de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.
The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large
Ramírez, Nelson; Briceño, Herbert
Background and aims Herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana (Great Savanna) Plateau of Venezuela grow under non-zonal conditions. We speculated that this would produce specific patterns of reproductive phenology within these different soil–climate–vegetation associations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive phenology patterns of four herbaceous–shrubby communities are determined by climate, plant life-forms and soil properties. Methodology The reproductive phenology of 233 plant species of the Gran Sabana Plateau of the Venezuelan Guayana Highlands was studied taking into account their life-forms (i.e. trees, shrubs, climbers, annual herbs, perennial herbs, epiphytes and parasites/hemiparasites) in four herbaceous–shrubby communities: (i) shrubland, (ii) secondary bush, (iii) savanna and (iv) broad-leaved meadow. Patterns of flowering, and occurrence of unripe fruit and ripe fruit were studied at two levels of intensity for 24 months within a 5-year span. Two phenological records for each month of the year and between two and four replicates for each community type were made. Randomly selected 2–3 ha plots were used. General phenological patterns were established using phenological phase. High-intensity phenological patterns were established using >25% of individuals in each plot to establish times of high abundance of flowers, and presence of unripe fruit and/or ripe fruit on individual plants. This generated phenological peaks for each species. Principal results Non-seasonality of general flowering and unripe fruiting in each of the four communities was related to non-seasonal flowering and unripe fruiting patterns in the plant life-forms studied and to low variation in precipitation throughout the year. Flowering activity in the shrubland and broad-leaved meadow peaked twice. The bush community had only one flowering peak while the savanna gave a non-seasonal flowering peak. The peak unripe fruiting pattern was not
Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie
Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a
Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.
Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.
Lipus, Adam C; Leon, Juan S; Calle, Susana C; Andes, Karen L
The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside. Placing nutrition in El Alto within a broader context of cultural identity and a struggle to harmonize different lifestyles and worldviews, we propose how an intercultural framework for nutrition can harmonize Western scientific perspectives with rural and indigenous food culture.
Full Text Available We report sorne species found in and around greenhouses at the Bogotá plateau, whith keys and drawings to make an easier identification. Three genera were found: Taeniothrips, Thrips and
FrankDniella; this last genus has the highest number of species found inthe greenhouses. A key to identify F. occidentalis, F. auripes, F.panamensís, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex and thrips tabaci, and a list of hosts for each species in and out of the greenhouses are presented.Se registran algunas especies de trips hallados dentro y alrededor de invernaderos en la sabana de Bogotá, se proponen claves y esquemas para facilitar su determinación. Se encontraron tres géneros a saber: Taeniothrips, Thrips y Frank#niella; este último género presenta el mayor número de especies en los invernaderos de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se propone una clave para las especies de F. occidentaKs, F.
auripes, F. panamensis, F. minuta, F. colombiana, Taeniothrips simplex y Thrips tabaci. También, se presenta una lista de plantas hospedantes para cada especie de trips, dentro y fuera de invernaderos.
Blin, N.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.
In arid and semi-arid regions, where surface water and precipitations are scarce, groundwater is the main source of drinking water that sustains human and natural ecosystems. Therefore, it is very important to consider the potential impacts of climate change that threaten the availability of this resource. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variations caused by climate change on the recharge of the regional groundwater aquifer at the Huasco salt flat, located in the Chilean Andean plateau. The Huasco salt flat basin has ecosystems sustained by wetlands that depend on the groundwater levels of this aquifer. Due to this reason, the Chilean government has declared this zone as protected. Hence, the assurance of the future availability of the groundwater resource becomes extremely important. The sustainable management of this resource requires reasonable estimates of recharge and evapotranspiration, which are highly dependent on the characteristics and processes occurring in the vadose zone, i.e., topography, soil type and land use, and their temporal and spatial variations are significant in arid regions. With this aim, a three-dimensional groundwater model, implemented in SWAT-MODFLOW, was developed to couple the saturated system with the vadose zone. The model was calibrated and validated using historic data. General circulation models (GCMs) were used as scenarios inputs of recharge to the groundwater model. Future simulations were run by applying an offset to the historic air temperatures and to the precipitation. These offsets were determined using a delta hybrid approach based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble archive. The obtained results were downscaled to the 0.125º latitude x 0.125º longitude grid cell containing the basin of the Huasco salt flat. The hybrid approach considered the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the projected temperature and precipitation output as three scenarios of climate
Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo
In this study, we validate and compare elevation accuracy and geomorphic metrics of satellite-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) on the southern Central Andean Plateau. The plateau has an average elevation of 3.7 km and is characterized by diverse topography and relief, lack of vegetation, and clear skies that create ideal conditions for remote sensing. At 30 m resolution, SRTM-C, ASTER GDEM2, stacked ASTER L1A stereopair DEM, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X have been analyzed. The higher-resolution datasets include 12 m TanDEM-X, 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X DEMs, and 5 m ALOS World 3D. These DEMs are state of the art for optical (ASTER and ALOS) and radar (SRTM-C and TanDEM-X) spaceborne sensors. We assessed vertical accuracy by comparing standard deviations of the DEM elevation versus 307 509 differential GPS measurements across 4000 m of elevation. For the 30 m DEMs, the ASTER datasets had the highest vertical standard deviation at > 6.5 m, whereas the SRTM-C, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X were all radar DEMs (e.g., TanDEM-X) for geomorphometry are promising, but airborne or terrestrial data are still necessary for meter-scale analysis.
Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian
Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political...
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political, so...
Hammen, van der T.; Gonzalez, E.
The Laguna de La Herrera (alt. ca 2550 m) is a lake situated on the western border of the Sabana de Bogotá, near Mosquera (dept. of Cundinamarca, Colombia) (fig. 2). This part of the Sabana has a relatively dry climate (appr. 600—700 mm rainfall), as it lies in the rain-shadow of the hills that
Borrero José Ignacio
Full Text Available La altiplanicie andina conocida con el nombre de Sabana de Bogotá, situada en la llamada "tierra fría" de los Andes Orientales de Colombia, a 2600 metros sobre el nivel del mar y con temperatura media de 13o C., esta bordeada en todo su derredor por montañas cuya altura en ningún sitio se eleva a menos de 2700 metros y esto solamente en el lado occidental, hacia el valle del Magdalena. Sin embargo, es visitada con alguna frecuencia por aves propias de pisos climáticos más cálidos y aun del llamado "Tropical" o "tierra caliente". Por lo que se ha podido averiguar, las aves visitantes observadas hasta ahora proceden de las vertientes occidentales y del valle del Magdalena; ninguna, con la única posible excepción de Elanoides forticatus yetapa, viene de las faldas orientales que descienden hasta los llanos del Meta pues hacia este lado de la Sabana se hallan las montañas más altas, cuya mayor depresión -la de Chipaque- es de 3150 metros en el sitio por donde pasa la carretera de Bogotá a Villavicencio. Parece por lo tanto que este ramal de la cordillera constituye una barrera infranqueable para las aves que habitan en el oriente de Cundinamarca, mientras que el ramal occidental, de menor altura, no lo es para las que habitan en las vertientes que conducen al Magdalena.
Bigham, Abigail W; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen G; Kiyamu, Melisa; Vargas, Enrique; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Rodriquez, Carmelo; Browne, Vaughn A; Parra, Esteban; Brutsaert, Tom D; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D
High-altitude hypoxia, or decreased oxygen levels caused by low barometric pressure, challenges the ability of humans to live and reproduce. Despite these challenges, human populations have lived on the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau for millennia and exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. We and others have identified natural selection candidate genes and gene regions for these adaptations using dense genome scan data. One gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. Interestingly, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Continued research among Tibetan populations has identified statistical associations between hemoglobin concentration and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype at EGLN1 and a second gene, endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1). To measure for the effects of EGLN1 and EPAS1 altitude genotypes on hemoglobin concentration among Andean highlanders, we performed a multiple linear regression analysis of 10 candidate SNPs in or near these two genes. Our analysis did not identify significant associations between EPAS1 or EGLN1 SNP genotypes and hemoglobin concentration in Andeans. These results contribute to our understanding of the unique set of adaptations developed in different highland groups to the hypoxia of high altitude. Overall, the results provide key insights into the patterns of genetic adaptation to high altitude in Andean and Tibetan populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)
Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.
Borrero José Ignacio
Full Text Available Agradezco al Dr. Armando Dugand la ayuda que se sirvió dispensarme para la presentación de este articulo. Creo de interes, para principiar, hacer una breve descripción de las condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene, como localidades de paso o estacionamiento temporal para las especies migratorias de Anátidas. La Sabana de Bogotá ocupa una vasta altiplanicie de unos 2000 kilómetros cuadrados a 2600 mts. de altura media, rodeada de montanas o cerros en toda su extensión y cruzada por pequeños rios. El rio Bogotá, que la atraviesa, forma en sus riberas y en casi toda su extensión grandes lagunas y pantanos apropiados para la llegada de los patos y otras aves acuáticas que anualmente vienen del Norte y otras regiones.
Correal Urrego Gonzalo
Full Text Available Luego de una amplia exploración que cubrió el Valle del río Cauca y la Sabana de Bogotá, excavaciones recientes dentro del plan de estudios "Medio ambiente pleistocénico y el hombre prehistórico en Colombia", permitieron el hallazgo por primera vez en nuestro territorio de evidencias culturales precerámicas asociadas a fauna pleistocénica. Las investigaciones aquí resumidas se adelantaron por el Instituto de Ciencias Naturales - Museo de Historia Natural- Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, con el apoyo financiero de la Fundación de Investigaciones Arqueológicas del Banco de la República.At the archaelogical site TIBITÓ 1, Sabana de Bogotá, there have been found for the first time in Colombia stone and bone artifacts associated with the remains of mastodon (Haplomastodon sp.; Cuvieronius hyodon, horse (Equus amerhippus sp. and deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Bone fragments dated by the C-14 process gave an age of 11.740 ± 110 y BO (Late Pleistocene.
Full Text Available Los suelos de sabana estÃ¡n bien representados en el estado de Tabasco, MÃ©xico, en ellos se cultiva maÃz de manera extensiva y los hongos micorrÃcicos arbusculares (HMA pueden jugar un papel muy importante en la captaciÃ³n de nutrimentos. Hasta la fecha, sÃ³lo se ha reportado una especie de este grupo de hongos para los suelos con maÃz en Tabasco, en razÃ³n de ello y debido a la trascendencia de estos microorganismos para la nutriciÃ³n vegetal del maÃz, los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la abundancia e identidad de las esporas de HMA, evaluar la colonizaciÃ³n micorrÃcica en las raÃces del maÃz, asÃ como la fertilidad de los suelos de cinco sabanas de Tabasco, MÃ©xico. Los resultados indican que las sabanas de Emiliano Zapata y Huimanguillo presentan suelos muy Ã¡cidos, mientras que en BalancÃ¡n, Tenosique y Tacotalpa son neutros; en todos los casos la fertilidad va de baja a moderada. El nÃºmero total de esporas en 100 g-1 de suelo seco fue de bajo (150 a alto (750; los porcentajes de colonizaciÃ³n fueron muy altos (96-100%. Se encontraron 15 especies de HMA distribuidas en ocho gÃ©neros, lo que aumenta el nÃºmero de especies registradas para Tabasco a 20; Glomus ambisporum y Sclerocystis sinuosa se encontraron en todas las sabanas, mientras que Funneliformis constrictus, la Ãºnica especie reportada previamente para suelos con maÃz en Tabasco no se registrÃ³ ninguna.Â La similitud entre las sabanas estudiadas es muy baja, presentÃ¡ndose una composiciÃ³n particular de especies en cada una de ellas.
Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado
The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.
Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz
Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and
Full Text Available Production and value of natural ranges of the high Andean plateau of Pampa Galeras (Western Peru. After having carried out a preliminary study of the plant sociology of the High Andean plateau of Pampa Galeras the authors report on their work about the productivity and the comparative feeding values of the mapped vegetation formations. The setting up of a theoritical farming system for the regrowth underlines the factors which influence food availability for the vigogne namely : season, age of regrowth, ration between annual and perennial herbaceous species on the one hand and the total amount of forage on the other hand, as well as the energetic, proteinaceous and mineral values.
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade.... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication...
Santos Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique
One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrat...
William B. Batista
Full Text Available El Parque Nacional El Palmar, Entre Ríos, preserva desde 1965 el mayor remanente de la sabana de Butia yatay , un ecosistema rico en especies amenazado por la actividad humana. Para estudiar el funcio - namiento de este ecosistema y gestionar su preservación, es necesario contar con una adecuada carac - terización de la heterogeneidad de su vegetación. En este trabajo presentamos una clasificación fitoso - ciológica de las comunidades vegetales de la sabana del Parque, describimos su estructura, composición y diversidad florística y detallamos su distribución en el paisaje. Con el fin de estratificar la obtención de datos, delimitamos primero las principales unidades geomorfológicas del paisaje. En la primavera de 1999 y en el verano siguiente, realizamos censos florísticos completos en 73 “stands” de sabana con diferentes historias de incendio, distribuidos en las diferentes unidades geomorfológicas. Utilizamos técnicas de análisis multivariado y clasificación numérica para agrupar los censos en comunidades y las especies en grupos florísticos. Finalmente, resumimos las diferencias entre las comunidades en un esca - lamiento multidimensional métrico. Obtuvimos 7 comunidades, descriptas por 20 grupos florísticos. El patrón de similitudes entre estas comunidades sugiere que la heterogeneidad florística se ordena según dos componentes, uno asociado con diferencias en la textura del suelo y el otro con diferencias en el régimen de humedad del suelo. Tres de las comunidades, afines entre sí, se distribuyen en las terrazas altas e interfluvios que conforman la matriz del paisaje, en correspondencia con diferencias graduales de topografía y suelos. Estas comunidades cambian sucesionalmente por el avance de la lignificación des - encadenada por la exclusión del ganado y mantenida por la escasez de incendios naturales. Las restantes cuatro comunidades aparecen estrictamente asociadas con afloramientos rocosos, dep
Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y de las prácticas de manejo agrícola sobre las propiedades químicas y parámetros bioquímicos en un típico suelo Ultisol de pasturas nativas e introducidas de las sabanas orientales de los Llanos de Venezuela. La variabilidad temporal, el manejo agrícola y el efecto interactivo de ambos factores, afectaron las propiedades químicas y los parámetros bioquímicos. El carbono orgánico total e hidrosoluble experimentaron una significativa disminución durante la estación lluviosa. La respiración basal, la amonificación de la arginina (AA y la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF mostraron que en esas sabanas existe una baja actividad microbiana. La transformación de sabanas nativas a sistemas de pasturas de B. brizantha y S. capitata, incrementaron el contenido de materia orgánica en el suelo. La AA, y la respiración basal fueron indicadores sensibles, con los cuales se pueden estimar cambios en la calidad del suelo y reflejar el efecto causado por la interacción de los cambios temporales y las prácticas de manejo.Microbial activity in Eastern Venezuelan savannas turned into grasslands. We studied the effects of season and management practices on chemical properties and biochemical parameters in a typical Ultisol soil of native and introduced pastures of the Eastern savannas of Venezuela. Sseason, soil management, and their interaction, significantly affected chemical properties and biochemical parameters. The total carbon and the water soluble carbon experienced a significant decrease during the wet pereiod. The basal respiration, the arginine ammonification (AA and the fluoriscein diacetate hydrolysis showed showed a relatively low microbial activity. The transformation of native savannas to pastures systems of B. brizantha and S. capitata increased the organic matter content in soil. The AA and the basal respiration were sensible indicators to estimate changes in soil
Bigham, Abigail; Bauchet, Marc; Pinto, Dalila; Mao, Xianyun; Akey, Joshua M; Mei, Rui; Scherer, Stephen W; Julian, Colleen G; Wilson, Megan J; López Herráez, David; Brutsaert, Tom; Parra, Esteban J; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D
High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans) separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association studies necessary
Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association
Rodriguez Herrera, America; Olivier Salome, Branly; Lopez Velasco, Rocio; Barragan Mendoza, Maria del Carmen; Canedo Villareal, Roberto; Valera Perez, Miguel Angel
We often find cities whose development is associated with the occupation of a river basin on with no public actions and policies to stop processes of environmental and social degradation caused by land use change. The case studies are two communities on the periphery of the city of Acapulco, influenced by insufficient infrastructure and lack of health and environment of the river La Sabana, which develop their lives in a degraded and polluted environment. The data provided confirm that respiratory and digestive tract diseases, recognized by WHO-as pollution-related diseases, are the most recurrent. However pollution also accelerates deterioration and environmental degradation, because it touches directly on the eutrophication of the lagoonal ecosystems of Tres Palos and Negra de Puerto Marques, generating biodiversity loss and effects on the quality of life of the population. The health risk mitigation, attention should focus on the situation of vulnerability in a holistic perspective
Alberto Villate París
Full Text Available ¿Cómo hacer para que un grupo de cultivadores de hortalizas cambien de una estructura de subsistencia a organización. ¿En forma de conglomerado como una red de productores que garantice una oferta de calidad nacional e internacional? En este artículo se resume la metodología aplicada y los principales resultados obtenidos, gracias a la aplicación de herramientas de prospectiva, así como análisis de modelos de redes económicas, teorías de dinámica empresarial, estudio de variables de entorno nacional y de tendencias internacionales sobre los productos hortícolas y en una región seleccionada como fueron los municipios de la provincia de Sabana Centro en Cundinamarca.
Boelens, R.A.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.
Water rights are best understood as politically contested and culturally embedded relationships among different social actors. In the Andean region, existing rights of irrigators¿ collectives often embody historical struggles over resources, rules, authorities and identities. This article argues,
Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz
Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governance nature. This research is an interdisciplinary study on the Colombian cape gooseberry value chain. It aimed to evaluate quality attributes of the fruit during the supply chain, including t...
Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez
Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.
Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.
In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e
Rodríguez Escobar, Germán
El Endomarketing, como estrategia de mercadeo en las empresas, busca crear una serie de factores que favorezcan la identidad institucional, el buen clima organizacional y la proyección de la responsabilidad social, lo cual, a su vez, conlleva la vinculación de directivos y empleados durante su proceso de aplicación. El texto presenta la aplicación de esta estrategia a 100 empresas del sector agroindustrial de la Sabana de Bogotá, con el fin de generar mayores ventajas competitivas en el merca...
Marcela E. Varona; Fernando de la Hoz; Germán E. Peña; Omayda Cárdenas
La presente investigación es un estudio descriptivo sobre las mujeres encontradas pertenecientes a la cohorte de trabajadoras en cultivos de flores de la Sabana de Bogotá, estudiadas por el Grupo de Sanidad del Ambiente del Instituto Nacional de Salud hace 20 años. Se obtuvo información nuevade las mujeres que se lograron ubicar; se describieron las características generales de dicha población; se determinó la similitud entre la población encontrada y la no encontrada y se estableció la frecu...
Ana Yervid Rodríguez; Orlando Acosta; José Peñaranda
En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio del virus moteado del clavel (CarMV), en el cual se analizaron con la prueba de ELISA muestras de clavel de diferentes variedades de la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta prueba indicó que el82% de las muestras analizadas eran positivas para el CarMV. El CarMV presente en las muestras positivas fue inoculado mecánicamente en plantas de clavel certificadas libres de virus. La partícula viral se purificó utilizando centrifugación en gradientes y colchones de sac...
Chaverra Gil., Hernán
En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a) alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b) alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c) alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d) alfalfa en ...
Trujillo Jurado, Carlos Andrés; Dalmau Barros, Ernesto Andrés; Venegas Cortés, Carlos Alberto; Díaz Rojas, César Augusto
Debido a la ausencia de valores de gasometría arterial que se ajusten a nuestras condiciones ambientales y a la amplia variedad de datos no actualizados en la literatura y utilizados en la práctica diaria, obtenidos con alturas, razas y equipos diferentes a los disponibles en nuestro medio, es necesario generar conocimiento propio ajustado a nuestra realidad. Se realizó una medición sistemática al azar de sangre arterial y venosa en 100 caninos sanos a la altura de la sabana de Bogotá (Chía: ...
original culture through resistance, it focuses on the fabrication of tradition within the disciplinary strategies of the colonial order and on the local re-employment of those productions in political mobilizations. The discussion of this major issue within the field of Andean history is undertaken against the horizon of a case of resistance focusing on the Inca from the Audiencia of Quito in the seventeenth century. Such an incident affords a privileged field for the investigation of the connections between colonial authority and origins, since it stages the recall, simulation and reinstatement of the past.
Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio
During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...
R. I. Tilling
Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.
The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent
Angélica María Ospina Romero
Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo analizar si el desarrollo de la práctica educativa de los profesores de las asignaturas de Cuidado de Enfermería corresponde a la formación por competencias, con relación a la planeación, ejecución y evaluación de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. El estudio, de tipo descriptivo cualitativo, se llevó a cabo durante el primer semestre de 2006 en la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad de La Sabana. Sus principales hallazgos son: con relación a la programación de las asignaturas se encontró que éstas tienen los elementos básicos de la educación por competencias, contemplando el saber ser, el conocer y el hacer propios de cada asignatura. Sin embargo, dentro de esta programación no se encuentra la metodología que se empleará en las clases. Tampoco hay una relación clara entre las estrategias didácticas, el proceso evaluativo y el logro de las competencias. En el desarrollo de las clases se encontró que los profesores manejan los temas en forma clara y concisa, pero hay diferencias entre el profesor novato, que se centra más en los contenidos, y el experto, que se ocupa de forma más natural por los procesos y por promover el análisis. La metodología más utilizada por los profesores durante las clases consiste en realizar y responder preguntas mientras se expone o se discute determinado tema. Con relación al proceso evaluativo, éste se centra principalmente en los contenidos, excepto en las prácticas donde se valora el saber, el hacer y el ser en forma integral. Falta evidenciar la autoevaluación y la coevaluación en todas las asignaturas, aspectos necesarios dentro de la formación por competencias. La recuperación es una herramienta valiosa que apunta a la educación por competencias, es aplicada en todas las asignaturas y permite valorar en forma individual los logros del alumno al establecer un plan de mejoramiento orientado por el profesor.
Full Text Available En los llanos orientales de Venezuela la forma tradicional de uso de las sabanas de Trachypogon ha sido el pastoreo extensivo. La presión sobre éstas para obtener una mayor productividad animal ha estimulado la introducción de plantas exóticas para forrajes, tales como: Brachiaria brizantha y Andropogon gayanus. A pesar de que grandes extensiones de sabanas están siendo sometidas a este cambio de uso de la tierra, es escasa la información acerca del efecto que estas pasturas y la actividad de pastoreo tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en el suelo; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el impacto que el pastoreo extensivo y la substitución de la cobertura nativa tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en estos suelos. El muestreo fue llevado a cabo durante las temporadas de sequía y lluvias. Los parámetros empleados para determinar cambios en la actividad microbiana fueron la respiración inducida por sustrato (RIS, la respiración basal (RB, la actividad de la deshidrogenasa (DHS, la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF y la amonificación de la arginina (AA. La similitud de las características estructurales de los suelos estudiados nos permite inferir, que las diferencias en los parámetros microbiológicos, están determinadas por las condiciones climáticas y el manejo del suelo. Los resultados muestran que en estos suelos existe una baja actividad microbiana. La temporada lluviosa provocó un incremento en todos los parámetros microbiológicos determinados. B. brizantha hizo un mayor aporte de carbono al suelo y promovió una mayor actividad heterotrófica. El pastoreo extensivo y la baja carga animal en las sabanas de los llanos orientales de Venezuela no afectaron la actividad microbiana del suelo.
Lossada, Ana C.; Giambiagi, Laura; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Creixell, Christian; Murillo, Ismael; Mardonez, Diego; Velásquez, Ricardo; Suriano, Julieta
The Andes between 28° and 30°S represent a transition between the Puna-Altiplano Plateau and the Frontal/Principal Cordillera fold-and-thrust belts to the south. While significant early Cenozoic deformation documented in the Andean Plateau, deciphering the early episodes of deformation during Andean mountain building in the transition area is largely unstudied. Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology from a vertical and a horizontal transect reveal the exhumation history of the High Andes at 30°S, an area at the heart of this major transition. Interpretation of the age-elevation profile, combined with inverse thermal modeling, indicates that the onset of rapid cooling was underway by 35 Ma, followed by a significant decrease in cooling rate at 30-25 Ma. AFT thermal models also reveal a second episode of rapid cooling in the early Miocene ( 18 Ma) related to rock exhumation to its present position. Low exhumation between the rapid cooling events allowed for the development of a partial annealing zone. We interpret the observed Eocene rapid exhumation as the product of a previously unrecognized compressive event in this part of the Andes that reflects a southern extension of Eocene orogenesis recognized in the Puna/Altiplano. Renewed early-Miocene exhumation indicates that the late Cenozoic compressional stresses responsible for the main phase of uplift of the South Central Andes also impacted the core of the range in this transitional sector. The major episode of Eocene exhumation suggests the creation of significant topographic relief in the High Andes earlier than previously thought.
Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.
Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern
This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... of radiological outcomes and a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) below but not significantly different from the Danish reference population at a mean of 5.2 years follow-up. Furthermore, a knee injury-specific questionnaire (KOOS) reported a level of disability close to a reference population...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...
We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos
We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.
Hernán Celaya Michel
Full Text Available El cambio de uso de suelo es uno de los principales factores de la degradación de los ecosistemas naturales, al modificar los procesos de transferencia de nitrógeno y agua reduciendo su productividad. En el presente trabajo, se describe cómo la transformación de matorrales desérticos a sabanas de zacate buffel en la región central de Sonora (RCS afecta dichos almacenes de recursos del suelo. Para entenderlo, se seleccionaron parcelas en el matorral bajo el dosel de árboles de Olneya tesota (NA y espacios abiertos sin cobertura vegetal aparente (NI, y en la sabana de buffel, bajo la misma especie de árbol (SA, inter-espacio (SI y bajo el pasto buffel (SB. Se analizó el nitrógeno total y las formas disponibles de este nutrimento en el suelo, así como contenido de agua en el suelo a diferentes profundidades durante cuatro años (2010 al 2013. Se encontró una pérdida anual de 12.5 kg N ha-1 debido a la transformación del ecosistema natural dominado por árboles y arbustos que generan islas de fertilidad e inter-espacios, a una sabana dominada por buffel e inter-espacios a sabana. La humedad del suelo indica que en la parte superficial del suelo, los espacios abiertos tienen más humedad, pero en la parte profunda de 150 a 200 cm la cubierta vegetal de los árboles y buffel almacenan más agua. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de matorrales a sabanas de buffel ha disminuido los reservorios de nitrógeno y agua, e impactado las propiedades físicas del suelo, la fertilidad, y los reservorios hídricos del suelo. El estudio sugiere que los cambios espaciales y temporales en nitrógeno y agua en el suelo repercutirán de manera importante en el balance hidrológico y funcionamiento del ecosistema transformado.
Full Text Available En los llanos orientales de Venezuela la forma tradicional de uso de las sabanas de Trachypogon ha sido el pastoreo extensivo. La presión sobre éstas para obtener una mayor productividad animal ha estimulado la introducción de plantas exóticas para forrajes, tales como: Brachiaria brizantha y Andropogon gayanus. A pesar de que grandes extensiones de sabanas están siendo sometidas a este cambio de uso de la tierra, es escasa la información acerca del efecto que estas pasturas y la actividad de pastoreo tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en el suelo; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el impacto que el pastoreo extensivo y la substitución de la cobertura nativa tienen sobre la actividad microbiana en estos suelos. El muestreo fue llevado a cabo durante las temporadas de sequía y lluvias. Los parámetros empleados para determinar cambios en la actividad microbiana fueron la respiración inducida por sustrato (RIS, la respiración basal (RB, la actividad de la deshidrogenasa (DHS, la hidrólisis del diacetato de fluorisceína (DAF y la amonificación de la arginina (AA. La similitud de las características estructurales de los suelos estudiados nos permite inferir, que las diferencias en los parámetros microbiológicos, están determinadas por las condiciones climáticas y el manejo del suelo. Los resultados muestran que en estos suelos existe una baja actividad microbiana. La temporada lluviosa provocó un incremento en todos los parámetros microbiológicos determinados. B. brizantha hizo un mayor aporte de carbono al suelo y promovió una mayor actividad heterotrófica. El pastoreo extensivo y la baja carga animal en las sabanas de los llanos orientales de Venezuela no afectaron la actividad microbiana del suelo.Soil microbial activity variation after land use changes in savannah, Llanos Orientales, Venezuela. In West plains of Venezuela, the traditional land use of the Trachypogon savannah, has been the
Duffaut Espinosa, L A; Posadas, A N; Carbajal, M; Quiroz, R
In this paper, a multifractal downscaling technique is applied to adequately transformed and lag corrected normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in order to obtain daily estimates of rainfall in an area of the Peruvian Andean high plateau. This downscaling procedure is temporal in nature since the original NDVI information is provided at an irregular temporal sampling period between 8 and 11 days, and the desired final scale is 1 day. The spatial resolution of approximately 1 km remains the same throughout the downscaling process. The results were validated against on-site measurements of meteorological stations distributed in the area under study.
Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime
The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.
Dueñas J. Hernando
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se da a conocer el resulrado del estudio palinológico de los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona, localizada en la Sabana de Bogotá, a 2.560 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Se describen 2 géneros (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites y 5 especies(Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus y Striadyadosporites constrictus de fungi fósil, 14 tipos de polen, 8 tipos de esporas triletes, 4 tipos de Pediastrum y un tipo especial de Chlorococcales. Con base en la relación de polen de elementos de páramo a polen de elementos de bosque (Pp/Pb y a la estrarigrafía, se dividió el diagrama depolen en 8 zonas climáticas (vegetación, con las cuales fue posible correlacionar la sección Tarragona con otras secciones levantadas en la Sabana de Bogotá y regiones aledañas. Utilizando esta correlación y las fechas de edad absoluta que se han obtenido en las diferentes secciones del área, fue posible efectuar una correlacion tentativa con las unidades cronoestratigráficas europeas. Los 35 metros superiores de la sección Tarragona representan la historia geológica de por lo menos los últimos 500.000 años de la Sabana de Bogotá.In this study it is given the result of the palynological study of the uppermost 35 meters of the Tarragona section, located in the Sabana de Bogotá at an altitude of 2.560 meters above sea level. It is described: 2 genus (Spirotremesporites, Striadyadosporites and 5 species (Spirotremesporites simplex, Spirotremesporites multiplex, Spirotremesporites ecuatorialis, Striadyadosporites elongatus and Striadyadosporites constrictus of fossil fungi, 14 types of pollen, 8 types of trilete spores, 4 types of Pediastrum and one special type of Chlorococcales. On the basis of the relation, Pollen of paramo elements to Pollen of forest elements (Pp/Pb and the stratigraphy it was possible to divide the pollen diagram
Acevedo Charry, Orlando A; Echeverri Mallarino, Laura
The Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis) is migrant bird species, previously none reported to Cundinamarca Department. Distribution known in Colombia only includes localities below 1500 masl. Two individuals of the Yellow-green Vireo were observed at 2600 masl in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogota Campus, at the Sabana de Bogota in Cundinamarca Department in 2011. In addition, we found 18 unpublished records for this species in the Cundinamarca Department above 2500 masl. Ten records were museum specimens (Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Vertebrate collection (Ornitology) Universidad de los Andes and Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt Museum), and the other eight were birdwatching records. The oldest record was in 1964, but the great majority of records were collected between 2008 and 2013. We consider that the Yellow-green Vireo has been unnoticed in the Cundinamarca Department because of its morphological similarities with the Red-eye Vireo (V. olivaceus). Furthermore, the lack of review of scientific collections, and the deposition of specimens discontinuous there, make gap information about biodiversity distribution. Apparently, Yellow-green Vireo could be more common than expected above 1500 m during its migration, such as it was observed in at Cundinamarca Department.
