6 cm; mean distance of nutrient

  15. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-01-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes...

  16. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  17. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

  18. Occurrence and redescription of Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915(Araneae: Barychelidae: Barychelinae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During a recent biodiversity survey a rare Brush-footed trapdoor spider, Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915 was recorded from the State of Andhra Pradesh, India for the first time and the second record from India. A detailed description with photographs and illustrations of the male is provided

  19. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children′s intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (0.05. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000. Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000. The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000. Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.

  20. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Data for Syndromic Surveillance in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilot, E.; Rao, R.; Jena, B.; Krafft, T.; Wang, W.; Krafft, T.; Rosenberg, M.; Pilot, E.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks like H1N1 and more recently Ebola, have once more highlighted that health surveillance and early detection are critical core functions to improve the capacity, preparedness and responsiveness of the Indian public health system. The systematic use of routinely collected

  1. Troubling Transitions? Young People's Experiences of Growing up in Poverty in Rural Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Global policy attention has begun to focus on young people in developing countries and much of the discourse is framed around notions of "transition to adulthood" based on the idea that individuals develop in linear ways, separate from family and community. This idea has already been widely critiqued in western contexts. This article…

  2. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TROPICAL CYCLONE HUD HUD ON COASTAL REGION OF VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

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    G. Vivek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangements of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. On 6th October 2014 Hud Hud originates from a low pressure system that formed under the influence of an upper air cyclonic circulation in the Andaman Sea. On 9th October 2014 the IMD department classified the Hud Hud as a very severe cyclonic storm on IMD scale and category 4 on Staffir-Simpson scale. The cyclone hit the coast of Visakhapatnam on 12th October 2014 at wind speed of 175 km/h which caused extensive damage to the city and the neighbouring districts. The damage caused by Cyclone Hud Hud not only changed the landscape of the port city, but also made it the first city in the country to be directly hit by a cyclone since 1891 as per the records of the IMD. The remote sensing technique used here is NDVI. NDVI will separate vegetation and non-vegetation part. The NDVI will be classified in ERDAS and calculated the area using ARCGIS. The satellite data of 4th October 2014 show s before the cyclone, 14th October 2014 shows after the cyclone and 7th December 2014 after two month of cyclone.

  3. STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF BREAST DISEASES IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Lakshmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer is one of the five most common types of cancer among women. Vast majority of diseases that occur in breast are benign. With the use of mammography, ultrasonography and fine needle biopsy, the diagnosis of breast diseases has become easy and also it is helping in early diagnosis of malignancy and better treatment of it. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective study was undertaken starting in January 2015, of the entire patient with breast disease referred to or attending the Department of General Surgery, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, A.P. RESULTS One hundred fifty nine new patients were included in to this study from January 2015 to May 2016. Out of one hundred fifty nine patients, biopsy/FNAC was done for one hundred five patients. Most usual final diagnosis was normal followed by benign cystic lesion that was in twenty patients. Fibroadenoma was next common diagnosis in fifteen patients. Ductal carcinoma of the breast was final diagnosis in two patients. CONCLUSION In our study, we have found that benign breast disease was most common final diagnosis, out of that fibrocystic disease was more common than fibroadenoma. Two patients were diagnosed to be duct cell carcinoma.

  4. Competitive Exclusion of Parthenium hysterophorus by Other Invasive Species - A Case Study from Andhra Pradesh, India

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    J. Asha kumari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The abundance, dominance and growth performance of Parthenium hysterophorus in relation to its field associates in extensively large areas was investigated. The preliminary analysis of the data revealed that P. hysterophorus is a weak or poor competitor and hence it fails to grow in the company of any aggressive species. Senna uniflora and a few other plants were identified for the control of this pernicious weed. The ability of other species to control P. hysterophorus was attributed to allelopathy. In order to understand how Hyptis suaveolens and Senna uniflora are capable of arresting the growth of P. hysterophorus, pot culture experiments in de Wit replacement series, field experiments in experimental plots and experimental manipulation of the competitive species under natural conditions during different seasons were carried out for two years in 2004 and 2005. The results clearly revealed that both H. suaveolens and S. uniflora were highly effective in the management of P. hysterophorus. The results further showed that the physical dominance and the ability of the competitive species to deprive P. hysterophorus of light are mainly responsible for the decline of P. hysterophorus. Allelopathy doesn't seem to play any effective role under natural conditions.

  5. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area, Godavari Graben, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Chary, M. Basava; Aggarwal, Neha

    2012-10-01

    The entire 606 m-thick sedimentary sequence in borecore MCP-7 from Chintalapudi area, Chintalapudi sub-basin has been lithologically designated as Kamthi Formation. However, the palynological investigation revealed five distinct palynoassemblages, which essentially fall under two groups, one group (Palynoassemblage-I, II and III) having dominance of striate disaccates along with presence of some stratigraphically significant taxa, belongs to Late Permian (Raniganj) palynoflora, while the other group (Palynoassemblages IV and V) shows sharp decline in percentage of characteristic taxa of first group, i.e., striate disaccates, and consequent rise or dominance of taeniate and cingulate cavate spores, belongs to Early Triassic (Panchet) palynoflora. Palynoassemblage-I, II and III (Group I) are characterized by dominance of striate disaccates chiefly, Striatopodocarpites spp. and Faunipollenites spp. along with presence of rare but stratigraphically significant taxa, viz., Gondisporites raniganjensis, Falcisporites nuthaliensis, Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Chordasporites sp., Striomonosaccites, ovatus, Crescentipollenites multistriatus, Verticipollenites debiles, Strotersporites crassiletus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, G. gondwanensis, Hamiapollenites insolitus, Corisaccites alutus, Lunatisporites ovatus, Weylandites spp. and Vitreisporites pallidus. Palynoassemblage-I is distinguished by significant presence of Densipollenites spp. while Palynoassemblage-II shows significant presence of Crescentipollenites spp. and Palynoassemblage-III differs from the above two assemblages in having significant presence of Guttulapollenites hannonicus. Palynoassemblage-IV (Group II) is characterized by high percentage of taeniate disaccates chiefly Lunatisporites spp., while Palynoassemblage-V (Group II) is characterized by cingulate-cavate trilete spores chiefly, Lundbladispora spp. and Densoisporites spp. Striate disaccates show a sharp decline in these two assemblages. In Chintalapudi area Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora has been recorded for the first time indicating existence of Raniganj and Panchet sediments as well. The study further supports the earlier studies of Jha and Srivastava (1996) that Kamthi Formation represents Early Triassic (=Panchet Formation) overlying Raniganj equivalent sediments with a gradational contact.

  6. Fungal phylogenetic diversity in estuarine sediments of Gautami Godavari River, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandavilli, R.; Meena, R.; Shenoy, B.D.

    reservoir which has a huge potential for biotechnological products such as new medicines, enzymes, novel pathways in the organisms (Jensen & Fenical 1994). Our literature review (detailed in the discussion section) suggested that there have been few... processed to extract DNA using ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep (Zymo Research, Catalogue number D6005) according to manufacturer's protocol. DNA samples were subjected to PCR amplification of the ITS region in a Mastercycler. The reactions were carried...

  7. Sediment fluxes and the littoral drift along northeast Andhra Pradesh Coast, India: Estimation by remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Alagarsamy, R.; Hursthouse, A.S.

    ). However, field study revealed a predominance of erosion rather than deposition along the estuarine banks and delta front shoreline (Malini and Rao 2004). The study reported here analyzes the littoral-drift regime along the coastal stretch between... by detecting the landform and shoreline changes during the decade (1988/89 to 2000). The multi-date color composite for each sector was generated by assigning red color to a band of ETM 8 data and green and blue color to the corresponding band of TM data...

  8. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat transfer and associated melting of the surrounding shallow crustal rocks to generate felsic magmas.

  9. Pollination ecology of Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae in Coringa mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn. (Lamiaceae is bisexual, self-compatible and has a vector-dependent mixed breeding system.  They are dichogamous and herkogamous; the day 1 flowers are staminate while the day 2 and 3 flowers are pistillate.  The plant blooms in the evening, possesses a white long corolla with a hairy interior to exclude other insects and strong fragrance are adaptations for pollination by the hawk-moth Macroglossum gyrans.  The 2nd and 3rd day flowers are nectar-rich and attract hawk-moths during the dawn and dusk hours.  The plant is also visited by bees and butterflies.  The bees Xylocopa and Anthophora are primary nectar robbers which collect nectar without effecting pollination.  In C. inerme, three forms of flowers can be distinguished based on the position of sex organs.  The first form is characterized by elongated stamens and a style which occur in close proximity to each other just after anthesis facilitating contact between the stamens and stigma.  The second form is characterized by the scattered position of stamens and style.  In the third form, the stamens are fully extended while the style is curved away from them, either to the left or to the right; subsequently the stamens curl inward and the style elongates. Interestingly, the three flower forms can be found within a cyme also.  These forms of flowers with strong protandry prevent autonomous selfing but not geitonogamy.  The fruit is a capsule and breaks open to disperse nutlets.  Birds such as Acridotheres tristis, Corvus splendens, Corvus macrorhynchos and Turdoides caudatus disperse nutlets during the early winter season. Seeds germinate in June and seedlings grow gradually to produce new plants. 

  10. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis among patients with seizures in northern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Bala Chandra Sekhar Pappala

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The possible potentiality of NCC could be identified as an underlying cause of the recent onset of seizures in this region as explored in the present study. It is recommended that NCC should be suspected as one of the major differential in every recent onset seizure with or without a radio imaging supportive diagnosis, especially in areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  11. Demographic studies of Sherpalle area, the proposed site for Uranium Processing Plant in Nalgondo district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Pavanaguru, R.; Venugopal Reddy, K.; Yadagiri, G.; Chougaonkar, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Availability of nuclear fuel, in the wake of over stress on other power resources, for continuous production of nuclear energy is a crucial and essential factor. Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL) is undertaking mining and processing of uranium ore on large scale and it is expanding its operation in the Nalgonda district of AP, which is endowed with huge uranium deposits. To initiate the continuous operation of mining processes, it is essential and prime requisite to generate baseline demographic data which can be compared to both past and future date to identify changes that may result due to mining operations

  12. Geology of radon occurrence around Jari in Parvati Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, V.M.; Sharma, K.K.; Ramola, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil gas and indoor radon concentrations have been measured around Jari in Parvati Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India, to study their relationship with the local geology. Both soil gas and indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher near structurally controlled uranium mineralization. Indoor radon levels in the houses of the study area are considerably higher than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq m -3 . The high indoor radon concentration found may be attributed to the geology of the area. This area needs more detailed investigation as it may be one of the areas of high radon risk in India. (Author)

  13. Incidence of agenesis of palmaris longus in the Andhra population of India

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    K Devi Sankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The knowledge of Palmaris longus (PL is a growing interest for its wide role in reconstructive plastic surgeries as a donor tendon for transfer or transplant. The prevalence of the PL agenesis has been well-documented by many authors in different ethnic groups or populations. Many conventional tests for determining the presence of the PL has been described, but lamentably there are many discrepancies in confirming its presence or absence. Slight modifications of the prevailing methods can still give authenticate results. Aim : This prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of unilateral and bilateral agenesis of PL and its association with sex and side of the limb in the Andhra population of India. Materials and Methods : A total of 942 subjects of both sexes belonging to 18-23 years were used to access the PL using various tendon examination techniques including our modified Schaeffer′s test. The data collected were analyzed by Pearsons χ2 test using SPSS software. Results : Overall agenesis of muscle in both sexes was 264 (28.0%, out of which 40.2% was seen in females and 14.7% in males with the ratio of 3:1. The unilateral agenesis was seen in 70.5% and bilateral agenesis in 29.5% subjects. The left side agenesis was seen in 51.6% and right side in 48.4% subjects. Conclusions : The prevalence of bilateral and unilateral agenesis was more common on left side with a greater likelihood in the female subjects. The proposed technique could bring better results in all subjects and can be implemented in manual examination of PL.

  14. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Tangjang Sumpam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. Results We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56 and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43. FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum, diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia, and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum. The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing

  15. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC) to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. Results We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56) and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43). FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia) are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum). The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing religious scripts in

  16. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra; Tangjang, Sumpam; Mandal, Subhash C

    2011-10-14

    The present paper documents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicine for human and veterinary ailments, and those used for dietary supplements, religious purpose, local beverage, and plants used to poison fish and wild animals. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Arunachal Pradesh. Field research was conducted between April 2006 and March 2009 with randomly selected 124 key informants using semi-structured questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed through informant consensus factor (FIC) to determine the homogeneity of informant's knowledge on medicinal plants. We documented 50 plants species belonging to 29 families used for treating 22 human and 4 veterinary ailments. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (40%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. Leaves were most frequently used plant parts. The consensus analysis revealed that the dermatological ailments have the highest FIC (0.56) and the gastro-intestinal diseases have FIC (0.43). FIC values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in dermatological and gastro-intestinal ailments category among the users. Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically rare and endangered species used as disinfectant for cleaning wounds and parasites like leeches and lice on livestocks. Two plant species (Illicium griffithii and Rubia cordifolia) are commonly used for traditional dyeing of clothes and food items. Some of the edible plants recorded in this study were known for their treatment against high blood pressure (Clerodendron colebrookianum), diabetes mellitus (Momordica charantia), and intestinal parasitic worms like round and tape worms (Lindera neesiana, Solanum etiopicum, and Solanum indicum). The Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh have traditionally been using Daphne papyracea for preparing hand-made paper for painting and writing religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species

  17. India - 103 Agricultural Extension. Madhya Pradesh Hindi Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Elaine; Ray, S. B.

    This guide is designed for Hindi language training of Peace Corps workers in agriculture in India and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of notes on Hindi phonology and pronunciation and a series of lessons on description, common phrases, and grammatical constructions. The 41 lessons are presented in four sections,…

  18. Out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care for hospital births in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Moradhvaj

    2018-02-27

    The studies measured Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) for hospital births previously suffer from serious data limitations. To overcome such limitations, we designed a hospital-based study for measuring the levels and factors of OOPE on maternity care for hospital births by its detailed components. Data were collected from women for non-complicated deliveries 24-h before the survey and complicated deliveries 48-h prior to the survey at the hospital settings in Uttar Pradesh, India during 2014. The simple random sampling design was used in the selection of respondents. Bivariate analyses were used to estimate mean expenditure on Antenatal care services (ANCs), Delivery care and Total Maternity Expenditure (TME). Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the factor associated with the absolute and relative share of expenditure in couple's annual income on ANCs, delivery care, and TME. The findings show that average expenditure on maternal health care is high ($155) in the study population. Findings suggest that factors such as income, place, and number of ANCs, type, and place of institutional delivery are significantly associated with both absolute and relative expenditure on maternity care. The likelihood of incidence of catastrophic expenditure on maternity care is significantly higher for women delivered in private hospitals (β = 2.427, p maternity care for hospital births reported in this study is much higher as it was collected with a better methodology, although with smaller sample size. Therefore, ongoing maternity benefit scheme in India in general and Uttar Pradesh in particular need to consider the levels of OOPE on maternity care and demand-side and supply-side factors determining it for a more effective policy to reduce the catastrophic burden on households and help women to achieve better maternity health outcomes in poor regional settings like Uttar Pradesh in India.

  19. Predictors of caregivers’ burden of Parkinson’s disease in India: experience of a tertiary care center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal V; Goyal V; Shukla G; Behari M

    2012-01-01

    Vikas Agrawal,1 Vinay Goyal,2 Garima Shukla,2 Madhuri Behari21Department of Neurology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaIntroduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increasing dependence on caregivers for activities of daily living that imposes a major burden upon the patients’ caregiver. Caregiver burden (CB) refers to the...

  20. Socioeconomic and geographical disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettrick, Zoe; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Millennium Development Goals, India seeks to substantially reduce its burden of childhood mortality. The success or failure of this goal may depend on outcomes within India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. This study examines the level of disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality across a range of equity markers within the state. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using five datasets, from three available sources: sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Disparities were evaluated via comparisons of mortality rates by rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and districts. While Uttar Pradesh has experienced declines in both rates of under-five (162-108 per 1,000 live births) and neonatal (76-49 per 1,000 live births) mortality, the rate of decline has been slow (averaging 2 % per annum). Mortality trends in rural and urban areas are showing signs of convergence, largely due to the much slower rate of change in urban areas. While the gap between rich and poor households has decreased in both urban and rural areas, trends suggest that differences in mortality will remain. Caste-related disparities remain high and show no signs of diminishing. Of concern are also the signs of stagnation in mortality amongst groups with greater ability to access services, such as the urban middle class. Notwithstanding the slow but steady reduction of absolute levels of childhood mortality within Uttar Pradesh, the distribution of the mortality by sub-state populations remains unequal. Future progress may require significant investment in quality of care provided to all sections of the community.

  1. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

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    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  2. Maternal Healthcare Providers in Uttar Pradesh, India: How to Position Informal Practitioners within the System?

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    Chesta Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the knowledge and services of informal providers and to explore their role in addressing the human resource gap in Uttar Pradesh, India, within the context of maternal health.The study is exploratory in nature, conducted in four blocks of four districts of Uttar Pradesh state, India. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 114 informal providers.More than one-third (38% providers have some formal education and unrecognized degrees. Approximately three-fourths (74% of them have more than 5 years of work experience. They also provide delivery and in-patient services and have basic equipment available. However, they lack essential knowledge about maternal health. They have mixed opinion about their contribution towards maternal health but the only ones available. Therefore, despite lacking requisite knowledge, training and services, they become indispensable due to lack of emergency and timely public health services, and being the only ones existing in the community.Informal sector practitioners are a critical link in reaching out to population for health services in developing countries. As opposed to the general notion, they possess years of formal education, experience, informal trainings along with trust of communities. Thus, it becomes important to accept their presence and manage them to the best of their abilities even for specialized care like maternal health.

  3. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  5. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh,

  6. Using participatory modelling to compensate for data scarcity in environmental planning: A case study from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.; Froebrich, J.; Raju, R.; Sreenivas, Ch.; Kselik, R.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory modelling has provided a new approach to overcome the problem of data scarcity which formerly interfered with the environmental planning for the restoration of the Kolleru-Upputeru wetland ecosystem on the east coast of Andhra Pradesh in South India. New ways had to be found to address

  7. Invited spaces and informal practices in participatory community forest management in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandigama, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter shows how the formal participation of men and women in a community-based forest management project shapes and is shaped by informal practices. The gender analysis is based on an ethnographic case study of a village in Andhra Pradesh, India. It aims to contribute to a better

  8. Albirhodobacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from sea shore water of Visakhapatnam, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel marine, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain N9 sup(T), was isolated from a water sample of the sea shore at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India). Strain N9 sup(T) was found to be positive for oxidase and catalase...

  9. Diversity of some fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    PREMANAND KALKRISHANA MESHRAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meshram PM (2010 Diversity of some fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, India. Biodiversitas 11: 211-215. National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS gives very good account of avifauna. It over emphasizes significant and important birds species available which are of National and International importance. Crocodiles use sand banks for nesting and basking. Fauna in the NCS is very much influenced by various factors like habitat suitability and protection of their habitats. Their distribution is depending on availability of deep water pools. Another important factors on which distribution of animals depends long stretches of long sand banks. Sloppy to steep sand bank with loose soil were good habitats for nesting of crocodiles, turtles and birds. NCS areas were considerably altered and there were disturbance by the sand miners, poachers, fishermen and farmers. Consequently the poor survival is recommended to greater protection by management practices. Effective co-operations between the Forest Department of Madhya Pradesh and neighbouring states were needed as sand mining and poaching becomes an interstate problem. Thus, strategic location of this site in the migratory route of water birds enhances its importance as a significant water bird habitat. In the present study diversity of some fauna in NCS is discussed.

  10. 'Where is the public health sector?' Public and private sector healthcare provision in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vinod

    2007-12-01

    This paper aims to empirically demonstrate the size and composition of the private health care sector in one of India's largest provinces, Madhya Pradesh. It is based on a field survey of all health care providers in Madhya Pradesh (60.4 million in 52,117 villages and 394 towns). Seventy-five percent of the population is rural and 37% live below poverty line. This survey was done as part of the development of a health management information system. The distribution of health care providers in the province with regard to sector of work (public/private), rural-urban location, qualification, commercial orientation and institutional set-up are described. Of the 24,807 qualified doctors mapped in the survey, 18,757 (75.6%) work in the private sector. Fifteen thousand one hundred forty-two (80%) of these private physicians work in urban areas. The 72.1% (67793) of all qualified paramedical staff work in the private sector, mostly in rural areas. The paper empirically demonstrates the dominant heterogeneous private health sector and the overall the disparity in healthcare provision in rural and urban areas. It argues for a new role for the public health sector, one of constructive oversight over the entire health sector (public and private) balanced with direct provision of services where necessary. It emphasizes the need to build strong public private partnerships to ensure equitable access to healthcare for all.

  11. m-Health: A Critical Analysis of Awareness, Perception, and Attitude of Healthcare Among Providers in Himachal Pradesh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Krishnan; Kanwar, Vikrant; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Uthayakumaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Providing healthcare in remote mountainous areas is challenging. The increasing availability of mobile connectivity needs to be exploited by offering healthcare through a mobile medium, popularly known as mobile health (m-health). It is essential to understand the awareness, perception, and attitude of healthcare providers (HCPs) in deploying m-health. Their outlook on new technologies influences patient adoption. Reports on attitudes regarding healthcare through mobile phones are now confined to views from the recipient. This study from August 1 to September 30, 2014 analyzed the views of 592 HCPs (12.3% of all HCPs) in Himachal Pradesh, India. They included faculty and students of the two medical colleges, as well as HCPs from all of the 12 districts. Although Himachal Pradesh has the highest teledensity of all states in India (117.6%), only 58.8% of HCPs (of those surveyed, 72% lived in suburban areas and 24.8% in Shimla, the state capital) would easily recommend m-health. Self-perceived ability to use mobile services was 85%. Fifty-nine percent used mobile devices for social networking, and 52.4% used Wi-Fi. Sixty-one percent of those interviewed were females, and 39% were males. The transformative potential of m-health hinges on its acceptance and use by all stakeholders. The study suggests that as HCPs in Himachal Pradesh are already using mobile value added services and are highly information technology literate, addressing their specific concerns could lead to use of m-health in Himachal Pradesh. Healthcare delivery in Himachal Pradesh is still suboptimal. With increasing connectivity, awareness, and commencement of telemedicine services in Himachal Pradesh, m-health has the potential to be a reality.

  12. A survey of awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women at tertiary care centre in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Rani; Kalpana Singh; Shreya Thapa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is very common in developing countries. In Uttar Pradesh the literacy rate of women is low as compared to other states of India. Poverty is very high. Most women report with advance stage of cervical cancer. It can be prevented by early screening with Pap smear. Aim of our study is to know about the awareness of Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccine among women attending a tertiary hospital in Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh India. Methods: A questionnaire based ...

  13. Indoor radon monitoring in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India, for health hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, A.; Walia, V.; Kumar, M.; Tuccu, M.A.; Prasher, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, indoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration monitoring was carried out using Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors in some residential areas of the Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh, India. The average value of the indoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration in the study area was found to be 94 Bq m -3 , with an annual effective dose of 1.61 mSv. The average value of the indoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration in the studied areas was found to be higher than the world average indoor radon value of 40 Bq m -3 but lower than the value of the action level 300 Bq m -3 , except for two locations. (authors)

  14. Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Singh, Baldev; Kumar, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed by Somogyi (Technical reports series no. 310, vol. 1, IAEA, Vienna, 1990, p. 229). The measurements have been taken using 5''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector. The gamma ray lines of 1.46, 1.76 and 2.62 MeV were employed for potassium, radium and thorium analysis. The results for radium content in soil obtained by gamma ray spectrometry agrees with that determined by the track etch technique. The radium activity in soil samples of Hamirpur district is found to be within the safe limits

  15. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  16. Fighting malaria in Madhya Pradesh (Central India: Are we loosing the battle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimasarn Krongthong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria control in Madhya Pradesh is complex because of vast tracts of forest with tribal settlement. Fifty four million individuals of various ethnic origins, accounting for 8% of the total population of India, contributed 30% of total malaria cases, 60% of total falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country. Ambitious goals to control tribal malaria by launching "Enhanced Malaria Control Project" (EMCP by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP, with the World Bank assistance, became effective in September 1997 in eight north Indian states. Under EMCP, the programme used a broader mix of new interventions, i.e. insecticide-treated bed nets, spraying houses with effective residual insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes, rapid diagnostic tests for prompt diagnosis, treatment of the sick with effective radical treatment and increased public awareness and IEC. However, the challenge is to scale up these services. A retrospective analysis of data on malaria morbidity and associated mortality reported under the existing surveillance system of the Madhya Pradesh (Central India for the years 1996–2007 was carried out to determine the impact of EMCP on malaria morbidity and associated mortality. Analysis revealed that despite the availability of effective intervention tools for the prevention and control of malaria, falciparum malaria remains uncontrolled and deaths due to malaria have increased. Precisely, the aim of this epidemiological analysis is to draw lessons applicable to all international aid efforts, bureaucracy, policy makers and programme managers in assessing its project performance as a new Global Malaria Action Plan is launched with ambitious goal of reducing malaria and its elimination by scaling up the use of existing tools.

  17. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Tej Ram; Deo, Prakash Ramchandra; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-09-30

    Politics plays a critical role in agenda setting in health affairs; therefore, understanding the priorities of the political agenda in health is very important. The political priority for safe motherhood has been investigated at the national level in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore why and how maternal health became a political priority at sub-national level in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. This study followed a qualitative design. Data were collected by carrying out interviews and review of documents. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with twenty respondents from four stakeholder groups: government officials, development partners, civil society and academics. Data analysis was performed using thematic analysis. The analysis was guided by Kingdon's multiple streams model. The emergence of maternal health as a political priority in Madhya Pradesh was the result of convergence in the developments in different streams: the development of problem definition, policy generation and political change. The factors which influenced this process were: emerging evidence of the high magnitude of maternal mortality, civil society's positioning of maternal mortality as a human rights violation, increasing media coverage, supportive policy environment and launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), the availability of effective policy solutions, India's aspiration of global leadership, international influence, maternal mortality becoming a hot debate topic and political transition at the national and state levels. Most of these factors first became important at national level which then cascaded to the state level. Currently, there is a supportive policy environment in the state for maternal health backed by greater political will and increased resources. However, malnutrition and population stabilization are the competing priorities which may push maternal health off the agenda. The influence of the events and factors

  18. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  19. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in school going children of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabjeet Singh; Abhishek Sharma; Navreet Sandhu; Kavita Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 13–18-year-old schoolchildren of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Subjects and Methods: The sample comprised 2000 school children (1125 females and 875 males) who had no...