Efraín Benavides Ortiz
Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.
Marcela E. Varona
Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio descriptivo sobre las mujeres encontradas pertenecientes a la cohorte de trabajadoras en cultivos de flores de la Sabana de Bogotá, estudiadas por el Grupo de Sanidad del Ambiente del Instituto Nacional de Salud hace 20 años. Se obtuvo información nuevade las mujeres que se lograron ubicar; se describieron las características generales de dicha población; se determinó la similitud entre la población encontrada y la no encontrada y se estableció la frecuencia y tipo de cáncer desarrollado en las mujeres. Se encontraron 1.21 8 (23,1% mujeres del total de mujeres estudiadas en la cohorte inicial. con un promedio de edad de 44.5 años y un tiempo total de trabajo en cultivos de flores de 15 años en promedio, siendo las actividades que ocupan el mayor número de personas, las identificadas como de alta exposición a plaguicidas.
Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.
The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway
Fecha de aplicación de fuego y diversidad de herbáceas en una sabana de Elionorus muticus (Spreng) O. Kuntze Date of prescribed fire and herbaceous diversity of an Elionorus muticus (Spreng.) O. Kuntze savanna
CARLOS KUNST; SANDRA BRAVO; FABIO MOSCOVICH; JULIO HERRERA; JOSÉ GODOY; SILVIA VÉLEZ
RESUMEN El fuego es a la vez una perturbación natural y una herramienta agropecuaria en las sabanas de Elionorus muticus (Spreng) O. Kuntze de la región chaqueña argentina. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fecha de aplicación de fuego sobre la diversidad de herbáceas de la sabana. Para ello se quemaron parcelas en cuatro fechas sucesivas, desde fines de julio hasta principios de octubre, en dos experimentos iniciados en 1993 y 1994, respectivamente. La riqueza y abundancia de espe...
Allenby, R. J.
Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.
Larme, A C
In Cuyo Cuyo, in the southern Peruvian highlands, ethnomedicine is rife with images of human vulnerability to a hostile and unpredictable environment. This is represented in the ethnomedical system by a focus on wayras, air- or wind-borne illnesses that enter through vulnerable body openings such as the head, orifices, lower back, and feet. Women are viewed to be more vulnerable, or débil, than men to illness because they have an extra orifice, the vagina, they lose copious amounts of blood, which is thought to be irreplaceable, during childbirth. and because they suffer more negative emotions, which are thought to attract wayras and other illnesses to the body. The relationship of ethnomedical beliefs to the Andean physical and political economic environment is explored within the context of social and economic change. Negative beliefs about women's bodies have negative effects on women's roles and position vis-à-vis men in present day Cuyo Cuyo. Ethnomedical beliefs reflect and reinforce gender inequalities in present day Peru and are part of a cultural ideology that in general devalues women. This case study demonstrates that power is a key dimension in the cultural construction of medical knowledge. whether in non-Western or Western societies.
Rozas-Davila, Angela; Valencia, Bryan G; Bush, Mark B
Controversy exists over the cause and timing of the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In the tropical Andes, deglaciation and associated rapid climate change began ~8,000 years before human arrival, providing an opportunity to separate the effects of climate change from human hunting on megafaunal extinction. We present a paleoecological record spanning the last 25,000 years from Lake Pacucha, Peru (3,100 m elevation). Fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms, and the dung fungus Sporormiella, chronicle a two-stage megaherbivore population collapse. Sporormiella abundance, the proxy for megafaunal presence, fell sharply at ~21,000 years ago, but rebounded prior to a permanent decline between ~16,800 and 15,800 years ago. This two-stage decline in megaherbivores resulted in a functional extinction by ~15,800 years ago, 3,000 years earlier than known human occupation of the high Andes. Declining megaherbivore populations coincided with warm, wet intervals. Climatic instability and megafaunal population collapse triggered an ecological cascade that resulted in novel floral assemblages, and increases in woody species, fire frequency, and plant species that were sensitive to trampling. Our data revealed that Andean megafaunal populations collapsed due to positive feedbacks between habitat quality and climate change rather than human activity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas
ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....
McHenry, Monique A; Barrington, David S
Uplift of the tropical Andes had a significant impact on the diversification of South American flora and fauna. Recent biogeographic inquiries have established patterns of Andean divergence, but investigations on ferns are scant. The fern genus Polystichum Roth (Dryopteridaceae) combines widespread geographic and elevational distribution with a large number of species to form an ideal system for investigation of the origin and diversification patterns of a fern lineage in the tropical Andes. The relationships among 42 Polystichum species, including taxa from all major biogeographic regions, were analyzed with 2591 aligned nucleotides from four plastid markers using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The resulting phylogeny was then used to estimate divergence times and reconstruct both ancestral areas and ancestral elevations. Tropical Andean South American polystichums that lack an indusium (sori exindusiate) were confirmed to form a monophyletic group. This exindusiate Andean Polystichum clade diverged from a middle-elevation forest lineage now rich in species endemic to Mexico during the middle Miocene (13.12 million years ago). The majority of diversification that followed took place in the montane regions of the central Andes with radiations to the northern Andes, southeastern Brazil, and alpine regions. The monophyletic exindusiate Andean Polystichum lineage diverged from a Mexican lineage in the middle Miocene and diversified in the central Andes before dispersing northward. This south-to-north dispersal pattern, documented for many other Andean lineages, corresponds with episodes of uplift in the tropical Andes.
Macfarlane, Andrew W.; Lechtman, Heather Nan
With a focus on bronze production in the south-central Andes during the Middle Horizon, this study reports the first archaeological use of lead isotope analysis to investigate metallic ores and metal artifacts in the Andean zone of South America. Because the vast majority of metal deposits in the Andean cordillera formed in a convergent plate boundary setting, lead isotope compositions of most Andean ore sources are not unique. Lead isotope ratios of central and south-central Andean ores defi...
Baldovino Guevara, Renato
El presente trabajo de grado es un estudio de caso de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo de tres modelos asociativos que desarrollan proyectos en palma de aceite en el municipio de Sabana de Torres. Se propone caracterizar la estructura organizacional y el impacto socioeconómico en las familias productoras pertenecientes a las dos asociaciones (Asopalsat, Palmares El Pórtico) y la cooperativa (Coopsabana I), así como el análisis de la evolución agropecuaria del municipio y la región. Esta invest...
Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci
Full Text Available Phytosociological study of the high andean plateau "Pampa Galeras" (Western Peru. The authors have studied the effects of hard climatic conditions prevailing on the High Andean plateau of Pampa Galeras namely : cold nights, limited summer rainfall, a long dry season and a strong wind, on the development of a semi-arid steppe with a reduced basal cover at present pastured by vigognes of the National Reserve. The identified range types result both from soil nature, ground morphology and herbivorous livestock. Vegetation structure analysis bio-volume and stratification mirrors perfectly well the visual aspect of the landscape and agrees with biomass data. Two physiognomical types are described : the herbaceous steppe on the one hand, the brushy steppe on the other hand. The herbaceous steppe dominates the landscape. It shows 4 facies governed by perennial species in relation with soil depth and two overpastured facies dominated by annual species on the superficial soils. The brushy steppe bordering the Pacific coast indicates a stony, calcareous and very dry soil, with a degenerated range invaded by thorny brushes.
Muntendam, Antje G.
This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…
Calliope, Sonia Rosario; Lobo, Manuel Oscar; Sammán, Norma Cristina
Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum andigenum) are a staple food for Andean population; there is great biodiversity but only few varieties are cultivated nowadays. In order to contribute to biodiversity conservation of Andean potatoes, information about their morphological, nutritional and functional characteristics was generated. In gene bank (INTA-Balcarce), varieties collected from regional producers were preserved. Forty-four genotypes were multiplied and characterized. Morphological characteristics; proximate composition and functional compounds were analyzed. Cluster analysis separated them into 3 groups according to distinguishing characteristics, which define industrial or nutritional applications. Group 2 was characterized by higher content of macronutrients and Group 3 with the highest antioxidant activity, both would be advisable for direct consumption. Genotype CS 1418 had big size and oval form so it could be destined to potato chips industry. Knowledge on nutritional and functional properties of genotypes contributes to promoting the cultivation depending on properties and also to preserve biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ana Yervid Rodríguez
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio del virus moteado del clavel (CarMV, en el cual se analizaron con la prueba de ELISA muestras de clavel de diferentes variedades de la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta prueba indicó que el82% de las muestras analizadas eran positivas para el CarMV. El CarMV presente en las muestras positivas fue inoculado mecánicamente en plantas de clavel certificadas libres de virus. La partícula viral se purificó utilizando centrifugación en gradientes y colchones de sacarosa. La proteína de la cápside fue analizada por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, encontrándose una banda de proteína de masa molecular relativa aproximada de 38kDa. El tejido infectado con el CarMV se sometió a un proceso de extracción de RNA de doble cadena (dsRNA encontrándose de 3 a5 componentes electroforéticos cuyos tamaños fluctuaron aproximadamente entre 8.0 y 0.9 kpb. Este patrón de dsRNA pennitió diferenciar al menos 3 aislamientos virales. El análisis electroforético en geles de agarosa del RNA genómico de varios aislamientos virales, mostró una banda de peso molecular aproximado de 4.0 kb. El análisis del RNA genómico digerido con RNAsa TI pennitió diferenciar 2 grupos de patrones electroforéticos de los aislamientosestudiados.
Ding, Lin; Xu, Qiang; Yue, Yahui; Wang, Houqi; Cai, Fulong; Li, Shun
Paleoelevation reconstruction using oxygen isotopes is making a significant contribution to understanding the Cenozoic uplift of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. This paper presents new oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions from well dated Tertiary paleosols, lacustrine calcareous carbonates, and marls from the Nianbo (60-54 Ma) and upper Pana Formations (51-48 Ma) of the Linzizong Group in the Linzhou (Penbo) Basin. The sediments of the Nianbo Formation, which are >180 m-thick, were deposited in alluvial fans, braided rivers, fan deltas, and on nearshore to offshore lacustrine settings, whereas those of the upper Pana Formation are >100 m-thick and are comprised predominantly of proximal alluvial fan and braided river deposits. Correlations between the lithofacies and stable isotopic compositions suggest that the basin was mainly a hydrologically open environment. It is confirmed that the δ18Oc and δ13Cc values from Nianbo and Pana Formations have not yet been reset by late-stage diagenesis based on petrographic examination, oxygen isotope of the fossil ostracodes, and tectonic deformation of strata. The paleoelevations are reconstructed using the corrected most negative paleosurface water δ18Opsw values. These imply that the Linzhou area had attained an elevation of 4500±400 m during the period of the Indo-Asian collision, i.e., achieved a near-present elevation, and may form an Andean-type mountain range stretching the Gangdese arc before collision. The Gangdese Mountains probably maintained high elevations since at least the Paleocene and could play a crucial role in the climate change in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau during the Early Cenozoic. The paleogeomorphic scenario of the Eocene Tibet is proposed to exist at two high mountains in excess of 4500 m that sandwiched a low elevation basin.
BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.
THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.
David E. Busch; Xavier Silva
The Ecuadorian government and its partner organizations in the international conservation community share an interest in developing monitoring programs for Andean protected areas to help support management for recreation, education, and ecological sustainability. To accomplish this goal, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Department of the Interior...
Jaramillo, Paola Andrea Palacios; Borda-Molina, Daniel; Montaña, José Salvador
Microbial enrichments with a substrate of interest could enhance the possibility of finding certain desired metabolic activities. As lipases are one of the most important enzymes in industrial applications, the Colombian Andean soils were explored as a source of lipolytic microorganisms. Two Ande...
Boelens, R.A.; Gelles, P.H.
This article uses two case studies to illustrate how Andean irrigation development and management emerges from a hybrid mix of local community rules and the changing political forms and ideological forces of hegemonic states. Some indigenous water-control institutions are with us today because they
Oliveras Menor, I.; Girardin, C.; Doughty, C.E.; Cahuana, N.; Arenas, C.E.; Oliver, V.; Huaraca Huasco, W.; Malhi, Y.
We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning
Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela - have undertake a number of unsustainable political and institutional reforms that have caused dissatisfaction, exacerbated social and political unrest, and in some cases led to violent confrontation. New political and institutional reforms ...
Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.
A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes
Carlson, Reynold E.
The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…
L.Y. Baldeón Rojas (Lucy)
markdownabstractAbstract This thesis deals with the immune inflammatory aspects of obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Andean region, more precisely in Quito, Ecuador. To understand the research questions a short introduction in the
George William Kent Moore
Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.
Chaverra Gil. Hernán
Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d alfalfa en surcos y gramíneas al voleo y e alfalfa en surcos y trébol blanco al voleo. En el segundo experimento se sembró la alfalfa en surcos separados 25 cm. Después de establecida la alfalfa e inmediatamente después del 4° corte se sembraron al voleo las siguientes gramíneas: ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual, orchoro, festuca media, pasto cinta y pasto rescate. Las finalidades del estudio fueron las de valorar el comportamiento de las gramíneas en mezcla con la alfalfa, mediante la determinación progresiva de la composición botánica y el rendimiento de forraje seco de las mezclas. La siembra simultánea de ryegrass inglés y ryegrass anual con la alfalfa dio como resultado una mala población de la leguminosa, especialmente en los dos primeros cortes. La competencia ejercida por estas dos gramíneas a la alfalfa, se redujo casi completamente, cuando se sembraron en surcos alternos o en la alfalfa establecida. Sea cual fuere el pasto sembrado, la siembra de gramíneas en alfalfa establecida, redujo la competencia entre los pastos asociados. En este ensayo el factor más importante en el establecimiento de las gramíneas, fue el agua disponible en el suelo. Bajo las condiciones del primer experimento el orchoro fue la gramínea que mejor creció en asocio de la alfalfa en todos los métodos de siembra estudiado. La producción promedia de la mezcla varió entre 2600 y 3145 Kg/hect. De forreje seco por corte y la proporción de orchoro entre
Full Text Available We studied the species richness and two indices of abundance of medium-sizedmammals in areas with Andean forest and Andean alder (Alnus acuminatareforestations in a reserve at the Central Andes of Colombia. Since reforested areashave a less complex habitat structure and lower plant diversity than native forests, wepredicted that they have lower richness of mammals than areas with Andean forest.We obtained the indices of abundance from direct contacts in transects and from theuse of track stations. Our results suggest that, indeed, areas with Andean forest hada higher richness of mammals than reforestations, but this pattern may be modifiedby anthropogenic factors. We found no differences between the indices of abundanceof the squirrel, Sciurus granatensis, in the two forest types. In contrast, the coatiswere recorded more frequently in the reforestations than in areas with Andean forestat the reserve.
Ordoñez Potes, Milena Constanza
Con el fin de conocer la influencia de los sistemas de fallas transversales NW-SE y zonas de daño asociadas en el comportamiento de las ondas sísmicas al sur de la Sabana de Bogotá, se calcularon la densidad de las fallas transversales NW-SE y longitudinales NNE - SSW, el valor de anisotropía sísmica azimutal aproximada SWA*, se estimó el valor del factor de calidad de atenuación Qc y se correlacionó la tendencia de aceleraciones máximas registradas en la componentes horizontales N-S y E-W pa...
Carolina Nieto; Daniel A. Dos Santos; Andrea E. Izquierdo; José S. Rodríguez; Héctor R. Grau
Central Andean Highlands represent a singular environment characterized by various extreme conditions. Among them, peatbogs are exceptional marshy habitats scattered throughout this arid and harsh area. In an effort to understand the patterns of beta diversity, we sampled the benthic macroinvertebrates of thirteen peatbogs and related the biological distance with ecological distance using the GDM (Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling) approach. Variables analyzed were altitude, geographical di...
Brian R. Zutta
Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.
Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.
Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología que permite el establecimiento de un sistema de indicaciónbiológica para la contaminación orgánica de aguas corrientes sobre la base demacroinvertebrados acuáticos de la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia - Norte de losAndes. Se asignan valores numéricos de indicación para 57 familias del macrobentosobtenidos con el objeto de cumplir los requerimientos básicos del sistema BMWP,establecido para la bioindicación de contaminación orgánica en Inglaterra y - conciertas modificaciones - en España. El principal objeto de este estudio es expresar elefecto de la contaminación orgánica como un factor ambiental específico más queafecta la distribución de las familias del macrobentos en la región de estudio. Paraeste propósito, el empleo de un promedio ponderado, el cual permite obtener valoresde indicación numérica aplicables y fácilmente reproducibles, resultó ser tan o máseficiente que las técnicas multivariadas de regresión. El estudio se llevó a cabo deacuerdo con el siguiente diseño: 1. Se tomaron muestras en 28 sitios localizados en8 corrientes de agua en alturas de 2550 a 3300 msnm. Se tomaron datos biológicos ydatos fisicoquímicos por un periodo de dos años incluyendo periodos de diferentesniveles de caudal. 2. El macrobentos fue muestreado en diferentes coriotopos(microhábitats. 3. Se ordenaron 18 variables fisicoquímicas mediante un análisis defactores. Nueve de ellas fueron determinadas como componentes del primer factorambiental indicativo de contaminación orgánica. 4. Se calcularon los valores (scoresde calidad fisicoquímica (Cfq usando las nueve variables fisicoquímicas seleccionadasanteriormente. 5. Los valores de indicación (Tm que deben corresponder a latolerancia mínima (Tm a la contaminación orgánica fueron determinados para cadafamilia del macrobentos a través del quinto percentil de la curva de distribuciónnormal ajustada de las abundancias de las familias sobre las diez
P. Paffen; Hans Timmermans
This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical
Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo
This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez Báez, Raquel
El presente trabajo de investigación aborda el tema del desarrollo regional en torno a una gran metrópoli como Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá. El crecimiento, expansión y relación con los municipios vecinos. Su entorno territorial; es un tema de discusión que cada día adquiere más fuerza desde hace varias décadas. Bogotá y la Sabana de Bogotá, se consideran en la actualidad como un caso representativo del caótico modelo de expansión urbana y crecimiento demográfico, enfrentado al desarrollo urb...
Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.
Van Horn, Russell C; Zug, Becky; Appleton, Robyn D; Velez-Liendo, Ximena; Paisley, Susanna; LaCombe, Corrin
Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs camera trap photos are one of the most readily available sources of information on large cryptic mammals, we suggest that similar methods be tested for use in other poorly understood species.
Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.
This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the
Horton, B. K.
Although long debated, the timing of Andean uplift and establishment of a continuous topographic barrier along western South America remains critical to biogeographic assessments of the influence of mountain uplift and erosion on Neotropical biodiversity. Recent methodological advances allow independent geologic estimates of barrier uplift and river drainage shifts that can be compared with molecular-clock calculations of genetic divergence times for various Andean and Amazonian populations. Emerging results from U-Pb geochronology and stable-isotope paleoaltimetry suggest a nearly continuous western barrier since the late Eocene-Oligocene and a complex yet decipherable Miocene-Quaternary history of eastward advancing Andean deformation, upper-crustal erosion, and foreland-directed fluvial transport. In the central Andes, U-Pb ages for detrital zircon minerals from multiple sedimentary basins suggest continuous contributions of Cenozoic-age volcanic detritus from the Western Cordillera since late Eocene-Oligocene time. Hydrogen stable isotopic signatures from volcanic glasses further suggest that the long-lived Western Cordillera magmatic arc attained modern elevations by 19-16 Ma in southern Peru. In the northern Andes, major shifts in detrital age signatures, sandstone compositions, and sediment dispersal for hinterland basins of southern Colombia and Ecuador record punctuated 12-6 Ma uplift of the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt. This eastward advance of deformation helped establish the modern Amazon, Magdalena, and Orinoco river drainage systems, terminating any significant west-directed sediment transport and likely explaining late Miocene vicariance events among taxa of the northern Andes, western forearc slope, and Amazonian foreland basin.
Senior policy makers and health officials from the Andean countries--Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela--have developed a common pharmaceutical policy. The government's role is to assure availability and equal access to effective, quality, and affordable drugs and to safeguard their proper use. The government cannot delegate this role. The availability and accessibility of drugs gauge quality of health services and are social indicators of justice and equity. The public sector must use drugs from the essential drug list. These drugs are also valuable for the private sector. Drugs must not be treated like other merchandise, because the drug market is susceptible to misuse since the consumer cannot select the drug. Commercial advertising strongly influences prescribing of drugs and their use. The 2 major policy points are that promotion of essential drugs is the best approach from a health viewpoint and promotion of generic drug use is the best commercial alternative. The policy calls for the individual countries to pass a comprehensive drug law that reflects commitment to equity and appropriate use and incorporates standardization mechanisms. Criteria for selecting which drugs are allowed on the market include safety, proven efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, and treating the most common health problems at the lowest possible price. The Andean group is working towards harmonization of national essential drugs lists. To assure quality, health authorities must develop the capacity to enforce regulations when situations arise that threaten individual and community health. Supply, marketing, and logistics activities need to be improved and coordinated between the commercial and public sectors. Drug prices are being distanced from administrative control mechanisms and are going to be determined by a dynamic and well-supplied market. Drug information centers and prescription training are needed to achieve rational use of drugs. A joint pharmaceutical market for
Jesús Hernando Galvis Quintero
Full Text Available En un suelo Typic Haplustox Isohipertérmico Caolinítico de Sabana de la altillanura Colombiana, estación experimental Sabanas (CORPOICA, se estableció un experimento en un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones, con la interacción entre sistemas de producción Pasturas y rotación (maíz, soya y tres sistemas de labranza (cincel, vertedera y rastra, en unidades experimentales de (20m x 20m para estudiar su efecto sobre la estabilidad estructural y la continuidad del espacio poroso en el perfil del suelo. La estabilidad de agregados se evaluó por el método de Yoder. El análisis de imagen se realizó mediante petrografía siguiendo la metodología de microscopia electrónica del IGAC para sección delgada y las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron con Adobe Photoshop. La investigación permitió observar la discontinuidad del espacio poroso en los sistemas de producción y labranza. Los valores porcentuales de porosidad en el perfil del suelo, 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 y 30-40 cm, variaron de acuerdo a la metodología utilizada. Los valores porcentuales de la porosidad total, variaron entre 36% y 56%, mientras que la evaluación realizada a partir de petrografía y análisis de imagen deja ver una diferencia mayor (9% hasta 40% con valores que se ajustan más al comportamiento de la prueba de conductividad hidráulica saturada (CHS evaluada en los mismos perfiles. El suelo de la sabana, presento una porosidad total de 34.4%, 24.5%, 27.8, y 18.8% para cada una de las profundidades evaluadas por el método petrográfico; mientras que por formula presentó valores superiores (42.7%, 39.0%, 38.2%, y 36.5% y con poca variación entre sí. En general, fue posible observar que la evaluación de la porosidad por formula, no refleja la variación que se puede encontrar en el perfil del suelo, y menos dar cuenta del efecto de los implementos de labranza, además de no tener en cuenta la continuidad del espacio poroso. Entre los implementos
Leon, R; Kratochwil, H
This paper, which was presented at the 1993 meeting of the International Organization for Migration, summarizes past and recent progress in Andean integration and migration arrangements. Changes in the strategy of the Andean group of nations (GAN) have occurred in the adjustment to prevailing conditions at the subregional and international level. GAN includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The Andean Pact originated with the signing of the Cartegena Agreement in 1969. Members approved the Andean Strategic Design in 1989, which loosened up trade integration and the movement of capital, services, and persons across shared borders. The Strategic Design also addressed issues resulting from economic and social integration. A statement of migratory patterns among GAN, Andean integration during 1969-89, and the goals and operation of the Andean Strategic Design and integration are discussed in some detail. The Galapagos Declaration and the La Paz Statement of 1990 are also described. The present situation with Andean integration is based on the following meetings of Andean nations: the First Meeting of Migration Officials of the Andean Group of Nations in March 1991, the Second Meeting of Migration Officials in September 1991, and bilateral agreements between Andean nations. Seven basic conclusions are drawn: 1) the strategy is an institutional, deliberate, programmed process; 2) integration within GAN is the culmination of a joint, coordinated directive of achievement of sustainable development in the subregion which aims to reduce the economic gaps between the North and the South, to lessen the impact of protected markets of the North and their migration barriers, and to improve the possibility of development of technologically sophisticated human capital; 3) subregional policies are more sensitive to short-term change in domestic politics; 4) integration and migration can be sustained better with deliberate planning; 5) implementation is dependent on
Full Text Available El conocimiento de las propiedades físicas de los suelos agrícolas y bióticos proporciona información para el manejo de equipos agrícolas, procesos de compactación y la labranza convencional y conservacionista. A medida que la humedad edáfica aumenta, genera diversos estados del suelo; e.g. una menor interacción entre partículas adyacentes y un comportamiento que se aproxima al del líquido. El inicio de la sensibilidad de compactación, parece ser el límite plástico del suelo bajo una bien definida energía de compactación. El objetivo general, de este estudio fue caracterizar sistemáticamente, con las implicaciones de ingeniería posibles, los suelos agrícolas de sabana del Estado Monagas de Venezuela. Los objetivos específicos consistieron en determinar: a- los límites de Atterberg; y b- el índice de plasticidad y friabilidad. Para ello se utilizó los procedimientos de laboratorio de Mecánica de Suelos: ASTM D427-61 para el límite de contracción, ASTM D424-59 para el límite plástico y ASTM 423-66 para el límite líquido, de un suelo de sabana en muestras aleatorias a las profundidades de 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 y 45-60 cm. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión para interpretar la proporción de la variancia entre parámetros. Los resultados indicaron valores de: límite de contracción de 4,225,20%, límite plástico de 12,9214,04%, límite líquido de 16,9419,43%, índice de plasticidad de 3,595,78% e índice de friabilidad de 8,638,84%. Se concluye que los valores concuerdan con la bibliografía y el rango de uso agrícola se encuentra entre 8% y 15% para el suelo en estudio.
Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo
The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, V. L.
Geohistories documented for four crustal plateaus surface presents challenges to both downwelling and plume hypotheses of plateau formation, and lead to a third hypothesis, plateau formation involving crystallization of a huge lava pond.
Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.
Full Text Available Central Andean Highlands represent a singular environment characterized by various extreme conditions. Among them, peatbogs are exceptional marshy habitats scattered throughout this arid and harsh area. In an effort to understand the patterns of beta diversity, we sampled the benthic macroinvertebrates of thirteen peatbogs and related the biological distance with ecological distance using the GDM (Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling approach. Variables analyzed were altitude, geographical distance, physical and chemical parameters of the water. A coefficient based on the ordering properties of count data, from the perspective of both sites and taxa, was used to measure the compositional similarity between samples. The most frequent taxa were: Hyallela, Simuliidae, Andesiops, Austrelmis, Podonominae, Protallagma, Trichocorixa, Orthocladiinae and Glossiphonidae. The highest altitudinal record ever for leeches is reported here. Altitude and conductivity contributed greatly to the single ecological predictor of beta diversity. Sampling points can be classified first by altitude (cutoff sets at 4,200 m, which can be considered a surrogate of a regional factor (distinction between Puna and High Andean ecoregions and then by conductivity (cutoff sets at 135 µS cm-1, which can be considered a proxy of a local factor (distinction between hyperfresh and more mineralized habitats. These results suggest a system of ecological filters acting on them.
GUTIÉRREZ JUAN DAVID
Full Text Available Se presenta una implementación de la metodología de lógica difusa (LD que permiteel cálculo de la calidad del agua en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Debido a que lasinteracciones entre los organismos acuáticos y las variables físicas y químicas sonun problema matemático de gran complejidad, se requiere de técnicas robustas parala construcción de tales modelos. La LD ofrece una posibilidad debido a su habilidadpara procesar simultáneamente la información “subjetiva” proveniente de expertosy la información “objetiva” recopilada mediante datos. Los resultados obtenidoscon la aplicación de la LD fueron confrontados con los valores del índice fisicoquímicoWQI (Water Quality Index, para comprobar el grado de confiabilidad de la metodologíade LD. La prueba de chi cuadrado mostró que no existe una diferencia significativaentre los valores esperados del índice WQI y los valores observados por la estimacióncon el sistema de LD
America Libertad Rodriguez Herrera
Full Text Available A menudo encontramos ciudades cuyo desarrollo está asociado a la ocupación de alguna cuenca hidrográfica, sobre la cual no rigen políticas y acciones públicas y o privadas, suficientes para detener los procesos de degradación ambiental y social provocados por las transformaciones del territorio. Los casos estudiados son dos comunidades de la periferia de la ciudad de Acapulco, influenciadas por la insuficiencia y carencia de infraestructura sanitaria y el entorno fluvial del río de La Sabana, que desarrollan sus vidas en un ambiente degradado y contaminado. Los datos aportados confirman que las enfermedades más recurrentes son las de las vías respiratorias y del tracto digestivo, reconocidas por la OMS como enfermedades asociadas a la contaminación, así también que toda acción destinada a la mitigación del riesgo sanitario, debe enfocarse en la atención de la situación de vulnerabilidad bajo una perspectiva holista.
Julia Rubio de Cubides
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio mineralógico de la fracción arena de tres muestras de materiales arcillosos situados en la Sabana de Bogotá. Esta fracción se caracterizó porque los minerales reslstentes-turmallna, circón y rutilo constituyeron más de la mitad de la fracción pesada de la muestra. Esta fracción también se caracterizó por una riqueza de minerales opacos naturales (ilmenlta, especialmente, y algo de magnetita, siendo los de alteración sobre todo leucoxenos. Dos de las muestras exhibieron un alto contenido de minerales metamórficos, en especial estaurolita. De los resultados granulométricos y mineralógicos de los materiales, se deduce que las muestras han sufrido alteraciones químicas fuertes (lavado, ya que únicamente permanecen los minearles resistentes (turmalina, circón, rutilo y cuarzo.
Full Text Available Cualquier transformación de un ecosistema natural a un sistema agrícola o forestal conduce a una modificación importante no sólo del pool del carbono total, sino también del carbono asociado con la biomasa microbiana. Su cuantificación es importante en la determinación del impacto de las prácticas agrícolas y el cambio de uso de la tierra sobre la calidad del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, a través del método de inhibición selectiva, la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana y la relación (H:B en suelos de sabana nativa sustituidos por pinares (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, para establecer si éstos parámetros son indicadores sensibles de cambios en el contenido de carbono en suelos de Uverito, Venezuela. La relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI y la inhibición total por efecto combinado del inhibidor (ITC se llevaron a cabo para determinar, si los inhibidores microbianos tuvieron actividad sobre otros organismos para los cuales éstos no estaban destinados. La cuantificación de la biomasa fúngica y bacteriana se llevó a cabo mediante el uso de la cycloheximida como inhibidor fúngico, y la estreptomicina y el cloranfenicol como inhibidores bacterianos. Esta investigación evidencia que este cambio de uso de la tierra ejerció un efecto significativo sobre la biomasa microbiana del suelo, y muestra que en el sistema de pinares existe una dominancia del componente fúngico, en contraste con la sabana nativa, en la cual domina la biomasa bacteriana. La sustitución de la sabana nativa por plantaciones de pino en Uverito, promueve un mayor secuestro del carbono en el suelo. Los valores de la relación de aditividad del inhibidor (RAI tanto para la sabana nativa como para el sistema de pinares, resultaron ambos >1.0. La inhibición total combinada (ITC resultó menor en el sistema de pinares; a partir de lo cual, es posible inferir que una elevada proporción de la biomasa microbiana fue afectada por la combinaci
Carlos Orlando Rico Bonilla
Full Text Available En el documento se propone un análisis histórico para describir y explicar, a partir de las correspondientes fuentes primarias y secundarias, algunas de las prácticas de contabilidad financiera aplicadas en la empresa colombiana del Ferrocarril de Sabana durante el periodo 1881 – 1917. Se argumenta que lainformación financiera y los contadores de esta organización jugaron un papel valioso en la toma de decisiones económicas, especialmente, en temas de operación y liquidez. De igual forma que fue en compañías de esta industria, donde adquirió mayor relevancia la definición del tratamiento contable y la presentación de diferentes transacciones y eventos como la valoración y depreciación de activos fijos, el reconocimiento de las importaciones, la revelación de la cuenta de resultados, entre otros.
Northcote, L.; Neil, H.; Carter, L.
The last reported sighting of icebergs off eastern New Zealand was on 28th October, 1892, at the Chatham Islands. Prior to that time, the SW Pacific Ocean periodically hosted flotillas of icebergs, as revealed by a palaeoceanographic analysis of 8 cores from the Campbell Plateau. Stable isotope stratigraphy, coupled with down-core measurements of magnetic susceptibility, grain size, calcium carbonate and ice-rafted debris, highlight climate-related fluctuations in iceberg activity back to at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 - our longest complete record. (author)
Panzera, Francisco; Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Cuadrado, Ángeles; Sánchez, Antonio; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro
Triatoma infestans is the most important Chagas disease vector in South America. Two main evolutionary lineages, named Andean and non-Andean, have been recognized by geographical distribution, phenetic and genetic characteristics. One of the main differences is the genomic size, varying over 30% in their haploid DNA content. Here we realize a genome wide analysis to compare the repetitive genome fraction (repeatome) between both lineages in order to identify the main repetitive DNA changes occurred during T. infestans differentiation process. RepeatExplorer analysis using Illumina reads showed that both lineages exhibit the same amount of non-repeat sequences, and that satellite DNA is by far the major component of repetitive DNA and the main responsible for the genome size differentiation between both lineages. We characterize 42 satellite DNA families, which are virtually all present in both lineages but with different amount in each lineage. Furthermore, chromosomal location of satellite DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that genomic variations in T. infestans are mainly due to satellite DNA families located on the heterochromatic regions. The results also show that many satDNA families are located on the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes. PMID:28723933
Rejanovinschi Talledo, Moisés
This paper emphasizes the role of Andean Tribunal of Justice, however disagrees with criteria used to recognize administrative entities such as «national judge» or «Andean judge». If we apply the Tribunal criteria, several administrators of justice in Intellectual Property will be exempt of collaborating with Andean integration. El presente documento enfatiza el rol del Tribunal de Justicia de la Comunidad Andina pero discrepa de los criterios establecidos para reconocer a las entidades ad...
Beltrame, María Ornela; Bellusci, Agustín; Andrade, Analía
The Somuncurá Plateau is a Protected Natural Area located in the middle of the northern extra-Andean arid Patagonia. Inhabited by at least 20 small mammal species, is the place with the uppermost species richness in Patagonia. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains from micromammal coprolites collected in association with a bone sequence recovered at the east of the Somuncurá Plateau (site "Alero Las Lechuzas"). Coprolites came from the four temporal units previously defined: unit I (4790 ± 100 yrs. 14 C B.P.), unit II, unit III (7840 ± 120 yrs. 14 C B.P.) and unit IV. Each coprolite was processed, rehydrated, homogenized, processed by spontaneous sedimentation and examined using a light microscope. Coprolites and eggs were described, measured and photographed. Samples were positive for two nematode species: Helminthoxys caudatus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937 (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae) and Trichuris spp. (Trichinellida: Trichuridae). This is the first paleoparasitological study developed for the Somuncurá Plateau Protected Area. Moreover, this is the first time that the genus Helminthoxys is reported from ancient times worldwide. Coprolites were attributed to the mountain cavy Microcavia australis (Rodentia, Caviidae).The presence of H. caudatus for the Middle Holocene of northern Patagonia contributes to the study of the history of the histricomorphs and pinworms relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui
When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By studying hand- and footprints in Chusang, Meyer et al. (2016) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene without the help of agriculture. However, we think the limited hand- and footprints evidence found in Chusang could indicate no more than prehistoric hunter-gatherers presence on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. In addition, by reviewing all the published archaeological data, we propose that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) when human adapted to the high altitude environment and climate change with different strategies and techniques. Particularly, the prevail of microlithic technology in North China provoked hunter-gatherers' first visit to the NETP in relatively ameliorated last Deglacial period, and the the quick development of millet farming and subsequent mixed barley-wheat farming and sheep herding facilitated farmers and herders permanently settled in Tibetan Plateau, even above 3000 masl, during mid- and late Holocene. References: Chen et al., 2015. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347: 248-250. Meyer et al., 2016
César L. Barrio-Amorós
Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.
Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.
Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N
Campos, David; Chirinos, Rosana; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Pedreschi, Romina
The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess. In this chapter, main Andean fruits, seeds, and roots and tubers have been selected and detailed nutritional and functional information is provided. In addition, traditional and current uses are provided and their bioactive potential is reported based on published scientific literature. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E
Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nuria Sanchez Clemente
Full Text Available Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited.Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003.The majority of cases (65% were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths.Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control.
Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.
Grünwald Niklaus J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.
This Undergraduate Honors Thesis focuses on how different factors affect the success of a watershed management project and lessons learned from projects in the Andean Region. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)
Isaza Guerrero, Juanita
En la presente investigación se hace especial énfasis en los problemas ambientales de la Sabana Occidente de Bogotá, entendido como aquellos aspectos de la relación entre la sociedad y el medio físico, transformado o no, que generan directa o indirectamente consecuencias negativas sobre la calidad de vida de la población presente y futura. Bajo este concepto, se abordarán los problemas del acelerado incremento poblacional y el desbordante crecimiento urbano de nuestras...
Copete Copete, Nidia Patricia
El programa Finca Florverde es una estrategia integral de sostenibilidad de los floricultores agremiados en Asocolflores, uno de sus objetivos es facilitar criterios para administrar racionalmente las fuentes de agua y optimizar su consumo en los procesos de la actividad floricultora. El presente estudio evaluó el estado de un conjunto de parámetros de gestión ambiental del programa Finca Florverde en relación con el manejo de agua de las empresas de flores de la Sabana de Bogotá, a través de...
Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto
El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m) en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinq...
Yrma Gómez; Jorge Paolini; Rosa Mary Hernández
Una gran extensión (615000 has) de las sabanas nativas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela está siendo reemplazada por plantaciones de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis; sin embargo, hasta ahora existe escasa información sobre el impacto de este manejo del suelo sobre los parámetros indicadores de la dinámica del carbono en el suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y la sustitución sobre el contenido de carbono orgánico total (COT), carbo...
Dong, Xin; Zhang, Ze-ming; Klemd, Reiner; He, Zhen-yu; Tian, Zuo-lin
The Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau participated in a Mesozoic Andean-type orogeny caused by the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. However, metamorphic rocks, which can unravel details of the geodynamic evolution, are rare and only exposed in the south-eastern part of the Lhasa terrane. Therefore, we conducted a detailed petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon geochronological study of the late Cretaceous metamorphic rocks and associated gabbros from the Nyemo inlier of the southern Lhasa terrane. The Nyemo metamorphic rocks including gneisses, schists, marbles and calc-silicate rocks, experienced peak amphibolite-facies contact metamorphism under P-T conditions of 3.5-4.0 kbar and 642-657 °C with a very high geothermal gradient of 45-50 °C/km, revealing a distinct deflection from the steady-state geotherm during low-pressure metamorphism. Inherited magmatic zircon cores from the metamorphic rocks yielded protolith ages of 197-194 Ma, while overgrowth zircon rims yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 86 Ma. Whole-rock chemistry and zircon Hf isotopes suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses and schists are andesites and tuffs of the early Jurassic Sangri Group, which were derived from a depleted mantle source of a continental arc affinity. The coeval intimately-associated gabbro (ca. 86 Ma) crystallized under P-T conditions of 3.5-5.3 kbar and 914-970 °C, supplying the heat flux high enough to cause the contact metamorphism of the Sangri Group rock types. We propose that the intrusion of the gabbro and a simultaneous pressure increase of up to 4.0 kbar, which is related to crustal thickening due to crustal overthrusting and the intrusion of mafic material, resulted in the late Cretaceous metamorphism of the early Jurassic Sangri Group during an Andean-type orogeny. Furthermore the Nyemo metamorphic rocks, which have previously been considered to represent slivers of the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Lhasa terrane
Fermín José Chamorro García
Full Text Available The Andean forests of the Eastern Andean high-lands of Colombia have a high conservation priority given the vulnerable condition of species such as Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae that inhabit these ecosystems. Beekeeping is regarded as an alternative activity that could play a role in the conservation of Andean forests, but little is known about how the floras of these ecosystems contribute to honey and bee pollen production. We analyzed the contribution of Andean forests to bee pollen production, given the productive potential and commercial importance of this product. Pollen analyses were performed on 25 samples from apiaries near Andean forests located in the states of Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander. We found that Q. humboldtii is an important source of pollen with high potential for monofloral bee pollen production. In addition, bees collect pollen from other Andean forests species such as Weinmannia tomentosa, Viburnum spp. and Morella spp. Utilization of bee pollen could lead to incentives to carry out forest conservation practices through beekeeping management.
Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the Ecuadorian government has pledged to convert the nation into a “mining country” of global standing. Contemporary claims of mineral wealth, however, stand in stark contrast to previous assessments. Indeed, through much of the 20th century, geologists described Ecuador as a country of mineral dearth. Exploring the process through which Ecuador seemingly transitioned from a nation of resource scarcity to one of mineral plenty, I demonstrate how assessments of Ecuador’s resource potential relate to ideas of Andean nature. Promoters of resource abundance have emphasized Andean uniformity and equivalence—the notion that Ecuador’s mineral wealth is inevitable by virtue of the resource richness of its Andean neighbors. Geologists who have questioned Ecuador’s mineral content, on the other hand, have emphasized Andean heterogeneity. In the recent promotion of Ecuador’s resource potential, notions of Andean uniformity have been bolstered by models of subsoil copper that emerged in the in 1970s in the context of plate-tectonic theory. In highlighting the linkage between ideas of Andean nature and appraisals of Ecuadorian resource potential since the late 19th century, I outline the dialectics between nature and natural resources that underpin processes of resource becoming.
Ortiz de Boada Dilia
Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó el polen almacenado en 30 colmenas de Apis mellifera, en tres apiarios de los alrededores de la Sabana de Bogotá. Apiario A1 de la vereda de Los Puentes Municipio de Mosquera. Conformación vegetal: El ecosistema de la región corresponde al bosque seco montano bajo, con unos 5 meses de verano. A2 en la zona urbana de la Sabana, Calle 145 No. 14-31 Barrio Los Cedritos, el ecosistema de la región corresponde a bosque de transición seco y húmedo montano bajo con períodos de lluvias fuertes por 6 meses al año. A3 Monasterio Santa María de Usme con· ecosistema bosque húmedo montano bajo
con per íodos de lluvias alternando con épocas de verano. Se hicieron colectas durante 2 años con colección de referencia palinológica. En el estudio se diferenciaron 74 tipos de polen
en total, de estos 37 corresponden a especies melliferas destacándose entre los Myrtaceae Eucaliptus globulus, Caprifoliaceae Sambucus nigrum, Tropeolaceae Tropeolum mejus, Compositae Chrysanthemum sp, y Oleaceae
Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Yarce, J.; Alvira, D.; Poveda, E.
A number of seismological observations, among which we can mention teleseismic travel time residuals, P to S receiver functions and Pn velocity quantification, suggest a clear distinction between the seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle between the plains on the Caribbean coast of Colombia and the mountains at the Northern Andean region. Absolute and relative travel time residuals indicate the presence of a seismically fast material in the upper mantle beneath northern Colombia; preliminary results of Pn studies show a region of relatively slow Pn velocities (between 7.8 and 7.9 km/s) underneath the Caribbean coast, contrasting with values greater than 8 km/s beneath the Central and Western cordilleras of Colombia, and the Pacific coast; receiver functions suggest a significantly thinner crust beneath the Caribbean coast, with a crustal thickness between 25 and 30 km, than beneath the Northern Andean zone at the cordilleras of Colombia, where it exceeds 40 km and reaches about 57 km at the location of Bogota. Besides the obviuos discrepancies that appear in response to different topography, we think that the seismological observations are a consequence of the presence of two very distinct slab segments beneath Colombia and contrasting behaviors of the upper plate, which correspond to Caribbean and Nazca subductions. Our seismic observations can be explained by a shallowly subducting Caribbean Plate, in the absence of an asthenospheric wedge, that steepens at about the location of the Bucaramanga nest, and a thinned continental crust that reflects an extensional component linked to oblique convergence of the Caribbean, which contrasts with the crustal thickening in the Andean Cordillera linked to crustal shortening and Nazca plate subuction. These new data are consistent with the idea of of a relatively warm Nazca slab of Neogene age which seems to have a relatively frontal convergence, and a colder, more buoyant Caribbean slab which represents an
Comportamiento de Variables Químicas en un Sistema de Cultivo sin Suelo para Clavel en la Sabana de Bogotá / Behavior of Chemichal Variables in a Soilless Crop System for Carantion in the Bogota Plateau
Nohora Astrid Vélez Carvajal
Full Text Available Resumen. Para optimizar el manejo del fertirriego en loscultivos en sustrato es indispensable conocer la actividad de las variables químicas de la solución y de los sustratos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de pH, CE, CIC y relación C:N de tres sustratos a base de cascarilla de arroz y fibra de coco; y pH y CE en los drenajes, en un sistema de cultivo con tres porcentajes de recirculación en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de plantas de clavel estándar cv. Delphi. Seutilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con nueve tratamientos y tres repeticiones, en parcelas divididas. Se observó que el pH del lixiviado tiende a disminuir hacia el final y en los sustratos el valor de esta variable se mantuvo constante durante el periodo estudiado, aunque aumenta en la medida que se incrementa el porcentaje de cascarilla de arroz quemada (CAQ.La CE fue significativamente mayor cuando se recircula el 100% de los lixiviados y en los tratamientos con menor contenido de CAQ; mientras que en los sustratos, fue significativamente menor donde había mayor contenido de fibra de coco (FC. La CIC fue significativamente mayor en los sustratos con mayores porcentajes de FC; sin embargo, la relación C:N tendió a presentar valores mayores en el sustrato con mayor contenido de CAQ. / Summary. To optimize the management of fertigation in the soilless crops is essential to know the activity of chemical variables of the solution, and of the substrates. The aim of this study was to determine the behavior of pH, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N in tree substrates base on burned rice husk and coconut fiber; and pH and CE in the drainage, in a soilless system to carnation crop cv. Delphi, with three recycling percentages and in different phenological developmental stages. The trial was carried out with three different substrates base on burned rice husk (BRH and coconut fiber (CF. A randomized complete block experimental design in a split plot with nine treatments and three replications was used. The pH leachate tends to decrease towards the end of the crop, and in substrates this variable was kept constant over the period, although increases along with BRH percentages. The EC was significantly higher with 100% of recirculated leachate and in treatments with lower BRH content; unexpected, EC in substrates was significantly lower in treatments with more CF. On the other hand, CEC was significantly higher in substrates with higher CF percentages. However, contrary to literature, the C:N tended to show higher values in the substrate with higher BRH content.
Preferencia de los Trips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae Hacia Trampas de colores en un Invernadero de Flores de la Sabana de Bogotá Color preference of Trhips (Thysanoptera: tripidae in crysanthemum crops at the Bogotá plateau
Full Text Available Se trabajó con un total de 36 trampas, 6 colores y 6 replicaciones por color, se les adicionó un pegante y se distribuyeron completamente al azar dentro de un invernadero comercial ubicado en Chía Cundinamarca. Los colores probados fueron: blanco, morado, amarillo, rojo, naranja y verde, Los colores blanco y morado mostraron la más alta eficiencia en la captura de adultos de Frsnkliniette oeeidentalis (Pegande
mientras que el color verde capturó el menor número de esta especie. Se capturaron además adultos de F. panamensis Hood,
F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood y Thrips tabaei Lindeman pero en menor cantidad.White, violet, yellow, red, orange and green colors with six replicates were tried. This study was done in a green house
grown chrysantemum crop. White and violet showed the highest efficiency by capturing the greatest number of adults of Frankliniella oeeidentalis, the most abundant species during the experimento Green color captured the lowest number of F. oeeidentalis. Other species captured were F. panamensis Hood,
F. minuta (Moulton, F. auripes Hood and Tbrips tabaei Lindeman.
Lease, Richard O.; Ehlers, T.A.; Enkelmann, E.
Plate tectonics drives mountain building in general, but the space-time pattern and style of deformation is influenced by how climate, geodynamics, and basement structure modify the orogenic wedge. Growth of the Subandean thrust belt, which lies at the boundary between the arid, high-elevation Central Andean Plateau and its humid, low-elevation eastern foreland, figures prominently into debates of orogenic wedge evolution. We integrate new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer data with previously published apatite fission-track data from samples collected along four Subandean structural cross-sections in Bolivia between 15° and 20°S. We interpret cooling ages vs. structural depth to indicate the onset of Subandean exhumation and signify the forward propagation of deformation. We find that Subandean growth is diachronous south (11 ± 3 Ma) vs. north (6 ± 2 Ma) of the Bolivian orocline and that Subandean exhumation magnitudes vary by more than a factor of two. Similar north-south contrasts are present in foreland deposition, hinterland erosion, and paleoclimate; these observations both corroborate diachronous orogenic growth and illuminate potential propagation mechanisms. Of particular interest is an abrupt shift to cooler, more arid conditions in the Altiplano hinterland that is diachronous in southern Bolivia (16-13 Ma) vs. northern Bolivia (10-7 Ma) and precedes the timing of Subandean propagation in each region. Others have interpreted the paleoclimate shift to reflect either rapid surface uplift due to lithosphere removal or an abrupt change in climate dynamics once orographic threshold elevations were exceeded. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and both would drive forward propagation of the orogenic wedge by augmenting the hinterland backstop, either through surface uplift or spatially variable erosion. In summary, we suggest that diachronous Subandean exhumation was driven by piecemeal hinterland uplift, orography, and the outward
Anna María Escobar
Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.
Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.
Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.
Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.
López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto
Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.
Branquet, Y.; Cheilletz, A.; Cobbold, P. R.; Baby, P.; Laumonier, B.; Giuliani, G.
In the Guateque-Medina area, Paleozoic basement and Mesozoic rift basins have been uplifted and exhumed during the Andean orogeny (12 Ma to present). Surface exposures and subsurface data constrain the deformation style and the rift geometry. We have mapped a regional transect and restored a cross section. We have also reconciled existing stratigraphic data, from cordillera, foothills and foreland basin, and have added new data of our own. In Early Cretaceous shales, there is evidence for fault-controlled sedimentation. A brecciated evaporitic layer, which is locally emerald bearing, has acted as a regional detachment. The underlying basement, composed of Paleozoic sediments, crops out as the Quetame Massif. It was uplifted during the Andean orogeny on a series of high-angle reverse faults. The main SE-verging Tesalia fault has resulted from Andean reactivation of an Early Cretaceous normal fault, which bounded a half-rift. A series of NW-verging back-thrusts may have resulted from Andean reactivation of Paleozoic faults. Between the back-thrusts and the Tesalia fault is a basement pop-up. It may be part of a flower structure, because components of right-lateral slip have been identified. These are attributed to eastward subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America. In general, the style and timing of Andean deformation in the Guateque-Medina area are compatible with the plate tectonic setting of the northern Andes.
Reppucci, Juan; Gardner, Beth; Lucherini, Mauro
The Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) is one of the most endangered, yet least known, felids. Although the Andean cat is considered at risk of extinction, rigorous quantitative population studies are lacking. Because physical observations of the Andean cat are difficult to make in the wild, we used a camera-trapping array to photo-capture individuals. The survey was conducted in northwestern Argentina at an elevation of approximately 4,200 m during October–December 2006 and April–June 2007. In each year we deployed 22 pairs of camera traps, which were strategically placed. To estimate detection probability and density we applied models for spatial capture–recapture using a Bayesian framework. Estimated densities were 0.07 and 0.12 individual/km2 for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Mean baseline detection probability was estimated at 0.07. By comparison, densities of the Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), another poorly known felid that shares its habitat with the Andean cat, were estimated at 0.74–0.79 individual/km2 in the same study area for 2006 and 2007, and its detection probability was estimated at 0.02. Despite having greater detectability, the Andean cat is rarer in the study region than the Pampas cat. Properly accounting for the detection probability is important in making reliable estimates of density, a key parameter in conservation and management decisions for any species.
Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew
The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.
Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E
The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Full Text Available Se realizaron bioensayos con el objeto de evaluar el potencial alelopático de los extractos de hojas y residuos de nabo silvestre (Brassica campestris subsp. rapa [L.] Hook. f. y raigrás (Lolium temulentum L. sobre tres especies de malezas de la Sabana de Bogotá: cenizo (Chenopodium petiolare Kunth, malva blanca (Fuertesimalva limensis [L.] Fryxell y bledo (Amaranthus hybridus L.. Los bioensayos en el laboratorio se desarrollaron con la técnica de plántulas en solución nutritiva, bajo un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y tres réplicas en el tiempo, y en invernadero, donde se usó mezcla de arena y turba (3:2 como sustrato y semillas pregerminadas. Los resultados obtenidos en laboratorio mostraron diferencias en los síntomas observados entre las diferentes especies, mientras que la variable peso fresco fue la que mejor describió el efecto de las concentración para los extractos de nabo, con una concentración que reduce la variable de respuesta en 50% (DC50 de 5,53 g· L-1 para bledo, 2,58 g· L-1 para cenizo y 7,72 g· L-1 para malva blanca. En el caso de raigrás, el peso fresco permitió el ajuste de una curva concentración-respuesta, con el fin de calcular la DC50. La respuesta entre las especies de malezas fue diferente respecto a la actividad de los extractos y de los residuos vegetales en suelo. En el caso del bledo, no se registraron diferencias entre los residuos en suelo y los extractos de nabo, mientras que con cenizo y malva blanca no hubo emergencia de plántulas bajo la condición de residuos en suelo de nabo. El peso fresco de plántulas de tomate disminuyó en cerca del 25% al crecer en residuos de nabo (6 ó 12 t· ha-1 de materia fresca y en cerca del 60% bajo residuos de raigrás (6 t· ha-1 de materia fresca.
Carlos A. Lasso
Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies de bagres tricomictéridos, Trichomycterus celsae y Trichomycterus lewi, colectados en el río Kukenán, afluente del río Caroní (cuenca del Orinoco, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. El río Kukenán esta ubicada en el área denominada U Gran Sabana, perteneciente a la porción venezolana de la región del Escudo de las Guayanas. Las dos nuevas especies se reconocen y se separan fácilmente entre ellas y entre las otras especies del género Trichomycterus descritas para esta región, por el patrón de coloración. Se describe el patrón de coloración, la morfometría y la merística, además se presentan las diferencias más llamativas entre los caracteres osteológicos observados en un ejemplar adulto de cada una de las nuevas especies. El patrón osteológico permite indicar que ambas especies pertenecen al género Trichomycterus.Trichomycterus celsae n. sp. and Trichomycterus lewi n. sp. are describes from the river Kukenán a tributary of the river Caroní, Orinoco basin, Guyana Shield, Venezuela. The new species are diagnosed within the Guyana Shield Trichomycterus species by a distinctive color pattern. Trichomycterus celsae has a uniform light brown color on dorsum and sides of the body; the ventral surface is yellowish or creamy. Trichomycterus lewi has an irregular pattern of black spots of different sizes on dorsum and sides of the body, the larger spots are located at the posterior part of the body, and, the ventral surface is whitish. The osteology of the new species showed that they belong to the genus Trichomycterus. Osteological features support the external diagnosis of both species, some of them are: in T. celsae, the skull has the fontanels well separated, T. Iewi has the fontanels closer andjoined by a narrow canal. In T. celsae, the dorsal border of the hyomandibula has a conspicuous notch. In T. Iewi, the metapterygoid has a projection on the posteroventral angle. Neural spine of the first
Vially, R.; Roest, W. R.; Loubrieu, B.; Courreges, E.; Lecomte, J.; Patriat, M.; Pierre, D.; Schaming, M.; Schmitz, J.
France ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1996, and has since undertaken an ambitious program of bathymetric and seismic data acquisition (EXTRAPLAC Program) to support claims for the extension of the legal continental shelf, in accordance with Article 76 of this convention. For this purpose, three oceanographic surveys took place on board of the R/V Marion Dufresne II on the Kerguelen Plateau, in Southern Indian Ocean: MD137-Kergueplac1 (February 2004), MD150-Kergueplac2 (October 2005) and MD165-Kergueplac3 (January 2008), operated by the French Polar Institute. Thus, more than 20 000 km of multibeam bathymetric, magnetic and gravimetric profiles, and almost 6 000 km of seismic profiles where acquired during a total of 62 days of survey in the study area. Ifremer's "rapid seismic" system was used, comprised of 4 guns and a 24 trace digital streamer, operated at speeds up to 10 knots. In addition to its use for the Extraplac Program, the data set issued from these surveys gives the opportunity to improve our knowledge of the structure of the Kerguelen Plateau and more particularly of its complex margins. In this poster, we will show the high resolution bathymetry (200 m) data set, that allows us to specify the irregular morphology of the sea floor in the north Kerguelen Plateau, characterised by ridges and volcanoes chains, radial to the plateau, that intersect the oceanic basin on the NE edge of the Kerguelen Plateau. We will also show magnetic and gravity data, which help us to understand the setting up of the oceanic plateau and the kinematics reconstructions. The seismic profiles show that the acoustic basement of the plateau is not much tectonised, and displays a very smooth texture, clearly contrasting it from typical oceanic basement. Both along the edge of the plateau as in the abyssal plain, sediments have variable thicknesses. The sediments on the margin of the plateau are up to 1200 meters thick and display irregular
Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.
When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or
Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis de la variabilidad climática asociada al ciclo ENOS para la Sabana de Bogotá. Para el análisis se tomaron los datos de anomalías de temperatura superficial del mar en las zonas EN 1+2, 3, 4 y 3+4 del Pacífico tropical, la temperatura media mensual del aire y de precipitación mensual. Se identificó una relación inversa entre las anomalías de TSM y la precipitación: condiciones cálidas (anomalías positivas de TSM reducen la precipitación regional, mientras que las condiciones frías (anomalías negativas asociadas a La Niña la incrementan. En el caso de la relación de las anomalías de TSM y la TMMA se observó una correspondencia directa, es decir, a ascenso de la TSM en el Pacifico tropical corresponden ascensos en la TMMA de la Sabana de Bogotá. Este efecto climático del ciclo ENOS en la Sabana de Bogotá durante el siglo XX ha traído impactos socioeconómicos considerables a la región. El evento El Niño desencadena en la región limitaciones en la disponibilidad de agua para diferentes propósitos (abastecimiento a la población, agricultura, industria, lo que ha afectado la producción agrícola y ha llevado al incremento temporal de precios al consumidor. Bajo el efecto climático del fenómeno El Niño se incrementa la frecuencia de los incendios de la cobertura vegetal, lo que afecta de manera especial los ecosistemas de la región. Las condiciones La Niña traen crecientes súbitas y deslizamientos (en las zonas de alta pendiente de los cerros orientales, principalmente e inundaciones en las partes bajas (en especial en las zonas ribereñas de los ríos Bogotá, Tunjuelo y San Cristóbal, así como anegamiento de terrenos. Esto impacta directamente en las viviendas y la población de sectores urbanos y rurales.
Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter
Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other
Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs
Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne
80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the
Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the
Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
The neoclassical transport theory in a presence of temperature anisotropy is investigated in the low to the intermediate collision frequency regimes for a large aspect-ratio tokamak plasma. The standard procedure for an isotropic plasma in the plateau regime is extended to an anisotropic plasma, and the neoclassical transport coefficients in this regime are explicitly calculated. By interpolating the results in the plateau regime and the previously obtained ones in the banana regime, the expressions for the neoclassical transport coefficients which are continuously valid from the banana to the plateau regimes are presented. (author)
Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo un gran sismo originado en el Sistema de Fallas de la Falla Frontal de la Cordillera Oriental ( SFFFCO puede causar grandes daños y pérdidas de vidas, tanto en el área metropolitana de Bogotá, D. C., como en el resto de la Sabana de Bogotá. El grado de la amenaza sísmica de la ciudad ante un sismo cercano, originado en el Piedemonte Llanero, cuya distancia es inferior a 250 km y con una magnitud > 7.0, es muy alto, si se tiene presente que sus suelos, de origen lagunar, se ubican hacia el occidente y el noroccidente, zonas en las que, durante las dos últimas décadas, se ha ido extendiendo el área metropolitana.
Full Text Available Una gran extensión (615000 has de las sabanas nativas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela está siendo reemplazada por plantaciones de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis; sin embargo, hasta ahora existe escasa información sobre el impacto de este manejo del suelo sobre los parámetros indicadores de la dinámica del carbono en el suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y la sustitución sobre el contenido de carbono orgánico total (COT, carbono hidrosoluble (CHS, carbono microbiano (Cmic, respiración basal (RB, cociente metabólico microbiano (qCO2 y la relación Cmic/Corg. Las propiedades químicas y parámetros biológicos seleccionados fueron determinados en plantaciones de P. caribaea de 3 y 29 años de edad y en una sabana nativa adyacente a estas plantaciones, la cual fue considerada como control. En cada sitio de muestreo recolectamos nueve muestras compuestas (0-10 cm de profundidad. Los parámetros estudiados no mostraron un patrón definido in relación a la variabilidad temporal. Hay mayor preservación del carbono dentro de la biomasa microbiana presente en suelos de Uverito en plantaciones de pinos. La tasa de respiración basal y el cociente metabólico indican que en estos suelos existe una comunidad microbiana poco activa, la cual es más eficiente en la utilización del carbono en las plantaciones de pino. La relación Cmic/Corg indica que en las plantaciones la biomasa microbiana constituye una importante reserva del carbono en el suelo. La sabana nativa a plantaciones de pino caribeño en estos suelos puede ser considerada un manejo efectivo para incrementar la calidad del suelo en los llanos orientales de Venezuela, siempre y cuando se tome en cuenta la importancia ecológica de las sabanas.Substitution of native savanna by Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae plantations in Venezuela: effect on parameters that indicated changes in soil carbon content. A great extension (615 000
Reyes Torres, German
Se presenta en este trabajo una fusión de Imágenes de satélite Landsat, Magnetometría, Espectrometría de Rayos Gamma y Geología de superficie, en un ambiente SIG, orientada a definir el estilo estructural de un área al norte de la sabana de Bogotá. La espectrometría de rayos Gammamostró una correspondencia con las texturas y tonalidades observadas en la imagen de satélite,pudiéndose patronar, para las unidades litoestratigráficas aflorantes en el área la concentración promedio de Uranio, Tori...
Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.
We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB
Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent
In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau
Musilová, Zuzana; Říčan, O.; Říčanová, Š.; Janšta, P.; Gahura, O.; Novák, J.
Roč. 65, č. 3 (2015), s. 333-350 ISSN 1864-5755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Andean uplift * Andinoacara * Mesoheros Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2015
Schellart, W. P.
Subduction along the western margin of South America has been active since the Jurassic, but Andean orogeny started in the middle Cretaceous and was preceded by backarc extension in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The timing and sequence of these events has remained unexplained. Here I present a
Loayza Muro, R.A.; Marticorena-Ruíz, J.K.; Palomino, E.J.; Merritt, C.; de Baat, M.L.; van Gemert, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.