  20. Mineragraphic study of uraninites in precambrian quartzites of Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarthy, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    Uraninites from the precambrian quartzites at Kandi-Panihar, Giagi-Khalandi, Dharagad-Bandal and Sajwar areas of Kulu district, Himachal Pradesh (Survey of India Sheet 53 E/NW) have been studied under ore-microscope and by X-ray diffraction. Besides uraninite, kasolite has also been identified occurring as oxidation product of the uraninite, and both occur filling up the macro- and micro-shear fractures developed in the quartzites. Uraninites show brecciation and recrystallization in these veins indicating that the mineralisation has been affected by a tectonic event. Two generations of uraninite have been noted in the veins. Later supergene alteration has resulted in the development of kasolite, curite, and wolsendorfite from the uraninite along the joint-planes. The only gangue mineral associated with the uraninite is quartz. Spectrographic data indicates that these uraninites are extremely poor in La and Ce compared to the hydrothermal uraninites reported from Singhbhum area of Bihar, India. In the light of the present studies it is difficult to comment on the genesis of Kulu uraninite at this stage, though X-ray powder data indicate high temperature origin for the early uraninite, with the unit cell size of around 5.4677A. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

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    Siraj A. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP state. Serum samples (n = 164 collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas.

  2. Dengue Outbreak in a Hilly State of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Soni, Monika; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been reported from plains as well as hilly regions of India including some parts of Northeast India. In July-August 2012, outbreak of fever with unknown origin (FUO) indicative of Dengue was reported in Pasighat, East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh (AP) state. Serum samples (n = 164) collected from patients from Health Training and Research Centre General Hospital, Pasighat, were tested for NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. NS1-positive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR assay and entomological surveys were carried out. The majority of suspected cases reported NS1 antigen positivity. Females and young adults were mostly affected. The majority of the amplified NS1-positive samples showed Dengue serotype 3 infection. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus, known as semiurban breeding mosquitoes, was the only potential vector species identified from the affected areas of Pasighat which single handedly contributed to the outbreak. Thus, the present work identifies Dengue as an emerging arboviral infection in hilly state of AP along with a looming risk of its spread to neighbouring areas. PMID:24587732

  3. 'Whatever She May Study, She Can't Escape from Washing Dishes': Gender Inequity in Secondary Education--Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Mukherjee, Protap

    2018-01-01

    Using unique panel data from Young Lives study conducted in undivided Andhra Pradesh, India, this mixed-method paper analyses gender differentials in completion of secondary education. Results show biased secondary school completion rates in favor of boys. Probit regression results highlight certain variables such as mothers' education, wealth,…

  4. Gender-based power and couples' HIV risk in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Alpna; Bloom, Shelah S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Curtis, Siân; Angeles, Gustavo

    2014-12-01

    Gender inequality is a long-recognized driver of the HIV epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the association between gender-based power and HIV risk in India, which has the world's third largest HIV epidemic. Population-based data collected in 2003 from 3,385 couples residing in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India, were used to examine associations between gender-based power (wife's autonomy and husband's inequitable gender attitudes) and indicators of couples' HIV risk (whether the husband had had premarital sex with someone other than his eventual spouse, extramarital sex in the past year or STI symptoms in the past year). Structural equation modeling was used to create composite variables for the gender-based power measures and test their associations with HIV risk measures. Twenty-four percent of husbands had had premarital sex, 7% had had extramarital sex in the past year and 6% had had STI symptoms in the past year. Structural equation models indicated that wives who reported higher levels of autonomy were less likely than other wives to have husbands who had had extramarital sex in the past year (direct association) or STI symptoms in the past year (indirect association). Moreover, husbands who endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes were more likely than others to report having had premarital sex with someone other than their spouse, which in turn was associated with having had extramarital sex and STI symptoms in the past year. If the associations identified in this study reflect a causal relationship between gender-based power and HIV risk behavior, then HIV prevention programs that successfully address inequitable gender roles may reduce HIV risks in North India.

  5. Using environmental niche modeling to find suitable habitats for the Hard-ground Barasingha in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    C. P. Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subspecies of Swamp Deer, the Hard-ground Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii branderi Pocock, is presently found only in Kanha Tiger Reserve (KTR in Madhya Pradesh, India. This subspecies is highly vulnerable to extinction, and reintroduction in suitable sites is the need of the hour.  Environmental niche models (GARP, SVM, ED, CSM aimed at providing a detailed prediction of species distribution by relating presence of species to 19 bioclimatic indices were developed, using swamp deer occurrence records in KTR. The predictions were appropriately weighted with the prevailing LU/LC classes to identify suitable habitats in Madhya Pradesh, India. The result shows that the southern region of Madhya Pradesh is suitable for the sustenance of Barasingha with varying degrees of habitability. Vicarious validation shows that most of these forest areas were the same as that of historical records dating back to 50 years. However, land use maps can help identify areas where this subspecies can be reintroduced. 

  6. Feasibility of community neonatal death audits in rural Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z; Kumar, V; Singh, P; Singh, V; Yadav, R; Baqui, A H; Santosham, M; Awasthi, S; Singh, J V; Darmstadt, G L

    2007-09-01

    Medical audit is a widely promoted strategy in hospitals, but experience within community settings is scant. Community neonatal death audit is a form of audit, which involves a systematic analysis of the quality of care provided in the home, danger sign recognition and care seeking decision making for neonatal illness. This research was conducted in Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the feasibility and cultural acceptability of community neonatal death audits. During November-December 2004, we conducted three in-depth interviews with family members of deceased neonates, and six focus group discussions with family and community members. Three approaches were evaluated: in-depth interview with the family before engaging them in an audit with the community; preliminary meeting to build rapport with the family and community before conducting an audit; and audit with the family and community in a single focus group. Approaches were interactive processes, involving the community, to identify avoidable factors in a particular death and discuss solutions. Carried out in a culturally sensitive and non-punitive manner, community neonatal death audit was found to be acceptable and feasible. All approaches provoked formal investigation by community members, and stimulated sharing of views, leading to the self-discovery that community perception was a cumulatively amplified effect of individual perceptions. Presence of an educated/experienced community member or health worker served as a catalyst. No one optimal approach was identified. Community neonatal audit is an acceptable approach that shows promise as an effective intervention for improving neonatal health outcomes.

  7. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  8. Allele frequency distribution for 15 autosomal STR loci in Afridi Pathan population of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sabahat; Ali, Shahnaz; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-11-01

    Allele frequencies of the 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818 and FGA were determined in Afridi Pathan population of Uttar Pradesh, India. All the 15 STR loci studied were found to be highly polymorphic with respect to observed heterozygosity values. Adherence to the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was confirmed for all the loci with an exception of TPOX and FGA. The allele 12 in CSF1PO was found to be most frequent. The power of discrimination was found to be high ranging from a minimum of 0.858 for the locus CSFIPO to maximum of 0.962 for the locus FGA, thereby facilitating the validation and efficiency of these STR markers in human identification. Population differentiation test between the studied and neighboring populations revealed significant differences at several loci suggesting the endogamous nature of the studied population. To the best of our knowledge, Afridi Pathan population has not been explored genetically for generating forensic data on STR markers. Therefore, STR allele frequency data of this unique population is a valuable contribution to the existing DNA database on Indian populations.

  9. Couple Interaction and Predicting Vulnerability to Domestic Violence in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Singh, Neha

    2014-08-01

    Domestic violence, when conducted against women, is a type of gender-based violence that negatively impacts a woman's physical and psychological health, causing insecurity, lack of safety, and loss of health and self-worth. Domestic violence is an important consideration for sexual, reproductive, and child health, as it can affect contraceptive behaviors of couples as well as levels of infant mortality. In the present analysis, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between women's experience of domestic violence and couple interaction after controlling for certain socioeconomic and demographic variables using logistic regression. This study looks at data from the National Family Health Survey-III conducted from 2005 to 2006 in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. Findings reveal that 43% of women suffer from domestic violence in the society as a whole; however, if a couple makes joint decisions in household matters, the prevalence of domestic violence is observed to be 24% less. Education and occupation of women, standard of living, media exposure, and partner's alcoholic behaviors are also found to be possible predictors of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Randomized, controlled trial of oral ribavirin for Japanese encephalitis in children in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Tripathi, Piyush; Baranwal, Madan; Singh, Sudhakar; Tripathi, Sanjeev; Banerjee, Gopa

    2009-02-15

    Japanese encephalitis is associated with high rates of mortality and disabling sequelae. To date, no specific antiviral has proven to be of benefit for this condition. We attempted to determine the efficacy of oral ribavirin treatment for reducing early mortality among children with Japanese encephalitis in Uttar Pradesh, India. Children (age, 6 months to 15 years) who had been hospitalized with acute febrile encephalopathy (a syrup through nasogastric tube or by mouth. The primary outcome was early mortality; secondary outcome measures were early (at hospital discharge; normal or nearly normal, independent functioning, dependent, vegetative state, or death) outcome, time to resolution of fever, time to resumption of oral feeding, duration of hospitalization, and late outcome (> or =3 months after hospital discharge). The study was double-blind, and analysis was by intention to treat. A total of 153 patients were enrolled during a 3-year period; 70 patients received ribavirin, and 83 received placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in the early mortality rate: 19 (27.1%) of 70 ribavirin recipients and 21 (25.3%) of 83 placebo recipients died (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.4). No statistically significant differences in secondary outcome measures were found. For the dosage schedule used in our study, oral ribavirin has no effect in reducing early mortality associated with Japanese encephalitis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00216268 .

  11. How the local community views wildlife conservation: a case of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the local community’s attitudes towards wildlife conservation in Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the largest sanctuary in the state and under the highest anthropogenic pressure. People engage in fishing, livestock grazing, fuel wood/fodder collection, cash cropping of cucurbits in the sandy river banks for sustenance and commercial extraction of sand and grass for construction. These activities threaten the survival of threatened species like Swamp Deer Rucervus duvaucelii, Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata and Gharial Gavialis gangeticus. Interviews were conducted with heads of randomly selected families and ‘yes/no’ opinions were taken. Questions included direct statements on biodiversity status and relationship with the Sanctuary resources. Data was classified in percent values and it was found that there is no difference in people’s perception on increase, decrease or stability of biodiversity. Further, a majority of people find life around a protected area disadvantageous, or with dismal advantages. Building on this premise the study suggests that a better share in development and alternative livelihood options for the local community of HWS can decrease their dependence on natural resources and improve conservation as a favourable option in the present perceptions of the people.

  12. Comparative survey of entomophagy and entomotherapeutic practices in six tribes of eastern Arunachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-07-19

    A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.

  13. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of Lahaul-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y; Khattar, Jis; Singh, D P; Rahi, P; Gulati, A

    2014-09-01

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ultra-oligotrophic. Based on morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequence, a total of 20 cyanobacterial species belonging to 11 genera were identified. Canonical correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species with respect to their occurrence and nutrient/physical environment demand. The first group, which included Nostoc linckia, N. punctiforme, Nodularia sphaerocarpa, Geitlerinema acutissimum, Limnothrix redekii, Planktothrix agardhii and Plank. clathrata, was characteristic of water with high nutrient content and high temperature. The second group, including Gloeocapsopsis pleurocapsoides, Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. frigida, Pseudanabaena frigida and N. spongiaeforme, occurred in oligotrophic water with high pH and low temperature. The distribution of third group of Cyanobium parvum, Synechocystis pevalekii, L. benthonica, L. foveolarum, L. lurida, L. valderiana, Phormidium autumnale and P. chalybeum could not be associated with a particular environmental condition because of their presence in all sampling sites.

  15. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in rural population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Anupama Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular morbidity is a significant problem in rural areas of India as it remains undiagnosed and neglected. Aims & Objectives:  To determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity in the rural population of Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages around RHTC Satrikh of HIMS Barabanki. Ocular examination and vision testing was done among 812 people using ophthalmoscopic instruments. Information was collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS and appropriate Statistical tests. Results: Of the total 812 individuals interviewed, the prevalence of ocular morbidity was 41.3% (335 subjects had one or more ocular morbidity; with 88.8% elderly affected (age >65 years.   Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.  Allergic and infective conjunctivitis affected 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively.  The prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency disorder (including night blindness and bitot spots was 1.3%.  Higher ocular morbidity was present in houses with higher SES. Environmental conditions had no significant relation to ocular morbidity.  Conclusion: The prevalence of ocular diseases among the elderly was highest and requires prompt attention.  Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity having a prevalence of 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.

  16. Mineral shock signatures in rocks from Dhala (Mohar) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhuparna; Pandey, Pradeep; Kumar, Shailendra; Parihar, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    A concrete study combining optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, was carried out on subsurface samples of basement granite and melt breccia from Mohar (Dhala) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Optical microscopy reveals aberrations in the optical properties of quartz and feldspar in the form of planar deformation feature-like structures, lowered birefringence and mosaics in quartz, toasting, planar fractures and ladder texture in alkali feldspar and near-isotropism in bytownite. It also brings to light incidence of parisite, a radioactive rare mineral in shocked granite. Raman spectral pattern, peak positions, peak widths and multiplicity of peak groups of all minerals, suggest subtle structural/crystallographic deviations. XRD data further reveals minute deviations of unit cell parameters of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase, with respect to standard α-quartz, high- and low albite and microcline. Reduced cell volumes in these minerals indicate compression due to pressure. The c0/a0 values indicate an inter-tetrahedral angle roughly between 120o and 144o, further pointing to a possible pressure maxima of around 12 GPa. The observed unit cell aberration of minerals may indicate an intermediate stage between crystalline and amorphous stages, thereby, signifying possible overprinting of decompression signatures over shock compression effects, from a shock recovery process.

  17. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, A.; Singh, S.; Duggal, V.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of indoor radon concentrations were performed in the dwellings of the Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, India by using LR-115 type II Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors in the bare mode. The annual average indoor radon concentrations in the dwellings are found to vary from 114 to 400 Bq m -3 with an average of 194 Bq m -3 . In ∼22 % of the dwellings the indoor radon activity concentration values lies in the range of action level (200-300 Bq m -3 ) and in ∼11 % of the dwellings above the upper limit of action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The annual effective dose (AED) varies from 2.88 to 10.08 mSv with an average of 4.88 mSv. In most of the villages, the AED lies in the range of action level (3-10 mSv) recommended by the ICRP. The seasonal variation in indoor radon reveals the maximum values in winter and minimum in summer. The winter/summer ratio of indoor radon ranges from 1.15 to 1.62 with an average of 1.31. Analysis of ventilation conditions reveal that the indoor radon concentration values are more in poorly ventilated dwellings compared with the well-ventilated ones. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of forest malaria transmission in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. FINDINGS: Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend  =  663.55; P<0.0001. Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44% and P. vivax (56%. Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T. An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. CONCLUSION: These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy

  19. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Socio-epidemiological determinants of 2002 plague outbreak in Himachal Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This qualitative investigation was conducted to determine the socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. Methods The data for socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in HP was obtained from residents through 150 in-depth Interviews (IDI) and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) during six visits (from May 2011 to April 2012) by the research team. Natives, health officials and the nomadic population were interviewed. According to their opinion and viewpoints data was collected and their lifestyle and hunting practices were studied in detail. Tape recorders were used during various FGDs and IDIs. The interviews and FGDs were later transcribed and coded. In-depth analysis of the recorded data was done using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results The study reports that the outbreak in 2002 in a few villages of Himachal Pradesh was that of plague and it occurred by the contact of an index case with wild animals after hunting and de-skinning. The first wave of plague transmission which took 16 lives of residents was followed by a second wave of transmission in a ward of a tertiary care hospital where one visitor acquired it from relatives of the index case and succumbed. The life-style practices of residents (hunting behavior, long stay in caves and jungles, overcrowding in houses, poor hygiene and sanitation, belief in ‘God’ and faith healers for cure of diseases) was optimal for the occurrence and rapid spread of such a communicable disease. The man-rodent contact is intensified due to the practice of hunting in such a rodent-ridden environment. The residents harbor a strong belief that plague occurs due to the wrath of gods. Various un-reported outbreaks of plague were also observed by officials, residents and old folk. The persistence of plague in HP is favoured by its hilly terrain, inaccessible areas, inclement weather (snow) in winters, unhygienic lifestyle

  1. Genesis of copper-lead mineralization in the regionally zoned Agnigundala Sulfide Belt, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip

    2018-03-01

    Shallow marine sandstone-shale-carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Paleoproterozoic northern Cuddapah basin host copper (Nallakonda deposit), copper-lead (Dhukonda deposit), and lead mineralization (Bandalamottu deposit) which together constitute the Agnigundala Sulfide Belt. The Cu sulfide mineralization in sandstone is both stratabound and disseminated, and Pb sulfide mineralization occurs as stratabound fracture filling veins and/or replacement veins within dolomite. Systematic mineralogical and sulfur, carbon, and oxygen isotope studies of the three deposits indicate a common ore-fluid that deposited copper at Nallakonda, copper-lead at Dhukonda, and lead at Bandalamottu under progressive cooling during migration through sediments. The ore-fluid was of low temperature (water sulfate produced sulfide for ore deposition. It is envisaged that basal red-bed and evaporite-bearing rift-related continental to shallow marine sediments might have acted as the source for the metals. Rift-related faults developed during sedimentation in the basin might have punctured the ore-fluid pool in the lower sedimentary succession and also acted as conduits for their upward migration. The ore-bearing horizons have participated in deformations during basin inversion without any recognizable remobilization.

  2. Redesigning the Production of the Bacillus thuringiensis Bio-Pesticide within the Context of Subsistence Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnologies are social constructions. The way in which biotechnology is designed, developed and deployed depends on the actors involved in these processes and the strategies and choices employed by these actors. This article assesses the re-designing process of the production of a biopesticide

  3. Water quality assessment of Gautami-Godavari mangrove estuarine ecosystem of Andhra Pradesh, India during September 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathy, S.C.; Ray, A.K.; Patra, S.; Sarma, V.V.

    for the communities, more importantly they are believed to play a major role in supporting tropical estuarine and coastal food webs (Alongi and Christo?ersen 1992). It is a fact that the mangrove forests represent an impor- tant carbon and nutrient source... township (K1: Jagannathpuram canal) adjoining the Kakinada bay. High BOD with low DO values in Coringa river (M3{M7) mangrove systems may be due to contamination, either by the in?ow of wastes from terrestrial runo? or of anthropogenic in origin, and is a...

  4. OPEN DEFECATION- A THREAT TO PROTECTED WATER SOURCES OF GAJAPATINAGARAM MANDAL OF VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gompana Sajeeth; Ankura Vijaya Durga; A. Janaki Bai

    2011-01-01

    Human health has been severely impacted by gastro intestinal diseases caused by the presence of pathogenic organisms in tap water and the lack of appropriate hygiene habits among the rural populations of Vizianagaram district. The lack of household water management and waste water treatment infrastructure has resulted in the majority of the children’s population and a portion of the adult population showing a high incidence of diseases caused by microbial pathogens such as E.coli and Salmonel...

  5. Change over Time in Police Interactions and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735

  6. Proterozoic stratabound dolostone-hosted uranium mineralisation in the Komantula - Reddypalle area, Cuddapah basin, Anantpur district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, U.P.; Pandit, S.A.; Gangadharan, G.R.; Panda, Arjuna; Roy, Minati

    1998-01-01

    The Komantula-Reddypalle area constitutes the northern sector of the 160 km long, uranium mineralised belt along the western and southern margins of the Cuddapah basin. The mineralisation is hosted by impure dolostone of the Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah Supergroup and occurs in the form of pitchblende, coffinite and U-Ti complexes. Uranium minerals occur along the bedding plane, carbonate-phosphate mineral contact, suture boundaries of microstylolites, and grain boundaries of clasts. The ore bearing horizon has been traced for about 65 kms and samples have assayed from 0.01% to 0.67% U 3 O 8 with negligible thorium. The source of uranium for this mineralisation appears to be the nearby fertile basement granitic rocks present in the western margins of Cuddapah basin. This mineralisation as compared with those found in the Tummallapalle-Rachkuntapalle area in the southern sector, contains high Cu (65-8100 ppm) and low P 2 O 5 (0.07-0.59 wt%) and significant but varying Mo (20-292 ppm). Stratigraphically, this area differs from that of Tummalapalle-Rachkuntapalle area to its south in two respects, viz., absence of intraformational conglomerate below and presence of a non-radioactive limestone above the radioactive dolostone. (author)

  7. Character of mine water and its incidence on the environment in Godavari Valley coal belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat, D; Pavanguru, R

    1987-09-01

    The paper describes the regional geology and hydrology briefly. Both surface and underground mines are using more mechanization to meet the demand for more coal. This is resulting in considerable physical and chemical modifications to the natural waters. Fluorosis has been suspected by a few of the local doctors, and studies have been carried out to determine the fluorine content of ground and surface waters. The region is inhabited by a tribal people below the poverty line who have no approach to civic authorities and are unable to express their experiences resulting from the mining operations and the mine waters introduced into the surface drainage systems. Mysterious disorders have been reported by some of the people who use water influenced by the mine water at different localities.

  8. Impact of seasonality on the nutrient concentrations in Gautami-Godavari Estuarine Mangrove Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Karuna; Priya, Namrata; Ramanathan, A L

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of dissolved nutrients were studied along Gautami-Godavari mangrove ecosystem to delineate their sources and fate. Average values of nitrate (NO 3 - ), dissolved silica (DSi) and phosphate (PO 4 3- ) is 2.09 mg/l, 12.7 mg/l and 0.16 mg/l in wet season and 0.47 mg/l, 6.96 mg/l and 0.29 mg/l in dry season respectively. In wet season river discharge has significant influence on NO 3 - and DSi. In dry season, NO 3 - and PO 4 3- are controlled by groundwater discharge, benthic exchange and various in situ processes owing to sediment redox condition. Mixing model shows net addition of phosphate in Coringa mangroves (95%) and Lower estuary (13%) and net removal of nitrate (24.79%) in Coringa mangrove and in estuary (58.9%). Thus present mangrove acts as net source for phosphate and net sink for nitrate and DSi. Nutrient ratio shows seasonal switching between potential Phosphorus and Nitrogen limitation in wet and dry season respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Boys and Girls in Government School Children in Rompicherla Mandal Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food to meet the body's dietary needs through different sources namely vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Good nutrition and well balanced diet with regular physical activities is acceptable. Poor nutrition leads to reduction in immunity of an individual, on the other hand increased levels of nutrition leads…

  10. Estimation of equilibrium factors of radon and its progeny using SSNTDs in the various dwellings of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.; Sreenath Reddy, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the estimation of effective dose in the indoor environment due to Radon and its progeny the equilibrium factor (F) plays a significant role. It is the radioactive equilibrium between radon and its short-lived decay products. Generally in the dose estimation is made taking the equilibrium factor 0.4 (UNSCEAR value) for the radon and its progeny. But in practice the concentration of radon and its progeny vary significantly with local environmental conditions and time, subsequently the equilibrium factor F also changes and hence affects the effective dose estimation of a particular dwelling. Therefore the UNSCEAR F value does not reflect the actual effective doses. Therefore, the present study is carried out to estimate the equilibrium factors in different types of dwellings in the urban Hyderabad using SSNTDs. It is found that, the equilibrium factors in the urban Hyderabad vary from 0.01 to 0.71 with an average 0.32 ± 0.23. The average F values of urban Hyderabad relatively lower than Indian average and global average. The reasons for the lower equilibrium factor values in the study area have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Trace metals in vegetables and fruits cultivated around the surroundings of Tummalapalle uranium mining site, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allabaksh Murad Basha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables (Tomato – Solanum lycopersicum, green chilli – Capsicum annum and bitter gourd – Momordica charantia and fruits (Banana – Musa acuminata colla, papaya – Carica papaya and mosambi – Citrus limetta from the cultivated areas around the Tummalapalle uranium mining site were analyzed for trace metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Be, V, Co, Cd and U using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS. As per the estimated data, the concentrations of trace metals in vegetables and fruits are found in the range of 47.5–7.8 mg/kg for Al, 9.7–1.0 mg/kg for Cr, 3.8–1.0 mg/kg for Mn, 75.5–13.9 mg/kg for Fe, 1.4–0.2 mg/kg for Ni, 2.3–0.8 mg/kg for Cu, 9.2–3.1 mg/kg for Zn, 0.2–1.4 mg/kg for Pb, 19.2–1.9 μg/kg for Be, 96.1–15.8 μg/kg for V, 48.2–12.9 μg/kg for Co, 46.5–2.3 μg/kg for Cd and 16.4–2.7 μg/kg for U. The trace metals observed are compared to the literature reported values. Trace elemental data were subjected to statistical analysis to examine the interrelationship between the investigated trace elements and possible source identification of the trace metal contamination in vegetable and fruits. Daily intake of trace metals through ingestion of vegetables and fruits are also calculated.

  12. Selection of egg attachment sites by the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Beddome, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreekar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some geckos lay eggs at communal egg deposition sites with as many as 300 eggs per site. Selection of egg deposition sites is important to avoid egg damage and predation. We investigated survival rates of communal egg clutches of the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae. Our results show that communal clutches have a higher survival rate in sites with water bodies and without anthropogenic activities, in comparison to sites having the opposite combination. These findings are discussed in the context of the status of this gecko.

  13. A Review of the Little Known Ethnic Religious Art and Culture of Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Gandhi Deori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arunachal Pradesh, the north-easternmost state of India is a mountainous terrain inhabited by a number of ethnic communities. Due to its geographical isolation, it is still cut off from mainstream India and has limited interaction with the rest of India. There are as many as 26 major tribes and several hundred sub-tribes. They have their own distinct culture, tradition and religious belief system. Some of the ethnic communities namely, Apatani, Nyishi, Galo, Tagin, Tangsa, Wancho, Mishmi etc. have their indigenous religious practices with well-defined belief system but due to limited research there is a paucity of data which fails to present a clear picture of the culture and tradition of the ethnic communities of the region. In many ways, their indigenous religion plays an important role in influencing the peoples’ arts and culture. This paper is an attempt to review the ethnic religious art and culture of the people of Arunachal Pradesh in an effort to highlight and preserve their ethnic cultural identity.

  14. Marital violence and women's reproductive health care in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Morrison, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Although the impact of marital violence on women's reproductive health is recognized globally, there is little research on how women's experience of and justification of marital violence in developing country settings is linked to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptom reporting, and seeking care for the symptoms. This study analyzes data on 9,639 currently married women from India's 2006-2007 National Family Health Survey-3 from the Central/Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The likelihood of currently married women's reporting STIs or symptoms, and the likelihood of seeking care for these, are analyzed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. Currently married women's experience of physical, sexual, and emotional marital violence in the last 12 months was significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting a STI or symptom (odds ratio [OR], 1.364 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.171-1.588] for physical violence; OR, 1.649 [95% CI, 1.323-2.054] for sexual violence; OR, 1.273 [95% CI, 1.117-1.450] for emotional violence). Experience of physical violence (OR, 0.728; 95% CI, 0.533-0.994) and acceptance of any justification for physical violence (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.458-0.760) were significantly associated with decreased chance of seeking care, controlling for other factors. This study suggests that experiencing marital violence may have a negative impact on multiple aspects of women's reproductive health, including increased self-report of STI symptoms. Moreover, marital physical violence and accepting justification for such violence are associated with decreased chance of seeking care. Thus, policies and programs to promote reproductive health should incorporate decreasing gender-based violence, and overcoming underlying societal gender inequality. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineralogic and element association of coals from the Gevra mine, Korba coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Powell, M.A.; Fyfe, W.S.; Sahu, K.C.; Tripathy, S.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of a project to study the content and distribution of trace elements in coals and coal by-products from coal mining areas of India, the mineral and elemental composition of the whole coal and concentration of the selective elements in the whole coal mined from the Gevra mine of the Korba coal field in Madhya Pradesh are studied. The vertical trend of the selected elements are defined and possible relationships of these elements to the minerals present in or associated with the above coal are examined. The Gevra Coals have ash contact ( 3 times world average) and low sulphur content (1/4 of world average). Most elements are found to be positively correlated with ash indicating an inorganic association. Elements which show organic affinity include S, Cl, I and In. Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb occur in sulfide phases, the dominant Fe phase identified is siderite which also contain Mn and Mg. Th and U along with varying proportions of rare earths, Ce, Dy, La and Y have been identified with discrete phosphate minerals. Most trace elements have been found to be concentrated in the upper and lower portions of the coal seam exposed in Gevra mine and in partings. It is, therefore, suggested that selective mining and removal of high ash/inorganic material, particularly the upper and lower portion of the seam, will greatly reduce the mobilization of Al, As, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Si, Ti and to a lesser degree Cr, La, Mn, Th U and V during combustion of coal in power plants and consequently will reduce the influx of trace elements to the environment. (M.G.B.). 23 refs., 5 figs

  16. Timing and conditions of peak metamorphism and cooling across the Zimithang Thrust, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Clare J.; Singh, Athokpam K.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Regis, Daniele; Halton, Alison M.; Singh, Rajkumar B.

    2014-07-01

    The Zimithang Thrust juxtaposes two lithotectonic units of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Arunachal Pradesh, NE India. Monazite U-Pb, muscovite 40Ar/39Ar and thermobarometric data from rocks in the hanging and footwall constrain the timing and conditions of their juxtaposition across the structure, and their subsequent cooling. Monazite grains in biotite-sillimanite gneiss in the hanging wall yield LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 16 ± 0.2 to 12.7 ± 0.4 Ma. A schistose gneiss within the high strain zone yields overlapping-to-younger monazite ages of 14.9 ± 0.3 to 11.5 ± 0.3 Ma. Garnet-staurolite-mica schists in the immediate footwall yield older monazite ages of 27.3 ± 0.6 to 17.1 ± 0.2 Ma. Temperature estimates from Ti-in-biotite and garnet-biotite thermometry suggest similar peak temperatures were achieved in the hanging and footwalls (~ 525-650 °C). Elevated temperatures of ~ 700 °C appear to have been reached in the high strain zone itself and in the footwall further from the thrust. Single grain fusion 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data from samples either side of the thrust yield ages of ~ 7 Ma, suggesting that movement along the thrust juxtaposed the two units by the time the closure temperature of Ar diffusion in muscovite had been reached. These data confirm previous suggestions that major orogen-parallel out-of-sequence structures disrupt the Greater Himalayan Sequence at different times during Himalayan evolution, and highlight an eastwards-younging trend in 40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling ages at equivalent structural levels along Himalayan strike.

  17. Earned print media in advancing tobacco control in Himachal Pradesh, India: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Gopalan, Balasubramaniam; Badrel, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Jugdeep Singh

    2017-01-01

    The Union-Bloomberg Initiative tobacco control projects were implemented in Himachal Pradesh (a hilly state in North India) from 2007 to 2014. The project focused on the establishment of an administrative framework; increasing the capacity of stakeholders; enforcement of legislation; coalition and networking with multiple stakeholders; awareness generation with focus on earned media and monitoring and evaluation with policy-focussed research. This study aimed to systematically analyse all earned print news items related to the projects. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, quantitative content analysis of earned print news items was carried out using predetermined codes related to areas of tobacco control policies. We also carried out a cost description of the hypothetical value of this earned media. The area of the news item in cm 2 was multiplied by the average rate of space for the paid news item in that particular newspaper. There were 6348 news items: the numbers steadily increased with time. Focus on Monitoring tobacco use, Protecting people from tobacco smoke, Offering help to quit, Warning about dangers of tobacco, Enforcing a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, Raising tax on tobacco products was seen in 24, 17, 9, 23, 22 and 3% of news items, respectively. Press releases were highest at 44% and report by correspondents at 24%. Further, 55, 23 and 21% news items focused on smoking, smokeless and both forms of tobacco use, respectively. Sixty-six per cent and 34% news items, respectively, were focused on youth and women. The news items had a hypothetical value of US$1503 628.3, which was three times more than the funds spent on all project activities. In the absence of funding for paid media, the project strategically used earned media to promote tobacco control policies in the state.

  18. Men’s attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making. PMID:24894376

  19. Men's attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Zimmerman, Allison; Bhardwaj, Rochak

    2014-06-04

    Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men's attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men's attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men's attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife's mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife's mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife's mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.

  20. Ten years of negotiating rights around maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Jashodhara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: women from certain states as well as poorer women and less literate women appear to be significantly disadvantaged. The government of India has been attempting to improve maternal outcomes through a cash transfer within the National Rural Health Mission to encourage women to come to hospitals for childbirth. Methods This paper reviews documents of the last ten years describing the experiences of a Non-Governmental Organisation, SAHAYOG, in working with a civil society platform, the Healthwatch Forum, to develop ‘rights based’ strategies around maternal health. The paper builds an analysis using recent frameworks on accountability and gendered rights claiming to examine these experiences and draw out lessons regarding rights claiming strategies for poor women. Results The examination of documents over the last ten years indicates defined phases of development in the evolution of SAHAYOG’s understanding and of the shifts in strategy among SAHAYOG and its close allies, and responses by the state. The first three stages depict the deepening of SAHAYOG’s understanding of the manner in which poor and marginalized women negotiate their access to health care; the fourth stage explores a health system intervention and the challenges of working from within civil society in alliance with poor and marginalized women. Conclusion The findings from SAHAYOG’s experiences with poor Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh reveal the elements of social exclusion within the health system that prevent poor and marginalized women from accessing effective lifesaving care. Creating a voice for the most marginalised and carving space for its articulation impacts upon the institutions and actors that have a duty to meet the claims being made

  1. Ten years of negotiating rights around maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Jashodhara

    2011-12-16

    Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity have been globally recognized as human rights issues. Maternal mortality in India is among the highest in the world, and reflects inequity in access to healthcare: women from certain states as well as poorer women and less literate women appear to be significantly disadvantaged. The government of India has been attempting to improve maternal outcomes through a cash transfer within the National Rural Health Mission to encourage women to come to hospitals for childbirth. This paper reviews documents of the last ten years describing the experiences of a Non-Governmental Organisation, SAHAYOG, in working with a civil society platform, the Healthwatch Forum, to develop 'rights based' strategies around maternal health. The paper builds an analysis using recent frameworks on accountability and gendered rights claiming to examine these experiences and draw out lessons regarding rights claiming strategies for poor women. The examination of documents over the last ten years indicates defined phases of development in the evolution of SAHAYOG's understanding and of the shifts in strategy among SAHAYOG and its close allies, and responses by the state. The first three stages depict the deepening of SAHAYOG's understanding of the manner in which poor and marginalized women negotiate their access to health care; the fourth stage explores a health system intervention and the challenges of working from within civil society in alliance with poor and marginalized women. The findings from SAHAYOG's experiences with poor Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh reveal the elements of social exclusion within the health system that prevent poor and marginalized women from accessing effective lifesaving care. Creating a voice for the most marginalised and carving space for its articulation impacts upon the institutions and actors that have a duty to meet the claims being made. However, given the accountability deficit, the analysis indicates the importance

  2. An evaluation of nutritional status of children in Anganwadi Centre of Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh stateusing WHO z- score technique

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    Shanawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India the nationwide Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS uses the I.A.P criteria to grade under nutrition. The current WHO recommendation is to use Z score or the standard deviation system to grade under nutrition. Although widely recommended the z scores have not been widely used in India, especially in community based studies. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the socio-demographic profile of 0-72 months age group of children. 2. To find out the nutritional status of children using WHO z- score technique. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional, community-based was done in ICDS Anganwadi centers among the 400 ICDS children (0-6 years RESULTS There are (47.5% undernourished and (16.5% severely malnourished children according to WHO z score technique. Males (49.5% are comparatively more under nourished than females (45.5%. Female infants (31.2% are less undernourished when compared to male infants (50%. Literacy of mother had significance over the nutritional status of their children (p˂0.05. CONCLUSION The present study shows that there are still many children who are undernourished and severely malnourished in our country, even after 36 years of ICDS services. There is need to use WHO standards at the grass route levels to correctly identify the burden of under nutrition. Z score technique is simple to use, reliable and easy to understand at grass route level by health workers.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities in Establishing and Maintaining Newborn Screening in a Rural Area of Andhra Pradesh - Task Force Study by Indian Council of Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Rama Devi, A; Ananthalakshmi, Y; Srimannarayana Rao, K

    2018-02-19

    The primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of setting up newborn screening in rural areas in India. Secondary objective was to enhance the knowledge and awareness towards early detection of diseases by newborn screening, management of the affected baby and to impart genetic counseling. Awareness programs were conducted at different mandals in the district for the medical practioners during the preparatory phase of the Task Force Project. Educative lectures and clinical meetings regarding the importance and relevance of newborn screening were held every 3 months initially and half yearly later. Families were counselled during antenatal check-ups. Good co-operation was obtained from medical doctors and their willingness to participate in sample collection from the hospitals. Families accepted screening after an initial period of resistance. The fact that screening of this kind will help their babies made a positive impact. Many families started promoting newborn screening to their friends and relations. Confirmation of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up were satisfactory with almost negligible number of cases lost to follow-up. With proper planning and commitment on the part of health authorities, it is possible to implement newborn screening in rural areas in India as well.

  4. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

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    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  5. Onychomycosis: Clinico-mycologic study of 130 patients from Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Gupta Mudita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, yeast or other nondermatophyte molds and has diverse clinical presentations. Although common in this part of the country, no significant clinico-mycologic data is available. Objectives: This study was carried out to document the clinico-mycologic pattern of onychomycosis in Himachal Pradesh (India. Methods: All consecutive patients of onychomycosis diagnosed clinically during March 2005 to February 2006 were studied for clinical forms, number of nails involved and severity of infection. The clippings from the most severely affected nails were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH mounts for direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. Results: These 130 patients (M:F 98:32 were between 8-76 years of age (mean 41.35 ± 14.98 years. The prevalence of onychomycosis was higher among farmers and office workers (20% each. Finger or toe nails were exclusively involved in 56.9 and 32.3% patients respectively while these were involved concurrently in the rest of the 10.8% patients. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis seen in 73.1% of the specimens was the most common clinical type. KOH- and culture-positivity were recorded in 59.2 and 37.6% cases respectively. Dermatophytes and yeast (Candida albicans were isolated in 40.8% each of the cultured nail specimens while nondermatophytic molds (NDM were cultured in 18.6% of the samples. Various dermatophytes cultured were Trichophyton rubrum (32.6%, T. mentagrophytes (6.1% and T. verrucosum (2.1% respectively. Aspergillus spp. (6.1% was the most commonly isolated NDM while other detected molds were Acremonium spp., Fusarium spp,, Scopulariopsis spp., Curvularia spp. and Penicillium marneffei. Peripheral vascular disorders (7.69%, occupational trauma (13.8%, close association with animals (60.78% and a family history of onychomycosis (26.15% were a few of the predisposing factors identified. Conclusion

  6. Special Olympics un medio para la justicia social en la India rural

    OpenAIRE

    Pans Sancho, Miquel Àngel; Romaguera, Enric; Diaz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente Poster muestra el trabajo realizado por la Fundación Vicente Ferrer en su proyecto de deporte y discapacidad, en el Estado de Andhra Pradesh (India), donde las personas con diversidad funcional están totalmente estigmatizadas socialmente. Este programa desarrollado desde 2010 de Special Olympics (SO) ha contribuido a promover la igualdad de condiciones, derechos y oportunidades de las personas con discapacidad intelectual. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar y confir...

  7. Macaca munzala: a new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, A.; Datta, A.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Mishra, C.

    2005-01-01

    Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich

  8. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  9. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results ... Geological and geophysical layout map of the Gadwal schist belt area, Andhra Pradesh (after Ananda Murty and ... Observed gravity (Bouguer) values, regional, residual and inferred gravity models along traverse I of the Gadwal schist.

  10. Optimization of extracellular thermophilic highly alkaline lipase from thermophilic bacillus sp isolated from hotspring of Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Limpon; Bora, Minakshi

    2012-01-01

    Studies on lipase production were carried out with a bacterial strain (Bacillus sp LBN 2) isolated from soil sample of hotspring of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The cells were cultivated in a mineral medium with maximum production at 1% groundnut oil. The optimum temperature and initial medium pH for lipase production by the organism were 500C and 9.0 respectively. The molecular mass was found to be 33KDa by SDS PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature for activity were 10 and 600C respectively. The enzyme was found to be stable in the pH range of 8–11 with 90% retention of activity at pH 11. The enzyme retained 90% activity at 600C and 70% of activity at 700C for 1h. The lipase was found to be stable in acetone followed by ethanol. The present findings suggested the enzyme to be thermophilic alkaline lipase. PMID:24031801

  11. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  12. Tree resources Of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India with especial emphasis on conservation status, phenology and economic values

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated states of India along international border of Nepal, contributes only about 3% of total forest & tree cover of the country as the major parts of the area is covered by agriculture lands and human populations. The forests are quite fragmented and facing severe anthropogenic pressure in many parts. To protect the existing biodiversity, several forest covers have been declared as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In the present study, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS has been selected to assess tree diversity, their phenology and economic values as the trees are the major constituent of any forest and more fascinating among all plant groups. The sanctuary consists of tropical moist deciduous type of vegetation and situated along the Indo-Nepal boarder in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India. After, thorough assessment of the area, a list of 141 tree species belonging to 101 genera and 38 families have been prepared. The family Fabaceae exhibits highest generic and species diversity with 14 genera and 23 species. The genus Ficus of Moraceae has been found the largest with 11 species. Maximum trees with about 51 species have been found to flower in post winter season (February to March in the forest. About 62 trees are used as medicinal for various purposes, 50 as ornamental & avenue trees, 37 as timber wood, 36 as edible, 16 as fire wood and 12 as fodder. Since the sanctuary area has been surrounded by several villages and facing anthropogenic pressure, the public awareness program related with biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses is highly needed to protect the forest covers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9949 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 122-133

  13. Mine water pollution studies in Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Banerjee, A.K. [Hari Singh Gour University, Sagar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-06-01

    Mining effects physical and chemical changes in the mine environment resulting in water pollution. Based on the geological distribution the coal mines in the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Coalfield can be categorised into three basins Northern, Southern and Satpura. The Northern belt lies along the Sone Valley whilst the Southern one lies within Mahanadi Valley and the Satpura basin lies south of the alluvial tract. Mine water pollution study reported in this paper is concerned with Chapha Incline, Umaria Coalfield in Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The water analysis was carried out on representative samples obtained from the site on pre-Monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, and reference samples were obtained from the area in the vicinity of the site of investigation. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for determining water quality parameters including trace element detection and microbial analyses. The chemical analysis results of mine water are presented in the form of Durov diagrams. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The first university research reactor in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    As the first university research reactor in India, the low power, pool type with fixed core and low enriched uranium fuel research reactor is under construction in the Andhra university campus, Andhra Pradesh, India. The reactor is expected to be commissioned during 2001-2002. The mission of the reactor is to play the research center as a regional research facility catering to the needs of academic institutions and industrial organizations of this region of the country. Further, to encourage interdisplinary and multidisplinary research activities, to supply radioisotope and labelled compounds to the user institutions and to create awareness towards the peaceful uses of atomic energy. This report describes its objectives, status and future plans in brief. (H. Itami)

  15. The first university research reactor in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, G.S. [Co-ordinator, Low Power Research Reactor, Andhra Univ., Visakapatnam (India)

    1999-08-01

    As the first university research reactor in India, the low power, pool type with fixed core and low enriched uranium fuel research reactor is under construction in the Andhra university campus, Andhra Pradesh, India. The reactor is expected to be commissioned during 2001-2002. The mission of the reactor is to play the research center as a regional research facility catering to the needs of academic institutions and industrial organizations of this region of the country. Further, to encourage interdisplinary and multidisplinary research activities, to supply radioisotope and labelled compounds to the user institutions and to create awareness towards the peaceful uses of atomic energy. This report describes its objectives, status and future plans in brief. (H. Itami)

  16. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  17. An acute flaccid paralysis surveillance-based serosurvey of poliovirus antibodies in Western Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Gary, Howard E; Jafari, Hamid; Sarkar, Bidyut K; Pathyarch, Surendra K; Sethi, Raman; Deshpande, Jagadish

    2014-11-01

    Despite intensified use of monovalent oral poliovirus type 1 vaccine and improved coverage of immunization campaigns, wild poliovirus type 1 persisted in Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar during 2006 to 2009. A serosurvey was conducted among cases of acute flaccid paralysis in the 25 high-polio-incidence districts of western Uttar Pradesh. Children were recruited by age group (6-11 months, 12-24 months, and 25-69 months) from among cases reported through the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system between November 2008 and August 2009. Seroprevalence for type 1 wild poliovirus was >96.4% for each age group. The seroprevalence of wild poliovirus types 2 and 3 increased with age, from 36.7% to 73.4% for type 2 and from 39.0% to 74.1% for type 3. In addition to the number of type-specific vaccine doses, father's level of education, being from a Muslim family, height for age, and female sex were the socioeconomic risk factors associated with seronegativity to poliovirus. The seroprevalence and risk factors identified in this study were consistent with the epidemiology of polio, and the findings were instrumental in optimizing vaccination strategy in western Uttar Pradesh with respect to the choice of OPV types, the frequency of supplementary immunization campaigns, and the urgency to improve routine immunization services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Recurrent floods and prevalence of diarrhea among under five children: observations from Bahraich district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C; Kaushal, Sonia; Aribam, Bijaya S; Khattri, Prashant; D'Aoust, Olivia; Singh, Mongjam M; Marx, Michael; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is an important problem among the under-five children in India. The paper examines long-term impacts of recurrent floods on diarrhea among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh, India. A two stage stratified cluster survey was conducted in flood affected (exposed) and non-flood affected areas (unexposed). The long-term impact of the floods was not clearly marked in the overall prevalence of diarrhea with the exposed group having prevalence of 55.1% as against 56.2% in the unexposed group of children under five. Economic condition of the household is associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in both exposed and unexposed strata. Anemia was found to be a significant risk factor for diarrhea among children in both the flood exposed and non-flood exposed populations. The recurrent floods did not have any significant effect on the prevalence of diarrhea in relation to gender, religion, caste, and household size. The study indicates that the long-term impacts of floods are very differently manifested than the immediate impacts.

  19. How do People in Rural India Perceive Improved Stoves and Clean Fuel? Evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

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    Vasundhara Bhojvaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved cook stoves (ICS have been widely touted for their potential to deliver the triple benefits of improved household health and time savings, reduced deforestation and local environmental degradation, and reduced emissions of black carbon, a significant short-term contributor to global climate change. Yet diffusion of ICS technologies among potential users in many low-income settings, including India, remains slow, despite decades of promotion. This paper explores the variation in perceptions of and preferences for ICS in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, as revealed through a series of semi-structured focus groups and interviews from 11 rural villages or hamlets. We find cautious interest in new ICS technologies, and observe that preferences for ICS are positively related to perceptions of health and time savings. Other respondent and community characteristics, e.g., gender, education, prior experience with clean stoves and institutions promoting similar technologies, and social norms as perceived through the actions of neighbours, also appear important. Though they cannot be considered representative, our results suggest that efforts to increase adoption and use of ICS in rural India will likely require a combination of supply-chain improvements and carefully designed social marketing and promotion campaigns, and possibly incentives, to reduce the up-front cost of stoves.

  20. Hardships and health impacts on women due to traditional cooking fuels: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the inter-linkages of gender, energy use, health and hardships in the Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh in India. It brings out a gender-differentiated and age-differentiated picture of hardships and health impact on the use of traditional biofuels. The study is based on survey with questionnaires covering 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts where biomass fuels meet 70% of household fuel needs. On an average, women walk 30 km each month taking 2.7 h per trip for fuel wood collection over hilly terrain, often at high altitudes and undergo stress like stiff-neck, backache, headache and loss of work days. Girls below 5 and females in 30–60 age-groups have higher proportion of respiratory symptoms than males of similar age-groups. While many studies are done on the health impact of cooking fuels, very little quantitative work is done on the other aspects of the fuel chain viz. collection, transportation and processing of fuels. Such studies would guide energy policy and health policy to improve the lives of women. - Highlights: ► Inter-linkages of gender, energy and health due to wood in Himachal Pradesh. ► Survey of 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts. ► Women walk 30 km per month for fuel wood collection that supply 70% of energy needs. ► Women gather inferior fuels—dung, wood and waste, and men purchase LPG and kerosene. ► More than 50% suffer from neck ache, backache, headache or bruises from gathering fuels.

  1. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  2. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding. Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable. Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%. Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  3. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  4. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  5. Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India and its climatic and phytogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srikarni, C.

    2018-02-01

    The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India are far from satisfactory due to remoteness and dense vegetation of the area. We report seven fossil woods of which three belong to the Middle Siwalik (Subansiri Formation), while the rest are from the Upper Siwalik (Kimin Formation). The modern analogues of the fossils from the Middle Siwalik are Lophopetalum littorale (Celastraceae), Afzelia-Intsia and Sindora siamensis (Fabaceae) and from the Upper Siwalik are Miliusa velutina (Annonaceae), Calophyllum tomentosum and Kayea (Calophyllaceae) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Ebenaceae). The dominance of diffuse porosity in the fossil woods indicates a tropical climate with low seasonality (little variation) in temperature, while a high proportion of large vessels and simple perforation plates in the assemblage infer high precipitation during the deposition of the sediments. The aforesaid inference is in strong agreement with the previous quantitative reconstruction based on fossil leaves. Several modern analogues of the fossil taxa are now growing in low latitudes possibly due to an increase in seasonality (increased variation) in temperature caused by the rising Himalaya.

  6. Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Pareta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data, digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data, and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes . The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.

  7. Qualitative stability assessment of cut slopes along the National Highway-05 around Jhakri area, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Jagadish; Sarkar, Kripamoy; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Singh, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Several deformation phases in tectonically active Himalayas have rendered the rock masses very complex in terms of structure, lithology and degree of metamorphism. Again, anthropogenic activities such as roads, tunnels and other civil engineering constructions have led to a state of disequilibrium which in many cases, results in failure of rock masses. National Highway-05 around Jhakri area in India is a major connecting route to the China border in the hilly terrains of the state Himachal Pradesh. It cuts through the Himalayan rocks and has a hazardous history of landslides destroying human lives and interrupting communication very frequently. As a contribution towards the mitigation process, a study has been carried out along the highway to analyse kinematic stability and qualitative estimation of rock mass condition through rock mass classification systems. The kinematic analysis shows that the rock slopes are prone to planar and wedge failure. Rock mass rating for most of the locations lies between 7 and 34, representing a poor rock mass quality (Class IV), whereas slope mass rating is more disperse and ranges from 11 to 52 for most of the slopes (Class III, IV and V).

  8. Costs and consequences of a cash transfer for hospital births in a rural district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-08-01

    The Janani Suraksha Yojana, India's "safe motherhood program," is a conditional cash transfer to encourage women to give birth in health facilities. Despite the program's apparent success in increasing facility-based births, quantitative evaluations have not found corresponding improvements in health outcomes. This study analyses original qualitative data collected between January, 2012 and November, 2013 in a rural district in Uttar Pradesh to address the question of why the program has not improved health outcomes. It finds that health service providers are focused on capturing economic rents associated with the program, and provide an extremely poor quality care. Further, the program does not ultimately provide beneficiaries a large net monetary transfer at the time of birth. Based on a detailed accounting of the monetary costs of hospital and home deliveries, this study finds that the value of the transfer to beneficiaries is small due to costs associated with hospital births. Finally, this study also documents important emotional and psychological costs to women of delivering in the hospital. These findings suggest the need for a substantial rethinking of the program, paying careful attention to incentivizing health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone Tree Species in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  10. Economic feasibility of electricity production from energy plantations present on community-managed forestlands in Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses economic feasibility of utilizing community-managed degraded forest areas for raising energy crops and using the produced biomass for electricity production in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India through gasification technology. Three fast-growing species, three gasifiers of different capacities, three capital costs, and two scenarios of carbon payments were considered for analysis. Sensitivity and risk analyses were undertaken for determining the effects of variations in inputs on selected outputs. Results suggest that 5 million megawatt hour electricity can be generated annually which will prevent 4 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The production cost of a unit of electricity was found inversely related to the scale of production. The average cost of electricity at the consumer level produced using 100 kW gasifier was $0.15/kWh, which was greater than the price of electricity supplied from grid i.e. $0.08/kWh. The unit cost of producing electricity using Acacia nilotica was lowest among all the selected species. Technological advancements suitable government incentives are needed to promote electricity generation from forest biomass through gasification technology. This will help in spurring economic development and reducing overall ecological footprint of the state. (author)

  11. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in school going children of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Sharma, Abhishek; Sandhu, Navreet; Mehta, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 13-18-year-old schoolchildren of Nalagarh, Himachal Pradesh, India using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment need (IOTN) and to analyze the treatment needs between males and females and correlation between the esthetic component (AC) and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. The sample comprised 2000 school children (1125 females and 875 males) who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. No radiographs, study casts, were used; IOTN was calculated from clinical examination. DHC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 31.6% and moderate need in 30.85%. A great need was estimated at 37.55%. Severe contact point displacement of more than 4 mm was the most common occlusal feature in the definite treatment need group, followed by increased overjet, impeded eruption of teeth, and anterior or posterior cross bite. AC results showed that little need for orthodontic treatment was in 86.15%, moderate need in 8.90%, and great need in 4.95%. Index does not consider midline discrepancy, soft tissue abnormalities, and AC does not include Class III and Class II div 2 malocclusion photographs. There seems a discrepancy in the proportion of children needing orthodontic treatment on esthetic and dental health grounds. This study provides baseline data on the need and demand for orthodontic treatment among the sample which is important for planning public orthodontic and dental services.

  12. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  13. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  14. Adherence to zinc supplementation guidelines for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on adherence to the recommended dose and duration of zinc supplementation for diarrheal episodes in children under five years of age. In selected districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, we sought to assess adherence to the nationally advised zinc treatment regimen (ie, 10 mg/day for ages 2–6 months and 20 mg/day for ages 7–59 months for 14 days among caregivers of zinc–prescribed children. We identified and conducted follow–up visits to children advised zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. At the initial visit, we collected data on the treatment instructions received from providers. Caregivers were asked to record treatments administered on a pictorial tracking form and were asked to retain all packaging for collection at follow–up. We quantified the average dose and duration of zinc therapy and built logistic regression models to assess the factors associated with caregiver adherence to national guidelines. Caregivers administered zinc for an average of 10.7 days (standard deviation (SD = 3.9 days; median = 13 days, and 47.8% continued treatment for the complete 14 days. Among children receiving zinc syrups and tablets respectively, the age appropriate dose was received by 30.8% and 67.3%. Adherence to age appropriate dose and continuation of zinc for 14 days were highly associated with having received appropriate provider instructions. Our results indicate moderate–to–good adherence to national zinc treatment guidelines for diarrhea among caregivers in rural India. Our findings also highlight the importance of provider guidance in ensuring adherence to zinc dose and duration. Programs aiming to scale–up zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea should train providers to successfully communicate dosing instructions to caregivers, while also addressing the tendency of caregivers to terminate treatment once a child appears to have recovered from an acute diarrheal episode.