In high altitude Andean streams an intense solar radiation and coinciding metal pollution allow the persistence of only a few specialized taxa, including chironomids. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the mechanisms underlying the persistence of chironomids under these multiple
Russell C. Van Horn
Full Text Available Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14, and that ages of adults ≥10 years old may be estimated from the proportion of their nose that is pink with an average error of <0.01 ± 3.5 years (n = 41. We also show that similarity among the bears’ natural markings, as perceived by humans, is not associated with pedigree kinship among the bears (R2 < 0.001, N = 1,043, p = 0.499. Thus, researchers may use photos of wild Andean bears to estimate the ages of young cubs and older adults, but not to infer their kinship. Given that camera trap photos are one of the most readily available sources of information on large cryptic mammals, we suggest that similar methods be tested for use in other poorly understood species.
Toby Pennington, R; Lavin, Matt
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin. In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Oswald, Overcast, Mauck, Andersen, and Smith (2017) investigate the biogeography and diversification of bird species in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. Their study is novel in its focus on tropical dry forests (Figure 1) rather than more mesic biomes such as rain forests, cloud forests and paramos, which tend to be the focus of science and conservation in the Andean hot spot. It is also able to draw powerful conclusions via the first deployment of genomic approaches to a biogeographic question in the threatened dry forests of the New World. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Menenti, M.; Mulders, C.W.B.
This report describes the development and adaptation of distributed numerical simulation models of hydrological processes in complex watersheds typical of the Andean region. These distributed models take advantage of the synoptic capabilities of sensors on-board satellites and GIS procedures have
body parts in the city of Cusco and the Sacred Valley,. Cusco region, Peru. Robert S. R. ... The sale of Andean Condor feathers and body parts is undertaken openly in the tourist markets of Cusco and the Sacred .... and shops. Prices in local currency – Nuevo Sol and US Dollar equivalent given in parentheses). Feather.
Germán Rodríguez Martínez
Full Text Available Se describe la caracterización de la mastitis en diez hatos representativos de la Sabana de Bogotá, enfocándose al estudio del problema durante dos años de visitas bimensuales. Se realizaron diferentes tipos de pruebas de campo y de laboratorio: manejo del hato en general, registros de producción, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Cultivos bacteriológicos en medios Agar sangre, Agar Mac Conkey, Agar Sabouraud, recuento de células somáticas, en 644 vacas y 2576 cuartos con visitas bimensuales lo que arrojó un total de 7866 observaciones en vacas y 31464 observaciones en cuartos durante el estudio. Complementario al estudio se llevó a cabo un seguimiento semanal durante tres meses, en un grupo de 30 vacas en tres fincas con ordeño manual para determinar el efecto de la infección sobre la producción de leche por cuarto, mediante la utilización de un balde ideado por el autor. Los resultados sugieren un mayor efecto de la infección en hatos con ordeño mecánico donde se encontró un 61,2% de infección en vacas y un 30% de infección subclínica por cuartos y un 4,7 % de cuartos con mastitis clínica. En ordeño manual la infección fue de 48% en vacas, 23,6% en cuartos y 3,6% de casos de cuartos con mastitis clínica. Se encontró una correlación del 91 % entre el CMT y el recuento de células somáticas lo que concuerda con los resultados de otros investigadores. En relación a los diferentes microorganismos aislados, se encontró como dominante el Streptococcus agalactiae en ordeño manual y Staphylococcus aureus en ordeño mecánico y se descartó la posibilidad de encontrar microorganismos coliformes como causales de mastitis durante el estudio. Referente al efecto de la infección sobre la producción se registraron pérdidas hasta de cinco litros diarios por vaca afectada tomando como indicador el CMT y el pesaje de la leche. También se pudo definir una disminución de la producción por cuarto de: 0,42; 0,90; 1,47; y 2
Zhang, Liangzhi; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Kexin; Li, Wenjing; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yanming
Dispersal is an important aspect in organism's life history which could influence the rate and outcome of evolution of organism. Plateau pika is the keystone species in community of grasslands in Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we combine genetic and field data to character the population genetic pattern and dispersal dynamics in plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae ). Totally, 1,352 individual samples were collected, and 10 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Results revealed that plateau pika possessed high genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficient in a fine-scale population. Dispersal distance is short and restricted in about 20 m. An effective sex-biased dispersal strategy is employed by plateau pika: males disperse in breeding period for mating while females do it after reproduction for offspring and resource. Inbreeding avoiding was shown as the common driving force of dispersal, together with the other two factors, environment and resource. In addition, natal dispersal is female biased. More detailed genetic analyzes are needed to confirm the role of inbreeding avoidance and resource competition as ultimate cause of dispersal patterns in plateau pika.
Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo
The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.
Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Rausche, Sirkka; Cueva, Augusta; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Espinosa, Carlos; Breuer, Lutz
Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites. Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf-shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected. In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species (Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera) on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of
Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.
Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.
Spangler, Lawrence E.
The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek
von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas
Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and
Hanyu, Takeshi; Tejada, Maria Luisa G.; Shimizu, Kenji; Ishizuka, Osamu; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing; Senda, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hirahara, Yuka; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Goto, Kosuke T.; Ishikawa, Akira
Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau. Despite the thick sediment cover, several volcanic cones with strong acoustic reflection were discovered on the submarine flank of the Nuugurigia Seamount. From such volcanic cones, basalts were successfully sampled by dredging. Radiometric dating of basalts and ferromanganese encrustation indicate eruption age of 20-25 Ma, significantly younger than the 122 Ma main OJP plateau and post-plateau basalts. The age range coincides with the collision of the OJP with the Solomon Arc. The Nuugurigia basalts geochemically differ from any other rocks sampled on the OJP so far. They are alkali basalts with elevated Sr, low Zr and Hf, and Enriched Mantle-I (EMI)-like isotopic composition. Parental magmas of these alkali basalts may have formed by small-degree melting of peridotitic mantle impregnated with recycled pyroxenite material having enriched geochemical composition in the OJP's mantle root. We conclude that small-volume alkali basalts from the enriched mantle root migrated through faults or fractures caused by the collision along the Stewart Arch to form the seamount. Our results suggest that the collision of the OJP with the Solomon arc played an important role in the origin of similar post-plateau seamounts along the Stewart Arch.
Capacidad de uso de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, complejo de cuencas Sabana Yegua, República Dominicana Land use capacity in the mini watershed El Limón, Sabana Yegua Watershed Complex, Dominican Republic
Maldané Cuello Espinoza
Full Text Available Este estudio aborda el análisis biofísico de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, en el complejo de Cuencas Altas de Sabana Yegua en República Dominicana. El objetivo del ensayo fue determinar la capacidad de uso de las tierras considerando las limitaciones del suelo, el clima y la geomorfología que presenta. Se propone una serie de prácticas de manejo como opciones para reducir la erosión, mejorar el suelo y acondicionar los caminos, lo que permitiría mantener condiciones favorables para el manejo racional del sistema. De esa forma, con este objetivo se establecen y se integran por primera vez en una cuenca del país varios elementos limitantes para con su identificación proponer prácticas apropiadas que controlen el problema de degradación acelerada que experimenta el área bajo estudio. Para ello, se determinaron parámetros fundamentales, los cuales abarcan factores de erosión, suelo, drenaje y clima, en función de lo que establece la metodología MAG/FAO/UNED (1996, la cual se usa en Costa Rica para determinar la capacidad de uso de las tierras y ha sido adaptada al área objeto de este estudio. Esta metodología integra clases de tierras que van desde la I hasta la VIII según la frecuencia y grado de las limitantes que se identifican. Para su aplicación en la microcuenca El Limón, se han incluido otros parámetros físicos que no contemplan dicha metodología, tales como la densidad aparente del suelo y los parámetros climáticos de lluvia y temperatura, estos últimos con el fin de establecer la zona de vida del área. Se pudo determinar que las clases de tierras en la microcuenca El Limón van desde la III hasta la VIII, las cuales son aptas para protección, sistemas forestales y agroforestería. De igual manera, se estableció que las mayores limitantes que se presentan son las concernientes a la erosión y al drenaje del suelo. Para frenar y corregir los efectos de estas limitantes, las prácticas de manejo
Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele
The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.
Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...... of Ecuadorian dry inter-Andean valleys vegetation, including information related to the physical settings as well as to the vegetation and flora of the valleys. 2) This chapter unveils the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature in shaping species composition and occurrence. We found...
Mateussi, Nadayca T B; Pavanelli, Carla Simone; Oliveira, Claudio
Mylossoma is a Serrasalmidae genus with only two current valid species in the cis-Andean region but with several available names, today considered as junior synonymous. Morphological information combined with single-locus DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I gene analysed by Barcode Index Number and General Mixed Yule Coalescent model were used in the present study to help the recognition of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in cis-Andean Mylossoma and discuss species boundaries within the genus. Five OTUs were recognized based on both morphological and molecular approaches. The analysis using the Barcode Index Number resulted in five OTUs, with M. duriventre being split in one unity in the Amazon, one in the Orinoco, one in Paraná-Paraguay and one in Tocantins-Araguaia which is coherent with our morphological results.
Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.
Montgomery, Denise L.
Discusses plateauing as a means for long-term career satisfaction, Highlights include a literature review; what plateauing is and why it occurs, including career-based plateauing and life plateauing; some solutions to plateauing for librarians, including management changes and individual changes; and personal examples. (LRW)
Full Text Available A commonly reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is inadequate milk production. In response, women across the globe turn to galactagogues – substances used to increase the milk supply. Andean women have traditional knowledge about the medicinal and nutritional properties of plants and animals that are considered good to eat during breastfeeding. This research explores the maintenance and use of galactagogues, and specifically the use of the Andean flicker bird, within the wider framework of breastfeeding and nutrition policies in Peru. To elicit maternal knowledge and use of galactagogues, semi-structured and free-listing interviews were conducted with 33 mothers. Data analysis calculated the frequency and percentage of women reporting each type of galactagogue. In addition, thematic codes and relevant text passages were used in an iterative analytic process to document emerging themes. Identified galactagogues included five plants and six animals. Several galactagogues included protein-rich foods such as lamb meat and the Andean flicker bird. The use of protein-rich galactagogues as solid food is reinforced by public health messages. However, galactagogues in the research communities are usually consumed as soups or drinks, which are less rich in proteins than solid meals. The potential role of liquid galactagogues in the maintenance of appropriate hydration levels during breastfeeding in an environment where safe drinking water is scarce is a new contribution to the existing literature. The results are relevant to the design of maternal and child health policies that comply with intercultural health premises that value and respect the knowledge and practices of Andean Peoples.
Amy Sue Biondich
Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.
Báez Jácome, Vera Selene
General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Monta...
Albarrac?n, Virginia H.; Kurth, Daniel; Ordo?ez, Omar F.; Belfiore, Carolina; Luccini, Eduardo; Salum, Graciela M.; Piacentini, Ruben D.; Far?as, Mar?a E.
The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called “High-Altitude Andean Lakes” (HAAL) are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles) such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient ther...
Sanchez, Romina Magali; Bianchinotti, Maria Virginia
Tubeufiaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota) occurring on native trees from the Andean Patagonian forests in Argentina are described and illustrated. Acanthostigma minutum and Tubeufia cerea with its anamorphic state are reported from South America for the first time on Nothofagus dombeyi and N. antarctica, respectively. Both species were up to now only known from the Northern Hemisphere. Fil: Sanchez, Romina Magali. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico ...
Brajesh Kumar; Kumari Smita; Luis Cumbal; Alexis Debut; Yolanda Angulo
Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF) and leaf (ABL); and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis
In this report, ultrasonication and Andean blackberry leaf extract are employed for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs); and further evaluated its photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB). The as-synthesized PdNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM analysis demonstrated the formation of decahedron shape PdNPs with a diameter of 55–60 nm and XRD confi...
Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N
Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.
International audience; During a three-year survey of oribatid mites in soil and leaf litter of Andean North patagonian forests, specimens belonging to the genus Oxyoppia were collected. Even though the specimens could be recognized by the use of previous descriptions and existing keys as being close to Oxyoppia (Oxyoppiella) suramericana, morphological analyses suggest enough differences to propose a new species Oxyoppia mustaciata n. sp. A new identification key to species of Oxyoppiinae fr...
RIVEROS ANDRE J.
Full Text Available We report differences in foraging behavior of three Andean bumblebee species onflowers of Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae. Bombus atratus was a potentialpollinator while B. hortulanus and B. rubicundus collected nectar by robbing throughholes. We attribute behavioral differences to physical constraints. B. atratus has alonger glossa and a larger body size and is able to reach the nectaries, whereas B.hortulanus and B. rubicundus have shorter glossae and smaller bodies and probablymust rob nectar through holes at the base of flowers.
Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.
César Augusto Díaz Rojas
Full Text Available La presente investigación se llevó a cabo en cuatro fincas con ganaderías lecheras especializadas localizadas en la sabana de Bogotá, de las cuales se tomaron un total de 78 animales divididos en tres grupos etáreos: vacas, novillas y terneras. La leptospira spp se diagnosticó por el método de Microaglutinación-Lisis (MAT; se realizó un seguimiento serológico durante un año en nueve muestreos y se evaluaron títulos a L. hardjo, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. pomona, L. canicola y L. grippotyphosa, pruebas hepáticas como: alanino amino transferasa (ALAT, aspartato amino transferasa (ASAT y pruebas renales como: nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN y creatinina, estas se compararon con los registros de variables productivas como: producción de leche y variables reproductivas como: intervalo entre partos, días abiertos y servicios por concepción. La prevalencia a Leptospira spp encontrada en bovinos en cuatro fincas de la sabana de Bogotá, fue de 31,74%. La mayor prevalencia durante el estudio fue para el serovar L. hardjo 12,7% (90/711; con respecto a las fincas el serovar que presentó la mayor prevalencia fue L. icterohaemorrhagiae en la finca cuatro con 29% (24/85. El grupo etáreo número dos (novillas reportó la mayor prevalencia al serovar L. icterohaemorrhagiae con 16,5% (20/127. No se reportan cambios en los rangos fisiológicos para los grupos etáreos y fincas en las variables hepáticas y renales: ALAT con 20.452 U/L en promedio y creatinina 1,2769 mg/dl en promedio. Existió una leve disminución del BUN 12,934 mg/dl. El valor de ASAT estuvo por encima del rango normal 108,96 U/L. Los valores para las variables productivas fueron los siguientes: días abiertos 238,64 días, intervalo entre partos 522,78 días, servicios por concepción 2,56 servicios; no hubo una asociación directa entre los serovares en los diferentes muestreos con la variable producción de leche.
Jenny González Muñoz
Full Text Available Los procesos culturales de los pueblos rurales de América Latina en cuanto a su parte inmaterial, están íntimamente relacionados con la memoria colectiva y/o social, la cual puede fungir, entre otras cosas, para afianzar la transmisión de leyendas creadas por la sabiduría popular por medio de la tradición oral. En los llanos centro-occidentales venezolanos a lo largo de más dos siglos se ha diseminado cantidad de leyendas que cuentan la aparición de espíritus que vagan por las sabanas solitarias, sobre todo en las noches de mayor oscuridad; los llamados “espantos de la sabana” son las almas de antiguos pobladores, ya conocidos, que deambulan pidiendo oraciones para su descanso eterno, o por no poder encontrar la paz que procuran. Dichas narraciones, al pasar de generación en generación forman parte de la identidad llanera y son incluidas en la literatura nacional; en el presente artículo se destaca esta característica colocando como ejemplo la novela de Rómulo Gallegos, Cantaclaro, así como coplas populares o aquellas recopiladas por Alberto Arvelo Torrealba para establecer el enlace existente entre la creación y transmisión de las leyendas y la religiosidad de dicha cultura. Palabras clave: Espantos de la sabana. Leyendas populares. Llanos centro-occidentales venezolanos. Religiosidad. Abstract Cultural processes of rural populations in Latin America while its immaterial dimension, are closely related to social and collective memory, which can serve, among other thins, to strengthen the transmission of legends created by wisdom through oral tradition. In the plains of the Midwest Venezuelan, during more than two centuries, were heard many legends that tell the apparition of spirits which roam the savannas lonely, especially on the darkest nights. These "ghosts of Savannah" are the souls of old settlers who roam (roam because they can not find peace or because they are asking for prayers for his eternal rest. These stories
Chaparro Molano, G.
Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.
Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.
Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez; Maniguaje, Nancy Lorena; Duque, Alvaro Javier
The sub-Andean forests are characterized by a high biodiversity, but little is known about their natural dynamics. In order to generate new information, this study assessed two permanent plots of one hectare each, in the Northern Andean area of the Western Cordillera, Colombia. Methodology included the evaluation of diversity patterns, above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics, and mortality and recruitment rates. Besides, we used the Fisher's Alpha index to calculate species diversity. Forest dynamics and AGB were evaluated in both plots by means of three censuses carried out within a nine years period. In total, we found 1 664 individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH)> or =10cm belonging to 222 species, 113 genera and 60 families. Mean species richness was of 156 species/ha and a mean Fisher's Alpha index of 56.2/ha. The mortality rate was 0.88% and recruitment was 1.16%, which did not allow to lay any external effect of global warming or climate change on individual forest dynamics. However, the mean AGB was 243.44+/-9.82t/ha, with an annual average increase of 2.9t/ha, a higher value than the one reported in other studies of high sub-Andean forests, which suggests that equilibrium in terms of the AGB have not yet been reached. Besides, according to field observations, a recovery process, from a disturbance that occurred in the past, might be on his way.
Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Klitgård, Bente B; Pansarin, Emerson; Gerlach, Günter
The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages. Using novel molecular sequences (five nuclear and plastid regions) and twelve biogeographic models, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of Cycnoches originated in Amazonia ca 5 Mya. The first colonization of Central America occurred from a direct migration event from Amazonia, and multiple bidirectional trans-Andean migrations between Amazonia and Central America took place subsequently. Notably, these rare biological exchanges occurred well after major mountain building periods. The Andes have limited plant migration, yet it has seldom allowed episodic gene exchange of lowland epiphyte lineages such as orchids with great potential for effortless dispersal because of the very light, anemochorous seeds.
Giménez, Maria A; Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Roascio, Antonella; Amarillo, Miguel; Sammán, Norma; Lobo, Manuel
Although pasta is one of the most widely demanded products among gluten-intolerant people, few studies have focused on the sensory analysis and acceptability of these products. Spaghetti was made from Andean corn (Zea mays var. amylacea), capia and cully varieties from northern Argentina, and the flash profile technique was applied by semi-trained assessors to compare the sensory profile of this type of spaghetti with those made with rice and wheat flours. Acceptability of capia corn spaghetti was studied in celiac and non-celiac consumer groups using a 9-point hedonic scale and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions. Two Andean corn spaghetti samples were described by assessors as rough, odd-smelling and odd-tasting. These terms were also used by non-celiac consumers to describe the capia corn spaghetti sample, which explained its low acceptability scores. However, celiac consumers assigned high acceptability scores to the same sample and described it as tasty, smooth, tender, novel, having a pleasant flavor and good quality, and as a product that can be consumed every day and by the whole family. The results of this study suggest that Andean corn flours are a suitable and acceptable product for celiac consumers and can be used in the production of spaghetti for celiac consumers but should be reformulated for non-celiac consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Helton Santos Pereira
Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.
Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus
The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lotero Cadavid, J.
A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions
NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Springfield Plateau aquifer thermo cline correlates the temperature data throughout the state in the upper Mississippian Subsystem, from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone...
Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the role of surgical treatment of tibial plateau fractures, its functional outcome and complications. Demographic data for the patients and details of current clinical and radiological follow-up findings were obtained to assess range of motion, clinical stability, alignment of the knee, and posttraumatic arthrosis (Kellgren/Lawrence score. 64 cases of tibial plateau fractures treated by different surgical methods and variuos implants type were studied from 2013 to 2015 and followed-up for minimum period of 6 months. The systematisation of the casuitry was made using Schatzker and AO classifications. The treatment methods consist of: percutaneous cannulated cancellous screws, ORIF with buttress plate with or without bone grafting, locking or nonlocking plates, external fixator. As complications we found: redepression 4 case, malunion 2 cases, knee stiffness 9, wound dehiscence in 1 cases and non-union or infection in none of our cases. The average flexion of the injured knee was significantly lower in comparison with the contralateral side (124.9°/135.2°. Knee stability did not differ statistically significantly. There were no signs of posttraumatic arthrosis in 45% of cases, mild signs in 30%, clear signs in 18%, and severe signs in 7%. As conclusion we found that surgical management of tibial plateau fractures will give excellent anatomical reduction and rigid fixation to restore articular congruity, facilitate early motion and reduce arthrosis risk and hence to achieve optimal knee function. The choice of optimal surgical methods, proper approach and implant is made in relation to fracture type according Schatzker and AO classification.
Lee, Patrick Chang Boon
Survey responses from 170 of 300 engineers working in Singapore revealed that significant variance in career satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions was accounted for by professional plateau, the point at which individuals find their jobs unchallenging with few opportunities for professional development. (Contains 33 references.)…
Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.
We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is
Full Text Available The Andean bear is an endemic species of the tropical Andes who has an almost exclusively plant-based diet. Since herbivorous mammals do not carry enzymes for fiber degradation, the establishment of symbiosis with cellulolytic microorganisms in their gastrointestinal (GI tract is necessary to help them fulfill their nutritional needs. Furthermore, as described for other mammals, a stable, diverse, and balanced gut microbial composition is an indicator of a healthy status of the host; under disturbances this balance can be lost, leading to potential diseases of the host. The goal of this study was to describe the gut microbiota of wild and captive Andean bears and determine how habitat status influences the composition and diversity of the gut symbiotic community. Fecal samples from wild (n = 28 and captive (n = 8 Andean bears were collected in “Reserva Pantano de Martos” and “Fundación Bioandina”, Colombia. Composition and diversity analyses were performed using amplicons from the V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene sequenced using the Ion PGM platform. PICRUSt algorithm was applied to predict the gene content of the gut microbiome of wild and captive Andean bears. A total of 5,411 and 838 OTUs were identified for wild and captive bears, respectively. Captive bears contained a lower number of bacterial phyla (n = 7 compared to wild individuals (n = 9. Proteobacteria (59.03% and Firmicutes (14.03% were the phyla that contributed the most to differences between wild and captive bears (overall dissimilarity = 87.72%. At family level, Enterobacteriaceae drove the main differences between the two groups (13.7%. PICRUSt metagenomics predictions suggested a similar pattern of relative abundance of gene families associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates across samples in wild individuals, despite the taxonomic differences of their gut microbiota. Captivity alters the availability and diversity of food resources, which likely reduces microbiota
Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.
The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear, and its paleo-elevation reconstructions are crucial to interpret the geodynamic evolution and to understand the climatic changes in Asia. Uplift histories of the Tibetan Plateau based on different proxies differ considerably, and two viewpoints are pointedly opposing on the paleo-elevation estimations of the Tibetan Plateau. One viewpoint is that the Tibetan Plateau did not strongly uplift to reach its modern elevation until the Late Miocene, but another one, mainly based on stable isotopes, argues that the Tibetan Plateau formed early during the Indo-Asian collision and reached its modern elevation in the Paleogene or by the Middle Miocene. In 1839, Hugh Falconer firstly reported some rhinocerotid fossils collected from the Zanda Basin in Tibet, China and indicated that the Himalayas have uplifted by more than 2,000 m since several million years ago. In recent years, the vertebrate fossils discovered from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas implied a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. During the Oligocene, giant rhinos lived in northwestern China to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, while they were also distributed in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to the south of this plateau, which indicates that the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau was not too high to prevent exchanges of large mammals; giant rhinos, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and chalicotheres still dispersed north and south of "Tibetan Plateau". A tropical-subtropical lowland fish fauna was also present in the central part of this plateau during the Late Oligocene, in which Eoanabas thibetana was inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, during the Middle Miocene, the shovel-tusked elephant Platybelodon was found from many localities north of the Tibetan Plateau, while its trace was absent in the Siwaliks of the subcontinent, which implies that the Tibetan Plateau had
Juliana Gómez Mejía
Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis comparativo de marcadores óseos de estrés no específico aplicado a 113 individuos cazadores-recolectores provenientes de algunos sitios precerámicos de la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia, ubicados cronológicamente entre 8000 y 3000 14C A. P. Los métodos empleados permitieron hacer una aproximación a las condiciones de vida de la muestra investigada y comprender la influencia que tuvieron los cambios de los modos de subsistencia sobre la salud. Los resultados muestran una tendencia temporal al incremento en la frecuencia y severidad de algunos marcadores óseos. Este fenómeno, teniendo en cuenta el contexto arqueológico, no estaría relacionado con un desmejoramiento de las condiciones generales de vida, sino con el crecimiento poblacional, los cambios en la dieta y un mayor contacto entre grupos debido al desarrollo y dispersión de la horticultura.
Gerardo Mogollon Pita
Full Text Available Para realizar la presente investigación se estudiaron cinco empresas del sector lácteo ubicadas en la Sabana de Bogotá, porque su proceso productivo y comercial tiene gran incidencia sobre el medio ambiente. A dichas empresas se les analizó el proceso productivo y los estados financieros con el ánimo de detectar qué cuentas están relacionadas con aspectos medioambientales, con el fin de incluirlas dentro del estado financiero propuesto. Para la construcción del estado financiero de propósito especial-ambiental, se tuvo en cuenta la estructura del Plan Único de Cuentas para comerciantes, establecido mediante el decreto 2650/93, así mismo se siguieron las recomendaciones sobre información ambiental de la Unión Europea. El Estado financiero de propósito especial – ambiental, permitirá conocer de manera clara y sencilla cuáles han sido las inversiones, los ingresos, los costos y los gastos del ente económico en un período dado. Así mismo se podrá conocer la estructura patrimonial medioambiental puesto que en él se verán reflejados los activos, pasivos y patrimonio que la compañía tiene comprometidos con el medio ambiente.
Maldané Cuello Espinosa
Full Text Available Este artículo trata el desarrollo de un proceso de sensibilización y empoderamiento por parte de los productores y productoras agrícolas de la microcuenca El Limón, dentro del complejo de cuencas que alimentan a la presa Sabana Yegua, en República Dominicana. La metodología implementada en el proceso se basa en un enfoque participativo local, que a su vez está basado en el modelo de Acción Ambiental Positiva (AAP, el cual incluye los elementos de habilidades y procedimientos, conceptos, empoderamiento y actitudes. En el escrito se presenta la aplicación de este enfoque y los productos obtenidos del proceso de sensibilización y empoderamiento. Dentro de los resultados se incluye la adopción de prácticas sostenibles del recurso suelo, donde se desarrollan prácticas de conservación, con el fin de reducir la degradación a la que está expuesto el mencionado recurso. El objetivo es que los productores logren interiorizar y experimentar la importancia de proteger el suelo en términos económicos y ambientales.
Yamila Sánchez Bello
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como base el estudio acerca de la ocupación del tiempo libre, por su positiva influencia en la formación de la personalidad del hombre manifestada en su modo de vida al cambiar hábitos, ideología y cultura social de cómo ocuparlo. Consta de tres capítulos que van desde, las concepciones del tiempo libre y la recreación el primero sobre, la caracterización del grupo, la comunidad y resultados del diagnóstico inicial, donde se constata cuál es el tiempo libre que disponen los adolescentes y la poca sistematicidad en actividades, al aplicar de los métodos teóricos y empíricos en el segundo, y un tercer capítulo donde se realiza la fundamentación del plan de actividades físico-recreativa para ocupar el tiempo libre de los adolescentes y al final se analizan los resultados obtenido tras su puesta en marcha. Las actividades van acompañadas de acciones encaminadas a transformar conductas desacordes al buen desarrollo humano, para este propósito se escogieron un grupo de adolescentes en edades entre 15-18 años del municipio Carirubana en el Consejo Comunal Sabana Grande. El plan tuvo como base la aplicación de los conceptos: Tiempo libre, comunidad, adolescente.
Mellema, Jos J.; Doornberg, Job N.; Molenaars, Rik J.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter; Babis, George C.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Prayson, Michael J.; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Acacio, Ramos; Verbeek, Diederik O.; Melvanki, Parag; Kreis, Barbara E.; Mehta, Samir; Meylaerts, S.; Wojtek, S.; Yeap, Ewe J.; Haapasalo, Heidi; Kristan, Anže; Coles, Chad; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Mormino, Matthew; Memon, Matthew; Tyllianakis, Minos; Schandelmaier, Peter; Jenkinson, R. J.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Shahriar, Chegini M. H.; Belangero, William D.; Leonidovich, Golovakha M.; Davenport, J. H.; Kabir, Koroush; Althausen, Peter L.; Weil, Yoram; Toom, Alar; Sa da Costa, Daniel; Koukoulias, Nikolaos; Manidakis, Nikolaos; van den Bogaert, Max; Patczai, Balázs; Grauls, Anthony; Kurup, Harish; van den Bekerom, Michel P.; Lansdaal, Joris R.; Vale, Mário; Ousema, Paul; Barquet, Antonio; Cross, Brian J.; Broekhuyse, Henry; Haverkamp, Daniel; Merchant, Milind; Harvey, Edward; Stojkovska Pemovska, Emilija; Frihagen, Frede; Seibert, Franz Josef; Garnavos, Christos; van der Heide, Huub; Villamizar, Harold Alonso; Harris, Ian; Borris, Lars C.; Brink, Ole; Choudhari, Pradeep; Swiontkowski, Marc; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Tosounidis, Theodoros; van Rensen, Inge; Martinelli, N.; Park, D. H.; Lasanianos, Nikolaos; Vide, J.; Engvall, A.; Zura, R. D.; Jubel, Axel; Kawaguchi, Alan; Goost, Hans; Bishop, Julius; Mica, Ladislav; Pirpiris, Marinis; van Helden, S. H.; Bouaicha, Samy; Schepers, T.; Havliček, Tomo; Giordano, Vincenzo
The purpose of this study was to assess the interobserver reliability and diagnostic accuracy for 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT)-based evaluation of tibial plateau fracture characteristics. We hypothesized that recognition of specific tibial plateau fracture
Ancient and modern snail shells have given scientists a unique look at the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, confirming that parts of the plateau have actually lost elevation over time, despite its immense height. A new paper detailing the research was published on 29 August in the Geological Society of America Bulletin (doi:10.1130/B31000.1).
In recent times, Plateau State, especially Jos, has been characterised by one form of crisis or the other. This, in turn leads to loss of lives and property. This paper therefore, attempts to examine the relevance of the agenda setting role of the mass media in resolving the lingering crisis in Plateau State. In addition, the paper ...
Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan
The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.
The study investigated Users Satisfaction with Library and Information Service in Plateau State Special Education Institution. Survey research method was adopted for the study and the population of the study consists of staff and students of the special educational institutions in Plateau State. The three selected institutions ...
Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek
The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.
Subsurface hydrologic conditions in the Pacific Northwest are strongly controlled by the structural and stratigraphic framework of subregions. A significant portion of the Pacific Northwest is underlain by the Columbia River Plateau basalt sequence. This discussion is limited to hydrologic conditions as they relate to the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province and specifically to the Pasco Basin in the central part of the province
The Jos Plateau basalts, present Zr/Nb ratios (2.4-3.0) comparable to those of the alkali basalts of the lower Benue valley, and of the Cameroon volcanic line, suggesting that they were possibly derived from the same mantle source. Keywords: Jos Plateau, alkali basalt, mantle, partial melting, incompatible elements.
Jos, the capital of Plateau State, was the centre of attraction for locals and foreigners alike, as a consequence of its moderate weather, cosmopolitan outlook and tendency for accommodating diversity. For over a decade, however, Jos and various parts of rural Plateau State became theatres of war. The incessant violent ...
Wayne Padgett; Peggy Olwell; Scott Lambert
The Colorado Plateau Ecoregion is occupied by a variety of ecosystems requiring restoration activities following natural and human-caused disturbances. The Colorado Plateau Native Plant Initiative, included in the BLM Native Plant Materials Development Program, was established as a part of the Seeds of Success program. This program is a partnership between USDI Bureau...