  15. Submergence analysis of the proposed Ken Betwa Dam (Madhya Pradesh India, using geospatial technology in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the Landsat 8 OLI data (December 2016 to delineate the various land use/land cover classes of the area which will be submerged by the proposed Daudhan/Greater Gangau Dam, which is part of the proposed Ken Betwa River Link Project (in the Madhya Pradesh state of India and also the area likely to be submerged in the Panna Tiger Reserve (PTR. The proposed area of submergence was computed at various full reservoir lengths (FRL, 278 m, 283 m, 288 m, 289 m and 293 m. Similarly the area of submergence for the Panna Tiger Reserve was computed at the mentioned FRLs. It was concluded that a large part of the Panna Tiger Reserve would be submerged and habitat of various animals and plants would be under threat. In comparison with the figures given in the Environmental Impact Assessment certain serious discrepancies and weaknesses were detected and it was felt that they should have been addressed. The results were compared with the EIA – EMP report of the Ken-Betwa link project, Phase 1, prepared by Agricultural Finance Corporation Limited for the National Water Development Agency (Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India. A proper evaluation of the negative impacts would help when making relevant decisions and appropriate steps to ensure that the loss is kept to a minimum. Safeguarding the biodiversity of forests and wildlife habitats should be the priority as their loss is irreplaceable. Geospatial technology helps in studying the overall spatial view of the proposed submergence area and the visualization gives a clear picture of the likely scenario in the future. It would assist in decision making and mitigation measures.

  16. Land use change detection in Solan Forest Division, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Shah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Monitoring the changing pattern of vegetation across diverse landscapes through remote sensing is instrumental in understanding the interactions of human activities and the ecological environment. Land use pattern in the state of Himachal Pradesh in the Indian Western Himalayas has been undergoing rapid modifications due to changing cropping patterns, rising anthropogenic pressure on forests and government policies. We studied land use change in Solan Forest Division of Himachal Pradesh to assess species wise area changes in the forests of the region. Methods The supervised classification (Maximum likelihood on two dates of IRS (LISS III satellite data was performed to assess land use change over the period 1998–2010. Results Seven land use categories were identified namely, chir pine (Pinus roxburghii forest, broadleaved forest, bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus forest, ban oak (Quercus leucotrichophora forest, khair (Acacia catechu forest, culturable blank and cultivation. The area under chir pine, cultivation and khair forests increased by 191 ha (4.55 %, 129 ha (13.81 % and 77 ha (23.40 %, whereas the area under ban oak, broadleaved, culturable blank and bamboo decreased by 181 ha (16.58 %, 152 ha (6.30 %, 71 ha (2.72 % and 7 ha (0.47 %, respectively. Conclusions The study revealed a decrease in the area under forest and culturable blank categories and a simultaneous increase in the area under cultivation primarily due to the large scale introduction of horticultural cash crops in the state. The composition of forests also exhibited some major changes, with an increase in the area of commercially important monoculture plantation species such as pine and khair, and a decline in the area of oak, broadleaved and bamboo which are facing a high anthropogenic pressure in meeting the livelihood demands of forest dependent communities. In time deforestation, forest degradation and ecological imbalances due to the changing forest species

  17. Indoor radon levels and inhalation doses in dwellings near the some sites of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the fact that radon and its daughters are a major source of natural radiation exposure, the measurement of radon concentration levels in dwellings has assumed ever-increasing importance. Keeping this in view, the indoor radon level measurements were carried out in the dwellings of different villages known to be located in the vicinity of uranium-mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Track-etch technique, a passive method using the Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), LR-115 type II, was utilized for these measurements. An attempt has been made to assess the levels of the indoor radon in the dwellings and inhalation dose rates of the population living in these villages. The radon concentrations were found to be varying with seasonal changes, building materials and mode of construction of houses. The radon concentrations were found to be higher in houses made from local sandstone and with mud floor in comparison to the houses having cemented brick floors. The annual indoor radon concentration and thus annual effective dose in most of the dwellings of these villages is certainly quite higher and even in some of the dwellings it even exceeds the upper limit of the proposed action level of ICRP, 1993. The inhalation dose rates in dwellings of these villages located in the vicinity of uranium mineralized pockets of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh have been found to be quite higher than dose rate in the dwellings in the Amritsar city, Punjab, which is located in a completely uranium free zone. The radon survey in the dwellings of these villages has also been carried out using the Alpha-Guard technique, which is based on the pulse ionization chamber. The indoor radon concentration levels measured using the active technique of Alpha Guard have been found to be quite different from those measured in these dwellings by the passive technique of SSNTDs; indicating the importance of the SSNTDs in the long-term integrated measurement

  18. Factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B; Chand, Sunil K; Anvikar, Anup

    2017-11-01

    To determine household factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria. The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. A total of 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored. A total of 764 households were from high-endemic and 706 from low-endemic areas. More than half of household heads were illiterate; most are farmers. Approximately 46% sought treatment for malaria from unqualified informal providers; 19% from qualified private health practitioners and 35% from government health providers. Analysis revealed that household's area of residence, education, occupation, ethnicity, use of preventive measures, economic status, knowledge and practices, distance and delayed treatment seeking was strongly associated with the type of healthcare providers selected. Demand for formal health services among the poor, illiterate, tribal population living in remote areas is low. Accessible and affordable health services and a sensitisation programme to increase the demand for formal providers are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genetic Analysis of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Backward Caste Population of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana RAI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cell surface constitute blood group antigens. These are AB, A, B and O in ABO blood group system and Rh in rhesus blood group system. A total of 1065 unrelated Backward Caste (OBC individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D blood groups. Total 1065 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.81% (n=392, followed by O (32.68%; n=348, A (23.66%; n=252 and AB (6.85%; n=73. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A, and B alleles were 0.5819, 0.1674 and 0.2506 respectively. Out of total 1065 samples, 1018 (95.59% samples were Rh-positive and 47 (4.41% were Rh-negative. Phenotypic frequency of Rh-negative in Koari, Yadav, Kurmi and Maurya samples were 0.99%, 4%, 1.4% and 7.6% respectively.

  20. Efficiency of health care system at the sub-state level in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Brijesh C

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts a sub-state-level analysis of health system for a low-income Indian state, namely, Madhya Pradesh. The objective of our study is to establish efficiency parameters that may help health policy makers to improve district-level and thus state-level health system performance. It provides an idealized yardstick to evaluate the performance of the health sector by using stochastic frontier technique. The study was carried out in two stages of estimation, and our results suggest that life expectancy in the Indian state could be enhanced considerably by correcting the factors that are adversely influencing sub-state-level health system efficiency. Our results indicate that main factors within the health system for discrepancy in interdistrict performance are inequitable distribution of supplies, availability of skilled attention at birth, and inadequate staffing relative to patient load of rural population at primary health centers. Overcoming these factors through additional resources in the deficient districts, mobilized partly from grants in aid and partly from patient welfare societies, may help the state to improve life expectancy speedily and more equitably. Besides the direct inputs from the health sector, a more conducive environment for gender development, reducing inequality in opportunities for women in health, education and other rights may provide the necessary impetus towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and add to overall life expectancy in the state.

  1. Healthcare seeking behaviour among self-help group households in Rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been operating in rural India. Such schemes design their benefit packages according to local priorities. This paper examines healthcare

  2. Healthcare Seeking Behavior among Self-help Group Households in Rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Raza (Wameq); P. Panda (Pradeep); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); D.M. Dror (David); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, supported by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), a number of demand-driven community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been functioning in rural India. These CBHI schemes may design their benefit packages according to local priorities. In this paper we

  3. Pukupuku arunachalensis sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gupta, D.; Chandra, K.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 257 (2017), s. 1-11 ISSN 2118-9773 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : new species * taxonomy * Northeast India Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2016 http://www.europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu/index.php/ejt/issue/view/264

  4. Benchmarking Local Government Performance on Rural Sanitation : Learning from Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Open defecation is a traditional behavior in rural India. Conventional rural sanitation programs have been based on the assumption that people defecate in the open because they are too poor to afford the cost of constructing a toilet. Therefore, subsidies for upfront capital costs were provided to generate demand for 'sanitation,' interpreted narrowly as a pour-flush toilet. These programs...

  5. Faunal diversity during rainy season in reclaimed sodic land of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Srivastava, S P; Tandon, Pankaj; Azad, B S

    2009-07-01

    Faunal diversity is an indicator of soil amelioration. Estimating the population size or density of an animal species in an area is fundamental to understand its status and demography and to plan for its management and conservation. Considering this, faunal diversity in reclamed sodic land was monitored during rainy season 2000-01 at different locations of district viz., Aligarh, Etah, Fatehpur, Mainpuri and Raebareli in Uttar Pradesh. The Shannon-Weiner species diversity index (H) of different fauna complex of each location was compared with zero years (1995-1996) indexes (before reclamation). Insects diversity index, in reclaimed sodic soil, varied from 3.8178 (Fatehpur: Bariyampur) to 4.623 (Fatehpur: Katoghan), which was 3.028 in zero year at Katoghan in Fatehpur 'H' index of other-arthropods ranged widely from 0.9743 (Etah: Bawali) to 2.0674 (Mainpuri: Pundari). The species diversity index of molluscs registered as high as 1.8637 at Ladhauwa site in Aligarh, which exhibited identical with Saripur site of Raebareli. 'H' index of mammal resulted with the highest (2.19) at Pundari in district Mainpuri. The avifauna and amphibian's indices were recovered maximal at Saripur site of Raebareli and Bariyampur site of Fatehpur respectively. Our result revealed that various fauna enriched with soil reclamation, which is good indicator of restoration of land, primarily due to soil-arthropods and earthworms and its eventual improvement along with succeeding rice-wheat cropping system widespread over there. It clearly shows that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

  6. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  7. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  8. Declining prevalence of pulmonary paragonimiasis following treatment & community education in a remote tribal population of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Kanwar; Devi, K Rekha; Bhattacharya, S; Negmu, K; Rajguru, S K; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-05-01

    In India, human pulmonary paragonimiasis is an important public health problem in the northeastern (NE) region. In 2005 we reported a hyperendemic focus of paragonimiasis in a remote tribal village in the hills of Changlang district in Arunachal Pradesh. The community was made aware of the disease and all active cases were treated. This study was aimed to assess the decline in the prevelance of paragonimiasis in the same area after a re-survey done in 2011 after a gap of six years. Re-surveys were carried to determine the reduction in the prevalence of paragonimiasis. Community education was given to the villagers to raise their awareness about paragonimiasis. A total of 624 individuals including 301 children (age 15 yr) were included in the study. Sputum and stool samples were examined for eggs of lung flukes. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies against lung fluke antigen by ELISA. A significant (P 31 yr, the decline in prevalence was from 15.3 to 3.7 per cent. Gender-wise analysis revealed that the decline in ELISA positivity was similar in both genders and fell down from 33.9 to 11.5 per cent in males and from 29.8 to 10.7 per cent in females. Similarly, there was a significant decline rate in egg positivity also. The strategy of hotspot targeted active paragonimiasis case detection and treatment of infected cases together with community education appears to be feasible methods to achieve control of paragonimiasis in this region.

  9. Indoor radon measurements in the dwellings of Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh, India, using LR-115 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhiman, M. [Punjab Technical University (India); Mehra, R. [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Department of Applied Sciences, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology (India)

    2014-07-01

    Study of indoor radon was carried out in the domestic environment of 15 villages of Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Time integrated track etch technique has been used for the measurement of indoor radon levels. Bare cellulose nitrate LR-115 type II films have been used as detectors in the survey of indoor radon for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year from March 2012 to March 2013. The houses were chosen randomly in such a way that the dwellings constructed with different types of building materials such as soil, bricks, cement, marble, concrete, wood in different localities of the village are covered. It has been found that indoor radon concentration depends upon the type of house, ventilation condition etc. The calibration constant of 1 track cm{sup -2} day{sup -1} which is equal to 50 Bqm{sup -3} has been used to express radon concentration in Bqm{sup -3}. The conversion factors have been used to calculate the exposure (an exposure of an individual to radon progeny of 1 WLM is equivalent to 3.54 mJ h m{sup -3}), the annual effective dose (1 WLM=3.88 mSv) and the lifetime fatality risk (3 x 10{sup -4} WLM). Indoor radon concentrations were found to vary from 132.25 Bqm{sup -3} to 449.75 Bqm{sup -3} with an average value of 261.40 Bqm{sup -3}. Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary form 2.78 mSv to 7.68 mSv with an average value of 4.5 mSv. The average radon concentration in dwellings in most of the villages falls in the action level (200-600 Bqm{sup -3}) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Contextual and interdependent causes of climate change adaptation barriers: Insights from water management institutions in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Research on adaptation barriers is increasing as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. However, empirical studies regarding the emergence, causes and sustenance of adaptation barriers remain limited. This research identifies key contextual causes of adaptation barriers in water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives from twenty-six key governmental, non-governmental, academic and research institutions in the State with responsibilities spanning domestic water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation, environmental monitoring and research. It identified low knowledge capacity and resources, policy implementation gaps, normative attitudes, and unavailability and inaccessibility of data and information compounded with weak interinstitutional networks as key adaptation barriers. Although these barriers are similar to those reported elsewhere, they have important locally-contextual root causes. For instance, inadequate resources result from fragmented resources allocation due to competing developmental priorities and the desire of the political leadership to please diverse electors, rather than climate scepticism. The identified individual barriers are found to be highly inter-dependent and closely intertwined which enables the identification of leverage points for interventions to maximise barrier removal. For instance, breaking down key barriers hindering accessibility to data and information, which are shaped by systemic bureaucracies and cultural attitudes, will involve attitudinal change through sensitisation to the importance of accurate and accessible data and information and the building trust between different actors, in addition to institutional structural changes through legislation and inter-institutional agreements. Approaching barriers as a system of contextually interconnected cultural, systemic, geographical and political

  11. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-03-31

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  12. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  13. Dental caries and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Soumik Kabasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. It is important to organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs, so that information on oral health status and oral health behavior can be obtained. Aim: To investigate the caries experienced and oral health behavior in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Moradabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and twelve schoolchildren (256 private and 256 government 12 year old schoolchildren were selected through multistage random sampling procedure. Dental caries was recorded using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT/Decayed, Missing, Filled Surface (DMFS index. Data on oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The mean DMFT/DMFS among private schoolchildren (1.90 ± 1.46/3.24 ± 3.18 was significantly higher than the government schoolchildren (1.54 ± 1.34/2.22 ± 2.42. The survey found that 26.95% of the private and 19.53% of the government schoolchildren brushed their teeth regularly (twice a day with toothbrush and toothpaste. The study participants also reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: Sweets (34.77% of the private schoolchildren and 25% of the government schoolchildren and tea/coffee with sugar (61.33% of the private schoolchildren and 54.29% of the government schoolchildren. Dental visits of both private and government schoolchildren were poor. Conclusion: The difference in oral health behavior among the private and government schoolchildren may have influenced the DMFT/DMFS values and provided knowledge about the disease experience. In addition to preventing oral disease and promoting oral health, the local health authorities should give priority to school-based community-oriented oral healthcare services.

  14. Diversity and population dynamics of phytophagous scarabaeid beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in different landscapes of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Mandeep Pathania

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeid beetles constitute a major group of defoliators of cultivated and wild plants. Therefore, it is important to understand their diversity, abundance and distribution for planning effective pest management programmes. We surveyed scarabaeid beetles from 8 landscapes from different zones in Himachal Pradesh (N 32o 29' and E 75o 10', India. In 2011 and 2012, surveys were conducted during 4 months period (May-August by using UV light traps. A total of 13,569 scarabaeid adults of 20 genera and 56 species belonging to subfamilies Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae and Dynastinae were recorded. The five most common species were Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus lasiopygus, Anomala lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis and Holotrichia longipennis. They comprised 9.88-10.05, 7.18-7.76, 7.13-7.27, 6.80-7.62 and 5.22-5.30 % during 2011-12, respectively. Anomala (10 species was the most dominant genus in the present study, whereas Melolonthinae was the most dominant subfamily accounting 53.23 percent of total scarabs collected from the study sites. Among different landscapes, Palampur had maximum diversity and abundance, while Shillaroo had least diversity but more abundance of single species B. coriacea. The value of alpha diversity indices viz. Shannon index was maximum (H'=3.01-3.03 at Palampur. This indicates maximum evenness and abundance of species at Palampur. Shillaroo had lowest Shannon index (H'=1.12-1.17 and Pielou's evenness index (J'=0.46-0.49. This showed least species diversity and higher unevenness of scarabaeid beetles at Shillaroo. The results of beta diversity analysis revealed poor similarity of scarabaeid species between different sites confirming that the scarabaeid community in the north western Himalayan regions is much diverse.

  15. Recent Trends of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Imran; Rahman, Atiqur; Khan, Tabrez; alam, syed; Khan, Joheb

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic in the ground water is a worldwide problem as about 150 million people are at risk and more than 70 countries are suffering from this havoc. Arsenic is a carcinogen and responsible of various types of cancers. India is also having this problem in some parts including Ballia District, UP. The overall objective of this study is to study the mitigation of arsenic by using chemical data and GIS application.It is a GIS-based approach to monitor the changes in arsenic concentrations in diff...

  16. Innovative models of power generation: the captive-collective experience of consumer participation in power development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    While the need for power increases, and costs of generation are on the rise, developing nations face the particular challenge of developing power systems despite a lack of national and local government funds. In this paper, it is suggested that consumer participation, technical innovation, and managerial flexibility may provide the answers, and the Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corporation Limited in India is offered as a model venture which successfully responds to the region's power and resource specifications. Through the formation of a 'captive-collective' and 'capital-cooperative' plant, a joint venture of the Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board and some bulk industrial consumers, the respective needs of all parties were met with great success. Such large-scale power projects, set up and managed by consumers with the technical assistance of State Electricity Boards, can substantially reduce costs for consumers while engaging in technologies that reduce environmental pollution and resource degradation. Consumer participation is highlighted as the key element for positive power development, and it is argued that the success of projects such as the one undertaken in Andhra Pradesh illustrate the possibility and necessity for consumer-initiated and consumer-managed power ventures. (author)

  17. Marketing System and Efficiency of Indian Major Carps in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, B. Ganesh; Datta, K.K.; Reddy, G. Vidya Sagar; Menon, Muktha

    2010-01-01

    The Kolleru Lake area (KLA) in Andhra Pradesh being a predominant centre for carp culture is known as the ‘Carp Pocket of India’. This paper has described the highly efficient fish marketing system prevalent in the KLA and has compared it with the marketing of Indian Major Carps (IMC) in other major aquaculture states like West Bengal and Orissa and marine states like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The marketing channels, market intermediaries, price spread and marketing efficiency have been...

  18. Assessment of prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric inmates residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

  19. Ecology and Conservation of the Critically Endangered Tree Species Gymnocladus assamicus in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, B.I.; Khan, M.L.; Arunachalam, A.; Das, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered leguminous tree species endemic to Northeast India. Mature pods of the trees yield soap material and are collected by local people for domestic purposes and religious activities. G. assamicus grows on hill slopes and along banks of streams. Male and hermaphrodite flowers are borne by separate individual trees. Altogether 28 mature trees were documented from nine populations. Of these, very few regenerating trees were found. This species regenerates only through seeds. The major constraints to natural regeneration are over harvesting of mature fruits, habitat destruction, grazing, predation of seeds by scatter-hoarding animals, poor percentage of seed germination due to their hard-waxy seed coats, and the lack of seed dispersal. Effective conservation initiatives should emphasize sustainable harvesting of mature pods, awareness among local people, and preservation of surviving individuals of the species. Nonetheless, reintroduction of the species to suitable ecological habitats is also recommended.

  20. Comparative study of Uranium estimation in drinking water samples of seismically active regions of NW-Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh and SW-Punjab, India using Laser Fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, B.; Arora, V.; Saini, K. [Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Fluorimetry Technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps and natural springs of seismically active regions of Chamba and Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh, NW-Himalayas and Bathinda and Mansa districts of SW-Punjab, state, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions. In the present study 47 samples of drinking water collected from different villages of the seismic active belt of Chamba and Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India have been analyzed for chemical and radiological toxicity. Uranium concentration in drinking water sample of study region ranged between 2.7 μgL{sup -1} - 53.9 μgL{sup -1} with an average value of 20.1 μgL{sup -1}. In SW-Punjab, Uranium concentration in 76 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0.13 μgL{sup -1} and 676 μgL{sup -1} with an average of 90.2 μgL{sup -1}. Data analysis reveals that, 19% samples of NW-Himalayas water have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while none of the samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. On the other hand, 64% water samples of SW-Punjab have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while 39% water samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. Elderly Adi women of Arunachal Pradesh: "living encyclopedias" and cultural refugia in biodiversity conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  2. Elderly Adi Women of Arunachal Pradesh: "Living Encyclopedias" and Cultural Refugia in Biodiversity Conservation of the Eastern Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Rallen, Orik; Padung, Egul

    2013-09-01

    Elderly women of a particular socioecological system are considered to be "living encyclopedias" in biocultural knowledge systems. These women play a pivotal role in retaining and passing on biodiversity-related traditional knowledge to the next generations. Unfortunately the fast changing sociocultural values and the impact of modernity have rendered their knowledge somewhat less valuable and they are being treated as "cultural refugia." Our study on the importance of these women in the conservation of indigenous biodiversity was conducted in 14 randomly selected villages dominated by the Adi tribe of East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India). Data were collected from 531 women (381 elderly and 150 young to middle aged) during 2003-2008 using conventional social science methods and participatory rural appraisal. One innovative method, namely "recipe contest," was devised to mobilize Adi women of each village in order to energies them and explore their knowledge relating to traditional foods, ethnomedicines, and conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Results indicated that 55 plant species are being used by elderly Adi women in their food systems, while 34 plant species are integral parts of ethnomedicinal practices. These women identified different plant species found under multistory canopies of community forests. Elderly women were particularly skilled in preparing traditional foods including beverages and held significantly greater knowledge of indigenous plants than younger women. Lifelong experiences and cultural diversity were found to influence the significance of biodiversity use and conservation. The conservation of biodiversity occurs in three different habitats: jhum lands (shifting cultivation), Morang forest (community managed forests), and home gardens. The knowledge and practice of elderly women about habitats and multistory vegetations, regenerative techniques, selective harvesting, and cultivation practices contribute

  3. Implementation and results of an integrated data quality assurance protocol in a randomized controlled trial in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jonathon D; Misra, Anamika; Yadav, Mahendra Nath Singh; Sana, Fatima; Singh, Chetna; Mankar, Anup; Neal, Brandon J; Fisher-Bowman, Jennifer; Maisonneuve, Jenny; Delaney, Megan Marx; Kumar, Krishan; Singh, Vinay Pratap; Sharma, Narender; Gawande, Atul; Semrau, Katherine; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-09-07

    There are few published standards or methodological guidelines for integrating Data Quality Assurance (DQA) protocols into large-scale health systems research trials, especially in resource-limited settings. The BetterBirth Trial is a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the BetterBirth Program, which seeks to improve quality of facility-based deliveries and reduce 7-day maternal and neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity in Uttar Pradesh, India. In the trial, over 6300 deliveries were observed and over 153,000 mother-baby pairs across 120 study sites were followed to assess health outcomes. We designed and implemented a robust and integrated DQA system to sustain high-quality data throughout the trial. We designed the Data Quality Monitoring and Improvement System (DQMIS) to reinforce six dimensions of data quality: accuracy, reliability, timeliness, completeness, precision, and integrity. The DQMIS was comprised of five functional components: 1) a monitoring and evaluation team to support the system; 2) a DQA protocol, including data collection audits and targets, rapid data feedback, and supportive supervision; 3) training; 4) standard operating procedures for data collection; and 5) an electronic data collection and reporting system. Routine audits by supervisors included double data entry, simultaneous delivery observations, and review of recorded calls to patients. Data feedback reports identified errors automatically, facilitating supportive supervision through a continuous quality improvement model. The five functional components of the DQMIS successfully reinforced data reliability, timeliness, completeness, precision, and integrity. The DQMIS also resulted in 98.33% accuracy across all data collection activities in the trial. All data collection activities demonstrated improvement in accuracy throughout implementation. Data collectors demonstrated a statistically significant (p = 0.0004) increase in accuracy throughout

  4. Performance of Jatropha curcas: A biofuel crop in wasteland of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.K.; Bhargava, Pankaj; Gupta, Nivedika; Sharma, Dhanshree [Non Wood Forest Produce Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute, P.O. RFRC, Jabalpur 482021 (India)

    2010-07-01

    In India vast tracts of land (20.17% of total geographical area) exists as wastelands accounting for about 63.85 million hectares. Wastelands are degraded lands that lack their life sustaining potential as a result of inherent or imposed disabilities such as by location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or management constraints. In recent years, the central government and many of the state governments have expressed their support for bringing wastelands, under cultivation. Jatropha curcas has been found most promising for this purpose due to the use of its seed oil as biodiesel and other favorable attributes like hardy nature, short gestation period and adaptability in a wide range of agro-climatic conditions etc. Jatropha plantation helps in restoration of vast stretches of wastelands into green oil fields and can address major issues of developing countries like energy security, environmental amelioration, rural employment generation and conservation of foreign exchange reserves. With the objective to evaluate the performance of Jatropha plants in wasteland conditions, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur has initiated a study in 2006. Progeny trial was laid out in Barha (Jabalpur) locality comprising of 20 superior genotypes of Jatropha. Among them, Gessani Shivpuri 3, Gessani Shivpuri 2, Bilara Pohiri Shivpuri 2, Parsoria Damoh Sagar, Bizouli Janarpura Gwalior 3, Bizouli Janarpura Gwalior 2 and Dewari Sagar 1 genotype are performing better as compared to other genotypes. This information will be helpful in assessing of the potential of locally adapted accessions and provide baseline information for future Jatropha plantation and wasteland reclammation programmes.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  6. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  7. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  8. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys: an aid for uranium exploration - case study from Renigunta and surrounding areas, Chitoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, B.; Rama Krishna, P.; Markandeyulu, A.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Regional magnetic and gravity data of Papanaidupet area, Chitoor district, are discussed in the light of bore hole information for selection of target areas for uranium exploration. The low-pass filtered magnetic data shows a 'smooth' picture suppressing the high frequency components in the original data. The amplitude maxima of analytic signal outline the magnetic source at depth. The Bouguer gravity residual anomaly corresponding to a double sill-like model beneath is used to explain the borehole intercepts, after petro-physical studies of the borehole samples. (author)

  9. An approach of understanding acid volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastics from field studies: A case from Tadpatri Formation, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Upadhyay, P. K.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Zakaulla, Syed; Bhatt, A. K.; Natarajan, V.; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-03-01

    The lower stratigraphic part of the Cuddapah basin is marked by mafic and felsic volcanism. Tadpatri Formation consists of a greater variety of rock types due to bimodal volcanism in the upper part. Presence of bimodal volcanism is an indication of continental rift setting. Various genetic processes involved in the formation of such volcanic sequence result in original textures which are classified into volcaniclastic and coherent categories. Detailed and systematic field works in Tadpatri-Tonduru transect of SW Cuddapah basin have provided information on the physical processes producing this diversity of rock types. Felsic volcanism is manifested here with features as finger print of past rhyolite-dacite eruptions. Acid volcanics, tuffs and associated shale of Tadpatri Formation are studied and mapped in the field. With supporting subordinate studies on geochemistry, mineralogy and petrogenesis of the volcanics to validate field features accurately, it is understood that volcanism was associated with rifting and shallow marine environmental condition. Four facies (i.e., surge, flow, fall and resedimented volcaniclastic) are demarcated to describe stratigraphic units and volcanic history of the mapped area. The present contribution focuses on the fundamental characterization and categorization of field-based features diagnostic of silica-rich volcanic activities in the Tadpatri Formation.