Tufaile, A., E-mail: email@example.com; Tufaile, A.P.B.
We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.
Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.
We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago
Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert
The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit c...
Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Werner, R.; Mortimer, N.; van den Bogaard, P.; Geldmacher, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.
The Hikurangi oceanic plateau or large igneous province (LIP), located east of the North Island of New Zealand, covers an area of 350,000 km3 and is located at a depth of 2,500-3,500 b.s.l. The Hikurangi plateau was possibly connected to the Manihiki LIP (now located 3000 km to the north) but may have been separated by Cretaceous seafloor spreading at the Osbourn Trough (Billen and Stock, 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 13481-13489). Therefore it may have formed part of the "greater Ontong Java Plateau event" (Coffin and Eldholm, Geology, 21, 515-51), the largest magmatic event preserved on Earth. During the R/V Sonne SO168 ZEALANDIA cruise, 77 dredge hauls containing igneous samples were recovered from the Hikurangi Plateau. Volcanic rocks were obtained from 1) the plateau basement along the 1 km high Rapuhia Scarp, 2) large guyot-type seamounts within the plateau, and 3) ridge-type seamounts associated with rifting of the NE plateau margin (Hoernle et al., 2004, EOS). The recovered plateau rocks range from basalts, dolerites and gabbros with tholeiitic and alkali basaltic to trachybasaltic compositions. The seamount volcanic rocks have more Si-undersaturated compositions than the plateau rocks and range from alkali basalts through mugearites to basanites through tephrites to nephelinites. The plateau basement rocks have flat rare earth element (REE) patterns similar to enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) and basement rocks from other oceanic LIPs, such as Manihiki, Ontong-Java and the Caribbean. The late-stage seamount lavas show enrichment in the light REE and all strongly to moderately incompatible elements, having incompatible element characteristics similar to the HIMU (high time-integrated U/Pb) component in ocean island basalts (OIB). Although the Pb isotopic composition has been extensively effected by seawater alteration, the freshest samples have enriched (EM-type) Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions similar to Ontong-Java and Manihiki basement rocks
Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Fierro, V.
The Andean Amazon River Analysis and Management project, an IAI Collaborative Research Network operating during 1999-2004, examined the impacts of climate and land-use changes on the hydrobiogeochemistry of rivers draining the Amazon Andes of Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Bolivia. The project also provided a means to strengthen scientific collaboration among these Andean countries and the USA. Research in these countries was carried out under the guidance of investigators with backgrounds in the relevant environmental fields, but the bulk of the research activities were carried out by undergraduate and graduate students who studied within these countries and overseas. Twenty graduate students and 15 undergraduates completed studies within the project, in topics related to monitoring hydrometeorological variables both in time and space. Student research and capacity building were focused in areas central to global environmental change, including modeling of precipitation and precipitation-runoff processes, basin-scale water quality characterization and biogeochemical cycling, and socioeconomic controls on the use and management of riverine resources. The analysis of human dimension aspects of climate change research was also featured, especially those aspects that linked the consequences of water quality degradation on human health. Most of undergraduate and graduate students that collaborated in the AARAM project have joined national environmental institutions and some have continued for higher scientific degrees in fields closely related to the IAI scientific agenda. Through this IAI initiative, the number of trained global change scientists in the Andean countries has grown and there is enhanced awareness of key global change science issues among the scientific community.
Melack, John M.; Dunne, Thomas; Barthem, Ronaldo B.; Goulding, Michael; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Sorribas, Mino V.; Silva, Urbano L.; Weisser, Sabine
Increased energy demand has led to plans for building many new dams in the western Amazon, mostly in the Andean region. Historical data and mechanistic scenarios are used to examine potential impacts above and below six of the largest dams planned for the region, including reductions in downstream sediment and nutrient supplies, changes in downstream flood pulse, changes in upstream and downstream fish yields, reservoir siltation, greenhouse gas emissions and mercury contamination. Together, these six dams are predicted to reduce the supply of sediments, phosphorus and nitrogen from the Andean region by 69, 67 and 57% and to the entire Amazon basin by 64, 51 and 23%, respectively. These large reductions in sediment and nutrient supplies will have major impacts on channel geomorphology, floodplain fertility and aquatic productivity. These effects will be greatest near the dams and extend to the lowland floodplains. Attenuation of the downstream flood pulse is expected to alter the survival, phenology and growth of floodplain vegetation and reduce fish yields below the dams. Reservoir filling times due to siltation are predicted to vary from 106–6240 years, affecting the storage performance of some dams. Total CO2 equivalent carbon emission from 4 Andean dams was expected to average 10 Tg y-1 during the first 30 years of operation, resulting in a MegaWatt weighted Carbon Emission Factor of 0.139 tons C MWhr-1. Mercury contamination in fish and local human populations is expected to increase both above and below the dams creating significant health risks. Reservoir fish yields will compensate some downstream losses, but increased mercury contamination could offset these benefits. PMID:28832638
Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.
Bigham, Abigail W; Mao, Xianyun; Mei, Rui; Brutsaert, Tom; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Parra, Esteban J; Akey, Joshua M; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D
High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF ) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF -targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a "facilitated ecoinformatics" approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp., the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2-46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives.
Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo
Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.
Iñiguez–Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans–Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz
Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments. PMID:25147941
Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz
Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.
Girish Kumar Chakravarty
Full Text Available We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU(2 Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.
Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs
Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez; Luz Teresa Valderrama Valderrama; Carlos A. Rivera-Rondón
Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío) and Otún (Risaralda) river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basin...
Vallejo, Luis Fernando; Wolff, Martha
The number of species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in Colombia is updated to 33. This group represents one of the most common components of the "white grubs" complex, known to damage important agricultural crops, especially in the Colombian Andean Mountains. A commented taxonomic history of the genus is provided, including five new records for the country (P. schizorhina, P. onoreana, P. densata, P. guanacasteca, and P. gigantea) and Phyllophaga tesorito is described as a new species. A key to the identification of male specimens of 30 species is included with a catalogue illustrating their key structures. Finally, aspects related to their ecological importance, geographic distribution, and phenology are discussed.
Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz
Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.
William David Hernández
Full Text Available The influence of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT in all the aspects of the society is an unquestionable fact that implies, for the Law, the inescapable responsibility of fostering the fulfillment of the declarations or objectives of the Society of Information. Today´s world, framed in a process of globalization and regional integration, heads to the normative harmonization. In line with the above, the present document studies the elements supporting the normative unification concerning the formation of the contract by electronic means in the Andean Community.
Pérez Vega, Juan Carlos; Blair, Matthew W.; Monserrate, Fredy; Ligarreto Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo
More than 60% of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide is impacted by the risk of drought. In this study, the goal was to evaluate 64 bush bean genotypes from the CIAT reference collection to identify possible sources of drought resistance in the Andean gene pool. Phenotypic traits such as yield, 100-seed weight (P100) and days to physiological maturity (Dpm) were evaluated on selected accessions of this collection which was grown in an 8x8 lattice with two repetitions unde...
We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This
Restle, Kyle N; Biskup, Jeffery J
To determine the ability of a novel device attached to the proximal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) jig pin to accurately predict intraoperative change in tibial plateau angle (TPA). In vitro cadaveric study. Left hindlimbs of adult dogs (n = 9). A modified Slocum tibial plateau leveling (TPL) jig with the Rotational Osteotomy Measuring Arm (ROMA) was placed on the tibia and a radial TPLO osteotomy was performed. Based on preoperative radiographic TPA measurements, the proximal segment was rotated using the traditional method of marking points on the osteotomy a specified distance apart. After rotation, the predicted TPA was recorded based on the ROMA. Postoperative TPA was measured on radiographs. The ability of the ROMA to predict postoperative TPA was compared to that of the traditional method. The average final TPA achieved with the traditional method was 6.4° (range, 3.0-10.0°). The ROMA predicted a final TPA of 5.8° (range, 3.8-10.1°). No significant difference was found between the TPA predicted based on the traditional method and ROMA method. The ROMA may be an alternative to the traditional method of measuring proximal segment rotation during TPLO procedure. Performing a TPLO with the ROMA may accurately predict the postoperative TPA while eliminating the need for measuring chord length, making reference marks, or referencing TPA charts for various osteotomy blade sizes. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
INCREMENTO EN INVERNADERO DE LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DEL FOLLAJE DE LA ALFALFA (Medicago Sativa L.) VARIEDAD FLORIDA 77 CAUSADO POR LA COMBINACIÓN DE FERTILIZACIÓN BIOLÓGICA Y QUÍMICA EN UN SUELO DE LA SERIE BERMEO DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ
En la Sabana de Bogotá existe la necesidad de incrementar la producción de forrajes que den buen rendimiento, con alta calidad nutricional y que podrían ser un aporte al desarrollo de la industria de concentrados de animales.El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer el efecto de la inoculación rizobio-hongo micorriza arbuscular (MA) sobre la fijación simbiótica de nitrógeno, la absorción de fósforo y el porcentaje de micorrización en alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) en un suelo andept de la serie...
Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.
and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape......-Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual...
Fecha de aplicación de fuego y diversidad de herbáceas en una sabana de Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze Date of prescribed fire and herbaceous diversity of an Elionorus muticus (Spreng. O. Kuntze savanna
Full Text Available RESUMEN El fuego es a la vez una perturbación natural y una herramienta agropecuaria en las sabanas de Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze de la región chaqueña argentina. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fecha de aplicación de fuego sobre la diversidad de herbáceas de la sabana. Para ello se quemaron parcelas en cuatro fechas sucesivas, desde fines de julio hasta principios de octubre, en dos experimentos iniciados en 1993 y 1994, respectivamente. La riqueza y abundancia de especies de gramíneas y latifoliadas se registraron antes del fuego; y después del mismo, al final de las tres estaciones de crecimiento siguientes. La información fue resumida en el índice de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener. Para el análisis estadístico se calculó DH', definida como la diferencia entre los índices H' antes y después del fuego. Esta variable fue sometida a un análisis de varianza, empleando la fecha de fuego, experimento, su interacción y año de observación como variables independientes, con un enfoque de medidas repetidas y en dos escalas de tiempo: a corto y largo plazo. Los resultados indican que el fuego, en general, produce un aumento de la diversidad de herbáceas. La fecha de aplicación del fuego modifica ese resultado de manera significativa, hecho que se atribuye a las condiciones ambientales de pre y post-quema específicas de cada fecha y al estado fenológico de las especies. Las fechas de fuego que causan un mayor incremento en la diversidad son agosto-septiembre, a mediados de la temporada de fuego, hecho que se atribuye a una mayor resistencia de las plantas al fuego y a las mejores condiciones climáticas post-fuego.Fire is both a natural disturbance and a range management tool in the savannas of Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze, of the Chaco region of Argentina. Our objective was to assess the effect of different dates of fire application on the herbaceous diversity of the savanna. Plots were burn at random in
Cure José Ricardo
Full Text Available
En varios países se utilizan con éxito especies de abejorros del género Bombus para la polinización de tomate, reportándose incrementos de productividad hasta del 40%. En la Sabana de Bogotá existen varias especies nativas del género, por lo que se planteó examinar su potencial, desde el punto de vista de su cría en cautiverio y de su utilización como polinizadores de tomate y otras solanáceas. En este trabajo se evaluó el potencial de la especie nativa Bombus atratus como polinizador de tomate, mediante la introducción al cultivo de colonias criadas en cautiverio. Se comparó la autopolinización espontánea de la planta, frente a la obtenida con ayuda de las obreras de B. atratus. Los frutos visitados por ellas presentaron incrementos significativos para las variables ‘peso fresco del fruto’ (40,9%, ‘número de semillas’ (103,3%, ‘diámetro ecuatorial’ (14,3% y ‘proporción de lóculos bien desarrollados’ (42,2%. La relativa facilidad para la cría de esta especie en cautiverio, y el potencial demostrado en el aumento de productividad del tomate bajo invernadero, muestran la necesidad de profundizar en estos estudios en Colombia.
Melba Rubiano Briu00F1ez
Full Text Available La localización de las actividades económicas dentro de un territorio específico es relevante en el contexto del desarrollo económico regional y territorial. Por ello, se realizó el análisis de los "determinantes de la localización industrial" en el área de influencia inmediata a Bogotá, entendidos como el conjunto de incentivos de orden geográfico-ambiental, económicos y regulatorios que facilitan la relocalización de una porción del valor agregado, del personal ocupado y de la inversión neta en los municipios del área de influencia inmediata de la capital. Mediante la investigación realizada se identificó un umbral metropolitano que abarca diferentes zonas de la geografía cundinamarquesa. Se postularon, además, dos propiedades de la localización industrial metropolitana y se indagó acerca de los determinantes endógenos de la localización industrial. Mediante el trabajo de campo, se dedujeron los determinantes de la localización exógenos a las firmas industriales, esto es, los que le ofrecen el territorio y que éstas captan a través de algún tipo de externalidades; además, se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la encuesta sobre localización industrial en la Sabana de Bogotá para cada eje, y organizados en sus tres componentes: actividad económica, pautas de localización y elementos de prospectiva.
Galindo Julio Ricardo
Full Text Available La chinche de los pastos (Collaria scenica Stal es una plaga
del pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum que causa alrededor de un 25% de pérdidas en el ingreso de los ganaderos en la Sabana de Bogotá. La evaluación de las poblaciones del insecto y su dinámica es esencial para el desarrollo de investigación en métodos de manejo del problema. En este trabajo se seleccionaron dos lotes de kikuyo de aproximadamente 1 ha, para determinar
una metodología eficiente, económica y precisa de estimación
de la población de estados inmaduros y adultos del insecto,
utilizando la técnica deljameo. Se tomaron 39 muestras aproximadamente por lote y se hicieron visitas cada dos semanas, para un total de cinco. Con esta información se determinó el patrón de disposición espacial de la plaga y se definieron tamaños de muestra para niveles de precisión determinados. Además se propuso un tamaño del lote con fines de realización de pruebas experimentales, de 1/3 de ha. Finalmente se determinó la conveniencia de hacer paso y repaso sobre el recorrido de la unidad de muestreo, con el fin de lograr una mejor aproximación a la población total del insecto en el lote.
Arrial, P.; Billen, M. I.
Subduction is driven by the negative buoyancy of the slab, which depends on both the temperature and composition of the lithospheric plate. Before subduction, the oceanic crust and underlying harzburgite layer have positive buoyancy. As a result an oceanic plateau or an over-thickened oceanic crust introduces an excess of buoyancy and decreases proportionally the driving forces. Previous 2-D numerical models have shown that an oceanic plateau subduction, associated to a young plate (30 My), can modify the slab behavior during the subduction (Arrial & Billen, in review). In a kinematically-driven model (convergence rate of 5 cm/yr), a partially eclogitized plateau can lead to a flat slab. However, eclogitization limits the depth extent of buoyant material and all plateaus eventually subduct regardless of thickness or width. In contrast, in dynamic models, oceanic plateau subduction does not lead to slab flattening, but we observe a decrease in the convergence rate proportional to the plateau geometry, and slab detachment and cessation of subduction for large plateaus. Extrapolation of the 2-D results to 3-D geometry predicts that sufficient slab buoyancy is available to sustain subduction for narrow plateaus with slab widths 6-7 times the plateau width (depending on plateau thickness and length). Here we show the preliminary results for 3-D models of oceanic plateau subduction investigating how the width ratio between the plateau and the slab affect subduction dynamics. We have modified the code CitcomS to introduce an eclogitization reaction and a composition dependent viscosity. Using particles the code track the three main compositions: basalt, harzburgite and lherzolite. The basalt/eclogite reaction is modeled as a progressive increasing of basaltic density. Furthermore, in order to maintain a free subduction and slab retreat, we impose a weaker viscosity for the basaltic composition.
Verónica del Rosario Avalos
Full Text Available In this study we projected the effect of anthropogenic climate change in endemic and restricted-range Andean bird species that spread out from the center of Bolivia to southeastern Peru. We also analyzed the representation of these species in protected areas. The ensemble forecasts from niche-based models indicated that 91–100% of species may reduce their range size under full and no dispersal scenarios, including five species that are currently threatened. The large range reduction (average 63% suggests these mountain species may be threatened by climate change. The strong effects due to range species losses are predicted in the humid mountain forests of Bolivia. The representation of bird species also decreased in protected areas. Partial gap species (94–86% are expected to increase over the present (62%. This suggests climate change and other non-climate stressors should be incorporated in conservations plans for the long-term persistence of these species. This study anticipates the magnitude of shifts in the distribution of endemic birds, and represents in the study area the first exploration of the representation of range-restricted Andean birds in protected areas under climate change.
Full Text Available Two new species of Imparfinis are described from the trans-Andean region of Colombia. Imparfinis timana is diagnosed by having longer anal fin base (12.4-15.5% in SL, in combination with long adipose fin (24.6-31.3% in SL, 5-6 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 42-43 vertebrae and additional measurements. Imparfinis usmai is distinguished by the combination of first ray of dorsal fin longest, but not projected as a long filament, long adipose fin (21.1-27.0% in SL, maxillary barbel exceeding pelvic-fin base, 39-40 vertebrae, upper caudal-fin lobe pointed and longer than lower lobe, lower lobe rounded, 7-8 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, as well as additional measurements. Imparfinis timana is only known from río Guarapas, a small tributary of the upper course of the río Magdalena. Imparfinis usmai is broadly distributed in the upper basin of ríos Cauca and Magdalena, and in the lower Patía river basin. The restricted distribution of I. nemacheir to trans-Andean drainages (Atrato, Magdalena, and Lago de Maracaibo is also discussed.
A herbarium-based revision is provided for Paepalanthus pilosus and allies, five commonly confused species of cushion plants native to Andean paramo. These are placed in the recircumscribed Paepalanthus subsect. Cryptanthella Suess. The group includes Paepalanthus pilosus, Paepalanthus dendroides, and Paepalanthus lodiculoides. An additional two species and one variety are newly described: Paepalanthus caryonauta, Paepalanthus huancabambensis, and Paepalanthus pilosus var. leoniae. The latter two are Peruvian endemics, while Paepalanthus caryonauta is known from four countries, and has long been confused with other species. An additional, possibly undescribed taxon is noted from the Serrania de Perijá, Colombia. Five new synonyms and three lectotypes are proposed, and the common misapplication of some names is noted. Within the Paepalanthus pilosus complex, species differences were found in timing of peduncle elongation, sex ratio, and leaf, perianth, diaspore and nectary morphology. Ecological differences are suggested by specimen data and a review of ecological literature. Descriptions, photographs and maps are provided for all species, as is a key to the groups of eriocaulaceous cushion plants from Andean South America.
Clavijo Ponce Neidy Lorena
Full Text Available
In the municipalities Ventaquemada and Turmequé (Boyacá- Colombia, we identified 20 small agricultures by their production systems including the following Andean tubers: Ullucus tuberosus Caldas (ulluco, Oxalis tuberosa Molina (oca, and Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. (Mashua, which were important in their family meals and culture, however, their use has declined and the area has not seen research and development processes that provide alternatives for handling, conservation, use and marketing, and now are at the risk of disappearing. This research conducted participatory assessment processes for the characterization of production systems and initiated reassessment processes of territorial heritage, identifying common sub-farm agrobiodiversity and projects for these traditional Andean tuber crops in order to enhance the special and knowhow knowledge surrounding the production.
Full Text Available The long-term survival of Andean forest landscapes (AFL and of their capacity to contribute to sustainable development in a context of global change requires integrated adaptation and mitigation responses informed by a thorough understanding of the dynamic and complex interactions between their ecological and social components. This article proposes a research agenda that can help guide AFL research efforts for the next 15 years. The agenda was developed between July 2015 and June 2016 through a series of workshops in Ecuador, Peru, and Switzerland and involved 48 researchers and development experts working on AFL from different disciplinary perspectives. Based on our review of current research and identification of pressing challenges for the conservation and sustainable governance of AFL, we propose a conceptual framework that draws on sustainability sciences and social–ecological systems research, and we identify a set of high-priority research goals and objectives organized into 3 broad categories: systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. This paper is intended to be a reference for a broad array of actors engaged in policy, research, and implementation in the Andean region. We hope it will trigger collaborative research initiatives for the continued conservation and sustainable governance of AFL.
Horton, Brian K.
As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick
Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo
Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...
Adams, John David; Della Rocca, Gregory J
Fractures involving the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau are challenging fractures to treat. Articular depression in tibial plateau fractures is usually addressed by elevation of the fragment(s), filling the residual defect with bone graft or bone substitute, and "raft" support of the articular fracture reduction with screws through a medially and/or laterally based plate. Posterior tibial plateau articular depression presents unique challenges for obtaining and maintaining fracture reduction. To obtain the goals of anatomic reduction and stable fixation, a thorough understanding of the fracture, specific approaches, reduction techniques, and stabilization strategies is needed. This article reviews the most current strategies for treating tibial plateau fracture patients with posterior articular depression. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.
Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as
Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.
Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the
Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.
Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 m were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the
Gradstein, S.R.; Cleef, A.M.; Fulford, M.H.
This paper is the second (Florschütz & Florschütz-de Waard 1974) in the series of reports on cryptogams of Colombia, especially the high Andean bryophytes and lichens, in the framework of recent phytosociological and ecological studies in the area by A. M. Cleef and T. van der Hammen (Amsterdam) and
The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...
Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco
communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence...
Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Boelen, P; Helbling, EW
During January 1999, studies were carried out in temperate lakes of the Andean region of Argentina (41degreesS, 71degreesW) to determine the short-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) upon natural phytoplankton assemblages. Organisms from one 'clear' (Lake Moreno) and two
Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella
Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…
J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner
The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...
Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang
The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.
Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.
The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin
Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; Dantas, Gisele P M; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Naoki, Kazuya; Gómez, Maria I; Santos, Fabricio R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Aleixo, Alexandre; Tubaro, Pablo L; Cabanne, Gustavo S
The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duperré, G. N.
The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.
John G. Lundberg
Full Text Available A revised diagnosis of the pimelodid catfish genus Megalonema is given based on synapomorphic features of the Weberian complex and gas bladder. Megalonema xanthum from the Magdalena River is redescribed. Two new cis-Andean species of Megalonema are described, M. amaxanthum n. sp. from the Amazon River basin, and M. orixanthum n. sp. from the Orinoco River basin. These three species are differentially diagnosed by shape and size of the supraoccipital posterior process, adipose-fin shape, vertebral counts, eye size, premaxillary bone shape and dentition, length of the anal-fin base, width between the posterior nostrils and presence/absence of dentations on the pectoral spine. Eretmomegalonema new subgenus is established for M. xanthum, M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum and supported by the uniquely synapomorphic paddle-like structure of its pelvic fin and hypertrophied basipterygium. Unambiguous synapomorphies indicate a sister-group relationship between M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum, with M. xanthum basal to this pair. This topology is congruent with the Neogene origins of separate Magdalena, Amazon and Orinoco basins suggesting vicariant control of diversification of Eretmomegalonema.
Pérez Vega Juan Carlos
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More than 60% of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. production worldwide is impacted by the risk of drought. In this study, the goal was to evaluate 64 bush bean genotypes from the CIAT reference collection to identify possible sources of drought resistance in the Andean gene pool. Phenotypic traits such as yield, 100-seed weight (P100 and days to physiological maturity (Dpm were evaluated on selected accessions of this collection which was grown in an 8x8 lattice with two repetitions under three environments: intermittent drought (SI and irrigation (R in Palmira as well as early drought (ST in Darién, Colombia. The genotypes included 20 from the Nueva Granada 1 (NG1 sub-race, 19 from the Nueva Granada 2 (NG2 sub-race, 10 from race Peru (P, 14 Andean control genotypes and one Mesoamerican check. The variables were analyzed through a combined ANOVA across environments, while simple correlations between yield and others variables were determinate. The genotypes with better adaptation to drought showed higher yields, 100-seed weight and fewer days to physiological maturity. The coefficients of correlations among yield and 100-seed weight were significant and positive, while Dpm showed negative correlation. Fourteen genotypes were identified as drought tolerant: G4001, G5625, G6639, G16115, G17070, G18255, G21210 and G22247 from the NG1 sub-race; G5708, G14253, G18264 and LRK31 from the NG2 sub-race; and DRK47 and G22147 from race Peru.
Schmerbach, Kay Ingo; Boeltzig, Christian Konrad Matthias; Reif, Ullrich; Wieser, Jan Carsten; Keller, Thomas; Grevel, Vera
To evaluate the influence of a tibial plateau leveling jig on osteotomy orientation, fragment reduction, and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) during tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). In vitro experimental study. Large-breed canine cadavers (n=20). TPLO was performed on 40 hindlimbs using 4 methods. Group 1: Jig; dogs in dorsal recumbency with the osteotomy parallel to the distal jig pin. Groups 2-4: No jig; dogs in lateral recumbency with the osteotomy in a vertical orientation (group 2: tibia parallel to the table top; group 3: controlled superimposition of the femoral condyles; group 4: internal rotation of the tibia). Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and osteotomy orientation relative to the tibial plateau were compared. Positive or negative values denoted deviation from parallel relative to the tibial plateau. Postoperative TPA, fragment reduction, and proximodistal osteotomy orientation were not significantly different between groups. Craniocaudal osteotomy orientation was significantly different (Pjig is not essential for osteotomy orientation, tibial plateau rotation, or fragment reduction. Comparable results were achieved performing a vertical osteotomy with the tibia slightly internally rotated (10 degrees -15 degrees) and parallel to the table surface. TPLO without use of a jig reduces surgical trauma, is less time consuming, and reduces cost.
Woodbridge, N; Corr, S A; Grierson, J; Arthurs, G
To retrospectively evaluate mediolateral translation of the proximal tibial segment (tibial plateau) after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO), stabilised with three types of plate. Pre- and postoperative radiographs of 79 dogs that had TPLO surgery using three different types of plates were reviewed. Two plate types incorporated non-locking screws: Slocum (22 cases) and Orthomed Delta (33 cases) plates. The third plate type incorporated locking screws: Synthes TPLO Locking Compression Plate (LCP) (24 cases). The radiographs were viewed by three Diplomate surgeons who were blinded to the type of implant used. Medial or lateral translation of the proximal tibial plateau relative to the tibial diaphysis was assessed and measured at the lateral tibial cortex at the osteotomy site. Mean lateral translation of the tibial plateau was significantly greater when using the Synthes TPLO LCP with locking screws (+2.1 mm) compared to the non-locking Slocum (+0.4 mm) or Orthomed Delta (0.0 mm) plates. The use of the Synthes TPLO LCP will maintain a malalignment of the tibial plateau. Accurate alignment of the tibial plateau must be ensured prior to application of the Synthes TPLO LCP.
Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder
Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather
Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.
Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate
Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles
The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.
Full Text Available This qualitative study describes the voices and agencialities of female rural Andean students enrolled in high school. The study explores how educational practices and discourses in the school and family context impact these young women’s voices and agencialities. Also analyzed are the actions they are taking to change their existing situation. The post-structural approach and theories of resistance, voice and power inform the literature review and analysis of the study, which describes the many educational and sociocultural obstacles the young women face: an educational curriculum not adapted to their needs, untrained teachers with low expectations for their students’ future, and an educational environment that silences their voices. The results show that despite of all obstacles, these women have a firm determination to seek a different future, rather than live under the oppressive patriarchal cycle their mothers and female relatives have endured.
Avelar Araujo Santos Junior
Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.
Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar
Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.
Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles
Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.
This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).
and neighboring habitats like mountain forests, páramos, Pacific and Amazonian lowlands. No prior study of dry valleys anywhere in the Neotropics has explored how species are shared with other habitats. 4) This paper presents a spatial hierarchical prioritization analysis for 95 species of DIAVs vegetation......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...
Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders
Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β......-diversity correlated with latitude? (iii) what are the major environmental drivers controlling spatial patterns in species composition and occurrence? Methods We established 63 transects of 5 × 100 m in areas with DIAV vegetation, impacted as little as possible by human activities. In each transect, all mature trees...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...
In soils under seven types of high altitude, native vegetation and one plantation in the northernmost Chilean Altiplanic region, 20 microarthropod orders or suborders were found, including 21 oribatid mite species. Seven of these species are first mentioned for Chile. No oribatid mites were found in soils far from vegetation. Data are given as average densities (n masculine ind./1000 ml), accounting for plant preference, geographical distribution and updated taxonomic status for each species. Ten oribatid species form a group of Andean altiplanic steppe fauna also found in Peru and Bolivia. Other three species have been also found in different austral ecosystems in Argentina, and a group of eight species seems to be cosmopolitan.
Van der Hammen, Thomas
The mega-biodiversity of the neotropics is type result of the geological and environmental history. A considerable biodiversity, higher than at present, existed in the Miocene in the low-elevation tropics. The progressive upheaval of the Andes created new life zones that were populated by adaptive evolution and immigration from the austral-Antarctic and laurasiatic-holartic regions. The cooling of the earth during the Neogene and the glacial- interglacial cycles of the quaternary, and the consonant changes of temperature and rainfall, in combination with the topography, had a profound effect on vegetation, flora and fauna, the distribution of species and endemism, both in the low tropical area and in the Andean zones. Presently there is a positive relation of species-density with temperature (altitude) and with rainfall, and partly with relative humidity
Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains.
Full Text Available In this report, ultrasonication and Andean blackberry leaf extract are employed for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs; and further evaluated its photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB. The as-synthesized PdNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. TEM analysis demonstrated the formation of decahedron shape PdNPs with a diameter of 55–60 nm and XRD confirmed its crystalline nature. It showed photocatalytic decomposition of MB (>72%, k = 0.002164 min−1, 10 mg/L in an aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. From the results obtained it is suggested that ultrasound agitated aqueous leaf extract demonstrates a simple, rapid, inexpensive method and should be utilized in future as green technology for the fabrication of nanoparticles.
Full Text Available This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.
Full Text Available The maca is a native product of the Central Andes of Peru, it is resistant to hail, to frost and to prolonged droughts. It is cultivated from the Inca period in altitudes between 3800 - 4500 meters above sea level. This herbaceous plant, has not only a high nutritional value, but it is also valued for its medicinal role. Among the chemical components of this andean crop that have been related with therapeutic actions the increasing fertility and the energy levels, the antioxidant actions, the improving sexual desire and the growth rate. There are glucosinolates, sterols, fatty acids (macaene and their corresponding amides (macamides, alkaloids (lepidilines A and B, macaridine and polyphenols. This article presents a compilation of the researches that has been performed on the therapeutic properties of maca and its compounds responsible of them.
Fontaine, Guillaume, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), Research Laboratory on Governance, Quito (Ecuador)
This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).
del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.
An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.
Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M
Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.
Hoyos-López, Richard; Bolaños, Rafael; Contreras-Gutierrez, MarIa; Carrero-Sarmiento, Diego
The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp--townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia), while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni). A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.
Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Galeas, Salome; Guerrero, Victor H.
In the present study, a simple, low cost, and ecofriendly synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) has been developed using Andean blackberry leaf extract. UV–vis spectroscopy technique were used to study the initial formation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. Morphology, crystallinity and surface properties of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermal gravimetric (TG) techniques. TEM and DLS characterization indicated the formation of spherical Fe 3 O 4 NPs of average size 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. XRD and FTIR studies confirmed the existence of the cubic spinel phase of Fe 3 O 4 NPs and Fe−O peak at 570 cm −1 , whereas TG analysis indicated that the nanoparticles contain 94% metal and 6% capping ligand. It has been observed that, as-synthesized Fe 3 O 4 NPs exhibited photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (k = 0.0105475 min −1 ), congo red (k = 0.0043240 min −1 ), and methyl orange (k = 0.0028930 min −1 ), efficiently. The antioxidant activity of Fe 3 O 4 NPs against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were also evaluated. - Highlights: • We report extracellular phytosynthesis of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf. • The synthesized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are spherical and average size is 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. • It showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and weak antioxidant efficacy. • Environmentally benign, non-toxic and cost-effective method is suggested.