  10. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  11. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byalakere R Chandrashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S and Plaque index (PI scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.

  12. Mineral chemistry of radioactive and associated phases from neoproterozoic unconformity related uranium deposits from Koppunuru, Palnad sub-basin, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rajagopalan, V.; Shivakumar, K.; Verma, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Unconformity proximal uranium mineralization at Koppunuru occurs in basement granitoids and the overlying Banganalapalle Formation of Kurnool Group in Palnad sub-basin. The U-mineralization transgresses the unconformity both above and below. Later remobilization of uranium is evident, as they are intermittently intercepted within the sediments overlying the unconformity. Subsurface exploration by drilling intercepted three mineralization bands, viz. Band A and B upto 80m above the unconformity in the overlying Banganapalle quartzite and Band C, mostly sub-parallel to the unconformity and confined to basal conglomerate/grit horizon except a few boreholes where it is transgressing to granitic horizon ( 2 (upto 2.00 %), ThO 2 (0.03 to 1.51 %) and RE 2 O 3 (0.12 to 3.56 %). Such activities signify the processes of epigenetic fluid/gel related to U-concentration. At increasing depths, possibility of AI- bearing radioactive phases is also envisaged. The radioactive phases present in the samples reveal negligible to low thorium indicating low temperature phenomena. They are likely to be emplaced by the epigenetic solution/gel rich in U, Ti, Si, AI, Ca, P and Pb, preferably along available spaces as vein, cavity and grain boundary. U-associated sulphides occurring as veins and fracture fills, essentially comprise pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite and galena. They have normal chemistry but for subtle variations in minor elements. The pyrite and pyrrhotite are invariably arseniferous and they dominate the sulphides. Thus, it is concluded that the area has potential for multi-episodic epigenetic U-mineralization

  13. Sedimentological characteristics and depositional environment of Upper Gondwana rocks in the Chintalapudi sub-basin of the Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamohanarao, T.; Sairam, K.; Venkateswararao, Y.; Nagamalleswararao, B.; Viswanath, K.

    2003-03-01

    The Kota (Early to Middle Jurassic) and Gangapur (Early Cretaceous) rocks of the Chintalapudi sub-basin of Gondwana are poorly to very poorly sorted, positively to very positively skewed, and leptokurtic to very leptokurtic. The Kota rocks show a single prominent truncation line at the inflection of saltation/suspension at 2.0 φ of the river mode of transportation. The Gangapur rocks show two truncation lines of saltation/suspension, one at 0.5-1.7 φ and the other at 2.4-4.0 φ. These are inferred to be due to a high turbulent phase of the river. On the multigroup multivariant discriminant functions V1- V2 diagram, the bulk of the samples from Kota and Gangapur fall in the field of turbidite deposition. This study supports the view that the discrimination of river from turbidite deposits on this diagram is poor since both deposits are identical in terms of settling velocity distribution. On the C- M diagram, the Kota and Gangapur rocks show segments of rolling, bottom suspension, and graded suspension during river transport of sediment. The Q-R segments of graded suspension for these rocks have a C/ M ratio of 2.5, which is close to the ratio of the turbidites. The Kota and Gangapur rocks have nearly the same assemblage of heavy minerals. The provenance is inferred to consist of basic igneous rocks, acid igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks.

  14. Assessment of anxiety related to dental treatments among patients attending dental clinics and hospitals in Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathima, Vedati; Anjum, M Shakeel; Reddy, P Parthasarathi; Jayakumar, A; Mounica, M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the levels of dental anxiety among patients anticipating dental treatments in dental clinics/hospitals of Ranga Reddy district. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of 1200 subjects (at least 18 years old) in dental clinics/hospitals which were selected from a list obtained through systematic random sampling. The data were collected using a pre-tested and calibrated questionnaire consisting of the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) to assess anxiety levels. The majority (52.4%) of subjects showed a low level of anxiety. Females (11.44 ± 4.41) were found to have higher mean MDAS scores than males, and the highest mean MDAS scores were found among 18- to 34-year-olds (11.28 ± 4.67) (P < 0.05). Significant differences were found among subjects anticipating different treatments, with higher MDAS scores for extraction (11.25 ± 5.4), followed by examination, root canal treatment, gum surgery, scaling, restoration and others, e.g. orthodontic treatment, restoration with crowns, bridges and dentures (7.79 ± 3.80). The highest mean MDAS scores were found among subjects who were apprehensive due to 'past difficult experience in dental treatments', followed by 'drill' and 'injection', with the lowest scores among subjects indicating 'other reasons' (7.82 ± 3.84). The present data show that anxiety levels are higher in patients who have to undergo extractions than those who must be fitted with dentures. Thus, dental health care providers should pay more attention to patients' anxiety levels associated with different types of treatment.

  15. Distinct Patterns of Association of Variants at 11q23.3 Chromosomal Region with Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia in the Population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Rayabarapu Pranav Chand

    Full Text Available In our attempt to comprehensively understand the nature of association of variants at 11q23.3 apolipoprotein gene cluster region, we genotyped a prioritized set of 96 informative SNPs using Fluidigm customized SNP genotyping platform in a sample of 508 coronary artery disease (CAD cases and 516 controls. We found 12 SNPs as significantly associated with CAD at P <0.05, albeit only four (rs2849165, rs17440396, rs6589566 and rs633389 of these remained significant after Benjamin Hochberg correction. Of the four, while rs6589566 confers risk to CAD, the other three SNPs reduce risk for the disease. Interaction of variants that belong to regulatory genes BUD13 and ZPR1 with APOA5-APOA4 intergenic variants is also observed to significantly increase the risk towards CAD. Further, ROC analysis of the risk scores of the 12 significant SNPs suggests that our study has substantial power to confer these genetic variants as predictors of risk for CAD, as illustrated by AUC (0.763; 95% CI: 0.729-0.798, p = <0.0001. On the other hand, the protective SNPs of CAD are associated with elevated Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol levels, hence with dyslipidemia, in our sample of controls, which may suggest distinct effects of the variants at 11q23.3 chromosomal region towards CAD and dyslipidemia. It may be necessary to replicate these findings in the independent and ethnically heterogeneous Indian samples in order to establish this as an Indian pattern. However, only functional analysis of the significant variants identified in our study can provide more precise understanding of the mechanisms involved in the contrasting nature of their effects in manifesting dyslipidemia and CAD.

  16. Rapid assessment of Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulates (Aves: Bucerotidae populations and conservation issues in fragmented lowland tropical forests of Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    C.M. Krishna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A rapid assessment of Wreathed Hornbills, their distribution and abundance was carried out in fragmented lowland tropical forests of Lower Dibang Valley District, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India from October 2010 to April 2011 using the total count method. A total of 62km distance was covered on foot to survey four study sites: Horupahar, Delo, Koronu and Injunu. Nine flocks of 172 hornbills were sighted. Aceros undulatus flock size ranged from 8-38 individuals with a mean of about 19.1 plus or minus 2.6. Illegal logging, hunting for bushmeat and other body parts (feathers, beak etc. for decorating the head gear and house interiors by the local tribals were observed as the major threats to the species in the study areas.

  17. Genetic diversity in three populations of Avicennia marina along the eastcoast of India by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Dimendra; Thangaraj, M; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kathiresan, K

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity was analysed in three populations of the mangrove species, Avicennia marina by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Ten random decamer primers were used to score the diversity from three locations of eastcoast of India: Parangipettai (Tamil Nadu), Kakkinada (Andhra Pradesh) and Sundarbans (West Bengal). These primers produced 388 scorable DNA fragments, of which 252 (64.98%) were polymorphic, 182 (46.90%) were monomorphic, and 14 (3.61%) were unique. RAPD banding patterns displayed variations between and within the populations, while, there was no morphological variation.

  18. Prospects of solar photovoltaic–micro-wind based hybrid power systems in western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Good prospects of PV–wind hybrid systems are found in western Himalayan Indian state. • A 6 kWp roof mounted PV–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur location is studied. • Optimum PV–wind hybrid system configurations are determined for 12 locations in the region. • Comparative analysis of hybrid systems is carried out using ANN, NASA and measured data. • Methodology can be used for assessing the potential of hybrid power systems worldwide. - Abstract: The western Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh is known as the hydro-power state of India with associated social and environmental problems of large hydro power plants. The reduced water inflow in the rivers during extreme winters affects power generation in the state. Therefore solar and wind resources need to be utilized to supplement power generation requirements. With this objective the prospects of photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid systems are studied for 12 locations of the state. The NASA data, Artificial Neural Network predicted and ground measured data are used in the analysis of Hamirpur location whereas for remaining 11 locations estimated, NASA and Artificial Neural Network predicted data are used, as measured solar and wind data are not available for most of the locations in the state. Root Mean Square Error between three input data types are found to range from 0.08 to 1.89. The results show that ANN predicted data are close to measured/estimated data. A 6 kWp roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system at Hamirpur with daily average energy demand of 5.2 kWh/day is studied. This system specifications are used to obtain optimum PV–micro wind based hybrid power system configurations for all locations. The optimum configuration for Hamirpur is found to be a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 8 kWp PV system whereas for other 11 locations a 5 kWp micro wind turbine, 2 kW converter, 10 batteries and 2–9 kWp PV systems are obtained. The

  19. Outcomes of polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

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    Singh Vibha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities and routine immunization coverage in priority districts with a focus on 107 high-risk blocks of western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. Villages or urban areas with a history of wild poliovirus transmission, or hard-to-reach or resistant populations are categorized as high-risk areas within blocks. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net was formed in Uttar Pradesh in 2003 to support polio eradication efforts through improved planning, implementation and monitoring of social mobilization activities in those high-risk areas. In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the SM Net and the Government of India. These data include information about vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas and non-SM Net areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates. Statistical analysis was used to compare, between SM Net and non-SM Net areas, vaccination outcomes considered sensitive to social mobilization efforts of the SM Net. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE statistical method to account for Intra-cluster Correlation (ICC, and used 'Quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC' as the model selection method. Results Vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas were as high as or higher than in non-SM Net areas. There was considerable variation in vaccination outcomes between districts. Conclusions While not conclusive, the results suggest that the social mobilization efforts of the SM Net and the CORE Group are helping to increase vaccination levels in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh. Vaccination outcomes in CORE Group areas were equal or higher than in non-CORE, non-SM Net areas. This occurred even though SM Net areas are those with

  20. Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum in Arunachal Pradesh from Northeast India based on merozoite surface protein 1 & glutamate-rich protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Nilanju Pran; Sarma, Kishore; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Sultan, Ali; Bansal, Devendra; Singh, Neeru; Bharti, Praveen K; Kaur, Hargobinder; Sehgal, Rakesh; Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2017-09-01

    Northeast (NE) India is one of the high endemic regions for malaria with a preponderance of Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The P. falciparum parasite of this region showed high polymorphism in drug-resistant molecular biomarkers. However, there is a paucity of information related to merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) which have been extensively studied in various parts of the world. The present study was, therefore, aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of P. falciparum based on msp-1 and glurp in Arunachal Pradesh, a State in NE India. Two hundred and forty nine patients with fever were screened for malaria, of whom 75 were positive for P. falciparum. Blood samples were collected from each microscopically confirmed patient. The DNA was extracted; nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were performed to study the genetic diversity of msp-1 (block 2) and glurp. The block 2 of msp-1 gene was found to be highly polymorphic, and overall allelic distribution showed that RO33 was the dominant allele (63%), followed by MAD20 (29%) and K1 (8%) alleles. However, an extensive diversity (9 alleles and 4 genotypes) and 6-10 repeat regions exclusively of R2 type were observed in glurp. The P. falciparum population of NE India was diverse which might be responsible for higher plasticity leading to the survival of the parasite and in turn to the higher endemicity of falciparum malaria of this region.

  1. Protocol for the evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Shreya K.; Kumar, Paresh; Dutt, Varun; Haldar, Kaveri; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Santos, Andreia; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Social franchising is the fastest growing market-based approach to organising and improving the quality of care in the private sector of low- and middle-income countries, but there is limited evidence on its impact and cost-effectiveness. The ?Sky? social franchise model was introduced in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in late 2013. Methods/design Difference-in-difference methods will be used to estimate the impact of the social franchise programme on the quality and coverage of...

  2. Unsettling caste-bound gender orders: the convergence of teacher commitment and pupil aspiration in two schools in Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Elspeth Page

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Whilst there has been significant progress towards gender equity in school enrolment, attendance and achievement in India since Independence in 1947, boys still out-perform girls in all these areas. Despite considerable social change and intervention in the last decade, poverty, the poor quality of government education, the highly abstract curriculum and restrictive class, caste and gender regimes interact to sustain gender inequality. This paper presents two case studies, focussed on gendered dimensions of schooling in and around two government schools in Madhya Pradesh, North Central India. The case studies illustrate that, despite the many challenges they had to overcome, girls from the most marginalised socio-economic groups were determined to succeed academically, and that two teachers, through their professionalism, attitudes and commitments, supported these girls in their struggles. Enrolment, attendance and achievement data demonstrates that, regardless of teachers’ positions on equality of opportunity, the interaction of complex caste-based dynamics and gender regimes operated to ensure that Dalit girls from low-income groups faced the most persistent inequalities of opportunity. Despite the persistence of bias in educational opportunity, however, both teachers renounced discrimination, attempted to treat all pupils equally and ultimately inspired most of them to aim for academic success. Spaces were thus created to challenge gendered caste and class regimes and compensate for some of the inadequacies of the system. Future policies and strategies in pursuit of educational gender equity must be based on further exploration of the lives, practices and insights of such teachers.

  3. Collection, identification and shelf life enhancement of wild edible fungi used by ethnic tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Singh; Alpana; Gautam, Satendra; Shukla, Shashita; Deshmukh, Reena

    2015-01-01

    An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)

  4. Adapting to climate change in a forest-based land use system. A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshingkar, P; Bradley, P N; Chadwick, M J; Leach, G [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Kaul, O N; Banerjee, S P; Singh, B; Kanetkar, R [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1998-12-31

    Current climate models show an increase of 3 deg C by year 2100 for the state of Himachal Pradesh. The change in rainfall is difficult to predict, a range of -20% to +20% is suggested from different models. Dynamic vegetation modelling shows that under moderate climatic change there could be an 11% increase in the total area under tree cover in Himachal Pradesh. There will be a north-eastwards migration of forest types as cold habitat biomes are replaced by warm weather species. Current anthropogenic pressure from livestock management activities, unsustainable forest product exploitation and habitat fragmentation will probably outweigh any direct impacts of climate change on vegetation. Consequently, the change in the area under different forest types and the species composition within these forest types will differ from model predictions. It is likely that more competitive and robust species such as Chir Pine and Blue Pine will survive and those species which are already overexploited such as the oaks and Deodar will become more endangered. Sustainable adaption strategies should aim at reducing the pressures from subsistence and commercial activities on forests: ongoing efforts in participatory forest management should be strengthened to reflect the interests of various stakeholders. The resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change can also be increased by identifying and planting tree species which can tolerate a wider range of climatic conditions. This will require government and donor commitment to invest in building the necessary institutional and research capacity 147 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  5. Adapting to climate change in a forest-based land use system. A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshingkar, P.; Bradley, P.N.; Chadwick, M.J.; Leach, G. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Kaul, O.N.; Banerjee, S.P.; Singh, B.; Kanetkar, R. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1997-12-31

    Current climate models show an increase of 3 deg C by year 2100 for the state of Himachal Pradesh. The change in rainfall is difficult to predict, a range of -20% to +20% is suggested from different models. Dynamic vegetation modelling shows that under moderate climatic change there could be an 11% increase in the total area under tree cover in Himachal Pradesh. There will be a north-eastwards migration of forest types as cold habitat biomes are replaced by warm weather species. Current anthropogenic pressure from livestock management activities, unsustainable forest product exploitation and habitat fragmentation will probably outweigh any direct impacts of climate change on vegetation. Consequently, the change in the area under different forest types and the species composition within these forest types will differ from model predictions. It is likely that more competitive and robust species such as Chir Pine and Blue Pine will survive and those species which are already overexploited such as the oaks and Deodar will become more endangered. Sustainable adaption strategies should aim at reducing the pressures from subsistence and commercial activities on forests: ongoing efforts in participatory forest management should be strengthened to reflect the interests of various stakeholders. The resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change can also be increased by identifying and planting tree species which can tolerate a wider range of climatic conditions. This will require government and donor commitment to invest in building the necessary institutional and research capacity 147 refs, 42 figs, 12 tabs

  6. Changing trends in the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in a rural district of India: Systematic observations over a decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit C Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Globally, limited data are available on changing trends of blindness from a single region. Aims : To report the changing trends in the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment (VI, and visual outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural district of Andhra Pradesh, India, over period of one decade. Settings and Design : Rural setting; cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Using a validated Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS method, population-based, cross-sectional survey was done in a rural district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants ≥50 years of age. Further, a comparative analysis was done with participants ≥50 years from the previously concluded Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS study, who belonged to the same district. Statistical Analysis : Done using 11 th version of Stata. Results : Using RACSS, 2160/2300 (93.9% participants were examined as compared with the APEDS dataset (n=521. Age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness in RACSS and APEDS was 8% (95% CI, 6.9-9.1% and 11% (95% CI, 8.3-13.7%, while that of VI was 13.6% (95% CI, 12.2-15.1% and 40.3% (95% CI, 36.1-44.5%, respectively. Cataract was the major cause of blindness in both the studies. There was a significant reduction in blindness following cataract surgery as observed through RACSS (17.3%; 95% CI, 13.5-21.8% compared with APEDS (34%; 95% CI, 20.9-49.3%. Conclusion : There was a significant reduction in prevalence of blindness and VI in this rural district of India over a decade.

  7. Sickle cell disease in Madhya Pradesh, Central India: A comparison of clinical profile of sickle cell homozygote vs. sickle-beta thalassaemia individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajiv; Lazarus, Monica; Ghanghoria, Pawan; Singh, Mpss; Gupta, Rasik Behari; Kumar, Surendra; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    The clinical manifestation in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients varies from one individual to another due to factors like the presence of alpha-thalassaemia mutation, foetal haemoglobin, and β-globin gene haplotype. The present study enumerates the clinical profile of sickle cell anaemia patients from Central India. Seven hundred seventy-six SCD patients from Jabalpur and surrounding districts (Madhya Pradesh) in central India were registered with the sickle cell clinic of NIRTH, Jabalpur. The present study reveals recorded signs and symptoms of genetically confirmed sickle cell anaemia (404) and sickle beta thalassaemia (92) patients. Majority of the patients were from scheduled caste communities (47.9%) and Gond tribal community (13.8%). Splenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation observed (71.4%). Overall, 63.5% patients had a history of blood transfusion. The most frequent signs and symptoms observed were Pallor, Icterus, Joint pain, Fever, and Fatigue. Majority of the patients revealed onset of disease prior to attaining the age of 3 years (sickle cell anaemia 44.3% and sickle beta thalassaemia 35.9%). Mean haemoglobin levels among SCA individuals were marginally higher than SBT patients. On the other hand, mean foetal haemoglobin levels among SBT individuals showed the reverse trend. Notably, the present study reports the first incidence of priapism recorded in Central India. The study revealed a high prevalence of SCD among scheduled caste, backward caste, and tribal communities. Dissemination of study findings, screening, pre-marriage counselling, and pre-natal diagnosis are fundamental to preventing or lowering of birth of sickle cell anaemia children in the affected populations.

  8. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: Mass balances from southern India and north-central Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Hallett

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: An estimate of weathering duration for the in situ regolith in Andhra Pradesh, 250–380 Ka, is close to a previous estimate for southern India. Partial or total destruction of the primary F-bearing bedrock minerals and consistent depletion of F in the remnant minerals result in a much reduced total F content in the regolith. Leaching experiments and field relationships, however, indicate a greater potential for F mobilisation to groundwater from the regolith than the bedrock. Schemes for managed aquifer recharge should beware the risk of mobilising additional F to groundwater.

  9. A note on fluid inclusion study of quartz from uraniferous migmatites from Sirsoti area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana Murthy, K.V.; Shobhita, K.; Gorikhan, R.A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fluid inclusion study has been carried out on quartz from uraniferous migmatitic rocks of Sirsoti area of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh. The fluid inclusions in quartz are of two types viz. (i) H 2 O liquid + vapour and (ii) H 2 O liquid + CO 2 liquid + CO 2 gas. Homogenization temperatures of H 2 O liquid + vapour type inclusions indicate that the temperature of formation varied between 150-350degC. Ice melting temperatures indicate that the hydrothermal solutions were CO 2 -bearing with a salinity of 6-8% NaCl. A common range of homogenization temperature for both liquid-rich as well as vapour-rich inclusions provides evidence for the boiling of the ore fluids. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs

  10. An overview of uranium, rare metal and REE mineralisation in the crystallines of Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium and REE mineralisation hosted by the Proterozoic migmatites and younger intrusives is identified over 350 km"2 in Son Valley area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, which forms the northwestern extension of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The rocks exposed include banded gneisses and metasedimentary enclaves, overlain by the Mahakoshal supracrustals and sediments of the Vindhyan Supergroup in the north and Gondwana Supergroup in the south. The craton had undergone repeated rifting, giving rise to intracratonic rift basins for the development of cover rock sequences of arkosic to psammo-pelitic metasediments, which now occur as migmatites comprising pegmatoid leucosomes and biotite melanosomes and associated mesosomes. These intracratonic zones are parallel to the Lower Proterozoic Mahakoshal supracrustals. Anorogenic, rift related plutons of alkali granite of middle Proterozoic age are seen emplaced within Mahakoshal supracrustals, which at places like Kundabhati and Sonwani are episyenitised.

  11. Effect of dental erosion on oral health among employees of battery-manufacturing units in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mohit; Singh, Sunint; Bector, Aditi; Dogra, Mrigank

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain data on prevalence and severity of dental erosion among acid industry workers in Baddi (Himachal Pradesh). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 battery industry workers. The demographic details were recorded on a prestructured pro forma. Type III examination was done. Dental erosion was recorded based on the index given by Bardsley (simplified scoring criteria for tooth wear index). Appropriate statistical tests were used to interpret the data. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 48.6%. Prevalence increased with the duration of employment. Dental erosion was most commonly found in the labial surfaces of maxillary anterior teeth. Erosion is a condition which is multifactorial and becomes more aggravating in the presence of acidic environment. Therefore, the workers working in such conditions should be more careful, and mandatory policies should also be followed by such industries to maintain the overall health of the workers.

  12. Climate Change And Mitigation Measures For The Hydrometerological Disaster In Himachal Pradesh India- In Light Of Dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K. Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the climate of the Himalayan region. Casualties and damage due to hazards in mountain regions will increase irrespective of global warming especially where populations are growing and infrastructure is developed at exposed locations. But climate change will definitely increase risk due to the fact that expected increases of heavy rainfall heat waves and glacier melt will amplify hazards in Himalayan region. The rapid release of melt water and rainfall may combine to trigger debris flows and flash flood in higher ranges including the formation of potentially dangerous lakes. These lakes may breach suddenly resulting in discharge of huge volume of water and debris. Himachal Pradesh had experienced a large number of incidences of Hydro-meteorological disaster HMD since its inception in 1971. Flash flood of March 1975 Dec 1988 Satluj flash flood of August 2000 July 2001 June 2005 Flash flood of July 2005 and Cloud burst in June 2013 are the major natural calamities in Himachal Pradesh. Due to continuous HMD brought heavy toll to the state as the loss was estimated in several thousand millions of rupees and also killed several hundreds of people besides large number of cattle heads. Through this paper we carried out a comprehensive study of past HMD and mitigation measures solution and concluded that these disaster are by their nature difficult to predict and control but it is possible to reduce the risk to lives and property through develop mitigation strategy and plan to construct damsbarrages with awareness and knowledge among local communities about the impacts of global warming natural disaster and the threat to the ecosystem communities and infrastructure are generally inadequate.

  13. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ruchi Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction defined as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or need of the worker. Objectives: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study carried out for a period of 2 month among various employees working in Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, a tertiary care level hospital. A total 225 Participants 75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic profile, job satisfaction and job stress. Data was analyzed using chi square test. Result: A total of 225 participants,75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were interviewed. On doing analysis of questionnaire regarding job satisfaction and job stress it was found that majority believe that their job was well recognized and working in a good institute and were not satisfied with the management and salary and were coping well with their job stress and were having average level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study conclude that majority of the participants felt they are well recognized with their job, working in a good institute but not satisfied with the management and salary.

  14. Job satisfaction and Job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital in central Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job satisfaction defined as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or need of the worker. Objectives: To study the relationship between job satisfaction and job stress among various employees of tertiary care level hospital and to find the co-relates of job stress and job satisfaction. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study carried out for a period of 2 month among various employees working in Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, a tertiary care level hospital. A total 225 Participants 75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were selected by purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted using pretested structured questionnaire regarding socio-demographic profile, job satisfaction and job stress. Data was analyzed using chi square test. Result: A total of 225 participants,75 from each medical, paramedical and office staff were interviewed. On doing analysis of questionnaire regarding job satisfaction and job stress it was found that majority believe that their job was well recognized and working in a good institute and were not satisfied with the management and salary and were coping well with their job stress and were having average level of satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study conclude that majority of the participants felt they are well recognized with their job, working in a good institute but not satisfied with the management and salary.

  15. Attempted suicides in India: a comprehensive look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Prasad, M N V; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively study the characteristics of attempted suicides in Andhra Pradesh and using the primary data, make secondary projections for the forthcoming years. Using Patient Care Record (PCR) forms of all emergencies serviced by 108, the first comprehensive emergency service in India, an analysis of all cases was done to detect possible suicides during the period January-December 2007. A follow up 48 hours later was then done to confirm status and diagnosis. A total of 1007 cases were recorded as confirmed suicides. Hanging and insecticide poisoning (72%) were the most common methods used. Males preferred hanging and insecticide poisoning while females preferred self-immolation and hanging as common methods. Self-immolation and insecticide poisoning had the highest mortality (41.6%). Estimates of attempted suicides for the year 2008 revealed a mean of 3.2-3.8 per 1000 population for males, 3.3-3.7 per 1000 population for females and 6.4-7.6 per 1000 population combined. A serious epidemic of suicides seems to be in store in the coming years unless preventive steps in the form of policy changes are undertaken. Restricting access to poisonous substances or prescription drugs and taking into consideration the prevailing social, economic and cultural factors could help in reducing numbers. Starting tele-help services or offering brief interventions during hospital stays are other programs which may be considered.