Parada, Miguel A.
Two distinct pre-Andean leucogranitoid suites are recognized in the High Andes of Central Chile (30°31'S): the Hacienda Vieja and Monte Grande Suites (HVS and MGS). Both represent the transition from upper Paleozoic orogenic magmatism to Andean orogenic igneous activity (post-Triassic). The HVS comprises medium-grained peraluminous leucogranites and leucogranodiorites, whereas the MGS includes medium- to fine-grained and porphyritic leucogranites of metaluminous character. The mineralogy of the HVS leucogranitoids consists mainly of plagioclase, quartz, interstitial microcline, biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite, and small andalusite-bearing inclusions. The MGS leucogranites are characterized by large amounts of quartz, plagioclase, and perthitic K-feldspar, and minor Fe-hornblende, Fe-hedenbergite, and biotite. The two suites have a small range of composition caused mainly by intrasuite plagioclase-dominated fractionation. Calculations based on compositions of feldspar, muscovite, biotite, and FeTi oxides indicate that the HVS plutons crystallized at higher total pressure (˜3.0 Kb), lower temperature (˜670°) and higher oxygen fugacities than those of the MGS (P,˜1 Kb; T,˜750°C). Although fractionation of a mantle-derived magma is not ruled out in the origin of the MGS, the two suites may be the products of partial fusion at different crustal depths, and hence H 2O contents of semipelitic protolith in the case of the HVS, and Ca-poor quartzo-feldspathic ( s.l.) rocks in the case of the MGS. Crustal melting was probably induced by a long-lived thermal perturbation caused by voluminous upper Paleozoic mantle-derived magma injection and decompression of the crust linked to an extensional tectonic regime.
Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; McKenzie, N. R.; Constenius, K. N.; Alvarado, P. M.
Debate persists over the effects of flat-slab subduction on the kinematics of overriding plate deformation and the evolution of retroarc sedimentary basins. In western Argentina, major spatial and temporal variations in the geometry of the subducting Nazca slab since ~15 Ma provide opportunities to evaluate the late Cenozoic response of the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin to subhorizontal subduction. Preliminary results from several structural and sedimentary transects spanning the frontal thrust belt and foreland basin system between 31°S and 35°S reveal Oligocene-middle Miocene hinterland exhumation during normal-slab subduction followed thereafter by progressive slab shallowing with initial rapid cratonward propagation of ramp-flat thrust structures (prior to basement-involved foreland uplifts) and accompanying wholesale exhumation and recycling of the early Andean foreland basin (rather than regional dynamic subsidence). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data prove instrumental for revealing shifts in thrust-belt exhumation, defining depositional ages within the foreland basin, and constraining the timing of activity along frontal thrust structures. In both the San Juan (31-32°S) and Malargüe (34-35°S) segments of the fold-thrust belt, geochronological results for volcaniclastic sandstones and syndeformational growth strata are consistent with a major eastward advance in shortening at 12-9 Ma. This episode of rapid thrust propagation precedes the reported timing of Sierras Pampeanas basement-involved foreland uplifts and encompasses modern regions of both normal- and flat-slab subduction, suggesting that processes other than slab dip (such as inherited crustal architecture, critical wedge dynamics, and arc magmatism) are additional regulators of thrust-belt kinematics and foreland basin evolution.
Jiménez-Robles, Octavio; Guayasamin, Juan M; Ron, Santiago R; De la Riva, Ignacio
Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a.s.l.). At local scale, species composition showed strong differences among habitats, explained mainly by turnover. Reproductive modes occurred differently across habitats (e.g., prevalence of direct developers at high elevation, where breeding in ground level water disappears). At regional scale, elevation was the most important factor explaining the changes in species richness, reproductive trait occurrences, and biotic dissimilarities. Species number in all groups decreased with elevation except for those with lotic tadpoles and terrestrial reproduction stages. Seasonality, annual precipitation, and relative humidity partially explained the occurrence of some reproductive traits. Biotic dissimilarities were also mostly caused by turnover rather than nestedness and were particularly high in montane and foothill sites. Within lowlands, geographic distance explained more variability than elevation. Habitat filtering was supported by the different occurrence of reproductive traits according to elevation, water availability, and breeding microhabitats at both scales, as well as other assembly mechanisms based in biotic interactions at local scale. Human-generated land use changes in Amazonia and its Andean slopes reduce local amphibian biodiversity by alteration of primary forests and loss of their
Weinstein, Karen J
Living humans from the highland Andes exhibit antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally enlarged chests in response to high-altitude hypoxia. This study hypothesizes that morphological responses to high-altitude hypoxia should also be evident in pre-Contact Andean groups. Thoracic skeletal morphology in four groups of human skeletons (N = 347) are compared: two groups from coastal regions (Ancón, Peru, n = 79 and Arica, Chile, n = 123) and two groups from high altitudes (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, n = 102 and Machu Picchu and Cuzco, Peru, n = 43). Osteometric variables that represent proportions of chest width and depth include sternal and clavicular lengths and breadths and rib length, curvature, and area. Each variable was measured relative to body size, transformed into logarithmic indices, and compared across sex-specific groups using ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Atacama highlanders have the largest sternal and clavicular proportions and ribs with the greatest area and least amount of curvature, features that suggest an antero-posteriorly deep and mediolaterally wide thoracic skeleton. Ancón lowlanders exhibit proportions indicating narrower and shallower chests. Machu Picchu and Cuzco males cluster with the other highland group in rib curvature and area at the superior levels of the thorax, whereas chest proportions in Machu Picchu and Cuzco females resemble those of lowlanders. The variation in Machu Picchu and Cuzco males and females is interpreted as the result of population migrations. The presence of morphological traits indicative of enlarged chests in some highland individuals suggests that high-altitude hypoxia was an environmental stressor shaping the biology of highland Andean groups during the pre-Contact period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.
The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.
Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; Jacobs, Anthony B; Laurell, Göran
Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Assessment of the brainstem-mediated stapedius muscle reflex in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 18:37-45, 2017.-This study examined the physiological thresholds, amplitude growth, and contraction duration of the acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) in Andean children aged 2-17 years living at altitudes of 2850 m (Altitude I Group) and 3973 m (Altitude II Group) as part of a general medical assessment of the health status of the children. The brainstem-mediated ASR reveals the integrity of the neuronal components of the auditory reflex arc, including the cochlea receptors, eight cranial nerves, and brainstem neural projections to the cochlear nuclei, bilateral superior olivary nuclei, facial nerve nuclei, and facial nerve and its stapedius branch. Uncrossed (ipsilateral) and crossed (contralateral) ASR thresholds (ASRT), ASR amplitude growth (ASRG) function, and ASR muscle contraction duration (decay/fatigue) (ASRD) were measured noninvasively with 500, 1000 Hz and broadband (bandwidth = 125-4000 Hz) noise stimulus activators using a middle ear immittance system. Oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) level and heart rate were measured in a subsample of the study group. Statistical analyses revealed that the Altitude I and Altitude II groups had ASRT, ASRG function, and ASRD rates comparable to children at sea level and that the two groups were not significantly different for any of the ASR measures. No significant association was found between SaO 2 or heart rate and ASRT, growth, and muscle fatigue rate. In conclusion, the assessment of the ASR in children in the high-altitude groups revealed normal function. Furthermore, the results indicate no adverse oto-physiological effects of altitude on the brainstem-mediated ASR at elevations between 2850 and 4000 m and suggest normal middle ear and auditory brainstem function.
Full Text Available The species composition and the size structure of natural planktonic food webs may provide essential information to understand the fate of mercury and, in particular, the bioaccumulation pattern of Hg2+ in the water column of lake ecosystems. Heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton and phytoplankton are the most important entry points for Hg in aquatic ecosystems since they concentrate Hg2+ and MeHg from ambient water, making them available to planktonic consumers at higher trophic levels of lake food webs. In this investigation we studied the uptake of 197Hg2+ in natural plankton assemblages from four Andean lakes (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina, comprised in the size fractions 0.2-2.7 μm (picoplankton, 0.2-20 μm (pico and nanoplankton and 20-50 μm (microplankton through experiments using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The experimental results showed that the uptake of Hg2+ was highest in the smallest plankton fractions (0.2-2.7 μm and 0.2-20 μm compared to the larger fraction comprising microplankton (20-50 um. This pattern was consistent in all lakes, reinforcing the idea that among pelagic organisms, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria with the contribution of nanoflagellates and dinoflagellates constitute the main entry point of Hg2+ to the pelagic food web. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between the Hg2+ uptake and surface index of the planktonic fractions (SIf. Thus, the smaller planktonic fractions which bore the higher SI were the major contributors to the Hg2+ passing from the abiotic to the biotic pelagic compartments of these Andean lakes.
Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.
da Rocha Ribeiro, Rafael; Simões, Jefferson Cardia; Ramirez, Edson; Taupin, Jean-Denis; Assayag, Elias; Dani, Norberto
Andean tropical glaciers have shown a clear shrinkage throughout the last few decades. However, it is unclear how this general retreat is associated with variations in rainfall patterns in the Amazon basin. To investigate this question, we compared the annual net accumulation variations in the Bolivian Cordillera Real (Andes), which is derived from an ice core from the Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W), covering the period 1960-1999 using the Amazonian Rainfall Index, Northern Atlantic Index (TNA), Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The accumulation rate at the Nevado Illimani ice core decreased by almost 25% after 1980, from 1.02 w.eq. a-1 (water equivalent per year) in the 1961-1981 period to 0.76 w.eq. a-1 in the 1981-1999 period. The Northern Amazonian Rainfall (NAR) index best reflects changes in accumulation rates in the Bolivian ice core. Our proposal is based on two observations: (1) This area shows reduced rainfall associated with a more frequent and intense El Niño (during the positive phase of the MEI). The opposite (more rain) is true during La Niña phases. (2) Comparisons of the ice core record and NAR, PDO, and MEI indexes showed similar trends for the early 1980s, represented by a decrease in the accumulation rates and its standard deviations, probably indicating the same causality. The general changes observed by early 1980s coincided with the beginning of a PDO warm phase. This was followed by an increase in the Amazonian and tropical Andean precipitation from 1999, coinciding with a new PDO phase. However, this increase did not result in an expansion of the Zongo Glacier area.
Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B
Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.
Grady H Zuiderveen
Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.
Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited
Guo, X.; Chang, Y.
Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in regional even in global water cycle, ecosystem and atmospheric circulation. China has conducted the Third Tibetan Plateau Experiment-Observation of Boundary Layer and Troposphere (2014-2017) Project in order to reveal the physical process of meteorology and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau. The field campaign used state-of-the-art observational instruments for observing clouds and precipitation processes including multiband radar system such as the C-band continuous wave radar and Ka-band millimetre wave cloud radar, as well as raindrop disdrometer and lidar ceilometer etc. Here, we characterize the summer convective clouds and precipitation and raindrop size distribution based on observation data and FY-2E satellite TBB data from July 1 to August 31, 2014. The result shows that the summer convective activities mainly distributed in the central and southeast regions over the Tibetan Plateau, and the precipitation process had a quasi-two-week cycle during the observational period. Due to the strong solar heating effect over the plateau, both convective clouds and precipitation processes had obvious daily variation. The convections first appeared at 11:00 in the morning, and the first peak of precipitation occurred at around 12:00, which was mainly caused by local thermal convection with relative lower cloud-top height and wider drop spectrum. The mean cloud-top height was around 11.5 km (ASL), and its maximum value exceeded 19 km, and the mean cloud-base height was 6.88 km (ASL) during the observation period. The precipitation in summer time over the plateau was mainly short-lasting and showery, and usually lasted less than 1 h, and the mean precipitation intensity was around 1.2 mm/h. The result also shows that the raindrop size distribution over the Tibetan Plateau was wider than that over plain at the same latitude and season, because of which the rainfall could be more easily produced over the plateau than that over
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Se realizó un ensayo en el Centro Agropecuario Marengo (CAM, Sabana de Bogotá, para evaluar el manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico en un cultivo de maíz. Se instaló una cuadrícula regular de 32 puntos (25 m x 25 m para muestreo de variables del suelo y de desarrollo y rendimiento del cultivo. Mediante análisis de componentes principales de variables químicas del suelo y su humedad y de rendimiento del cultivo inmediatamente anterior, se identificaron dos zonas de manejo de la fertilidad. En cada una se aplicó un tratamiento de fertilización, considerando la variabilidad específica del suelo (AP1 y AP2 y un testigo con fertilización convencional (CAM1 y CAM2. Las variables evaluadas en los 32 puntos fueron: contenido de humedad y densidad aparente, a 2 profundidades, 110 días después de siembra (dds; altura de planta a 55, 90 y 140 dds; índice foliar a 140 dds; análisis foliar a 150 dds; mazorcas cosechadas, hileras por mazorca, granos por hilera, peso mazorca con y sin amero a 160 dds. Para el análisis de datos se usó estadística descriptiva y geoestadística, incluyendo análisis estructural, kriging y validación cruzada; igualmente se realizó un análisis de costos y beneficios, mediante presupuestos parciales, comparando AP1 y AP2 con CAM1 y CAM2. La metodología usada permitió identificar posibles distancias de muestreo para manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico. Los mayores rendimientos y beneficios financieros se obtuvieron en AP1. Este artículo presenta resultados y recomendaciones para el manejo de la fertilidad por sitio específico en maíz para la zona.
Full Text Available The main results of a broad etho-archaeological research carried out in East Africa are succintly exposed. These provide an accurate explanation of the behavior exhibited by the main savanna and steppe predators with regard fo the process of carcass consumption, thereby creating a referential framework that can be useful for taphonomists. Carnivore behavior is accounted for in terms of its contextual variability, due to the changing selective pressure according to trophic dynamics. Therefore, the adaptive patterns of each predator are discussed and special emphasis is laid on the role played by ecology in shaping their behavior. Initial consumption strategies, bone accumulating agencies and contexts, the predatory range of each predator and bone modification patterns are the main subjects treated. As an innovative complement to these issues, the spatial analysis of bon
Se exponen los principales resultados de un amplio proyecto de investigación etoarqueológica llevado a cabo en África oriental. Estos sirven de base para la interpretación del comportamiento de los predadores de sabana y estepa, con respecto al proceso de consumo de sus presas, creando al mismo tiempo un marco referencial de gran utilidad para la Tafonomía. El comportamiento de los carnívoros se explica en términos de su variabilidad contextual, debida a la modificación de la presión selectiva según la dinámica trófica. Por consiguiente, se discuten los principales patrones adaptativos de estos predadores y se pone especial énfasis en el papel jugado por la ecología en la conducta que exhibe cada uno de ellos. Las principales cuestiones tratadas son las estrategias iniciales de consumo, los agentes y contextos que generan acumulaciones óseas, el espectro cinegético de cada carnívoro y los patrones de alteración ósea. Como complemento innovador a estos temas, se presenta también el análisis espacial de dispersión de restos debido a la acción de los
Paula Andrea Guerrero Nieto
Full Text Available El estudio presenta los primeros resultados de investigación en variables fisiológicas y sus cambios por el ejercicio en equinos en competencia de salto en el país. Se utilizaron 24 ejemplares de las razas Silla Argentina, PSI y mestizo de la Escuela de Equitación del Ejército Nacional de Colombia, que participaron en pruebas de salto (1,10 – 1,20 m en diferentes centros ecuestres de la Sabana de Bogotá. Se determinó frecuencia cardiaca, frecuencia respiratoria y enzimas musculares (creatinquinasa (CK, lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH y el ácido láctico.. Se tomaron tres muestras: reposo, inmediatamente después del ejercicio y a las 6 horas posejercicio. Para la frecuencia cardiaca se utilizó un monitor POLAR S625; la frecuencia respiratoria se determinó mediante fonendoscopio; y las enzimas y el ácido láctico se analizaron en laboratorio. Se utilizó el método estadístico ANAVA para enzimas musculares y acido láctico y estadística descriptiva para frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria. En los resultados se encontró un comportamiento estadísticamente significativo (p < 0.05 del ácido láctico y la enzima creatinkinasa, a diferencia del comportamiento de la enzima lactato deshidrogenasa, que fue no significativo. Las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria se elevaron de manera significativa posejercicio y regresaron a lo normal alrededor de las 6 seis horas. El ácido láctico se incrementó posejercicio y disminuyó a las 6 horas, contrario a lo reportado por otros autores. Se concluye que una vez analizadas estas variables, hay diferencias con los valores obtenidos por otros autores, que pueden deberse a la altitud, al tipo y tiempo de ejercicio realizado. Por tanto es indispensable continuar haciendo estudios en este campo.
Caracterización morfo agronómica de diecinueve cultivares de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en la sabana de Bogotá Morpho-agronornic characterization of nineteen cultivars of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Bogota's savanna conditions
Torres M. Juner
Full Text Available Con el propósito de proveer información acerca de la variabilidad genética y la adaptación en la Sabana de Bogotá de la colección de quinua correspondiente a la Prueba Americana y Europea de Quinua, se estudiaron 19 cultivares mediante la evaluación 49 características morfológicas y agronómicas. El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario «Marengo» de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ubicado en Mosquera (Cundinamarca. El análisis estadístico, mediante componentes principales para 35 de las variables evaluadas mostró que los ocho primeros componentes
explican el 88.12% de la variación total. Estos componentes
estuvieron asociados a 18 variables manifestando la diversidad entre los genotipos. Además, éstos se usaron para construir un dendograma que, calculado a partir de la distancia euclidiana, mostró la existencia de nueve grupos en los cuales se distinguieron claramente los materiales americanos de los europeos. Agronómicamente se destacaron los cultivares E-DK-4 y G-205- 95, procedentes de Dinamarca, principalmente por su precocidad, alto rendimiento en grano, alto rendimiento en biomasa y
por su porte bajo.
Nineteen cultivars of «American and European Quinoa Test» were used in this assay. Forty-nine morphological and agronomic characteristics were evaluated at Research Center «Marengo» of National University of Colombia, located at Mosquera (Cundinamarca. The main objective ofthis experiment was to study the genetic variability of quinoa cultivars from American and European countries. The statistical analysis was carried out with 35 out of 49 variables. The first eight components explained the 88,12% of total variation and were constituted by 18 variables. Using this information a dendogram was constructed. Nine groups
were identified. Cultivars from American countries were separated from European's ones. The bcst cultivars were E-DK-4 and G-205-95 from Denmark. These presented high
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación respecto a la clasificación de residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU generados por tres escuelas (primaria, secundaria y bachillerato de la cuenca alta del río La Sabana, en Acapulco, México. Además identifica e l nivel de vida de las familias de los estudiantes de dichas escuelas y la calidad de vida (INCAVI de un grupo representativo del “Kilómetro 42”. La clasificaci ón in situ de los RSU se hizo bajo las normas oficiales mexicanas; el nivel de vida se determinó de acuerdo con la regla AMAI 10X6 y el INCAVI, con la técnica de la comisión Stiglitz del gobierno francés. La primaria reportó la generación de 620 kg por ciclo escolar -1 de RSU, 5,7 kg per cápita, principalmente papel (25%; la secundaria, 1295 kg, 10,5 kg per cápita, y residuos de jardinería (13%; mientras que el bachillerato reportó 1196 kg, 11,5 kg per cápita, y plástico rígido (26%. Respecto al nivel de vida, clasificado en seis estratos, el 65% de familias de la escuela primaria está entre el primero y el segundo, 30% entre tercero y cuarto, y 5% entre quinto y sexto; de la secundaria, 21%, 68,4% y 10,6%; del bachillerato, 64,7%, 35,3% y 0%; consideradas las tres escuelas: 50%, 44,6% y 5,4%, respectivamente. Respecto a la percepción personal de calidad de vida, el 50% de las personas la considera buena, 31,3% mala y 18,8% muy mala; con el INCAVI resulta: 31,3% buena, 62,5% mala y 6,3% muy mala. Esto es una percepción positiva ante condiciones de vida escasas
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación respecto a la clasificación de residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU generados por tres escuelas (primaria, secundaria y bachillerato de la cuenca alta del río La Sabana, en Acapulco, México. Además identifica el nivel de vida de las familias de los estudiantes de dichas escuelas y la calidad de vida (INCAVI de un grupo representativo del “Kilómetro 42”. La clasificación in situ de los RSU se hizo bajo las normas oficiales mexicanas; el nivel de vida se determinó de acuerdo con la regla AMAI 10X6 y el INCAVI, con la técnica de la comisión Stiglitz del gobierno francés. La primaria reportó la generación de 620 kg por ciclo escolar-1 de RSU, 5,7 kg per cápita, principalmente papel (25%; la secundaria, 1295 kg, 10,5 kg per cápita, y residuos de jardinería (13%; mientras que el bachillerato reportó 1196 kg, 11,5 kg per cápita, y plástico rígido (26%. Respecto al nivel de vida, clasificado en seis estratos, el 65% de familias de la escuela primaria está entre el primero y el segundo, 30% entre tercero y cuarto, y 5% entre quinto y sexto; de la secundaria, 21%, 68,4% y 10,6%; del bachillerato, 64,7%, 35,3% y 0%; consideradas las tres escuelas: 50%, 44,6% y 5,4%, respectivamente. Respecto a la percepción personal de calidad de vida, el 50% de las personas la considera buena, 31,3% mala y 18,8% muy mala; con el INCAVI resulta: 31,3% buena, 62,5% mala y 6,3% muy mala. Esto es una percepción positiva ante condiciones de vida escasas.
Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang
The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.
Zhu, Nali; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin
Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content . A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content
Full Text Available In the last century working life become easier and result of this increased people free time, after that interest of tourism activities wide spread all over. Plateau tourism or highland places are not first choices of the tourism activities but plateau rec reation will give an application for potential activity place. Turkey have unmatched nature and rich environmental resources will able to give any kind of tourism activities. In that context city of Rize took place in Black Sea region with different capabi lities, one of the source areas that make up tourism and recreational activities. This research intended for Vercenik Plateau take place 60 km away from Camlihemsin district center and will determine potential tourism and recreational application. Research is based on field observation and studies. This information obtained as a result ofthis evaluationbeing associated toliterature data and that information determined which exercise can be done in the field. Vercenik Plateau; with pristine environment and ru ral locations, the fresh water supplies, unique flora for city of Rize has high recreational capacities.As a result of study; Vercenik Plateau has natural features with the great potential of the alternative tourism as it is suitable for areas but not asse ss enough potential tourism and recreational activities without prior review has been observed.
Carpintero, P.; Leon, F.; Zafra, M.; Montero, R.; Carreto, A.
This paper proposes a radiological staging system for necrosis of the tibial plateau, similar to those already developed for the hip and the medial femoral condyle. We retrospectively studied the clinical case histories and radiographic findings of 14 patients (15 affected knees) with histologically proven osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau. Stage I was marked by normal radiograph, but increased uptake in bone scan and subchondral areas of abnormal marrow signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as reported in other osteonecrosis sites. Stage II was characterised by cystic and sclerotic changes, and stage III fracture of the medial rim of the medial tibial plateau and tibial plateau collapse were present. Stage IV was marked by joint narrowing. These changes appeared earlier and were more pronounced when there was genu varum/valgum or involvement of the lateral tibial plateau. The radiological evolution of the disease appears to follow a four-stage course over a period of roughly one year from the onset of symptoms. (orig.)
Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Moore, Lorna G; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T
Native Andean ancestry gives partial protection from reduced birthweight at high altitude in the Andes compared with European ancestry. Whether Andean ancestry is also associated with body proportions and greater postnatal body size at altitude is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether a greater proportion of Andean ancestry is associated with stature and body proportions among Peruvian children at high and low altitude. Height, head circumference, head-trunk height, upper and lower limb lengths, and tibia, ulna, hand and foot lengths, were measured in 133 highland and 169 lowland children aged 6 months to 8.5 years. For highland and lowland groups separately, age-sex-adjusted anthropometry z scores were regressed on the number of indigenous parental surnames as a proxy for Andean ancestry, adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age and education, parity, altitude [highlands only]). Among highland children, greater Andean ancestry was negatively associated with stature and tibia, ulna, and lower limb lengths, independent of negative associations with greater altitude for these measurements. Relationships were strongest for tibia length: each additional Andean surname or 1,000 m increase at altitude among highland children was associated with 0.18 and 0.65 z score decreases in tibia length, respectively. Anthropometry was not significantly associated with ancestry among lowland children. Greater Andean ancestry is associated with shorter stature and limb measurements at high but not low altitude. Gene-environment interactions between high altitude and Andean ancestry may exacerbate the trade-off between chest dimensions and stature that was proposed previously, though we could not test this directly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E
This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.
Ruiz-Carrascal, D.; Herzog, S. K.; Guitierrez Lagoueyte, M. E.; Gonzalez-Duque, D.; Cuevas-Moreno, J.; del Valle, J. I.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Herrera, D. A.; Martínez, R.
Long-term climate change and rapid land-use change are synergistically threatening the integrity and functioning of tropical Andean ecosystems. The main goal of our research was to integrate climate change projections, biodiversity data and anthropogenically driven ecosystem disruption assessments to quantify the vulnerability of Andean ecosystems and species to global change at a local scale. We merged discernible trends in local quality-controlled weather station data with reanalysis data, as well as with historical and prospective simulation outputs of five well-known GCMs to assess a long-term context for the analysis of climate change exposure (temperature severity intervals). Individual, medium-term, multi-member GCM simulations included: altitude-corrected 2046-2065 (IPCC-AR4) climate change scenarios for the A1B emission scenario; and spatially-downscaled 2040-2069 (IPCC-AR5) projections for the RCP4.5. Previous studies reported mean annual temperature anomaly intervals that resulted in exceedingly high thresholds: the lowest severity interval ( +2.71°C). The least severe interval extended up to the threshold widely recognized as `dangerous' climate change, thereby leading to an underestimation of the true vulnerability of Andean species. Our analyses suggest that temperature anomalies for the full extent of the tropical Andes will likely range from low ( +2.61°C), exceeding the threshold of 'natural' climate variability (+1.78°C). Our results suggest that most species that were used as proxies of ecosystem vulnerabilities will likely experience overall low-to-medium-to-high temperature increases. Since many of them have potentially high sensitivity to such long-term changes, Andean species will likely experience greatly increases in vulnerability. The already-disrupted Andean ecosystems will suffer a further climatic stress, which will worsen the well-known detrimental synergies between climate and land-use changes. There is an imperative need to
Maurício Kfuri Júnior
Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint
Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen
The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094
Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.
Fragkopoulos, A A; Ellis, P W; Fernandez-Nieves, A
The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh–Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes. (paper)
Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process
Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio
A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.
María J. Andrade-Cuvi
Full Text Available Three Andean fruits naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., uvilla (Physalis peruviana L., and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth were subjected to prestorage UV-C treatments (0, 8, or 12.5 kJ m−2 and evaluated weekly to select the most suitable dose for fruit quality maintenance during storage (21 days at 6°C. The highest dose retains quality through lower deterioration index for all three fruits and was selected to further analyze the effects on physicochemical and antioxidant properties during storage. UV-C exposure delayed softening in naranjilla and increased soluble solid content in uvilla. UV-C also improved the maintenance of antioxidant capacity (AC in mortiño and uvilla. Overall, results indicate that short prestorage UV-C exposure may be an effective nonchemical approach to supplement low temperature storage, maintain quality, and extend the postharvest life of Andean naranjilla, uvilla, and mortiño fruit.
Fibla, Pablo; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo; Araya, Carolina; Sallaberry, Michel; Méndez, Marco A
On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, we evaluated the taxonomic identity of two species of Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius: Telmatobius pefauri and T. zapahuirensis, present in the western Andean slopes at the northern extreme of Chile. We also investigated the taxonomic assignment of five populations of Telmatobius recently discovered around the type localities of these two species. The results indicate that T. pefauri inhabits, not only Murmuntani its type locality, but also the montane localities of Belén, Copaquilla, Lupica, Saxamar and Socoroma. Our study also shows that T. pefauri and T. zapahuirensis are the same taxon. Therefore, Telmatobius zapahuirensis Veloso, Sallaberry, Navarro, Iturra, Valencia, Penna & Díaz, 1982 would be a subjective junior synonym of Telmatobius pefauri Veloso & Trueb, 1976.
Guarnizo, Carlos E; Amézquita, Adolfo; Bermingham, Eldredge
There are two main competing hypotheses (vicariance and vertical ecotones) that attempt to explain the tremendous diversity of the tropical Andes. We test these hypotheses at the intraspecific level by analyzing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 24 populations of the high Andean frog, Dendropsophus labialis (Anura: Hylidae). This species displays geographic variation in a number of phenotypic traits. Most of these traits covary with elevation, while few vary along the horizontal (latitudinal) axis. We found that, both, vicariance and elevation had important effects on the genetic differentiation in this species. We detected two highly divergent clades along the south-north axis using independent information from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, suggesting that this differentiation was the result of long-term barriers to gene flow rather than stochastic processes. We hypothesize mechanisms for D. labialis strong differentiation in light of geological and paleoenvironmental models of evolution in the northern Andean highlands.
Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang
The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–ra...
The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.
Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.
A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs
I summarize our recent calculations on quark stars (QSs), for the purpose of explaining some short gamma-ray bursts characterized by internal plateau in their early X-ray afterglow. According to the present plateau sample, the QS central engine model is demonstrated to more preferred than the original neutron star (NS) one. New QS equation of states (PMQS1, PMQS2, PMQS3) are then proposed, respecting fully the observed burst data and the mass distribution of the Galactic NS-NS systems.
Zhenhan Wu; Peisheng Ye; Patrick J. Barosh; Daogong Hu; Lu Lu
Recently completed regional geological mapping at a scale of 1 : 250,000 or larger across all of the Tibetan Plateau coupled with deep seismic surveys reveals for the first time a comprehensive depiction of the major early Cenozoic thrust systems resulting from the northward subduction of the Indian Continental Plate. These systems define a series of overlapping north-dipping thrust sheets that thickened the Tibetan crust and lead to the rise of the plateau. The few south-dipping thrusts pres...
Jaime Fernando Antamba Guasgua; Guillermo Gorky Reyes Campaña; Miguel Estuardo Granja Paredes
The environmental pollution is a problematics that concerns all countries about the world as result of this pollution there take place the phenomena of climate change, greenhouse effect, acid rain, and diseases in people. To delimit the issues, there were selected the countries that integrate the Andean Community, the project goal is compare by means of static and dynamic tests the values of emission of pollutant gases, with the fuel that is distributed in each of the selected countries. The ...
M. Otto; D. Scherer; J. Richters
High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and veg...
M. Otto; D. Scherer; J. Richters
High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) are unique types of wetlands within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derive...