  16. Prevalence of α(+)-Thalassemia in the Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste Populations of Damoh District in Madhya Pradesh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mendi P S S; Gupta, Rasik B; Yadav, Rajiv; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the allelic frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) in Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe populations of the Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Random blood samples of Scheduled tribe (267) and Scheduled caste (168), considering the family as a sampling unit, were analyzed for the presence of the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletions. α(+)-Thal was significantly higher in the Scheduled tribals (77.9%) as compared to the scheduled caste population (9.0%). About 58.0% scheduled tribals carried at least one chromosome with the -α(3.7) deletion and 20.0% scheduled tribals carried the -α(4.2) deletion. Frequency for the -α(3.7) allele was 0.487 in the scheduled tribal populations in comparison to 0.021 in scheduled castes. Allelic frequency for -α(4.2) was 0.103 and 0.024, respectively, in the above communities. No Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for α-thal gene (p population, indicating the presence of selection pressures in favor of α-thal mutation and adaptation.

  17. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  18. Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders an Endemic, Endangered Tree of India: Current Status, Improvement and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Arunkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinus (Family – Fabaceae popularly known as Red Sanders is an endemic species confined to Southern parts of Eastern Ghats of India specially in Andhra Pradesh. Heartwood of Red Sanders has high demand in domestic as well as international market and the wavy grained wood is valued.  Along with its extensive use in furniture, the red dye obtained from the wood is used as colouring agent for textile, medicine and food. The heartwood can accumulate various elements and rare earth elements like strontium cadmium, zinc, copper and uranium. The wood has different uses in traditional and folklore medicines and is used for the treatment of diabetes, prickly heat, skin diseases and for various other ailments. A number of studies have been carried out to anatomically and phenotypicaly screen wavy grain at seedling stage. Morphological variability and genetic diversity studies reveal that Red Sanders harbours enormous variability. Though, macro and micro propagation protocol have been developed, further refinement is required for mass propagation. Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has also initiated different activities under tree improvement programme. Considering the wood demand, restricted distribution, slow regeneration, illegal harvest, trade and habitat destruction, the species has been categorized as endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature and has been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and is also classified as a “reserved tree” under the Andhra Pradesh Preservation of Private Forest Rules, 1978. To revive the past glory of this valuable species, Government agencies, farmers, entrepreneurs and policy makers have to join hands for its protection, sustainable utilization and conservation.

  19. Environmental and radiological aspects of thorium processing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudran, Kamala; Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Saha, S.C.; Vidyasagar, D.; Sawant, Pramilla D.

    1997-01-01

    India has an active programme for using thorium as third stage self- sustaining nuclear fuel. A significant amount of thorium is also used in the gas mantle industry. The presently estimated monazite deposits amounting to five million tonnes are distributed in the beach sands of south western and eastern coasts and some areas in Andhra Pradesh. The sands are processed for recovery of rare earth minerals and thorium. The mineral processing and thorium separation involves hazards to workers from exposure to radiation, radioactive and silica bearing dusts as well as from conventional chemicals used in the processing. Releases of wastes from the plants may necessitate environmental surveillance. The present paper reviews the hazards envisaged, steps taken to mitigate such hazards and achievements in this regard in the thorium industry in India. (author)

  20. Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Dayal, Prarthna; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-06-27

    The Millennium Development Goals prompted renewed international efforts to reduce under-five mortality and measure national progress. However, scant evidence exists about the distribution of child mortality at low sub-national levels, which in diverse and decentralized countries like India are required to inform policy-making. This study estimates changes in child mortality across a range of markers of inequalities in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, two of India's largest, poorest, and most disadvantaged states. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using seven datasets from three available sources--sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Inequalities were gauged by comparison of mortality rates within four sub-state populations defined by the following characteristics: rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and district. Trend estimates suggest that progress has been made in mortality rates at the state levels. However, reduction rates have been modest, particularly for neonatal mortality. Different mortality rates are observed across all the equity markers, although there is a pattern of convergence between rural and urban areas, largely due to inadequate progress in urban settings. Inter-district disparities and differences between socioeconomic groups are also evident. Although child mortality rates continue to decline at the national level, our evidence shows that considerable disparities persist. While progress in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality rates in urban areas appears to be levelling off, policies targeting rural populations and scheduled caste and tribe groups appear to have achieved some success in reducing mortality differentials. The results of this study thus add weight to recent government initiatives targeting these groups. Equitable progress, particularly for neonatal mortality, requires continuing efforts to strengthen health systems and overcome barriers

  1. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? - studies from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Minj, Christie; Chhari, Neeraj; De Costa, Ayesha

    2013-09-15

    In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India's large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions.

  2. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Yogesh; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal

    2018-01-01

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual's characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the level

  3. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Yogesh; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal

    2018-01-01

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37–0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03–0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual’s characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the

  4. Epidemiology & risk factors of scrub typhus in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a major public health threat in South and Southeastern Asian countries including India. Understanding local patterns of disease and factors that place individuals at risk is pivotal to future preventive measures against scrub typhus. The primary aim of this study was to identify specific epidemiological and geographical factors associated with an increased risk of developing scrub typhus in this region. Methods: We mapped 709 patients from Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana who were admitted to the Christian Medical College (CMC Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, for the period 2006-2011, assessed seasonality using monthly counts of scrub typhus cases, and conducted a case-control study among a subset of patients residing in Vellore. Results: The geographic distribution of cases at CMC Hospital clusters around the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border. However, distinct hotspots clearly exist distal to this area, near Madurai and the coast in Tamil Nadu, and in the Northeast of Andhra Pradesh. Seasonally, the highest numbers of cases were observed in the cooler months of the year, i.e. September to January. In the case-control analysis, cases were more likely to be agricultural laborers (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.15, not wear a shirt at home (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.12 - 16.3, live in houses adjacent to bushes or shrubs (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08 - 3.53, and live in a single room home (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02 - 3.01. On binary logistic regression, the first three of these variables were statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions: With the growing number of cases detected in India, scrub typhus is fast emerging as a public health threat and further research to protect the population from this deadly infection is essential. Health education campaigns focusing on the agricultural workers of Southern India, especially during the cooler months of the year, can serve as an important public health measure to

  5. Contextual and interdependent causes of climate change adaptation barriers for water management: responses from regional and local institutions in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Research on adaptation barriers is gaining increasing prominence as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. This research seeks to identify and understand the reasons for key barriers preventing water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India from adapting to climate change. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in January & February 2015 with representatives from twenty-seven key governmental, academic, NGO and commercial institutions in the State, with responsibilities spanning from municipal water supply to irrigation and hydropower generation in addition to environmental conservation. Empirical analysis of the transcripts found that inadequate knowledge capacity, poor implementation of policies, inadequate resources, normative work culture, weak governance, unavailability and inaccessibility of data & information and limited inter-institutional networks are key barriers for adaptation. Although these generic barriers are similar to those reported elsewhere in literature, they are identified as having locally-contextual root causes. For example, the inadequate resources are identified to be occurring as a consequence of the fragmentation of resources allocation among others. This is due to competing developmental priorities and the desire of the political leadership to please the maximum number of electors rather than the more-usual inadequate budgetary allocation and climate scepticism. The identified individual barriers are found to be highly inter-dependent and closely intertwined which enables the identification of leverage points of interventions that can maximise removal of barriers. For example, breaking down key barriers for data and information accessibility will have to involve normative attitudinal change, through sensitisation of the larger picture of the role of accurate and accessible data; changes in working style involving moving from paper-based data management to digital; and

  6. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  7. Ganga floods of 2010 in Uttar Pradesh, north India: a perspective analysis using satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Bhatt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the unprecedented flood situation captured through multi-temporal satellite images, witnessed along the Ganga River in Uttar Pradesh during September 2010. At three gauge stations (Kannauj, Ankinghat and Kanpur, river water level exceeded the previous high-flood level attained by river more than a decade ago. The present communication with the aid of pre- and post-flood satellite images, coupled with hydrological (river water level and meteorological (rainfall data, explains about the unprecedented flood situation. In the latter part of the study, a novel and cost-effective method for building a library of flood inundation extents based on historical satellite data analysis and tagging the inundation layer with observed water level is demonstrated. During flood season, based on the forecasted water level, the library can be accessed to fetch the spatial inundation layer corresponding to the forecasted stage and anticipate in advance, likely spatial inundation pattern and submergence of villages and hence in alerting the habitation at risk. This method can be helpful in anticipating the areas to be affected in situations where satellite images cannot be effectively utilized due to cloud cover and also for providing information about the areas being partially covered in satellite data.

  8. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  9. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  10. Protocol for the evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Shreya K; Kumar, Paresh; Dutt, Varun; Haldar, Kaveri; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Santos, Andreia; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2015-05-26

    Social franchising is the fastest growing market-based approach to organising and improving the quality of care in the private sector of low- and middle-income countries, but there is limited evidence on its impact and cost-effectiveness. The "Sky" social franchise model was introduced in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in late 2013. Difference-in-difference methods will be used to estimate the impact of the social franchise programme on the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal and newborn health. Comparison clusters will be selected to be as similar as possible to intervention clusters using nearest neighbour matching methods. Two rounds of data will be collected from a household survey of 3600 women with a birth in the last 2 years and a survey of 450 health providers in the same localities. To capture the full range of effects, 59 study outcomes have been specified and then grouped into conceptually similar domains. Methods to account for multiple inferences will be used based on the pre-specified grouping of outcomes. A process evaluation will seek to understand the scale of the social franchise network, the extent to which various components of the programme are implemented and how impacts are achieved. An economic evaluation will measure the costs of setting up, maintaining and running the social franchise as well as the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of the programme. There is a dearth of evidence demonstrating whether market-based approaches such as social franchising can improve care in the private sector. This evaluation will provide rigorous evidence on whether an innovative model of social franchising can contribute to better population health in a low-income setting.

  11. Continental margin of Andhra Pradesh: Some new problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    the Krishna - Godavari basin and the Nizampatnam Bay. Extensive bathymetric, magnetic, high resolution seismic reflection and gravity data were collected over the margin by the National Institute of Oceanography for the last one decade. Analysis of the data...

  12. The Rajahmundry Traps, Andhra Pradesh: Evaluation of their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    consisting of unfossiliferous yellow calcareous shale. (Pascoe 1964). For the east .... allowing the evolved gas to be pumped away. Ages are reported relative to ..... extraction work and sources of air argon contamination;. Can. J. Earth Sci.

  13. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  14. Urban Risk Reduction Through Effective Disaster Management Plan-A Case Study Of Shimla City Himachal Pradesh India

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    Bhavna Karki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By 2050 70 of the worlds population will live in urban areas. In India the urban population has increased from 217 million to 377 million in last two decades .With increasing population the associated risk and vulnerability has also increased. As cities continue to grow there is increased pressure on resources exposure of lives livelihoods and economic social and environmental assets to risk is set to increase exponentially. Recognised as one of the best cities for public services and one of the oldest Municipal Corporation in India Shimla city is situated at the traverse spur of the Central Himalayas at 31004 N to 31010 N latitude and 77005 E to 77015 E longitude at an altitude of 2397.59 m metres amsl. This paper aims at underlying the role of Shimla Municipal Corporation SMC as local government in managing disasters in the city along with effective planning and risk assessments.

  15. Usage pattern and exposure assessment of food colours in different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, S; Purshottam, S K; Gupta, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, M

    2010-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the nature and levels of colours in food items and to undertake risk assessment vis-a-vis intake among different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 478 edible foodstuffs were analysed, and of six permitted colours, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and Tartrazine were most popular, and two non-permitted colours, namely Metanil Yellow and Rhodamine B, were encountered. The study showed a marked improvement in the trend of use of non-permitted colours over previous surveys, with 90% foods now resorting to approved food colours. However, 59% of foods employing permitted colours exceeded the maximum allowable limit, with average quantities crossing the threshold of 100 mg kg(-1) in most food commodities. The intake of SSYFCF exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children and adolescents by 88% and 39%, respectively, and was statistically significant when analysed by error bars and distribution curves. In adults, SSYFCF saturated 59% of the ADI. For Carmoisine, Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R, saturation of ADI ranged from 27.4% to 90.3% in children and adolescents and from 10.8% to 47.6% in adult subjects. These results indicate that children and adolescents are more vulnerable to higher intakes of food colours compared with the adult population. Allowing a uniform level of all colours in foods under Indian rules, notwithstanding wide variations of 250-fold in their allocated ADIs, could be one reason for the higher intake and hence only technological need-based levels of individual colours are desired to be prescribed.

  16. Utilization of a state run public private emergency transportation service exclusively for childbirth: the Janani (maternal) Express program in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n = 104) experienced a transport related delay. The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY.

  17. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17), with non-polio AFP (9), healthcare providers (40), and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21) were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with sufficient medical support

  18. Evaluation of the Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Selected Districts of State of Madhya Pradesh, India: Findings from a Preliminary Study

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    Sanjay Dixit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluating the needs of People Living with HIV / AIDS (PLHA and providing them with adequate care and support is important in combating the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic. Objectives: The study was conducted to ascertain the needs of PLHA, the support obtained and required, extent of involvement in programs related to HIV and evaluate the impact of Government programs as perceived by PLHA. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 150 PLHA in the districts of Indore, Neemuch and Ujjain in the state of Madhya Pradesh (India using semi-structured interview schedules. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The major support available to the patients is the free Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART available at Government health care centers. The other supports obtained from self help groups and NGOs were medicines for opportunistic infections, nutritional supplements, traveling allowance to ART center for monthly doses, free monthly ration and school fees for one child in the family. The major support required were an educational plan for children, free investigations at hospitals, decentralization of ART centers and adequate employment opportunities. Involvement of PLHA in health programs was minimal: the reasons for non-involvement being unwillingness, fear of disclosure and lack of opportunity. The respondents stated that Government policies have had a positive impact and changed the perception of the society towards HIV patients. Conclusion: PLHA have a number of unmet needs and a collaborative attempt from the government and support groups is needed to meet the needs of PLHA

  19. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

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    Yotsu Rie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17, with non-polio AFP (9, healthcare providers (40, and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21 were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with

  20. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  1. Leveraging the private sector for child health: a qualitative examination of caregiver and provider perspectives on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Lenzi, Rachel; Lahiri, Anamika; Izadnegahdar, Rasa

    2017-02-22

    The private health sector is a primary source of curative care for childhood illnesses in many low- and middle-income countries. Therefore ensuring appropriate private sector care is an important step towards improving outcomes from illnesses like pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of childhood mortality worldwide. This study aimed to provide evidence on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in Uttar Pradesh, India, by simultaneously exploring providers' knowledge and practices and caregivers' experiences. We conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 36 practitioners and 34 caregivers in two districts. Practitioners included allopathic doctors, AYUSH providers, and drug sellers. Caregivers were mothers of children under the age of five with symptoms consistent with pneumonia who had seen one of those practitioners. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Caregivers were generally prompt in seeking care outside the home, but many initially favored local informal providers based on access and cost. Drug sellers were not commonly consulted for treatment. Formal providers had imperfect, but reasonable, knowledge of pneumonia and followed appropriate steps for diagnosis, though some gaps were noticed that were primarily related to lack of (or failure to use) diagnostic tools. Most practitioners prescribed antibiotics and supportive symptomatic treatment. Relational and structural factors encouraged overuse of antibiotics and treatment interruption. Caregivers often had a limited understanding of treatment but wanted rapid symptomatic improvements, frequently leading to sequentially consulting multiple providers and interrupting treatment when symptoms improved. Providers were confronted with these expectations and care-seeking patterns. This study contributes in-depth evidence on private sector care for childhood pneumonia in UP. Achieving appropriate care requires an enriched perspective that simultaneously considers the

  2. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species, Orthoptera (17 species, Hemiptera (16 species, Hymenoptera (15 species and Odonata (9 species, are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  3. The BetterBirth Program: Pursuing Effective Adoption and Sustained Use of the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist Through Coaching-Based Implementation in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nabihah; Firestone, Rebecca; Kalita, Tapan; Gawande, Atul A; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kodkany, Bhala; Saurastri, Rajiv; Pratap Singh, Vinay; Maji, Pinki; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Semrau, Katherine Ea

    2017-06-27

    Shifting childbirth into facilities has not improved health outcomes for mothers and newborns as significantly as hoped. Improving the quality and safety of care provided during facility-based childbirth requires helping providers to adhere to essential birth practices-evidence-based behaviors that reduce harm to and save lives of mothers and newborns. To achieve this goal, we developed the BetterBirth Program, which we tested in a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in Uttar Pradesh, India. The goal of this intervention was to improve adoption and sustained use of the World Health Organization Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC), an organized collection of 28 essential birth practices that are known to improve the quality of facility-based childbirth care. Here, we describe the BetterBirth Program in detail, including its 4 main features: implementation tools, an implementation strategy of coaching, an implementation pathway (Engage-Launch-Support), and a sustainability plan. This coaching-based implementation of the SCC motivates and empowers care providers to identify, understand, and resolve the barriers they face in using the SCC with the resources already available. We describe important lessons learned from our experience with the BetterBirth Program as it was tested in the BetterBirth Trial. For example, the emphasis on relationship building and respect led to trust between coaches and birth attendants and helped influence change. In addition, the cloud-based data collection and feedback system proved a valuable asset in the coaching process. More research on coaching-based interventions is required to refine our understanding of what works best to improve quality and safety of care in various settings.Note: At the time of publication of this article, the results of evaluation of the impact of the BetterBirth Program were pending publication in another journal. After the impact findings have been published, we will update this article with a

  4. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  5. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey

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    Sudhir Hongal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.

  6. Effectiveness of a WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist Coaching-based intervention on the availability of Essential Birth Supplies in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Jenny J; Semrau, Katherine E A; Maji, Pinki; Pratap Singh, Vinay; Miller, Kate A; Solsky, Ian; Dixit, Neeraj; Sharma, Jigyasa; Lagoo, Janaka; Panariello, Natalie; Neal, Brandon; Kalita, Tapan; Kara, Nabihah; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2018-04-30

    Evaluate the impact of a World Health Organization Safe Childbirth Checklist coaching-based intervention (BetterBirth Program) on availability and procurement of essential childbirth-related supplies. Matched pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial. Uttar Pradesh, India. 120 government-sector health facilities (60 interventions, 60 controls). Supply-availability surveys were conducted quarterly in all sites. Coaches collected supply procurement sources from intervention sites. Coaching targeting implementation of Checklist with data feedback and action planning. Mean supply availability by study arm; change in procurement sources for intervention sites. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, the intervention sites had a mean of 20.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.2-21.5); 22.4 (95% CI: 21.8-22.9) and 22.1 (95% CI:21.4-22.8) items, respectively. Control sites had 20.8 (95% CI: 20.3-21.3); 20.9 (95% CI: 20.3-21.5) and 21.7 (95% CI: 20.8-22.6) items at the same time-points. There was a small but statistically significant higher availability in intervention sites at 6 months (difference-in-difference (DID) = 1.43, P supply availability was seen at 6 months (DID = 4.0, P = 0.0002), with no significant difference by 12 months (DID = 1.5, P = 0.154). No change was seen in procurement sources with ~5% procured by patients with some rates as high as 29% (oxytocin). Implementation of the BetterBirth Program, incorporating supply availability, resulted in modest improvements with catch-up by control facilities by 12 months. Supply-chain coaching may be most beneficial in sites starting with lower supply availability. Efforts are needed to reduce reliance on patient-funding for some critical medications. ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02148952; Universal Trial Number: U1111-1131-5647.

  7. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.

  8. Does the Janani Suraksha Yojana cash transfer programme to promote facility births in India ensure skilled birth attendance? A qualitative study of intrapartum care in Madhya Pradesh

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    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to facility delivery in India has significantly increased with the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY cash transfer programme to promote facility births. However, a decline in maternal mortality has only followed secular trends as seen from the beginning of the decade well before the programme began. We, therefore, examined the quality of intrapartum care provided in facilities under the JSY programme to study whether it ensures skilled attendance at birth. Design: 1 Non-participant observations (n=18 of intrapartum care during vaginal deliveries at a representative sample of 11 facilities in Madhya Pradesh to document what happens during intrapartum care. 2 Interviews (n=10 with providers to explore reasons for this care. Thematic framework analysis was used. Results: Three themes emerged from the data: 1 delivery environment is chaotic: delivery rooms were not conducive to safe, women-friendly care provision, and coordination between providers was poor. 2 Staff do not provide skilled care routinely: this emerged from observations that monitoring was limited to assessment of cervical dilatation, lack of readiness to provide key elements of care, and the execution of harmful/unnecessary practices coupled with poor techniques. 3 Dominant staff, passive recipients: staff sometimes threatened, abused, or ignored women during delivery; women were passive and accepted dominance and disrespect. Attendants served as ‘go-betweens’ patients and providers. The interviews with providers revealed their awareness of the compromised quality of care, but they were constrained by structural problems. Positive practices were also observed, including companionship during childbirth and women mobilising in the early stages of labour. Conclusions: Our observational study did not suggest an adequate level of skilled birth attendance (SBA. The findings reveal insufficiencies in the health system and organisational structures to provide an

  9. Does the Janani Suraksha Yojana cash transfer programme to promote facility births in India ensure skilled birth attendance? A qualitative study of intrapartum care in Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; De Costa, Ayesha; Raven, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Access to facility delivery in India has significantly increased with the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer programme to promote facility births. However, a decline in maternal mortality has only followed secular trends as seen from the beginning of the decade well before the programme began. We, therefore, examined the quality of intrapartum care provided in facilities under the JSY programme to study whether it ensures skilled attendance at birth. 1) Non-participant observations (n=18) of intrapartum care during vaginal deliveries at a representative sample of 11 facilities in Madhya Pradesh to document what happens during intrapartum care. 2) Interviews (n=10) with providers to explore reasons for this care. Thematic framework analysis was used. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) delivery environment is chaotic: delivery rooms were not conducive to safe, women-friendly care provision, and coordination between providers was poor. 2) Staff do not provide skilled care routinely: this emerged from observations that monitoring was limited to assessment of cervical dilatation, lack of readiness to provide key elements of care, and the execution of harmful/unnecessary practices coupled with poor techniques. 3) Dominant staff, passive recipients: staff sometimes threatened, abused, or ignored women during delivery; women were passive and accepted dominance and disrespect. Attendants served as 'go-betweens' patients and providers. The interviews with providers revealed their awareness of the compromised quality of care, but they were constrained by structural problems. Positive practices were also observed, including companionship during childbirth and women mobilising in the early stages of labour. Our observational study did not suggest an adequate level of skilled birth attendance (SBA). The findings reveal insufficiencies in the health system and organisational structures to provide an 'enabling environment' for SBA. We highlight the need to ensure

  10. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? – studies from Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988

  11. Structural Framework of the Sub-Himalaya and its tectonic evolution along Kameng river section: Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, T.; Bezbaruah, D.; Sarmah, R. K.

    2012-04-01

    The structural style or architecture of the Neogene-Quaternary foreland basin is studied in the Kameng River section of Arunachal Pradesh. The Kimi, Dafla-Subansiri, and Kimin formations correspond to Lower, Middle and Upper Siwaliks. The outcrop scale structures from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) towards S shows an overall ramp and flat geometry. The intervening strata between two parallel thrust faults (roof thrust and floor thrust) are sub-parallel. The individual subsidiary faults in imbricate fashion (horses) occur as planar units with straight sides. These duplex structures are significant manifestation of the processes involved in the internal domain of the Siwalik rocks and they represent the mechanism of the slip transfer processes from one glide horizon at depth to another at shallower depth. This process of slip transfer and formation of horses are responsible for the formation of structural thickening, duplex growth and mass addition to the moving thrust complex. In the present area the Siwalik strata showing duplex structures have undergone structural thickness in their internal domain mainly in Dafla formation. The lithology in the foreland basin dominantly composed of the sandstones (Greywacke and lithic -arenite), siltstone, claystone, carbonaceous shale, boulder beds in the upper part. In the microscopic scale, the lithological response in the structural development is well documented as pressure solution seams, elongated quartz and feldspar grains, bent micas, kinked biotites, strained quartz grains, healed grains, and micro-fractures. The basement asperities play a significant role as the moving thrust front produced a major lateral ramp. The differential movement of the mountain front on both sides of the ramp is visible in the field as the mountain front of the western part of the Kameng River move more southeastward compared to the eastern part. The tectonic evolution of the area initiated with the development of the MBT, which resulted in

  12. The sighting of Howarth’s Hairstreak (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Chrysozephyrus disparatus interpositus Howarth, 1957 from Tenga Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India, extending its known range

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    Rachit Pratap Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly subspecies, Chrysozephyrus disparatus interpositus is sighted at Tenga Valley, Western Arunachal Pradesh, 58 years after its original description, extending its known range eastwards by 350 km. 

  13. Role of a Surveillance System in the Management of an Outbreak of Dengue in the Mid Hills of Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance systems are instrumental in not only eliciting the impending outbreaks but also for initiation of public health action. Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP of India guides in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of vector borne diseases such as Dengue and its management. Aim: To assess any impending outbreak of Dengue in the region, by using IDSP surveillance data and to assess the need based mitigation measures. Materials and Methods: The routine IDSP surveillance of June 2015 highlighted an impending outbreak of Dengue in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Spot map was prepared for epidemiological linkage of the sporadic cases being reported. Moreover the retrospective epidemiologic IDSP surveillance data was analysed for finding out any cases of Dengue reported in the past. Clinical case definition of Dengue, formulated by IDSP was adopted. Diagnostic facility was set up. Entomological surveillance was used to calculate House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index. Aedes ageypti mosquito was identified by laboratory techniques. Mitigation activities like sanitation and cleanliness drive, fogging, inter-sectoral meetings and coordination were initiated. Daily surveillance was initiated and data was analysed in Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and Epi Info software version 7.2.0.1. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Based upon data analysis, outbreak of Dengue was declared on 7th September, 2015. A total of 686 probable cases were positive by rapid diagnostic/card tests whereas 57 and 109 patients were positive by NS1Ag and IgM tests. The relation of Dengue with respect to age and sex of the patients was found statistically non-significant with p-values of 2.01 and 3.20 respectively. House Index was higher (37.5% in the industry dominated Nalagarh region. Genus Aedes was identified in three out of 12 mosquito specimens with the help of available mosquito key. Other specimens

  14. Identification of Suitable Water Harvesting Zones Based on Geomorphic Resources for Drought Areas: A Case Study of Una District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Prakasam, D. C., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Water is one of the most vital natural resource and its availability and quality determine ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. Una district is one of the major potential agricultural districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. More than 70% of the population of this district is engaged in agriculture and allied sectors and major crops grown are maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables. The region faces drought every year and about 90 per cent of the area is water stressed. This has resulted in crop loss and shortage of food and fodder. The sources of drinking water, small ponds and bowlies dry-up during summer season resulting in scarcity of drinking water. Una district receives rainfall during monsoons from June to September and also during non-monsoon period (winter). The annual average rainfall in the area is about 1040 mm with 55 average rainy days. But due to heavy surface run-off the farmers not able to cultivate the crops more than once in a year. Past research indicate that the geomorphology of the Una district might be responsible for such droughts as it controls the surface as well as ground water resources. The research proposes to develop a water stress model for Una district using the geomorphic parameters, water resource and land use land cover data of the study area. Using Survey of India topographical maps (1:50000), the geomorphic parameters are extracted. The spatial layers of these parameters i.e. drainage density, slope, relative relief, ruggedness index, surface water body's frequency are created in GIS. A time series of normalized remotely sensed data of the study area is used for land use land cover classification and analyses. Based on the results from the water stress model, the drought/water stress areas and water harvesting zones are identified and documented. The results of this research will help the general population in resolving the drinking water problem to a certain extent and also the

  15. Improving student learning via mobile phone video content: Evidence from the BridgeIT India project

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    Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi

    2015-08-01

    Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning materials organised in accordance with a system of syllabi pacing charts. Teachers of Standard 5 and 6 English and Science classes were notified of the availability of new videos via text messages (SMS), which they downloaded onto their phones using an open-source application and showed, with suggested activities, to students on a TV screen using a TV-out cable. In their evaluation of this project, the authors of this paper found that the test scores of children who experienced the intervention improved by 0.36 standard deviations in English and 0.98 standard deviations in Science in Andhra Pradesh, relative to students in similar classrooms who did not experience the intervention. Differences between treatment and control schools in Tamil Nadu were less marked. The intervention was also cost-effective, relative to other computer-based interventions. Based on these results, the authors argue that is possible to use mobile phones to produce a strong positive and statistically significant effect in terms of teaching and learning quality across a large number of classrooms in India at a lower cost per student than past computer-based interventions.

  16. Below Replacement-Level Fertility in Conditions of slow Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Evidence from South-India

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    Minna Säävälä

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic interest in the explanations of the first fertility transition has receded considerably during the last decade. Despite the empirical evidence of global convergence in fertility, there is still no consensus on the factors which explain the swiftness of the change in some contexts and its deceleration in some others. From the policy perspective, it remains pivotal to locate the factors that affect the momentum of fertility transition. In this essay the fast decline to below replacement-level period Total Fertility Rate in South India will be examined as an example of fertility transition despite slow social and/or economic development. The analysis is based on a literature review of empirical studies on the determinants of regional fertility differentials in India. Some southern states, most particularly Andhra Pradesh, manifest below replacement-level fertility (TFR 1.79 despite low average age at marriage even in Indian terms, the resilience of womens universal marriage, and heavy reliance on a terminal family planning method, female sterilization. The case of Andhra Pradesh shows that below-replacement level fertility can occur despite slow social development, widespread poverty and gender asymmetries. Geographical and social diffusion effects are partly responsible of the speed of the decline, although they are difficult to measure or test in the level of fertility decision-making.

  17. Study of noise pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh (India).

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    Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D

    2012-07-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers.

  18. Opportunities of habitat connectivity for tiger (Panthera tigris) between Kanha and Pench National Parks in Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Rathore, Chinmaya S; Dubey, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Anurag; Pathak, Prasad; Patil, Vinayak

    2012-01-01

    The Tiger (Panthera tigris) population in India has undergone a sharp decline during the last few years. Of the number of factors attributed to this decline, habitat fragmentation has been the most worrisome. Wildlife corridors have long been a subject of discussion amongst wildlife biologists and conservationists with contrasting schools of thought arguing their merits and demerits. However, it is largely believed that wildlife corridors can help minimize genetic isolation, offset fragmentation problems, improve animal dispersal, restore ecological processes and reduce man animal conflict. This study attempted to evaluate the possibilities of identifying a suitable wildlife corridor between two very important wildlife areas of central India--the Kanha National Park and the Pench National Park--with tiger as the focal species. Geographic Information System (GIS) centric Least Cost Path modeling was used to identify likely routes for movement of tigers. Habitat suitability, perennial water bodies, road density, railway tracks, human settlement density and total forest edge were considered as key variables influencing tiger movement across the Kanha-Pench landscape. Each of these variables was weighted in terms of relative importance through an expert consultation process. Using different importance scenarios, three alternate corridor routes were generated of which one was identified as the most promising for tiger dispersal. Weak links--where cover and habitat conditions are currently sub-optimal--were flagged on the corridor route. Interventions aimed at augmenting the identified corridor route have been suggested using accepted wildlife corridor design principles. The involvement of local communities through initiatives such as ecotourism has been stressed as a crucial long term strategy for conservation of the Kanha-Pench wildlife corridor. The results of the study indicate that restoration of the identified wildlife corridors between the two protected areas is

  19. Opportunities of habitat connectivity for tiger (Panthera tigris between Kanha and Pench National Parks in Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Chinmaya S Rathore

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris population in India has undergone a sharp decline during the last few years. Of the number of factors attributed to this decline, habitat fragmentation has been the most worrisome. Wildlife corridors have long been a subject of discussion amongst wildlife biologists and conservationists with contrasting schools of thought arguing their merits and demerits. However, it is largely believed that wildlife corridors can help minimize genetic isolation, offset fragmentation problems, improve animal dispersal, restore ecological processes and reduce man animal conflict. This study attempted to evaluate the possibilities of identifying a suitable wildlife corridor between two very important wildlife areas of central India--the Kanha National Park and the Pench National Park--with tiger as the focal species. Geographic Information System (GIS centric Least Cost Path modeling was used to identify likely routes for movement of tigers. Habitat suitability, perennial water bodies, road density, railway tracks, human settlement density and total forest edge were considered as key variables influencing tiger movement across the Kanha-Pench landscape. Each of these variables was weighted in terms of relative importance through an expert consultation process. Using different importance scenarios, three alternate corridor routes were generated of which one was identified as the most promising for tiger dispersal. Weak links--where cover and habitat conditions are currently sub-optimal--were flagged on the corridor route. Interventions aimed at augmenting the identified corridor route have been suggested using accepted wildlife corridor design principles. The involvement of local communities through initiatives such as ecotourism has been stressed as a crucial long term strategy for conservation of the Kanha-Pench wildlife corridor. The results of the study indicate that restoration of the identified wildlife corridors between the two

  20. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

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    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. © 2015 APJPH.

  1. Habitat Suitability analysis of Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) Pheasant in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India using Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.; Sarma, K.

    2014-12-01

    Pheasants are at the brink of destruction due to degradation of forests, environmental pollution, climatic changes and extensive hunting of wild floras and faunas.The problem is more acute in the developing countries where wildlife and biodiversity conservation are often less prioritized due to more pressing demands of food security and poverty alleviation. Koklass Pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha) species is distributed from Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east along the Himalayas to southeastern Tibet, western China and southeastern Mongolia.This species is grouped under endangered species in Red Data Book of Zoological Survey of India and also classified as least concern species according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Conservation biologists and managers need a range of both classical analyses and specific modern tools to face the increasing threats to biodiversity. Among these tools, habitat-suitability modeling has recently emerged as a relevant technique to assess global impacts to define wide conservation priorities.The present study is carried out using remote sensing satellite imagery and GIS modeling technique for assessing habitat suitability of Koklass Pheasants and finding out the habitat factors influencing the Koklass distribution in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Effective management and conservation of wildlife populations and their habitats largely depend on our ability to understand and predict species-habitat interactions. Different thematic maps viz., land use/cover, forest types, drainage buffer, multiple ring buffers of sighting locations and multiple ring buffers of roads have been prepared to support the objective of the study. The Weighted Overlay Analysis model is used for identifying different potential areas of habitat for this endangered species. The most suitable area for Koklass Pheasant within the Wildlife Sanctuary is found to be about 23.8 percent of the total area which is due to favourable habitat conditions for the

  2. 75 FR 43488 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... commonly referred to as columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels..., Maharashtra Industrial Policy (MIP of 2001), and Maharashtra Industrial Policy (MIP of 2006) 5. Loan... Andhra Pradesh (SGAP) 1. Grant Under the Industrial Investment Promotion Policy of 2005-2010 (Andhra...

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cash Benefit Scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana for Beneficiary Mothers from Different Health Care Settings of Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India.

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    Trivedi R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For better outcomes in mother and child health, Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM in 2005 with a major objective of providing accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population; especially the vulnerable. Reduction in MMR to 100/100,000 is one of its goals and the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY is the key strategy of NRHM to achieve this reduction. The JSY, as a safe motherhood intervention and modified alternative of the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS, has been implemented in all states and Union territories with special focus on low performing states. The main objective and vision of JSY is to reduce maternal, neo-natal mortality and promote institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women of rural and urban areas. This scheme is 100% centrally sponsored and has an integrated delivery and post delivery care with the help of a key person i.e. ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist, followed by cash monetary help to the women. Objectives: 1To evaluate cash benefit service provided under JSY at different health care settings. 2 To know the perception and elicit suggestions of beneficiaries on quality of cash benefit scheme of JSY. Methodology: This is a health care institute based observational cross sectional study including randomly selected 200 JSY beneficiary mothers from the different health care settings i.e., Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, District Hospital and Medical College Hospital of Rewa District of Madhya Pradesh state. Data was collected with the help of set pro forma and then analysed with Epi Info 2000. Chi square test was applied appropriately. Results: 60% and 80% beneficiaries from PHC and CHC received cash within 1 week after discharge whereas 100% beneficiaries of District Hospital and Medical College Hospital received cash at the time of discharge; the overall distribution of time of cash disbursement among beneficiaries of

  4. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K; Chand, Sunil K; Bharti, Praveen K; Singh, Mrigendra P; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis

  5. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India.In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA.A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap. Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season.An. culicifacies species C (59% was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%, B (8.7%, E (6.7% and A (1.5%. Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99% and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An

  6. The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumeet R.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Briceno, Bertha; Ganguly, Sandipan; Colford, John M.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs), defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth). Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 80 rural villages. Field staff collected baseline measures of sanitation conditions, behaviors, and child health (May–July 2009), and revisited households 21 months later (February–April 2011) after the program was delivered. The study enrolled a random sample of 5,209 children <5 years old from 3,039 households that had at least one child <24 months at the beginning of the study. A random subsample of 1,150 children <24 months at enrollment were tested for soil transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in stool. The randomization successfully balanced intervention and control groups, and we estimated differences between groups in an intention to treat analysis. The intervention increased percentage of households in a village with improved sanitation facilities as defined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme by an average of 19% (95% CI for difference: 12%–26%; group means: 22% control versus 41% intervention), decreased open defecation among adults by an average of 10% (95% CI for difference: 4%–15%; group means: 73% intervention versus 84% control). However, the intervention

  7. The effect of India's total sanitation campaign on defecation behaviors and child health in rural Madhya Pradesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet R Patil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs, defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth.We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 80 rural villages. Field staff collected baseline measures of sanitation conditions, behaviors, and child health (May-July 2009, and revisited households 21 months later (February-April 2011 after the program was delivered. The study enrolled a random sample of 5,209 children <5 years old from 3,039 households that had at least one child <24 months at the beginning of the study. A random subsample of 1,150 children <24 months at enrollment were tested for soil transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in stool. The randomization successfully balanced intervention and control groups, and we estimated differences between groups in an intention to treat analysis. The intervention increased percentage of households in a village with improved sanitation facilities as defined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme by an average of 19% (95% CI for difference: 12%-26%; group means: 22% control versus 41% intervention, decreased open defecation among adults by an average of 10% (95% CI for difference: 4%-15%; group means: 73% intervention versus 84% control. However, the intervention did not improve child health

  8. The effect of India's total sanitation campaign on defecation behaviors and child health in rural Madhya Pradesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumeet R; Arnold, Benjamin F; Salvatore, Alicia L; Briceno, Bertha; Ganguly, Sandipan; Colford, John M; Gertler, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    Poor sanitation is thought to be a major cause of enteric infections among young children. However, there are no previously published randomized trials to measure the health impacts of large-scale sanitation programs. India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is one such program that seeks to end the practice of open defecation by changing social norms and behaviors, and providing technical support and financial subsidies. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the TSC implemented with capacity building support from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs), defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, growth). We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 80 rural villages. Field staff collected baseline measures of sanitation conditions, behaviors, and child health (May-July 2009), and revisited households 21 months later (February-April 2011) after the program was delivered. The study enrolled a random sample of 5,209 children village with improved sanitation facilities as defined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme by an average of 19% (95% CI for difference: 12%-26%; group means: 22% control versus 41% intervention), decreased open defecation among adults by an average of 10% (95% CI for difference: 4%-15%; group means: 73% intervention versus 84% control). However, the intervention did not improve child health measured in terms of multiple health outcomes (diarrhea, HCGI, helminth infections, anemia, growth). Limitations of the study included a relatively short follow-up period following implementation, evidence for contamination in ten of the 40 control villages, and bias possible in self-reported outcomes for diarrhea, HCGI, and open defecation behaviors. The intervention led to modest increases in availability of IHLs and even more modest reductions in open

  9. Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433

  10. Work and empowerment: women and agriculture in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smriti

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the implications of women's work in agriculture in Telangana, a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. I suggest that higher capital costs for cultivators' post-liberalisation increased the pressure to contain wage costs in a region where women form the majority of the agricultural wage labour force. Under such conditions, when women perform both own-cultivation as well as agricultural wage work in the fields of others, they face pressure to restrict bargaining for higher wages, contributing to a widening gender wage gap. To the extent that wages shape intra-household bargaining power, the empowering effect of workforce participation for such women would thus be blunted. From available NSS data I provide some preliminary evidence in support of this argument.

  11. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupt, Anadi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kamraj, P; Murthy, B N

    2016-01-01

    Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL) families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013. We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains. Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%). The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567) in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $11 (Rs 713) in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $23 (Rs 1500) in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01). Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3)] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates. RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility.

  12. Out of Pocket Expenditure for Hospitalization among Below Poverty Line Households in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2013.

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    Anadi Gupt

    Full Text Available Health insurance schemes, like Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY, should provide financial protection against catastrophic health costs by reducing out of pocket expenditure (OOPE for hospitalizations. We estimated and compared the proportion and extent of OOPE among below poverty line (BPL families beneficiaries and not beneficiaries by RSBY during hospitalizations in district Solan, H.P., India, 2013.We conducted a cross sectional survey among hospitalized BPL families in the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups. We compared proportion incurring OOPE and its extent during hospitalization, pre/post-hospitalization periods in different domains.Overall, proportion of non-beneficiaries who incurred OOPE was higher than the beneficiaries but it was not statistically significant (87.2% vs. 80.9%. The median overall OOPE was $39 (Rs 2567 in the non-beneficiaries group as compared to $11 (Rs 713 in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01. Median expenditure on in house and out house drugs and consumables was $23 (Rs 1500 in the non beneficiaries group as compared to nil in the beneficiaries group (p<0.01. Non-beneficiary status was significantly associated [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3] with OOPE above median independently and also after adjusting for various covariates.RSBY has decreased the extent of OOPE among the beneficiaries; however OOPE was incurred mainly due to purchase of drugs from outside the health facility. The treatment seeking behaviour in beneficiaries group has improved among comparatively older group with chronic conditions. RSBY has enabled beneficiaries to get more facilities such as drugs, consumables and diagnostics from the health facility.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: a fast-urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana Raju, Nandimandalam; Shukla, U K; Ram, Prahlad

    2011-02-01

    The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in the urban Varanasi area and analyzed for various chemical parameters. Geologically, the study area comprises Quaternary alluvium made up of an alternating succession of clay, silty clay, and sand deposits. The Total dissolved solids classification reveals that except two locations, the groundwater samples are desirable for drinking, and all are useful for irrigation purposes. The cationic and anionic concentrations indicated that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4 types, respectively. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on the Chadha rectangular diagram shows that the majority (81%) of groundwater samples belong to the calcium-bicarbonate type. The HCO3/(HCO3+SO4) ratio (0.87) indicates mostly carbonic acid weathering process due to presence of kankar carbonate mixed with clay/fine sand. The high nitrate concentration (>45 mg/l) of about 18% of the groundwater samples may be due to the local domestic sewage, leakage of septic tanks, and improper management of sanitary landfills. In general, the calculated values of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields.

  14. Effectiveness of using teachers to screen eyes of school-going children in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Sudhan Anand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To assess the effectiveness of teachers in a vision screening program for children in classes 5th to 12th attending school in two blocks of a district of north central India. Materials and Methods : Ophthalmic assistants trained school teachers to measure visual acuity and to identify obvious ocular abnormalities in children. Children with visual acuity worse than 20/30 in any eye and/or any obvious ocular abnormality were referred to an ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants also repeated eye examinations on a random sample of children identified as normal (approximately 1%, n=543 by the teachers. Ophthalmic assistants prescribed spectacles to children needing refractive correction and referred children needing further examination to a pediatric ophthalmologist at the base hospital. Results : Five hundred and thirty teachers from 530 schools enrolled 77,778 children in the project and screened 68,833 (88.50% of enrolled children. Teachers referred 3,822 children (4.91% with eye defects for further examination by the ophthalmic assistant who confirmed eye defects in 1242 children (1.80% of all screened children. Myopia (n=410, 33.01%, Vitamin A deficiency (n=143, 11.51% and strabismus (n=134, 10.79% were the most common eye problems identified by the ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants identified 57.97% referrals as false positives and 6.08% children as false negatives from the random sample of normal children. Spectacles were prescribed to 39.47% of children confirmed with eye defects. Conclusions : Primary vision screening by teachers has effectively reduced the workload of ophthalmic assistants. High false positive and false negative rates need to be studied further.

  15. Quality characterization and pollution source identification of surface water using multivariate statistical techniques, Nalagarh Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herojeet, Rajkumar; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Lata, Renu; Dolma, Konchok

    2017-09-01

    Sirsa River flows through the central part of the Nalagarh valley, belongs to the rapid industrial belt of Baddi, Barotiwala and Nalagarh (BBN). The appraisal of surface water quality to ascertain its utility in such ecologically sensitive areas is need of the hour. The present study envisages the application of multivariate analysis, water utility class and conventional graphical representation to reveal the hidden factor responsible for deterioration of water quality and determine the hydrochemical facies and its evolution processes of water types in Nalagarh valley, India. The quality assessment is made by estimating pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, major ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 - and PO4 3-), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total coliform (TC) to determine its suitability for drinking and domestic purposes. The parameters like pH, TDS, TH, Ca2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 - are within the desirable limit as per Bureau of Indian Standards (Indian Standard Drinking Water Specification (Second Edition) IS:10500. Indian Standard Institute, New Delhi, pp 1-18, 2012). Mg2+, Na+ and K+ ions for pre monsoon and EC during pre and post monsoon at few sites and approx 40% samples of BOD and TC for both seasons exceeds the permissible limits indicate organic contamination from human activities. Water quality classification for designated use indicates that maximum surface water samples are not suitable for drinking water source without conventional treatment. The result of piper trillinear and Chadha's diagram classified majority of surface water samples for both seasons fall in the fields of Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 - water type indicating temporary hardness. PCA and CA reveal that the surface water chemistry is influenced by natural factors such as weathering of minerals, ion exchange processes and anthropogenic factors. Thus, the present paper illustrates the importance of

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF Paracalyx scariosus (ROXB. ALI A WILD RELATIVE OF CAJANUS FROM SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

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    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb. Ali locally known as ";;adavi tellakandulu";; in Telugu, used as food by local tribes people in the Rollapenta forest, Kurnool district, Nallamalais of Andhra Pradesh of southern Peninsular India. The mature seed samples were analysed for proximate composition, total (true seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids profile, mineral and antinutritional factors. They contained higher amount of crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 20.56, 5.19, 5.12 and 56.25 % respectively of the seed weight. The calorific value of 100g dry matter of seed material was 1680.92 kJ DM. The essential amino acids, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were present in relatively large quantities.  The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of palmitic and linoleic acids. The seeds are rich in sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, manganese and iron. Anti-nutritional factors such as total free phenols, (5.56% tannins (2.78%, L -DOPA (0.63%, hydrogen cyanide (0.065% and phytic acid (0.85% are present in variable quantities. From the results these plant have a good potential as food crops in Andhra Pradesh.  This paper presents the chemical composition and nutritional potential of Paracalyx scariosus seeds with regard to its suitability as a regular component in human diet.

  17. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  18. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  19. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

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    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  20. 'Hari', a mutant cross derived rice variety released In India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahari, P [Nuclear Agriculture Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: TR-RNR-21 is a derivative from a cross between 'IR-8' and 'TR-5', the latter being a N{sub f}-induced dwarf mutant of the salt tolerant variety SR-26-B. In initial yield evaluations at BARC during 1972-78 it gave higher yields of 54% in monsoon season and 19% in dry season over 'Jaya' and compared favourably with 'IR-8' and 'Sona'. During 1975-80, trials were conducted by the Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (APAU), Rajendranagar and the All India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP), at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. In these trials TR-RNR-21 was compared with 'Pankaj', 'Jaya', RP-4-14, 'Sona', 'Surekha', RNR-323341 and 'Prabhat'. Compared with the highest yielding check and all the seven checks combined, overall average yields of TR-RNR-21 were higher by 10.1 and 19.8% respectively. Since 1981, TR-RNR-21 was included in minikit trials of Andhra Pradesh State. Results from over 90 locations of the Telangana region show that mean grain yield of 3843 kg/ha was 19% more than the yield of the local checks. In view of its consistently superior performance, TR-RNR-21 was released as 'Hari' in 1987 for general cultivation in the irrigated transplanted conditions of the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh, excepting the endemic gall midge prone areas. 'Hari' is a medium duration variety maturing within 135-140 days. It is a semi-dwarf (93 cm), erect, compact and non-lodging type with dark green foliage; anthocyanin pigment absent; grain long (10.1 mm), slender with kernel length/breadth ratio of 3.54; kernel flinty, white, translucent and non-glutinous; white belly absent; TGW 25.2 g; protein content 7.1%; bulling, milling and head recovery - 80, 74.5 and 68% respectively; cooking quality good. It is not affected seriously by blast, tungro virus, sheath blight and brown leaf spot diseases and green leaf hopper, leaf folder and stem borer insect pests. A characteristic of this variety is that the flag leaf is long, stays far above the panicle and

  1. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  2. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    beneficiaries' perspectives and their expectations regarding ASHAs communication process in the leadership role which she performs. Such understanding will not only be instructive but may also prove transformative for the benefit of both ASHAs and her community, whose support is critical to the success of the programme. This learning will feed into the policy planning and communication and capacity building strategy of the ASHA programme and may lead to better and more effective strategies and tools of communication. Originality/value - Research study is original. Keeping the observers' status in mind, questionnaire was translated in Hindi language. Twenty ASHAs were selected randomly from small villages of Uttar Pradesh, the largest state in India. The scale was presented to at least five observers (all females) for one ASHA. These observers/judges were the ones who knew ASHA well and with whom she had communicated at some point of time as part of her work.

  3. Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

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    Haraprasad Bairagya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist?s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10526 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 150-166

  4. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India

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    McPherson Sam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.

  5. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2006-01-01

    Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%), belonging to scheduled caste (35.3%) and scheduled tribe (10.5%), illiterate (74.7%), and of those separated/divorced (30.7%) was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years) and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years) was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively). Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India. PMID:16615869

  6. A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    Pallav Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters.

  7. Evaluation of an anti-stigma campaign related to common mental disorders in rural India: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Devarapalli, S; Kallakuri, S; Tewari, A; Chilappagari, S; Koschorke, M; Thornicroft, G

    2017-02-01

    Stigma related to mental health is a major barrier to help-seeking resulting in a large treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This study assessed changes in knowledge, attitude and behaviour, and stigma related to help-seeking among participants exposed to an anti-stigma campaign. The campaign, using multi-media interventions, was part of the SMART Mental Health Project, conducted for 3 months, across 42 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, in South India. Mixed-methods evaluation was conducted in two villages using a pre-post design. A total of 1576 and 2100 participants were interviewed, at pre- and post-intervention phases of the campaign. Knowledge was not increased. Attitudes and behaviours improved significantly (p Stigma related to help-seeking reduced significantly (p stigma related to help-seeking. Social contact was the most effective intervention. The study had implications for future research in LMIC.

  8. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  9. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the proterozoic granites from Jhabua and Dhar districts, Madhya Pradesh, India and their bearing on uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, P.C.; Goyal, Navin; Rawal, Neeru

    2004-01-01

    In the western part of Madhya Pradesh a number of small plutonic granites occur as intrusive into the gneisses and Aravalli metasediments. Granites are of grey, pink colour and gneissic varieties. Mineralogically, the granites are two mica bearing. Chemically they are K 2 O rich, calc-alkaline, metaluminous to peraluminous and differentiated in nature. Tectonically they are volcanic arc types with an affinity to syn-collisional setup. Basement reactivation may be the cause of the emplacement of these granites as the area is traversed by a number of basement lineaments. They are enriched in light REE with Ce/Yb ratio ranging from 1.4 to 8.4. Negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* 0.2 to 0.8) suggests that they are fractionated. High Th/U ratio (1-18) indicates that uranium has been leached out. Hence the overlying infratrappeans hold potential for litho/structural controlled uranium mineralisation.(author)

  11. Enumeration of Triangles in a Divisor Cayley Graph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Department of Mathematics, J.B.Womens Engg. College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Department of Applied Mathematics, Y.V.University, Kadapa, Andhra ...... some arithmetic grpahs,Ph.D Thesis, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, ...

  12. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepak; Sankhyan, Varun; Katoch, Sanjeet; Thakur, Yash Pal

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG), forelimb length (FLL), hind limb length (HLL), face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL), hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL), TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL) to 0.88 (TL). Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation.

  13. Giving back: Diaspora philanthropy and the transnationalisation of caste in Guntur (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Roohi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an anthropological study of a group of highly educated transnational migrants belonging to the agrarian landowning elite of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, who have settled in the USA and other western countries. This affluent regional diaspora has engaged extensively in philanthropic projects for social development (especially in education, health and rural development) in their home region. Based on 15 months of field research carried out in Andhra and the US, the thesis examines the...

  14. The rK39 immunochromatic dipstick testing: A study for K39 seroprevalence in dogs and human leishmaniasis patients for possible animal reservoir of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in endemic focus of Satluj river valley of Himachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The newly recognized endemic focus of leishmaniasis in Satluj river valley of Himachal Pradesh (India has both localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and visceral leishmaniasis (VL predominantly caused by Leishmania donovani. Rapid rK39 immunochromatographic dipstick test detects circulating antibodies to recombinant K39 antigen of L. donovani-infantum complex and is highly specific/sensitive in diagnosing symptomatic or asymptomatic infection in humans and dogs. Methods: The sera from two VL patients and 13 LCL patients, and 31 dogs were subjected to rK39 immunochromatographic dipstick testing with an aim to identify possible animal reservoir for leishmaniasis in this endemic focus. Results and Conclusion: The positive rapid rK39 immunochromatographic dipstick test in 100% VL and 31.8% LCL patients, and 6.5% dogs suggests that both VL and LCL in this focus are apparently being caused by L. donovani-infantum and that reservoir infection is perhaps being chiefly maintained in asymptomatic dogs. However, it needs corroborative evidence in the form of in-vitro parasite cultivation and/or PCR studies for confirmation. A more elaborate study is recommended.

  15. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Laura M; Fischer Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs) and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Anganwadi workers (AWWs) in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre. We conducted principal components analysis on providers' responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors. There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17) and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24). Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing. To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain.

  16. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lamberti

    Full Text Available Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs and Anganwadi workers (AWWs in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre.We conducted principal components analysis on providers' responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors.There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17 and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24. Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing.To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain.