Ecuador is a major transit route for cocaine produced primarily in neighboring Colombia and Peru. Since it uses the U.S. dollar as its currency , Ecuador ...recommendation. What GAO Found No single U.S. counternarcotics strategy exists for the Andean region. In each country—Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador , Peru...Years 2006-2010 30 Figure 11: Total Estimated Allotments for U.S. Counternarcotics Assistance in Ecuador , Fiscal Years 2006-2011 31 Figure 12: Kilos
Scliar, Marilia O; Gouveia, Mateus H; Benazzo, Andrea; Ghirotto, Silvia; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Leal, Thiago P; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Pereira, Latife; Rodrigues, Maira R; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Cabrera, Lilia; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
Archaeology reports millenary cultural contacts between Peruvian Coast-Andes and the Amazon Yunga, a rainforest transitional region between Andes and Lower Amazonia. To clarify the relationships between cultural and biological evolution of these populations, in particular between Amazon Yungas and Andeans, we used DNA-sequence data, a model-based Bayesian approach and several statistical validations to infer a set of demographic parameters. We found that the genetic diversity of the Shimaa (an Amazon Yunga population) is a subset of that of Quechuas from Central-Andes. Using the Isolation-with-Migration population genetics model, we inferred that the Shimaa ancestors were a small subgroup that split less than 5300 years ago (after the development of complex societies) from an ancestral Andean population. After the split, the most plausible scenario compatible with our results is that the ancestors of Shimaas moved toward the Peruvian Amazon Yunga and incorporated the culture and language of some of their neighbors, but not a substantial amount of their genes. We validated our results using Approximate Bayesian Computations, posterior predictive tests and the analysis of pseudo-observed datasets. We presented a case study in which model-based Bayesian approaches, combined with necessary statistical validations, shed light into the prehistoric demographic relationship between Andeans and a population from the Amazon Yunga. Our results offer a testable model for the peopling of this large transitional environmental region between the Andes and the Lower Amazonia. However, studies on larger samples and involving more populations of these regions are necessary to confirm if the predominant Andean biological origin of the Shimaas is the rule, and not the exception.
Smith, Andrew T; Badingqiuying; Wilson, Maxwell C; Hogan, Brigitte W
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems. Plateau pikas have been poisoned over a significant part of their original geographic distribution across the QTP, allowing comparison of ecological communities with and without pikas. Nearly all mammalian and avian carnivores, most of which are obligate predators on pikas, have been lost in regions where pikas have been poisoned. Most endemic birds on the QTP nest in pika burrows; when pikas are poisoned, burrows collapse, and these birds are greatly reduced in number. Due to the biopedturbation resulting from their burrows, regional plant species richness is higher in areas with pikas than without. The presence of pika burrows allows higher rates of infiltration during heavy monsoon rains compared to poisoned areas, possibly mitigating runoff and the potential for serious downslope erosion and flooding. Thus the functional traits of plateau pikas enhance native biodiversity and other important ecosystem functions; these traits are irreplaceable. As plateau pikas are not natural colonizers, active re-introduction programs are needed to restore pikas to areas from which they have been poisoned to restore the important functional ecological traits of pikas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tordable, M Del C; Andrade, A J; Doucet, M E; Lax, P
Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada). All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.
Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos
Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.
M. del C. Tordable
Full Text Available Abstract Landraces of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum group are abundant and diverse. They are a valuable genetic resource possessing resistance to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. In the Andean region, populations of the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans became specialized to infect native potatoes, being one of the major limiting factors affecting this crop. A better understanding of the host plant-parasite interactions is important in order to select tolerant or resistant plants to be included in management programs. Despite the close of association of N. aberrans with potato, and the great diversity of the S. tuberosum Andigenum group, few histopathological studies have been conducted. The aim of this work was to analyze histological alterations induced by different Argentine populations of the nematode in naturally infested roots of four Andean potato varieties (Collareja, Negra Imilla, Ojo de Señorita and Colorada. All the varieties showed hyperplastic tissue in the central zone of galls, where syncytia developed in close association with the nematode female. Syncytia were composed of modified hyperplastic tissue and parenchyma xylem cells. The results showed differences among varieties in their response to nematode populations, with Ojo de Señorita and Negra Imilla being the most susceptible ones. This study is the first describing histopathological alterations induced by N. aberrans in susceptible Andean potato landraces.
Lotufo Haddad, Agustina M; Margalef, María Isabel; Armada, Margarita; Goldner, María Cristina
This work studies the added value to the Andean tuber crops through the production of jams. The objective were: (1) to study the sensory and instrumental characteristics of dietetic marmalades made with fruits and Andean tubers; (2) to research consumer's acceptability and emotional responses; (3) to assess the relationship between sensory and instrumental variables and (4) to determine sensory, instrumental and emotional variables that influence the acceptability. Pearson's correlations showed that spreadability was the variable better predicted by sensory and instrumental ones. The analysis of variance showed that sourness increased with the increase of strawberry and the decrease of apple contents (P response and some emotions changed from one feeling to its corresponding opposite when the strawberry proportion reached 50 or 60. According to a partial least square 2 and a principal components analysis of sensory/acceptability/emotion data, 'typical', 'autochthonous', 'urban' and 'present' resulted in positive emotions which favored the consumer liking. Formulating marmalades with mixtures of fruits and Andean tubers will allow giving value-added to these crops. The elaboration of products using innovative raw materials will be an incentive for farmers to cultivate them. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Evaluación del efecto de la intensidad de labranza en la formación de costra superficial de un oxisol de sabana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia: III. Caracterizacion micromorfológica en superficie. Evaluation of harrowing intensity on surface crusting on an oxisol of the eastern plains of Colombia : III. Micromorphological characterization in soil surface.
Jesús H Galvis
Full Text Available Para entender los cambios que ocurrieron en la superficie del suelo en diferentes sistemas de maíz y pastos se hizo necesario observar su microestructura utilizando metodologías de diversa índole como secciones delgadas y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se constataron cambios importantes en la fábrica del suelo con los sistemas introducidos comparados con sabana y bosque..To understand changes that happened on soil surface under different pasture and corn systems, it was necessary to observe its microstructure using methodologies such as thin soil sections and sweeping electronic microscopy. Important changes in soil fabric were observed under introduced systems compared to native savanna and forest systems.
Evaluation of harrowing intensity on surface crusting on an oxisol of the eastern plains of Colombia: III. Micromorphological characterization in soil surface. Evaluación del efecto de la intensidad de labranza en la formación de costra superficial de un oxisol de sabana en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia: III. Caracterizacion micromorfológica en superficie.
Full Text Available To understand changes that happened on soil surface under different pasture and corn systems, it was necessary to observe its microstructure using methodologies such as thin soil sections and sweeping electronic microscopy. Important changes in soil fabric were observed under introduced systems compared to native savanna and forest systems.Para entender los cambios que ocurrieron en la superficie del suelo en diferentes sistemas de maíz y pastos se hizo necesario observar su microestructura utilizando metodologías de diversa índole como secciones delgadas y microscopia electrónica de barrido. Se constataron cambios importantes en la fábrica del suelo con los sistemas introducidos comparados con sabana y bosque..
Schmidt, S.; Kuhlmann, J.; Hetzel, R.; Mingorance, F.; Ramos, V. A.
Although large historical earthquakes occurred in the Andean back-arc region between 28° and 34°S - for instance Mendoza was destroyed by an earthquake of magnitude MS = 7.0 in 1861 - the slip rates of active faults remain unknown. We report a slip rate for the 50-km-long Las Penas thrust, which constitutes the frontal thrust of the Precordillera. In its southern part, a well preserved fluvial terrace along La Escondida Creek (Costa et al., 2000) is displaced vertically by 10.6 ± 0.7 m as documented by several fault scarp profiles. Apart from radiocarbon dating of plant remnants, three different approaches for 10Be exposure dating have been applied to constrain the age of the terrace. Amalgamated sandstone pebbles (corrected for an inherited 10Be component using similar pebbles from the active creek) and a depth profile obtained from four sand samples yield 10Be exposure ages of 12.2 ± 1.5 and 11.3 ± 2.0 kyr, respectively. Both ages are in excellent agreement with the 14C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 cal kyr BP. In contrast, 10Be ages of five sandstone boulders vary significantly and exceed the age of the terrace by 10 to 70 kyr, which demonstrates that the widely used assumption of a negligible inherited component is not valid here. The age of the river terrace combined with the vertical fault offset yields an uplift rate of ~0.8 mm/yr for the Las Penas thrust. Combined with the fault dip of 25°, we determine a Late Quaternary horizontal shortening rate of ~1.8 mm/yr, which is about 40% of the GPS derived shortening rate of 4.5 ± 1.7 mm/yr in the back-arc region of the Andes (Brooks et al., 2003). References Brooks, B.A., Bevis, M., Smalley, R., Kendrick, E., Manceda, R., Lauria, E., Maturana, R. & Araujo, M. (2003): Crustal motion in the Southern Andes (26° - 36°S): Do the Andes behave like a microplate? Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4 (10), pp. 14, 1085, doi 10.1029/2003GC000505. Costa, C.H., Gardini, C.E., Diederix, H., Cortés, J.M. (2000): The Andean orogenic
Rudloff, O. M.; Bird, B. W.; Escobar, J.
Our understanding of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon (SASM) dynamics during the Holocene has been limited by the small number of terrestrial paleoclimate records from this region. In order to increase our knowledge of SASM variability and to better inform our predictions of its response to ongoing rapid climate change, we require high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. To this end, we present sub-decadally resolved sedimentological and geochemical data from Laguna de Ubaque that spans the last 5000 years. Located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, Laguna de Ubaque (2070 m asl) is a small, east facing moraine-dammed lake in the upper part of the Rio Meta watershed near Bogotá containing finely laminated clastic sediments. Dry bulk density, %organic matter, %carbonate and magnetic susceptibility (MS) results from Ubaque suggest a period of intense precipitation between 3500 and 2000 years BP interrupted by a 300 yr dry interval centered at 2700 years BP. Following this event, generally drier conditions characterize the last 2000 years. Although considerably lower amplitude than the middle Holocene pluvial events, variability in the sedimentological data support climatic responses during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) and Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE) that are consistent with other records of local Andean conditions. In particular, reduced MS during the MCA suggests a reduction in terrestrial material being washed into the lake as a result of generally drier conditions. The LIA on the other hand shows a two phase structure with increased MS between 1450 and 1600 CE, suggesting wetter conditions during the onset of the LIA, and reduced MS between 1600 and 1900 CE, suggesting a return to drier conditions during the latter part of the LIA. These LIA trends are similar to the Quelccaya accumulation record, possibly supporting an in-phase relationship between the South American
Zhang, Shulei; Yang, Dawen
Afforestation and deforestation are human disturbances to vegetation, which have profound impacts on regional eco-hydrological processes, the water and carbon cycles, and consequently, ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large scale revegetation has been carried out across China's Loess Plateau following the "Grain-to-Green Program" implemented by the Chinese government. This revegetation, particularly with forest, has caused negative eco-hydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying. Here, we have used "ecosystem optimality theory" and satellite observations, to assess the water balance under the climate-defined optimal and actual vegetation cover during 1982-2010 and its responses to future climate change (2011-2050) over the Loess Plateau. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined optimal cover (0.43 on average) in the most recent decade, especially in the middle-to-east Loess Plateau, indicating that it is the widespread over-planting, which is primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. In addition, both the optimal vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future climate scenarios. Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable eco-hydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold should be urgently set, to limit future planting.
Zhang, Shuilei; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Yuting; Piao, Shilong; Yang, Hanbo; Lei, Huimin; Fu, Bojie
Afforestation and deforestation as human disturbances to vegetation have profound impacts on ecohydrological processes influencing both water and carbon cycles and ecosystem sustainability. Since 1999, large-scale revegetation activities such as "Grain-to-Green Program" have been implemented across China's Loess Plateau. However, negative ecohydrological consequences, including streamflow decline and soil drying have emerged. Here we estimate the equilibrium vegetation cover over the Loess Plateau based on an ecohydrological model and assess the water balance under the equilibrium and actual vegetation cover over the past decade. Results show that the current vegetation cover (0.48 on average) has already exceeded the climate-defined equilibrium vegetation cover (0.43 on average) in many parts of the Loess Plateau, especially in the middle-to-east regions. This indicates a widespread overplanting, which is found to primarily responsible for soil drying in the area. Additionally, both the equilibrium vegetation cover and soil moisture tend to decrease under future (i.e., 2011-2050) climate scenarios due to declined atmospheric water supply (i.e., precipitation) and increased atmospheric water demand (i.e., potential evapotranspiration). Our findings suggest that further revegetation on the Loess Plateau should be applied with caution. To maintain a sustainable ecohydrological environment in the region, a revegetation threshold is urgently needed to guide future revegetation activities.
Spring is the period that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) transits from a cold to a warm condition, and at the same time the WJ weakens and moves northward. Correlation analysis showed that the westerly wind over the north (south) of the TP has a significant positive (negative) correlation with the TP surface temperature in spring ...
The paper discusses the traditional forms of psychotherapy of the Fer people of plateau state, Nigeria. The paper also discusses the therapeutic and psychological significance of the methods. The four systems that are discussed have therapeutic significance such as relieving disturbed people of grief, anger, emotional ...
Precambrian, highly foliated, fine – medium grained schists, which comprise migmatitic schist (MS), quartz mica schist (QMS), biotite mica schist (BMS) and hornblende biotite schist (HBS) constitute important lithological unit in Northwest Obudu Plateau. The schists are associated with gneisses, amphibolites and ...
Eddy formation around South West Mascarene Plateau (Indian Ocean) as evidenced by satellite 'global ocean colour' data. ... The geostrophic velocities derived from altimeter data revealed that the current was moving in a clockwise direction that propagated in an east-west trend with higher geostrophic velocities (30-40 ...
Myers, C.W.; Price, S.M.
The results of recent geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau, with emphasis on work completed under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Rockwell Hanford Operations, are summarized in this report. Geologic studies were performed mostly during the period from 1977 to 1979. The major objective of these studies was to examine the feasibility of using deep underground tunnels mined into Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site for final storage of nuclear waste. The results are presented in four chapters: Introduction; Regional Geology; Pasco Basin Geology; and Seismicity and Tectonics. Results from surface mapping and remote sensing studies in the Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau are presented in the Regional Geology chapter. Results from surface mapping, borehole studies, and geophysical surveys in the Pasco Basin are presented in the Pasco Basin Geology chapter. Results that relate to the tectonic stability of the Pasco Basin and Columbia Plateau and discussion of findings from earthquake monitoring in the region for the past ten years are summarized in the Seismicity and Tectonics chapter. A volume of Appendices is included. This volume contains a description of study tasks, a description of the methodology used in geophysical surveys the geophysical survey results, a summary of earthquake records in eastern Washington, a description of tectonic provinces, and a preliminary description of the regional tectonic setting of the Columbia Plateau
Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.
The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.
REV YOUNG EZENWA OBIOHA
Zircon evaporation ages and chemical composition of migmatitic schist in the Obudu Plateau: Evidence of Paleo-Proterozoic (Ca. 1769Ma) component in the Basement Complex of. Southeastern Nigeria. J. Min. Geol. 33: 81- 88. Ekwueme, B. N. and Onyeagocha, A. C., 1986. Geochemistry of metasedimentary rocks of.
J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald
Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...
Full Text Available Les jeux de plateau utilisent le plus souvent une carte «papier» comme support. Au-delà de l'aspect cartographique, ces jeux intègrent également des notions de territorialité et d'analyse spatiale.
Dong, Zhibao; Hu, Guangyin; Qian, Guangqiang; Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Zhengcai; Luo, Wanyin; Lyu, Ping
Aeolian processes and their role in desertification have been studied extensively at low elevations but have been rarely studied at high elevations in areas such as the Tibetan Plateau, where aeolian processes were active in the geologic past and remain active today. In this review, we summarize research that improves our understanding of aeolian processes on the Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution, characteristics, and provenance of aeolian sediments; the history of aeolian activity; aeolian geomorphology; and wind-driven land degradation. Contemporary aeolian processes primarily occur in dry basins, in wide river valleys, on lakeshores, on mountain slopes, and on gravel pavements. Sediment characteristics suggest a local origin and provide interesting contrasts with those of China's Loess Plateau. The history of aeolian activity and its paleoclimatic implications, reconstructed based on aeolian archives, is short (mostly since the Late Glacial) and shows wide regional differences. Aeolian geomorphology is simple and suggests short formation time. Wind-driven land degradation is less severe than previously thought, driven by different factors in different areas, and exhibited complex interactions with freeze-thaw processes. Aeolian research has been conducted within the general framework of aeolian science but addresses issues specific to the Tibetan Plateau that arise due to the low air temperature, low air density, and the presence of a cryosphere. We propose six priorities for future research: aeolian physics, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles, comparisons with other areas, regional differences, effects of wind-driven land degradation, and integrated observation and monitoring.
A qualitative study of phytoplankton flora was carried out in Shendam reservoir, Plateau state of Nigeria. Seventy one species were recorded indicating a fairly low species number when compared to other Nigerian waters. The major groups of phytoplankton found were chlorophyceae, bacilliarophyceae, cyanophyceae and ...
A survey of the Protozoan species diversity in a productive fishpond of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria was investigated at 7 day interval over a period of 11 months. Samples were collected from water column and sediment. Protozoans were found to compose of the flagellates sarcodines and cilliates. There was a significant ...
Oct 26, 2017 ... government to reduce the incidence of HIV by using condom as a means of dual protection, the utilization of male condom is still relatively low in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the condom utilization and predictors of condom use among male respondents in Plateau State. Methodology: An analysis of ...
Darwin hydrographic survey in 2002, that. New and others have attempted to develop an understanding of the large-scale flow patterns and water masses which are present and which may affect a section of the SIO, namely the. Mascarene Plateau. However, knowledge on the behaviour of the flow is relative sparse and.
Runoff plots were established on bare soil classified as Dystric Nitosols (Typic Rhodudults) at Moi University Main Campus, on Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the best erosivity factor for the area. This was found to be EI30, defined as the product of the rainstorm's kinetic energy and ...
3Department of Chemistry, Arts and Science Faculty, Inonu University, Tr-44280 Malatya,. Turkey. *Corresponding author. ... in order to understand its effects on the observed plateau of magnetization. Although. NNN effect is ... spin state in some metal clusters, in which the spin frustration effects contribute to its stabilization ...
Those in poultry production have reasons for going into the business. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the reasons for going into poultry production on the profit of poultry farmers in Plateau State. Random sampling technique was used to select 60 respondents from 4 Local Government Areas of the state.
Ward, K. M.; Delph, J. R.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Ducea, M. N.
Quantifying well constrained plutonic to volcanic (P:V) ratios is inherently difficult because the tectonic processes that exhume intrusive bodies rarely preserve their extrusive equivalents. Conversely, active magmatic systems that have well-preserved volcanic deposits require sophisticated geophysical or geochemical approaches to estimate their plutonic roots and even when these sophisticated approaches are available, it is not always clear what constitutes a plutonic volume. Further complicating the enigmatic plutonic to volcanic relationship is the highly episodic nature of pluton emplacement where magmatic flare-ups produce several orders of magnitude more magmatism when compared against magmatic lulls. Despite this inherent difficulty, a growing body of independently measured P:V ratios (e.g. seismic tomography, geomorphic modeling, geological mapping/dating, and Zircon age spectra modeling) suggests the contribution of magmatic addition as an uplift mechanism in Cordilleran systems is much larger than is currently accepted. However, it remains unclear if these studies can be generalized to represent type behavior in Cordilleran systems or result from the non-uniform sampling imposed by the ability to measure large P:V ratios in only a few select and potentially anomalous regions of the American Cordillera. To better examine the role of magmatic processes in building Cordilleran high plateaus, we image the crustal seismic shear-wave velocity for an 800 km section (20.5°-28°S) of the active South American Cordillera (Puna Plateau). When placed in the context of existing geological and geophysical datasets, our seismic model reveals numerous mid-crustal low-velocity zones that we unambiguously interpret as the plutonic underpinnings associated with the voluminous silicic volcanics of the Puna Plateau. These larger P:V ratios are consistent with recent thermomechanical modeling of granitic magma intrusions that support the existence of long-lived, partially
Qu, Bin; Aho, Kelly Sue; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Sillanpää, Mika; Yan, Fangping; Raymond, Peter A
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO 2 (pCO 2 ), pCH 4 and pN 2 O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively. Based on a scaling model of the flux of gas, the calculated fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O (3,452 mg-C m 2 d -1 , 26.7 mg-C m 2 d -1 and 0.18 mg-N m 2 d -1 , respectively) in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau were found comparable with most other rivers in the world; and it was revealed that the evasion rates of CO 2 and CH 4 in tributaries of the rivers of the plateau were higher than those in the mainstream despite its high altitude. Furthermore, concentrations of GHGs in the studied rivers were related to dissolved carbon and nitrogen, indicating that riverine dissolved components could be used to scale GHGs envision in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.
Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.
Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation
Full Text Available Recently completed regional geological mapping at a scale of 1 : 250,000 or larger across all of the Tibetan Plateau coupled with deep seismic surveys reveals for the first time a comprehensive depiction of the major early Cenozoic thrust systems resulting from the northward subduction of the Indian Continental Plate. These systems define a series of overlapping north-dipping thrust sheets that thickened the Tibetan crust and lead to the rise of the plateau. The few south-dipping thrusts present apparently developed within a sheet when the back moved faster than the toe. Many of the thrusts are shown to extend to the middle-lower crustal depths by seismic data. The regional thrust systems are the Main Central, Renbu-Zedong, Gangdese, Central Gangdese, North Gangdese, Bangoin-Nujiang, Qiangtang, Hohxil, and South Kunlun Thrusts. The minimal southward displacements of the South Kunlun, Hohxil, South Qiangtang, and Central Gangdese Thrusts are estimated to be 30 km, 25 km, 150 km and 50 km, respectively. Deep thrusting began in the Himalaya-Tibetan region soon after India-Eurasia continental collision and led to crustal thickening and subsequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during Late Eocene-Early Miocene when the systems were mainly active. The major thrust systems ceased moving in Early Miocene and many were soon covered by lacustrine strata. This activity succeeded in the late Cenozoic to crustal extension and strike-slip movement in the central Tibetan Plateau. The revelation of the full array of the early Cenozoic thrust systems provides a much more complete understanding of the tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau.
Lagomarsino, Laura P; Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Muchhala, Nathan; Davis, Charles C
Although specialized interactions, including those involving plants and their pollinators, are often invoked to explain high species diversity, they are rarely explored at macroevolutionary scales. We investigate the dynamic evolution of hummingbird and bat pollination syndromes in the centropogonid clade (Lobelioideae: Campanulaceae), an Andean-centered group of ∼550 angiosperm species. We demonstrate that flowers hypothesized to be adapted to different pollinators based on flower color fall into distinct regions of morphospace, and this is validated by morphology of species with known pollinators. This supports the existence of pollination syndromes in the centropogonids, an idea corroborated by ecological studies. We further demonstrate that hummingbird pollination is ancestral, and that bat pollination has evolved ∼13 times independently, with ∼11 reversals. This convergence is associated with correlated evolution of floral traits within selective regimes corresponding to pollination syndrome. Collectively, our results suggest that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators. Finally, even though this clade's rapid diversification is partially attributed to their association with vertebrate pollinators, we detect no difference in diversification rates between hummingbird- and bat-pollinated lineages. Our study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species-rich clades. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando
This report presents case profiles of three siblings in a family of lead (Pb) glazing workers living in a Pb-contaminated Andean village who presented with extreme plumbism (blood Pb levels: 47 to 128 microg/dl) from childhood to adolescence. These cases are examples of persons who have chronic Pb poisoning as a result of prolonged occupational and environmental exposure in a Pb-glazing ceramic cottage industry in the study area. Using behavioral and physiological techniques for measuring the integrity of the peripheral and central auditory systems, including otoacoustic emissions, and replicated auditory brainstem electrophysiological potentials, the authors found normal auditory neurosensory function in each patient, thus ruling out hearing impairment as a basis for adverse neurocognitive outcomes. This finding is contrary to the prevailing view regarding the detrimental effects of Pb poisoning on the cochlear and auditory brainstem of children. Performance on tests of visual spatial intelligence and auditory memory/attention was below average in these patients, which may underlie their reported learning disabilities. In two of the cases, there was an improvement in cognitive performance following a lowering of PbB levels from chelation therapy and Pb prevention education, suggesting some level of reversibility of their neurocognitive deficits. Nevertheless, these case profiles suggest that if the patients persist in Pb-glazing activities, in spite of repeated chelation therapy and family counseling, they may continue to be re-intoxicated and remain at risk for learning disabilities and other neurological impairments.
Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez
Full Text Available Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío and Otún (Risaralda river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of land use on the structure of macrophyte communities. Streams running exclusively through each land use were selected. Sampling was done in two different climatic seasons of year 2006. Vegetation found (54 species belonging to 25 families was dominated by species with high capability of adaptation to changing and disturbed environments. Richness and abundance of macrophytes were lower than those reported in other tropical aquatic systems. Variables associated with land use, such as temperature, conductivity and type of substrate of the streams mainly explained the structure of the macrophyte communities: streams running on meat-cattle areas -with higher temperatures, conductivity and dominance of sandy-slimy substrates- had higher macrophyte species richness and abundance than streams of protected-forest areas, with higher coverage by riparian vegetation, lower temperatures and conductivity and rocky substrates.
Juan M Guayasamin
Full Text Available Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m, whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450-1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers. Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis.
Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov. In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.
Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.
Hutter, Carl R.; Tapia, Elicio E.; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R. Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W. Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro
Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450–1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis. PMID:28329011
Chazot, Nicolas; Willmott, Keith R; Santacruz Endara, Paola G; Toporov, Alexandre; Hill, Ryan I; Jiggins, Chris D; Elias, Marianne
Both the abiotic environment and abiotic interactions among species contribute to shaping species assemblages. While the roles of habitat filtering and competitive interactions are clearly established, less is known about how positive interactions, whereby species benefit from the presence of one another, affect community structure. Here we assess the importance of positive interactions by studying Andean communities of butterflies that interact mutualistically via Müllerian mimicry. We show that communities at similar altitudes have a similar phylogenetic composition, confirming that filtering by altitude is an important process. We also provide evidence that species that interact mutualistically (i.e., species that share the same mimicry wing pattern) coexist at large scales more often than expected by chance. Furthermore, we detect an association between mimicry structure and altitude that is stronger than expected even when phylogeny is corrected for, indicating adaptive convergence for wing pattern and/or altitudinal range driven by mutualistic interactions. Positive interactions extend far beyond Müllerian mimicry, with many examples in plants and animals, and their role in the evolution and assembly of communities may be more pervasive than is currently appreciated. Our findings have strong implications for the evolution and resilience of community structure in a changing world.
Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena
Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.
Romaguera, D; Samman, N; Rossi, A; Miranda, C; Pons, A; Tur, J A
The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns in a representative sample from Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n 1236) of individuals from these regions. For the present study, only children aged 2-9 years (n 360), adolescents aged 10-18 years (n 223) and adults aged 18 years or over (n 465) were considered. Breast-fed children, pregnant women and lactating women were excluded. Dietary data collection methods comprised one 24 h recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. We used principal component (PC) analyses to identify prevailing dietary patterns. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the determinants of the identified dietary patterns. Two dominant PC were identified: PC1 reflected a 'Western-like' diet with an emphasis on not-autochthon foods. This pattern tended to be present in urban areas of the Quebrada region and was associated with a younger age, a higher level of development, and a worse diet quality. PC2 reflected an 'Andean-like' diet including a variety of autochthon crops. This was preferred by individuals living in rural areas from Puna with a high level of development during the post-harvest season, and was associated with a greater diet quality. These results suggest that the nutrition transition phenomenon is a reality in certain sectors of this population and might be one of the leading causes of the observed double burden of malnutrition.
Galen, Spencer C; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Benham, Phred M; Chavez, Andrea N; Cheviron, Zachary A; Storz, Jay F; Witt, Christopher C
A key question in evolutionary genetics is why certain mutations or certain types of mutation make disproportionate contributions to adaptive phenotypic evolution. In principle, the preferential fixation of particular mutations could stem directly from variation in the underlying rate of mutation to function-altering alleles. However, the influence of mutation bias on the genetic architecture of phenotypic evolution is difficult to evaluate because data on rates of mutation to function-altering alleles are seldom available. Here, we report the discovery that a single point mutation at a highly mutable site in the β(A)-globin gene has contributed to an evolutionary change in hemoglobin (Hb) function in high-altitude Andean house wrens (Troglodytes aedon). Results of experiments on native Hb variants and engineered, recombinant Hb mutants demonstrate that a nonsynonymous mutation at a CpG dinucleotide in the β(A)-globin gene is responsible for an evolved difference in Hb-O2 affinity between high- and low-altitude house wren populations. Moreover, patterns of genomic differentiation between high- and low-altitude populations suggest that altitudinal differentiation in allele frequencies at the causal amino acid polymorphism reflects a history of spatially varying selection. The experimental results highlight the influence of mutation rate on the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution by demonstrating that a large-effect allele at a highly mutable CpG site has promoted physiological differentiation in blood O2 transport capacity between house wren populations that are native to different elevations.
Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.
Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J
General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.
Luís Rodrigo Balarezo Urresta
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the mineral status of the soil and pasture in of the Andean Ecuadorian region, during the rainy and dry periods, three dairy farms were used as study cases investigated him three dairy farms of the El Carchi province. They determined the chemical indicators of the soil and the pasture, the descriptive statisticians were calculated themselves and it was used a multifactorial ANOVA to determine the main factors affecting them on them, comparing means with Bonferroni and Duncan test. The soil classified as acid lightly, 100 % of the samples presented elevated levels of organic matter, NH4+, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The farm had a significant effect on the pH, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and P, and the climatic period on the organic matter, NH4+, S, Cu and P. Pasture presented deficiencies of Mg, Zn and Na, the other minerals were above the critical limits. The farm affected the Ca, P, Mg, Na and Mn, and the climatic period the levels of Ca, K, Cu y Zn. In conclusion, 100 % soil samples presented high OM, slight acidity, low levels of Ca and high concentrations of NH4+, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn. In pastures, there were diagnosed deficiencies of P, Cu and Zn, and their concentrations differed among farms and the two climatic periods of the year.
Di Capua, Cecilia; Bortolotti, Ana; Farías, María Eugenia; Cortez, Néstor
Andean wetlands are characterized by their extreme environmental conditions such as high UV radiation, elevated heavy metal content and salinity. We present here the first study on UV tolerance and antioxidant defense of four Acinetobacter strains: Ver3, Ver5 and Ver7, isolated from Lake Verde, and N40 from Lake Negra, both lakes located 4400 m above sea level. All four isolates displayed higher UV resistance compared with collection strains, with Ver3 and Ver7 being the most tolerant strains not only to UV radiation but also to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and methyl viologen (MV) challenges. A single superoxide dismutase band with similar activity was detected in all studied strains, whereas different electrophoretic pattern and activity levels were observed for catalase. Ver3 and Ver7 displayed 5-15 times higher catalase activity levels than the control strains. Analysis of the response of antioxidant enzymes to UV and oxidative challenges revealed a significant increase in Ver7 catalase activity after H(2)O(2) and MV exposure. Incubation of Ver7 cultures with a catalase inhibitor resulted in a significant decrease of tolerance against UV radiation. We conclude that the high catalase activity displayed by Ver7 isolate could play an important role in UV tolerance. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cespedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Aqueveque, Pedro M; Lobo, Tatiana; Becerra, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Avila, Jose G; Kubo, Isao; Seigler, David S
Persistent application of pesticides often leads to accumulation in the environment and to the development of resistance in various organisms. These chemicals frequently degrade slowly and have the potential to bio-accumulate across the food chain and in top predators. Cancer and neuronal damage at genomic and proteomic levels have been linked to exposure to pesticides in humans. These negative effects encourage search for new sources of biopesticides that are more "environmentally-friendly" to the environment and human health. Many plant or fungal compounds have significant biological activity associated with the presence of secondary metabolites. Plant biotechnology and new molecular methods offer ways to understand regulation and to improve production of secondary metabolites of interest. Naturally occurring crop protection chemicals offer new approaches for pest management by providing new sources of biologically active natural products with biodegradability, low mammalian toxicity and environmentally-friendly qualities. Latin America is one of the world's most biodiverse regions and provide a previously unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules. Phytochemicals from a number of families of plants and fungi from the southern Andes and from Mexico have now been evaluated. Andean basidiomycetes are also a great source of scientifically new compounds that are interesting and potentially useful. Use of biopesticides is an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) and can improve the risks and benefits of production of many crops all over the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.