  17. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12

  18. Total Atheism: Making 'Mental Revolution' in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, S.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation titled “Total Atheism: Making ‘mental revolution’ in South India” is an anthropological study of an organised atheist movement in the two South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. This movement consists of groups and individuals who self-identify as atheists,

  19. Community Collectivization and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India: Evidence from Two Rounds of Behavioral Tracking Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejella, Shanti; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2016-04-01

    Community collectivization is an integral part of condom use and HIV risk reduction interventions among key population. This study assesses community collectivization among female sex workers (FSWs), and explores its relationship with sex workers' consistent condom use (CCU) with different partners considering the interaction effect of time and collectivization. Data were drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional surveys collected during 2010 (N1 = 1986) and 2012 (N2 = 1973) among FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Results of the multiple logistic regression analysis show that, CCU with regular and occasional clients increased over the inter-survey period among FSWs with a high collective efficacy (AOR 2.9 and 6.1) and collective agency (AOR 14.4 and 19.0) respectively. The association of high levels of collectivization with CCU and self-efficacy for condom use are central to improve the usefulness and sustainability of HIV prevention programs worldwide.

  20. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  1. Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment of forests in the Indian Western Himalayan region: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Upgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment at state and regional levels is necessary to develop adaptation strategies for forests in the biogeographically vital Himalayan region. The present study assesses forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change across Himachal Pradesh and presents the priority districts for vulnerability reduction under ‘current climate’ and ‘future climate’ scenarios. Vulnerability of forests under ‘current climate’ scenario is assessed by adopting indicator-based approach, while the vulnerability under ‘future climate’ scenario is assessed using climate and vegetation impact models. Based on the vulnerability index estimated to present the vulnerability of forests under current and projected climate change impacts representing climate driven vulnerability, five districts – Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Mandi and Shimla are identified as priority forest districts for adaptation planning. Identifying vulnerable forest districts and forests will help policy makers and forest managers to prioritize resource allocation and forest management interventions, to restore health and productivity of forests and to build long-term resilience to climate change.

  2. Use of major surgery in south India: A retrospective audit of hospital claim data from a large, community health insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-05-01

    Information on the use of major surgery in India is scarce. In this study we aimed to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, which provides access to free hospital care through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries, an estimated 81% of population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgery procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 677,332 operative admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at an annual rate of 259 per 100,000 beneficiaries, with male subjects accounting for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for operative admission (27%) with operative correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of the digestive (16%), genitourinary (12%), and musculoskeletal (10%) systems were other leading causes for operative admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used by admissions for injuries (31%) and diseases of the digestive (17%) and musculoskeletal system (11%) costing 19%, 13%, and 11% of reimbursement. Operations on the circulatory system (8%) accounted for 21% of reimbursements. Annual per capita cost of operative claims was US$1.48. The use of surgery by an insured population in India continued to be low despite access to financing comparable with greater spending countries, highlighting need for strategies, beyond traditional health financing, that prioritize improvement in access, delivery, and use of operative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustained progress, but no room for complacency: Results of 2015 HIV estimations in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind; Dhingra, Neeraj; Kumar, Pradeep; Sahu, Damodar; Reddy, D.C.S.; Narayan, Padum; Raj, Yujwal; Sangal, Bhavna; Chandra, Nalini; Nair, Saritha; Singh, Jitenkumar; Chavan, Laxmikant; Srivastava, Deepika Joshi; Jha, Ugra Mohan; Verma, Vinita; Kant, Shashi; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Swain, Pushpanjali; Haldar, Partha; Singh, Lucky; Bakkali, Taoufik; Stover, John; Ammassari, Savina

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Evidence-based planning has been the cornerstone of India's response to HIV/AIDS. Here we describe the process, method and tools used for generating the 2015 HIV estimates and provide a summary of the main results. Methods: Spectrum software supported by the UNAIDS was used to produce HIV estimates for India as a whole and its States/Union Territories. This tool takes into consideration the size and HIV prevalence of defined population groups and programme data to estimate HIV prevalence, incidence and mortality over time as well as treatment needs. Results: India's national adult prevalence of HIV was 0.26 per cent in 2015. Of the 2.1 million people living with HIV/AIDS, the largest numbers were in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. New HIV infections were an estimated 86,000 in 2015, reflecting a decline by around 32 per cent from 2007. The declining trend in incidence was mirrored in most States, though an increasing trend was detected in Assam, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Sikkim, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. AIDS-related deaths were estimated to be 67,600 in 2015, reflecting a 54 per cent decline from 2007. There were variations in the rate and trend of decline across India for this indicator also. Interpretation & conclusions: While key indicators measured through Spectrum modelling confirm success of the National AIDS Control Programme, there is no room for complacency as rising incidence trends in some geographical areas and population pockets remain the cause of concern. Progress achieved so far in responding to HIV/AIDS needs to be sustained to end the HIV epidemic. PMID:29168464

  4. Report: Hospital waste management--awareness and practices: a study of three states in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P Hanumantha

    2008-06-01

    The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Hospitals/nursing homes and private medical practitioners in urban as well as rural areas and those from the private as well as the government sector were covered. Information on (a) awareness of bio-medical waste management rules, (b) training undertaken and (c) practices with respect to segregation, use of colour coding, sharps management, access to common waste management facilities and disposal was collected. Awareness of Bio-medical Waste Management Rules was better among hospital staff in comparison with private medical practitioners and awareness was marginally higher among those in urban areas in comparison with those in rural areas. Training gained momentum only after the dead-line for compliance was over. Segregation and use of colour codes revealed gaps, which need correction. About 70% of the healthcare facilities used a needle cutter/destroyer for sharps management. Access to Common Waste Management facilities was low at about 35%. Dumping biomedical waste on the roads outside the hospital is still prevalent and access to Common Waste facilities is still limited. Surveillance, monitoring and penal machinery was found to be deficient and these require strengthening to improve compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules and to safeguard the health of employees, patients and communities.

  5. Unsettling caste-bound gender orders: the convergence of teacher commitment and pupil aspiration in two schools in Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Elspeth Page

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Whilst there has been significant progress towards gender equity in school enrolment, attendance and achievement in India since Independence in 1947, boys still out-perform girls in all these areas. Despite considerable social change and intervention in the last decade, poverty, the poor quality of government education, the highly abstract curriculum and restrictive class, caste and gender regimes interact to sustain gender inequality. This paper presents two case studies, focussed ...

  6. Notes on the Eastern Comma Polygonia c-album agnicula Moore, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Comma, Polygonia c-album ranges across W.Himalaya up to Sikkim-Bhutan but not reported from North East India. Altogether, three subspecies occur within Indian region.This sighting is not surprising as Tawang dist. shares boundary with Bhutan. This sighting shows that more survey is needed in W. Himalaya to know the butterfly fauna of the region.

  7. Women in Indian Courts of Law: A Study of Women Legal Professionals in the District Court of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Saurabh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Men have traditionally dominated legal profession in India. Women’s entry could be possible only after long and protracted legal battles, and even then, their presence in the courts remained insignificant until the end of the twentieth century. However, the policy of globalisation in the twenty-first century has provided additional opportunities to Indian women in legal education and training. The invasion of modernity has not only moderated the court environment but has also put an end to th...

  8. Validity of Madras Diabetes Research Foundation: Indian Diabetes Risk Score for Screening of Diabetes Mellitus among Adult Population of Urban Field Practice Area, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Kanica; Mahajan, Anjali; Parashar, Anupam; Dhadwal, Dineshwar Singh; Jaswal, V M S; Jaret, Pramod; Mazta, Salig Ram

    2017-01-01

    IDRS is based on four simple parameters derived from known risk factors for diabetes; two modifiable risk factors (waist circumference and physical inactivity) and two non-modifiable risk factors (age and family history of diabetes), which may be amenable to intervention. The present study has been planned as the region specific validation is important before it can be used for screening in this part of the country. The aim of the present study was to validate MDRF-IDRS for screening of diabetes mellitus among adult population of urban field practice area, IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. The present community based cross sectional study was conducted among 417 adults fulfilling the eligibility criteria using a two stage sampling design. In the present study IDRS value ≥70 had an optimum sensitivity of 61.33% and specificity of 56.14% for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in the community. At an IDRS score of ≥70, the PPV was 23.47%, NPV as 86.88%, the diagnostic accuracy as 57.07%, LR for positive test as 1.398, LR for negative test as 0.69 and Youden's index as 0.17. However Youden's index was 0.19 at a cut of ≥60 i.e. higher than what was at ≥70. Higher IDRS scores increased the specificity but the sensitivity dramatically decreased. Conversely, lower IDRS values increased the sensitivity but the specificity drastically decreased. Area under the curve = 0.630 and a P value < 0.001. MDRF IDRS is user friendly screening tool but the criteria of including the parameter of physical activity for the calculation of the risk score needs to be clearly defined. In the present study the maximum sensitivity of 100% was seen at a cut off of ≥30. Hence we would recommend that all those in the medium and high risk group should be screened for type 2 Diabetes.

  9. Out-of-pocket expenditures for childbirth in the context of the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program to promote facility births: who pays and how much? Studies from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; Marrone, Gaetano; Diwan, Vishal; DeCosta, Ayesha; Lindholm, Lars

    2016-05-03

    High out-of-pocket expenditures (OOPE) make delivery care difficult to access for a large proportion of India's population. Given that home deliveries increase the risk of maternal mortality, in 2005 the Indian Government implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program to incentivize poor women to deliver in public health facilities by providing a cash transfer upon discharge. We study the OOPE among JSY beneficiaries and women who deliver at home, and predictors of OOPE in two districts of Madhya Pradesh. September 2013 to April 2015 a cross-sectional community-based survey was performed. All recently delivered women were interviewed to elicit delivery costs, socio-demographic characteristics and delivery related information. Most women (n = 1995, 84 %) delivered in JSY public health facility, the remaining 16 % (n = 386) delivered at home. Women who delivered under JSY program had a higher median, IQR OOPE ($8, 3-18) compared to home ($6, 2-13). Among JSY beneficiaries, poorest women had twice net gain ($20) versus wealthiest ($10) post cash transfer. Informal payments (64 %) and food/baby items (77 %) were the two most common sources of OOPE. OOPE made among JSY beneficiaries was pro-poor: poorer women made proportionally less expenditures compared to wealthier women. In an adjusted model, delivering in a JSY public facility increased odds of incurring expenditures (OR: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.11-2.25) but at the same time to a 16 % (95 % CI: 0.73-0.96) decrease in the amount paid compared to home deliveries. OOPE is prevalent among JSY beneficiaries as well in home deliveries. In JSY, OOPE varies by income quintile: wealthier quintiles pay more OOPE. However the cash incentive is adequate enough to provide a net gain for all quintiles. OOPE was largely due to indirect costs and not direct medical payments. The program seems to be effective in providing financial protection for the most vulnerable groups.

  10. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3–200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector’s non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with

  11. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  12. Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.; Nagar, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Rajasthan Mica Belt in western India is one of the three major mica-producing Proterozoic pegmatite belts of India, the others being in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The pegmatites of these mica belts, in general, are associated with the rare metal (RM) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals like columbite-tantalite, beryl, lepidolite and other multiple oxides. RM-REE pegmatites of Gujarat are devoid of commercially workable mica. These pegmatites are geologically characterised in this paper, based on their association with granite plutons geochemistry, and RM and REE potential. In addition to RM and RE-bearing pegmatites, granites of the Umedpur area, Gujarat also show anomalous concentration (0.97 wt%) of rare metals (6431 ppm Nb, 1266 ppm Ta, 454 ppm Sn, 173 ppm W), (1098 ppm Ce 1.36% Y 2 O 3 ) rare earths, and uranium (0.40% eU 3 O 8 ). Eluvial concentrations in the soil and panned concentrate (0.04-0.28 wt%) analysed up to 7.4%Nb 2 O 5 , 836 ppm Ta, and 1.31% Y. Discrete columbite-tantalite and betafite have been identified in these concentrates in addition to other minerals like zircon, rutile, sphene and xenotime. This area with discrete RM R EE mineral phases could be significant as a non-pegmatite source for rare metal and rare earths. (author)

  13. The transaction costs driving captive power generation: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Kathuria, Vinish

    2014-01-01

    The 2003 Indian Electricity Act incentivizes captive power production through open access in an attempt to harness all sources of generation. Yet, we observe that only some firms self-generate while others do not. In this paper we give a transaction cost explanation for such divergent behavior. Using a primary survey of 107 firms from India, we construct a distinct variable to measure the transaction-specificity of electricity use. The ‘make or buy’ decision is then econometrically tested using probit model. Results are highly responsive to transaction-specificity and the likelihood of captive power generation is positively related to it. At the industrial level, this explains why food and chemical firms are more likely to make their own electricity. Since the burden of poor grid supply is highest on smaller sized and high transaction-specific firms, the grid access policies need to account for firm-level characteristics if government wants to incentivize captive power generation. - Highlights: • We analyze why some firms opt for captive power generation while others do not. • We examine the role of transaction costs in this decision making using probit model. • Unique data from a primary survey of manufacturing firms in Andhra Pradesh, India. • Transaction-specificity significantly determines who installs captive power plant (CPP). • Firm-level characteristics crucial in policies incentivizing captive generation

  14. Has the Janani Suraksha Yojana (a conditional maternity benefit transfer scheme) succeeded in reducing the economic burden of maternity in rural India? Evidence from the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saradiya; Singh, Aditya

    2018-02-05

    One of the constraints in the utilisation of maternal healthcare in India is the out-of-pocket expenditure. To improve the utilisation and to reduce the out-of-pocket expenditure, India launched a cash incentive scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides monetary incentive to the mothers delivering in public facility. However, no study has yet examined the extent to which the JSY payments reduce the maternal healthcare induced catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure burden of the households. This paper therefore attempts to examine the extent to which the JSY reduces the catastrophic expenditure estimate household expenditure on maternity, i.e. , all direct and indirect expenditure. The study used data on 396 mothers collected through a primary survey conducted in the rural areas of the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh state in 2013-2014. The degree and variation in the catastrophic impact of households' maternity spending was computed as share of out-of-pocket payment in total household income in relation to specific thresholds, across socioeconomic categories. Logistic regression was used to understand the determinants of catastrophic expenditure and whether the JSY has any role in influencing the expenditure pattern. Results revealed that the JSY beneficiaries on an average spent about 8.3% of their Annual Household Consumption Expenditure on maternity care. The JSY reimbursement could reduce this share only by 2.1%. The study found that the expenditure on antenatal and postnatal care made up a significant part of the direct medical expenditure on maternity among the JSY beneficiaries. The indirect or non-medical expenditure was about four times higher than the direct expenditure on maternity services. The out-of-pocket expenditure across income quintiles was found to be regressive i.e. the poor paid a greater proportion of their income towards maternity care than the rich. Results also showed that the JSY reimbursement helped only about 8% households

  15. Survey of ferns and clinico-pathological studies on the field cases of Enzootic bovine haematuria in Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sarvesh K.; Sharma, Rinku; Kumari, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH) in cattle occurs in upland areas of the world. In India, the disease is present in isolated pockets in the Himalayas and in the Nilgiri Hills. The variation in the disease incidence has been attributed to different environmental conditions and animal rearing pract...... bladder tissue, the field case was diagnosed as transitional cell adenocarcinoma with chronic lymphocytic cystitis.......B) in some of the ferns collected from Kullu and Chamba regions ranged from 0 to 358.6 ± 70.5 μg/g and 0 to 652.4 ± 50.0 μg/g, respectively. In addition, field cases of the disease in cattle were also studied in the EBH endemic districts. A total of sixteen cattle urine samples and one urinary bladder of EBH...

  16. Decision-making for delivery location and quality of care among slum-dwellers: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Beyeler, Naomi; Barge, Sandhya; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-07-07

    In 2013, the Government of India launched the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in order to better address the health needs of urban populations, including the nearly 100 million living in slums. Maternal and neonatal health indicators remain poor in India. The objective of this study is to highlight the experiences of women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law related to maternal health services and delivery experiences. In total, we conducted 80 in-depth interviews, including 40 with recent mothers, 20 with their husbands, and 20 with their mothers-in-law. Purposeful sampling was conducted in order to obtain differences across delivery experiences (facility vs. home), followed by their family members. Major factors that influence decision-making about where to seek care included household dynamics and joint-decision-making with families, financial barriers, and perceived quality of care. Women perceived that private facilities were higher quality compared to public facilities, but also more expensive. Disrespectful care, bribes in the facility, and payment challenges were common in this population. A number of programmatic and policy recommendations are highlighted from this study. Future endeavors should include a greater focus on health education and public programs, including educating women on how to access programs, who is eligible, and how to obtain public funds. Families need to be educated on their rights and expectations in facilities. Future programs should consider the role of husbands and mothers-in-law in reproductive decision-making and support during deliveries. Triangulating information from multiple sources is important for future research efforts.

  17. A study of the patients suffering from tuberculosis and tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity in Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program Centers of Northern Madhya Pradesh, India

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    Anil Kumar Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is recognized as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB. India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. Aim: This study was conducted to document the coexistence of DM and TB in persons with established TB under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program. Type of Study: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study conducted at selected Directly Observed Therapy center in Gwalior North Central India. Materials and Methods: A total of 550 patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB and on treatment were recruited. The study participants were screened for DM and diagnoses were made on the basis of the World Health Organization criteria. Clinical parameters were compared between persons with DM and those without DM. Results: DM/TB co-morbidity was noted in 85 individuals and these made up 15.4% of the study population. The mean age was higher in DM patients with TB (43.4 ± 15.4 vs. 33.1 ± 16.2 years, P = 0.000; the mean duration of symptoms of TB with DM was more (124 ± 16.4 vs. 107.49 ± 10.3 days. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, positive family history of diabetes, sedentary occupation, and presence of pulmonary TB were significantly associated with diabetes among TB patients. Conclusions: Diabetes is an important co-morbid feature to be sought in patients with TB. This study re-echo the need to raise awareness on screening for DM in persons with TB.

  18. Revisiting community case management of childhood pneumonia: perceptions of caregivers and grass root health providers in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, northern India.

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    Shally Awasthi

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the leading cause of under-five mortality globally with almost one-quarter of deaths occurring in India.To identify predisposing, enabling and service-related factors influencing treatment delay for CAP in rural communities of two states in India. Factors investigated included recognition of danger signs of CAP, health care decision making, self-medication, treatment and referral by local practitioners, and perceptions about quality of care.Qualitative research employing case studies (CS of care-seeking, key informant interviews (KII, semi-structured interviews (SSI and focus group discussions (FGD with both video presentations of CAP signs, and case scenarios. Interviews and FGDs were conducted with parents of under-five children who had suffered CAP, community health workers (CHW, and rural medical practitioners (RMP.From September 2013 to January 2014, 30 CS, 43 KIIs, 42 SSIs, and 42 FGDs were conducted. Recognition of danger signs of CAP among caregivers was poor. Fast breathing, an early sign of CAP, was not commonly recognized. Chest in-drawing was recognized as a sign of serious illness, but not commonly monitored by removing a child's clothing. Most cases of mild to moderate CAP were brought to RMP, and more severe cases taken to private clinics in towns. Mothers consulted local RMP directly, but decisions to visit doctors outside the village required consultation with husband or mother-in-law. By the time most cases reached a public tertiary-care hospital, children had been ill for a week and treated by 2-3 providers. Quality of care at government facilities was deemed poor by caregivers.To reduce CAP-associated mortality, recognition of its danger signs and the consequences of treatment delay needed to be better recognized by caregivers, and confidence in government facilities increased. The involvement of RMP in community based CAP programs needs to be investigated further given their widespread

  19. Giving back: Diaspora philanthropy and the transnationalisation of caste in Guntur (India)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roohi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an anthropological study of a group of highly educated transnational migrants belonging to the agrarian landowning elite of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, who have settled in the USA and other western countries. This affluent regional diaspora has engaged extensively in philanthropic

  20. Improving Student Learning via Mobile Phone Video Content: Evidence from the BridgeIT India Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennersten, Matthew; Quraishy, Zubeeda Banu; Velamuri, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Past efforts invested in computer-based education technology interventions have generated little evidence of affordable success at scale. This paper presents the results of a mobile phone-based intervention conducted in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in 2012-13. The BridgeIT project provided a pool of audio-visual learning…

  1. Dental Caries Experience and Utilization of Oral Health Services Among Tibetan Refugee-Background Children in Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sumeet; Gaur, Ambika

    2018-06-04

    The study was done to describe the dental caries experience and dental care utilization among Tibetan refugee-background children in Paonta Sahib, India. The study was conducted on 254 school children in a Tibetan settlement in Paonta Sahib. Examination was done as per World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment criteria (2013). Data on dental services utilization was obtained from the parents of children using a structured questionnaire. Oral examination of 254 school children aged 6-18 years revealed an overall dental caries prevalence of 79.5%. The dental caries experience was greater in the mixed dentition (84%) than secondary dentition (77.3%). The mean DMFT was associated with sex and dental visiting patterns. About 60% children had never visited a dentist before. The main reason for dental visit was tooth removal (43%). The prevalence of dental caries among Tibetan refugee-background school children was high and utilization of dental care was low. A comprehensive oral health program focusing on preventive care and oral health education is recommended.

  2. Genetic polymorphism study on 12 X STR loci of investigator Argus X STR kit in Bhil tribal population of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pankaj; Jain, Toshi; Gupta, Umang; Trivedi, Veena Ben

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of 12 X STR loci (DXS10103, DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS10134, DXS10074, DXS10101, DXS10135, DXS7423, DXS10146, DXS10079, HPRTB and DXS10148) belonging to four linkage group was done in 183 (100 males and 83 females) unrelated members of Bhil population. Heterozygosity among the studied 12 X STR loci showed a distribution of from 59.7% to 92.8%. No significant difference was recorded in the allele frequencies of males and females. The loci DXS10135 and DXS10101 were found to be most polymorphic. Haplotype diversity was found to be higher than 0.990 for all the four linkage groups. A total of 86, 69, 71 and 71 haplotypes were observed for linkage group I, II, III and IV, respectively. The results showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to three loci DXS10079, DXS10135 and DXS10101. This is first report on these 12 X STR markers from India. All the loci in the Argus X 12 kit were fairly informative in the Bhil population and the population showed significant genetic variation with all the compared populations from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Pilot Plant Experience on Alkaline Leaching of Low Grade Uranium Ore in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suri, A. K; Ghosh, S. K.; Padmanabhan, N. P.H., [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium deposits in India are low grade and are relatively smaller in extent as compared to present worldwide commercial practice. So far, the vein type deposits of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB) are being exploited for meeting the Indian requirements of uranium. The deposits are currently processed by acid leaching in the mills located at Jaduguda and Turamdih near Jamshedpur in Jharkhand State of India. The deposits at Jaduguda and Narwapahar are being mined by underground mining and are processed in Jaduguda mill using airagitated Pachucas. The deposits at Banduhurang and Turamdih are being mined by open cast and underground mining respectively and are processed at Turamdih by acid leaching in mechanically agitated reactors. The occurrences of uranium in North East and Northern part of Kadapa basin are relatively moderate in size and are expected to be processed in the near future by acid leaching. Uranium is also found to occur near Tummalapalle in granitic and limestone host rocks in Southern part of Kadapa basin (Andhra Pradesh) and in Gogi in Bhima basin (Karnataka). The deposit in Tummalapalle is relatively lower in grade (≈ 0.042% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is a reasonably large reserve, whereas that in Gogi is rich in uranium content (≈0.18% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) but is relatively small reserve. Laboratory tests based on alkaline leaching have been carried out on both types of deposits. Studies for Tummalapalle deposits have been extended to pilot plant level and a complete flow sheet has been established with the regeneration and recirculation of lixiviants and recovery of sodium sulphate as a by-product. The process involves alkaline leaching under oxygen pressure in batch type and/or continuous leach reactor using sodium carbonate/bicarbonate as a leaching media and uranium is recovered as sodium diuranate. Based on the techno-economic evaluation of the process, an industrial scale mill (3 000 tonnes ore/day) is being set up at Tummalapalle in Andhra Pradesh

  4. Effect of a multifaceted social franchising model on quality and coverage of maternal, newborn, and reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Dutt, Varun; Pereira, Shreya; Haldar, Kaveri; Shukla, Vasudha; Singh, Kultar; Kumar, Paresh; Goodman, Catherine; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    How to harness the private sector to improve population health in low-income and middle-income countries is heavily debated and one prominent strategy is social franchising. We aimed to evaluate whether the Matrika social franchising model-a multifaceted intervention that established a network of private providers and strengthened the skills of both public and private sector clinicians-could improve the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and reproductive health. We did a quasi-experimental study, which combined matching with difference-in-differences methods. We matched 60 intervention clusters (wards or villages) with a social franchisee to 120 comparison clusters in six districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The intervention was implemented by two not-for-profit organisations from September, 2013, to May, 2016. We did two rounds (January, 2015, and May, 2016) of a household survey for women who had given birth up to 2 years previously. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who gave birth in a health-care facility. An additional 56 prespecified outcomes measured maternal health-care use, content of care, patient experience, and other dimensions of care. We organised conceptually similar outcomes into 14 families to create summary indices. We used multivariate difference-in-differences methods for the analyses and accounted for multiple inference. The introduction of Matrika was not significantly associated with the change in facility births (4 percentage points, 95% CI -1 to 9; p=0·100). Effects for any of the other individual outcomes or for any of the 14 summary indices were not significant. Evidence was weak for an increase of 0·13 SD (95% CI 0·00 to 0·27; p=0·053) in recommended delivery care practices. The Matrika social franchise model was not effective in improving the quality and coverage of maternal health services at the population level. Several key reasons identified for the absence of

  5. Population and Public Health Implications of Child Health and Reproductive Outcomes Among Carrier Couples of Sickle Cell Disorders in Madhya Pradesh, Central India

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    Ranbir S. Balgir, PhD;

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease is a major genetic and public health challenge in India. Adequate studies on clinico-hematological aspects of disorders are available, however there are few studies on the public health and reproductive outcomes among sickle cell carrier couples. Methods: A total of 383 couples including their offspring with at least one case of sickle cell disorder referred to a testing center from a tertiary hospital from March 2010 to February 2013 were consecutively studied as matched case controls. Results: Out of 383 couples, 200 were found normal and 183 had different sickle cell disorders. Carrier couples of sickle cell disease had significantly higher fertility (mean number of conceptions, i.e. 3.153 versus 1.480 and higher below 10 year mortality (11% versus 2.7% and lower surviving offspring (877.4 versus 970.6 than of controls. Neonatal and infant mortality was doubled (34.3 versus 14.7 and three-fold higher (44.1 versus 14.7, respectively in carriers of disease per 1000 live-births compared to controls. Couples of AS/SS genotype showed high neonatal, infant, below 10 year mortality (214.3 each and low surviving offspring (785.7 per 1000 live-births. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Sickle cell carrier couples are increasing in both trait and disease offspring (surviving: 56.7% against 43.3% normals. This increased production of carrier and disease offspring leads to increased morbidity, neonatal/infant and childhood mortality, and adversely affects the survival fitness.

  6. Prehistoric chronology of Madhya Pradesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Madhya Pradesh is very rich in archaeological wealth, with availability of remains starting from Early Stone Age to Historical period. Several Stone Age sites have been brought to light specially in districts of Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur, Mandla...

  7. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  8. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  9. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal

    2018-02-01

    India is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In India, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural India, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride

  10. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Suryawanshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. METHODS: The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040. The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. RESULTS: Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%. Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%, and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%. Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001 and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001. In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  11. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.