Maloney, Kayla T.; Clarke, Geoffrey L.; Klepeis, Keith A.; Quevedo, Leonardo
long-lived subduction and variable plate geometry along the South American Andean Plate margin resulted in diverse relationships between magmatic flux and extensional and contractional deformation, as recorded by the overriding continental plate. Convergence velocities, absolute overriding plate velocities, and subducting slab ages were resolved along the trench from 170 Ma to the present using a recently developed kinematic global plate model to identify any relationship between subduction conditions, deformation style, and magmatic features in the overriding plate. Key correlations reflect the dependence of macroscopic crustal strain style on subduction mechanism and relative plate vectors. Extensional back-arc basins involving mafic/oceanic crust developed only when the overriding plate velocity of South America was directed away from the trench and the modeled age of the subducting slab was older than 50 Myr. The development of fold and thrust belts, and uplift of major plateaus, was accompanied by trench normal convergence velocities in excess of 4 cm/yr. Parameters investigated in this study revealed no correlation with the timing of major magmatic events, nor was any correlation observed with the structural style of fold and thrust belts.
Catarina Pedro Carvalho
Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.
Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M
We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.
Cristhian C. Conde-Saldaña
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecomorphological patterns of the fish community were evaluated in the trans-Andean Alvarado River drainage, Colombia. A total of 29 species using 25 ecomorphological indices were analyzed to test how well the ecomorphological patterns are related to the fish assemblage. Although a significant correlation was found (Mantel test between morphological attributes and trophic guilds, habitat use and distribution across the altitudinal gradient, only the last two were significantly independent of the phylogenetic relationships (partial Mantel test. Regarding the ecomorphological space, two main trends were defined. First, benthic periphytivores and invertivores were characterized by having dorsal or dorsolateral eyes, labial appendages, depressed bodies and well-developed pectoral, ventral and caudal fins, which provide them the ability to stabilize over the substrate and make rapid movements. Second, nektonic detritivore-invertivores and insectivores were found to have laterally compressed bodies, lateral eyes and larger eyes and anal fins. These species use vision during predation, are good continuous swimmers and possess higher maneuverability and stability. These results show that the fish assemblages in the Alvarado River drainage are structured ecomorphologically mainly by habitat and the altitudinal gradient. Therefore, this is evidence of the importance of habitat structure to maintain the functionality of the ecosystem.
Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.
Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609
Mao, Luca; Carrillo, Ricardo
Suspended sediment transport can affect water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and its quantification is of the highest importance for river and watershed management. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge were measured at two locations in the Estero Morales, a Chilean Andean stream draining a small basin (27 km2) hosting glacierized areas of about 1.8 km2. Approximately half of the suspended sediment yield (470 t year- 1 km- 2) was transported during the snowmelt period and half during glacier melting. The hysteresis patterns between discharge and SSC were calculated for each daily hydrograph and were analysed to shed light on the location and activity of different sediment sources at the basin scale. During snowmelt, an unlimited supply of fine sediments is provided in the lower and middle part of the basin and hysteresis patterns tend to be clockwise as the peaks in SSC precede the peak of discharge in daily hydrographs. Instead, during glacier melting the source of fine sediments is the proglacial area, producing counterclockwise hysteresis. It is suggested that the analysis of hysteretic patterns over time provides a simple concept for interpreting variability of location and activity of sediment sources at the basin scale.
Padilla-González, Guillermo F; Diazgranados, Mauricio; Da Costa, Fernando B
The páramo ecosystem has the highest rate of diversification across plant lineages on earth, of which the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae) is a prime example. The current distribution and molecular phylogeny of Espeletia suggest the influence of Andean geography and past climatic fluctuations on the diversification of this genus. However, molecular markers have failed to reveal subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification, and metabolomic evidence for allopatric segregation in plants has never been reported. Here, we present for the first time a metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for revealing subtle biogeographical trends in Espeletia diversification. We demonstrate that Espeletia lineages can be distinguished by means of different metabolic fingerprints correlated to the country of origin on a global scale and to the páramo massif on a regional scale. Distinctive patterns in the accumulation of secondary metabolites according to the main diversification centers of Espeletia are also identified and a comprehensive phytochemical characterization is reported. These findings demonstrate that a variation in the metabolic fingerprints of Espeletia lineages followed the biogeography of this genus, suggesting that our untargeted metabolomics approach can be potentially used as a model to understand the biogeographic history of additional plant groups in the páramo ecosystem.
Full Text Available Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF and leaf (ABL; and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM with selected area electron diffraction (SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. UV–visible spectroscopy showed an electronic excitonic transition at 250–255 nm clearly reveals the formation of ABF and ABL CuO-NPs. DLS analysis demonstrated mean diameter of ABF CuO-NPs (43.3 nm smaller than ABL CuO-NPs (52.5 nm. TEM with SAED confirmed the CuO-NPs are spherical and of partial crystalline nature. Furthermore, the antioxidant efficacy of ABF CuO-NPs showed 89.02%, 1 mM whereas ABL CuO-NPs 75.92%, 1 mM against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green CuO-NPs could be used effectively in future biomedical concerns.
Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.
Full Text Available This paper examines how different power strategies have been playedover the course of the three-thousand year Andean civilization. In broad terms, the power strategies center on ideological, economic, and military power (Mann 1986; Earle 1997. The case materials show that what we call states are formations that succeed, albeit temporarily, in combining strat-egies of ideological, economic, and military power. Nonetheless, following Randall Collins (1981:71, I would argue that coercive power is the sine qua non for state development. If we start from the power to coerce as a foun-dation, varying strategies of manipulating economic, ideological, and military power will produce a number of different pathways to varying forms of organization. Some may be more centralized than others, some may be less steeply strati?ed than others, some may have more specialized institutions than others, some may look more like environmental management systems, and others may look more like well-organized predatory protection rackets. Those which were less successful in manipulating these strategies were more vulnerable to collapse, opening the way for new formations to emerge. As world-systems approaches would predict, this has often happened on the peripheries of former core formations.
Cook, Noble David
Full Text Available The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of graft corrupted all but a handful of corregidores. The residencia did check some of those abuses.
El gobernador García de Castro fue quien introdujo (1565 el corregidor de los indios en el virreinato del Perú. El corregimiento fue establecido para limitar el poder de los encomenderos y mejorar la administración y la justicia en los sitios rurales, y al mismo tiempo incrementar la colección del tributo. En este trabajo examinamos el impacto de las reformas en el corregimiento de los Collaguas situado en el hermoso valle del río Colca entre Arequipa y Cuzco. Aunque la corona fue más exitosa en debilitar la encomienda, la posibilidad de soborno corrompió a la mayoría de los corregidores.
Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A
Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) and Eulaemus , distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus , which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis . Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus .
Full Text Available Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The L. elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto, especially the species closely related to L. elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the L. elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that L. lonquimayensis is a synonym of L. elongatus.
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez
Full Text Available The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs. Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.
Ana María Romero López
Full Text Available The germinable seed bank (BSG was characterized by disturbances associated with grazing and forest plantations in the sub-Andean forest of the municipality of San Bernardo (Cundinamarca - Colombia. Three coverages were sampled (forest relict, an Eucalyptus globulus plantation and pasture, by means of transects. The BSG was evaluated by the method of direct germination. The alpha diversity was calculated from the indexes of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson. The beta diversity was analyzed with the index of Sorensen. To compare the BSG in each coverage, a ANOVA analysis was performed. In total, 127343 seeds/m2 germinated in the forest relict, 44,678 seeds/m2 in the plantation and 107,747 seeds/m2 in the pasture. 22 families and 42 species were recorded in the forest relict, 18 families and 36 species in the plantation and 20 families and 40 species in the pasture. The diversity values â€‹â€‹of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson and the Sorensen index were similar for all three coverages. The abundance was differed between the coverages. The BSG found is a reflection of disturbances in adjacent areas that provide seeds of exotic species mainly in the three coverages analyzed.
Hornung-Leoni, C. T.; González-Gómez, P. L.; Troncoso, A. J.
Five Andean Puya species (Puya alpestris, Puya chilensis, Puya coerulea, Puya raimondii and Puya venusta) were studied to determine the relationship between their avian visitors, and plant morphology and nectar characteristics. Our results showed a significant relationship between nectar concentration, presence of sterile apex and avian pollinators's species. In contrast, nectar composition was not related to the frequency of avian visits. We found that Puya species were mainly visited by specialist nectarivorous birds such as hummingbirds (i.e., P. coerulea and P. venusta), lacked a sterile apex and produced high nectar concentration in low volumes. In contrast, species mainly visited by generalist passerines (i.e., P. chilensis and P. alpestris) were characterized by the presence of a sterile apex and production of highly diluted nectar in large volumes. In a mono-specific group we found that P. raimondii produces highly concentrated nectar in large volumes, and its flowers were visited by hummingbirds and passerine birds. We found no effect of nectar composition on bird's visits. Our study highlights the interplay between morphological traits, nectar characteristics and the ecological framework to explain specialized and generalized birds pollination systems.
Español Jeannette Amparo
Full Text Available Con la introducción de Encarsia formosa Ganan.(Hvrnenóptero-Aphelinidae, parásito espec ífico de la mosca blanca Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood Ouaintance
& Baker, se realizó un estudio de biología, comportamiento y adaptación del parásito en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero a nivel de la Sabana de Bogotá, A partir de las primeras liberaciones de Encsrsie, se observó una buena capacidad de búsqueda, dispersión, adaptación y eficiencia
de control sobre la mayoría de hospederos vegetales muestreados, En condiciones de la boratorio sobre plantas de tomate, se obtuvo una fecundidad promedia de 63 huevos/
hembra/20 días, una longevidad promedia de 41,4 días, una relación de sexos de 361: 1 Hembras/macho, una duración del ciclo de vida de 22,1 días cuando parasitó ninfas en tercer instar y de 12,7 días cuando parasitó ninfas de mosca blanca en cuarto instar, En la evaluación del control ejercido sobre las ninfas de mosca blanca en plantas de tomate se determinó un mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en los folíolos medios y apicales y un mayor porcentaje de predación en los folíolos basales, En cuanto al control ejercido por Encarsia formosa sobre plantas de tomate y tabaco en laboratorio y tomate, milflores y alstroemeria bajo condiciones de
invernadero y sometidas a libre infestación de la plaga y el parásito se determinó un buen control expresado en un alto porcentaje de parasitismo superior al 70% y un bajo
porcentaje de predación.
Some preliminary studies on behavior and adaptation of the newly introduced Encarsia formosa Gahan as a parasite of the greenhouse whitefly Trisleurodes vaporariorum (Westwood under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were determined. Different plant hosts of T. vaporariorum were considered. Using tomato as a host for the greenhouse whitefly it was found that E. formosa showed and average
fecundity of 63 eggs per female in 20 days, an adult
Chen, L.; Jiang, M.; Talebian, M.; Wan, B.; Ai, Y.; Ghods, A.; Sobouti, F.; Xiao, W.; Zhu, R.
This study investigates the intracontinental deformation and its relationship with the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the NW Iranian plateau by combining new seismic and geological observations, to understand how this part of the plateau deformed to accommodate the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision and how the property of the lithosphere controls the deformation pattern. In contrast to the adjacent Anatolian block that exhibits westward large-scale extrusion, the northwesternmost part of the Iranian plateau shows dispersed intracontinental deformations with the development of numerous small-scale and discontinuous right-lateral strike-slip faults. The dispersed surface structures and deformation pattern correspond well to the active volcanism and seismically slow crust and uppermost mantle, and hence a weak lithosphere of the area. Further to the southeast are the western part of the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea, both of which are characterized by stronger and more rigid lithosphere with relatively fast crust and uppermost mantle and absence of Quaternary volcanoes. A sharp Moho offset of 18 km has been imaged at the border of the Alborz and southern Caspian Sea using teleseismic receiver function data from a dense seismic array deployed under a collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The sharp Moho offset and the minor undulations of the Moho on both sides indicate insignificant intracrustal deformation but mainly relative crustal movements between the Alborz Mountains and southern Caspian Sea, a behavior consistent with the relatively rigid nature of the lithosphere. Similar Moho offsets and lithospheric structures have been reported at the borders between the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam or Tarim Basins in the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggesting the occurrence of relative crustal movements with the effects of rigid continental lithosphere in the region
Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and three stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, and stx 2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk.
Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming
This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the
Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K
In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price
Arnold E. Manu
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the West Timor savanna productive at different season. The location of this study is in the station of Lili field, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Naibonat Kupang, with 40 hectare of savannah for pasture, held in one year. The data collected are botanical composition, production, feed intake in savannah and forage quality also the carrying capacity. The data analyzed descriptively. The amount of goat used for measurement of feed intake in savannah is 10 does. The result showed that the averages of forage fluctuation available is between 0.61-4,33 ton/hectare. The lowest point of production is happened in the edge of dry season (October that is 0.61 ton/hectare. Then it increases in early of rainy (December and reaches the highest point in the early of dry season (April. From this point, then it decreases and reach the lowest point in October, so, the forage production in nature was increases in December. The composition rate of CP is very varied, that is 2.71-9.48%. The composition of CP in nature grass has no significant difference with the composition in other locations of Timor, that is 2.26 % in the ends of dry season and become 8-10% in the rainy. Most of forage on the pasture is nature grass that is upper 90% and relative less of leguminous plants. The lack proportion of leguminous plants in nature savannah result in the less of forage quality, especially during the dry season there is no legume proportion and the quality of nature grass become very low.
Amy L. Ellwein
Full Text Available The Moenkopi dune field in northeastern Arizona covers roughly 1250 km2, but most of the field is inactive. Dune deposits on the Moenkopi Plateau (MP have remained inactive throughout the Holocene despite periods of elevated aridity or historical reductions of vegetation cover by livestock grazing. We argue that this inactivity is not because of any diminishment of driving forces in the aeolian system (e.g., insufficient winds, but rather because of increased cohesion due to soil development that enhances resistance to wind erosion. Abundant aeolian sediments were supplied to the Black Mesa region by the Little Colorado River and its tributaries during the late Pleistocene (MIS 2 and 3, which enabled the development of climbing dunes and transport of sand over the Adeii Eechii Cliffs and onto the MP. These deposits (Qe1 stabilized during the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition (~12–7.5 ka because of reduced sediment supply and high dust flux which resulted in rapid soil formation. Erosion of climbing dunes/sand ramps from the Adeii Eechii Cliffs eliminated delivery of large quantities of new sand to the MP during the mid to late Holocene. Soil development within the Qe1 mantle increased sediment cohesion and prevented widespread aeolian reactivation during the Holocene, despite the occurrence of conditions (wind speed, climate, etc. under which dune reactivation would be expected. Drylands comprise roughly 40% of the land cover of earth and climate models predict their expansion. Pedogenic stability is not commonly considered in climate-based models used to predict aeolian activity. To improve predictions of future dune activity in drylands, the degree of soil development in aeolian deposits should be considered when evaluating sediment availability in aeolian systems.
Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.
A workshop held in October 2012 in Lima, Peru, brought together more than 40 scientists and policy makers working in Andean forest ecosystems, one of the richer and most threatened ecosystems of the world. Among the various results of the workshop, there is the formation of the network "Red de Bosques Andinos". The goals of the network include to stimulate scientific research in Andean forest ecosystems by promoting collaboration among scientists, and to serve as a platform to facilitate applied research and communication between scientists and policy makers. Current members of the network include scientists of Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Peru, USA, and representatives of Ministries of Environment and the National Climate Change Adaptation Programs of Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. The network has started to work in two critical documents for the region. The first one is an extended protocol to monitor diversity and carbon in Andean forests. This protocol, partly based on unpublished efforts, has been developed by the Instituto de Ecología Regional, Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and has been revised and improved by experts working in the Andes. The document describe methods to document ecological changes that take place over mid- and long periods of time. It focuses on monitoring changes on the diversity and growth of trees, shrubs and lianas, cover of herbaceous species, and carbon content in forests. This extended protocol will be a useful tool for students and researchers interested in conducting long-term ecological research. Moreover, the use of this tool will produce standardized data needed to understand ecological processes that take place at large spatial scales. The document will be freely available at www.condesan.org. The second document consists of an analysis of the dynamics of trees and carbon in the Andean region. The members of the network have contributed with data of more than 70 permanent forest plots located from
Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Shen, Song-Ping
Based on the satellite remote sensing data acquired in 1975 and 2006, and by using the assessment method of ecosystem service value, the dynamic changes of physical production value, gas regulation value, and water storage value of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem in 1975-2006 were studied. During study period, the total value of the three services decreased from 19.59 billion RMB Yuan to 12.38 billion Yuan RMB, among which, physical production value increased by 0.302 billion RMB Yuan, while the gas regulation and water storage value decreased by 7.507 billion RMB Yuan. The benefit from the increase of physical production was much less than the loss of ecosystem degradation. Overgrazing induced the biomass reduction and soil deterioration, resulting in the decline of Ruoergai Plateau wetland ecosystem service value and service capacity.
Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.
Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and
Fu, B.; Wang, S.
The Loess Plateau is located in the arid and semi-arid temperate continental monsoon climatic zone. Large-scale "Grain-for-Green" project has been implemented in the since 1999, which has made remarkable contribution to the soil and water control, but also has led to some negative ecological effects. Understanding the interactions between ecosystems and hydrology is significant for the vegetation carrying capacity assessment and guiding the vegetation restoration. We observed the soil moisture at multiple scales including slope, catchment and transect across Loess Plateau to analyze the effects of land use change and its trend along the precipitation gradient. Remote sensing data also used to capture the spatiotemporal variance of soil moisture in the Loess Plateau, as well as the in-situ measured soil moisture decrease following the massive re-vegetation. We found soil moisture decrease in response to the massive re-vegetation occurred in a transition zone of grass-forest ecosystems with annual precipitation between 450-550 mm. The average runoff in the Loess Plateau also decreased continuously during the period 1961-2009 (average rate of -0.9 mm yr-1, P < 0.001). Human intervention played a dominant role in creating the transition points, Water yield (i.e., the ratio of runoff to precipitation) decreased following each anthropogenic transition, causing a 56% reduction in available freshwater resources during the period 1961-2009. From currently revegetated areas and human water demand, we estimate a threshold of NPP of 400±5 g C m-2 yr-1 above which the population will suffer water shortages. NPP in this region is found to be already close to this limit.
Billow clouds were photographed on the ice sheet of Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica. Although aerological data at the time were not obtained, the general weather condition of constantly blowing katabatic wind was analyzed. The strong vertical wind shear and temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer continue through the year except the few months of the summer season. This atmospheric structure is suitable for maintaining a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The observed billows are a...
Zhao, L.; Xie, X.; Yao, Z.
Based on regional Lg-wave data, we develop a broadband high-resolution attenuation model for Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions. We collect vertical component seismograms recorded at 146 stations form 232 crustal earthquakes to calculate the Lg-wave amplitude spectra. The spectra are sampled at 58 discrete frequencies distributed log evenly between 0.05 and 10.0 Hz. Both dual-station and single-station datasets are constructed for jointly inverting the Lg Q distribution and Lg wave excitation function. The maximum spatial resolution is approximately 0.8°×0.8° in well-covered areas and for frequencies between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz. The Lg Q image reveals the relations between attenuations and geological structures. The average Lg Q0 (1 Hz Q) is 280 for Tibetan Plateau (regions with elevations above 4,000 m ). The Q0 values change from the south to north by first decrease (the Himalaya: 386, Lhasa : 284, Qiangtang: 238, and Songpan-Ganze blocks: 217), and then increase ( East Kunlun: 289, West Kunlun: 330, and Qilianshan blocks: 315). The QLg distributions are consistent with the lower crust material flow around the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis and the rigid Sichuan basin. The regions surrounding the Tibetan plateau are characterized by high Q0 values (Tarim basin: 433, Altyn mountain: 517, Qaidam basin: 385, Alashan uplift: 452, Inner Mongolian platform: 444, Ordos: 395, and Sichuan basins: 456), except for Yungui Plateau which has a relatively low Q0 of 247. A statistical method is used to investigate the regional variations of the Lg Q frequency dependence. The Lg Q generally increases with the increase of frequencies but show complex frequency dependency, indicating the commonly used power-law Q model may not be appropriate within a broad frequency band. The Lg Q frequency dependence also shows regional variations.
Barcellos, C. de C.
Mass balance of Ra-226 and U-238 was used to assess the pollutant discharge from uranium mining and milling and to identify the main physical and chemical processes involved in radionuclide transport. The load value remains unchanged along the rivers although a decrease of radionuclide concentration was observed. Seasonal load variations are influenced by mobilization of sediments during wet periods. Soluble load is the principal form of radionuclide transport at Pocos de Caldas Plateau. (author)
Henriquez, S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.
In Cordilleran-type orogens, exhumation of the thrust belt records the kinematic history of the orogenic system. In the Central Andes, the widest and thickest part of this orogen, several authors have documented the exhumation of the thrust belt in the modern forearc (Chile) and retroarc region (Bolivia and Argentina) showing an overall eastward propagation of deformation since the late Eocene. However, the exhumation of earlier Andean retroarc tectonic events remains poorly documented. In the forearc, the Cordillera de Domeyko and Salar de Atacama basin exhibit multiple pieces of evidence for earlier Andean orogenesis. The goal of this study is to document the thermal record of Late Cretaceous to Eocene retroarc deformation. To this end, this study investigates the cooling history of the easternmost basement uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko. We couple this record with detrital thermochronology from cobbles in the Late Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary units from the Salar de Atacama basin which records the unroofing history of this uplift. We employed a multi-dating approach combining apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology to constrain the timing and amount of exhumation in the early Andean retroarc region. Our results show episodic cooling ca. 90-80, 65-60 and 45-40 Ma. This new data provides a thermochronologic record of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene deformation in the retroarc region as well as of the widely recognized Eocene deformation event. The cooling signal is interpreted to reflect exhumation controlled by uplift and erosion in the retroarc region. These exhumation events reflect episodes of internal deformation, crustal thickening, and roughly similar amounts of local erosion. Exhumation in this region decreased by the late Oligocene; by this time the orogenic front was established to the east, in the Eastern Cordillera.
Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando
Ají (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) and rocoto (Capsicum pubescens R. & P.) are two species of chile pepper used for millennia in Andean cuisine. The introduction of these relatively unknown Capsicum species to new markets requires an understanding of their flavour-related compounds. Thus both heat level (Scoville method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)) and, particularly, aroma (headspace solid phase microextraction and GC/MS/olfactometry) were studied in different accessions of ají and rocoto and a C. chinense control. Ajíes and rocotos are mildly pungent compared with C. chinense (13-352 vs 1605 mg kg(-1) total capsaicinoids). More than 200 volatiles were detected and marked differences in volatile pattern were found between the studied accessions. The powerful fruity/exotic aroma of the C. chinense control is due to esters such as ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, norcarotenoids such as β-ionone and the hydrocarbon ectocarpene. In contrast, the Andean peppers had more earthy/vegetable/bell pepper-like aromas. Rocotos also exhibited a distinct additional cucumber odour, while one of the ajíes had a distinctive sweet/fruity note. The aroma of C. pubescens fruits is mainly due to substituted 2-methoxypyrazines and lipoxygenase cleavage products (e.g. 2-nonenals, 2,6-nonadienal). 2-Heptanethiol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and several phenols (e.g. guaiacol) and terpenoids (e.g. α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, linalool) are the basis of C. baccatum aroma, with some 3-methyl-2-butyl esters contributing to fruity notes. In this study the compounds responsible for heat and aroma in the Andean peppers C. baccatum and C. pubescens were identified. The results will be of use to inspire future studies aimed at improving the flavour of these species. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.
The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts . In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga , ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of , in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., ) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk.  Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240.  Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245.  Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960.  Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.
Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.
Vieira, Simón; de Pérez, Gloria Romero; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia
We studied the ultrastructural organization of the ovarian follicles in a placentotrophic Andean lizard of the genus Mabuya. The oocyte of the primary follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicle cells. During the previtellogenic stages, these cells become stratified and differentiated in three cell types: small, intermediate, and large globoid, non pyriform cells. Fluid-filled spaces arise among follicular cells in late previtellogenic follicles and provide evidence of cell lysis. In vitellogenic follicles, the follicular cells constitute a monolayered granulosa with large lacunar spaces; the content of their cytoplasm is released to the perivitelline space where the zona pellucida is formed. The oolemma of younger oocytes presents incipient short projections; as the oocyte grows, these projections become organized in a microvillar surface. During vitellogenesis, cannaliculi develop from the base of the microvilli and internalize materials by endocytosis. In the juxtanuclear ooplasm of early previtellogenic follicles, the Balbiani's vitelline body is found as an aggregate of organelles and lipid droplets; this complex of organelles disperses in the ooplasm during oocyte growth. In late previtellogenesis, membranous organelles are especially abundant in the peripheral ooplasm, whereas abundant vesicles and granular material occur in the medullar ooplasm. The ooplasm of vitellogenic follicles shows a peripheral band constituted by abundant membranous organelles and numerous vesicular bodies, some of them with a small lipoprotein core. No organized yolk platelets, like in lecithotrophic reptiles, were observed. Toward the medullary ooplasm, electron-lucent vesicles become larger in size containing remains of cytoplasmic material in dissolution. The results of this study demonstrate structural similarities between the follicles of this species and other Squamata; however, the ooplasm of the mature oocyte of Mabuya is morphologically similar to the ooplasm of
Romaguera, D; Samman, N; Farfán, N; Lobo, M; Pons, A; Tur, J A
To assess the nutritional status of the Andean population of Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, using anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in a representative sample (n = 1236) of individuals from these regions. Children aged 2-9 years, adolescents (10-17 years) and adults (>or=18 years; pregnant and lactating women excluded) were considered. Height-for-age, weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) were calculated in children and adolescents and compared with World Health Organization/National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards using Z-scores or percentiles, in order to assess the prevalence of stunting, wasting/thinness and excess weight. In adults, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were used to identify obesity and central adiposity. Stunting (height-for-age Z-score or= 95th percentile) were found to be major nutritional problems in children and adolescents. Stunting was prevalent in 10.7% of children and 12.4% of adolescents; 8.2% of children and 3.5% of adolescents were obese. Adults were short (mean: 155.8 cm) and values of overweight (32.3%), obesity (18.3%) and central adiposity (mean WC: 86.5 cm) were high. Older adults and those with higher economic development showed higher prevalence of obesity and central adiposity. The present population may be at the early stages of nutritional transition as symptoms of undernutrition and overnutrition coexist at the population level. These results suggest that rates of growth retardation may be decreasing owing to improved nutritional conditions; however, this could be accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of other diet-related chronic diseases.
Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad
Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.
Albarracín, Virginia H; Kurth, Daniel; Ordoñez, Omar F; Belfiore, Carolina; Luccini, Eduardo; Salum, Graciela M; Piacentini, Ruben D; Farías, María E
The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called "High-Altitude Andean Lakes" (HAAL) are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles) such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient thermal amplitude, and extreme solar radiation levels. This work reviews HAAL microbiodiversity, taking into account different microbial niches, such as plankton, benthos, microbial mats and microbialites. The modern stromatolites and other microbialites discovered recently at HAAL are highlighted, as they provide unique modern-though quite imperfect-analogs of environments proxy for an earlier time in Earth's history (volcanic setting and profuse hydrothermal activity, low atmospheric O2 pressure, thin ozone layer and high UV exposure). Likewise, we stress the importance of HAAL microbes as model poly-extremophiles in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying their resistance ability against UV and toxic or deleterious chemicals using genome mining and functional genomics. In future research directions, it will be necessary to exploit the full potential of HAAL poly-extremophiles in terms of their biotechnological applications. Current projects heading this way have yielded detailed molecular information and functional proof on novel extremoenzymes: i.e., DNA repair enzymes and arsenic efflux pumps for which medical and bioremediation applications, respectively, are envisaged. But still, much effort is required to unravel novel functions for this and other molecules that dwell in a unique biological treasure despite its being hidden high up, in the remote Andes.
Virginia Helena Albarracín
Full Text Available The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3,700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient thermal amplitude, and extreme solar radiation levels. This work reviews HAAL microbiodiversity, taking into account different microbial niches, such as plankton, benthos, microbial mats and microbialites. The modern stromatolites and other microbialites discovered recently at HAAL are highlighted, as they provide unique modern -though quite imperfect- analogues of environments proxy for an earlier time in Earth’s history (volcanic setting and profuse hydrothermal activity, low atmospheric O2 pressure, thin ozone layer and high UV exposure. Likewise, we stress the importance of HAAL microbes as model poly-extremophiles in the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying their resistance ability against UV and toxic or deleterious chemicals using genome mining and functional genomics. In future research directions, it will be necessary to exploit the full potential of HAAL poly-extremophiles in terms of their biotechnological applications. Current projects heading this way have yielded detailed molecular information and functional proof on novel extremoenzymes: i.e. DNA repair enzymes and arsenic efflux pumps for which medical and bioremediation applications, respectively, are envisaged. But still, much effort is required to unravel novel functions for this and other molecules that dwell in a unique biological treasure despite its being hidden high up, in the remote Andes.
McKenzie, J. M.; Gordon, R.; Baraer, M.; Lautz, L.; Mark, B. G.; Wigmore, O.; Chavez, D.; Aubry-Wake, C.
It is estimated that almost 400 million people live in watersheds where glaciers provide at least 10% of the runoff, yet many questions remain regarding the impact of climate change and glacier recession on water resources derived from these high mountain watersheds. We present research from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, an area with the highest density of glaciers in the tropics. While glacier meltwater buffers stream discharge throughout the range, groundwater is a major component of dry season runoff, contributing up to 50-70% of outflow in some tributaries. In order to predict future changes to water resources it is critical to understand how groundwater can offset future hydrologic stress by maintaining stream baseflow, including recharge mechanisms, subsurface pathways, storage, and net fluxes to rivers. We present a synthesis of results based on hydrologic modeling, drilling/piezometers, geophysics, and artificial and natural hydrologic tracers. Our findings show that 'pampas', low-relief mountain valleys, are critical for baseflow generation by storing groundwater on interannual timescales. Pampas have a total area of ~65 km2 and are comprised of unconsolidated glacial, talus, lacustrine and wetland (bofedales) deposits. The valleys commonly have buried talus aquifers that are overlain by low permeability, glaciolacustrine deposits. Glaciofluvial outwash deposits and small wetlands also act as unconfined aquifers. These groundwater systems appear to be primarily recharged by wet season precipitation, and at higher elevations also by glacial meltwater. Additionally a ubiquitous feature in the valleys are springs, often located at the base of talus deposits, which generate a large hydrologic flux within the hydrologic systems. While glaciers are the most visible and vulnerable component of the Andean waterscape, we argue that it is crucial to understand the complete mountain hydrologic cycle, including groundwater, in order to understand the ongoing
Solis, Julio; Medrano, Giuliana; Ghislain, Marc
In this study, we report the isolation of a defensin gene, lm-def, isolated from the Andean crop 'maca' (Lepidium meyenii) with activity against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans responsible of late blight disease of the potato and tomato crops. The lm-def gene has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers corresponding to conserved regions of 13 plant defensin genes of the Brassicaceae family assuming that defensin genes are highly conserved among cruciferous species. The lm-def gene belongs to a small multigene family of at least 10 members possibly including pseudogenes as assessed by genomic hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses. The deduced mature Lm-Def peptide is 51 amino acids in length and has 74-94% sequence identity with other plant defensins of the Brassicaceae family. The Lm-Def peptide was produced as a fusion protein using the pET-44a expression vector and purified using an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein (NusA:Lm-Def) exhibited in vitro activity against P. infestans. The NusA:Lm-Def protein caused growth inhibition and hyphal damage at concentration not greater than 0.4 microM. In contrast, the NusA protein alone expressed and purified similarly did not show any activity against P. infestans. Therefore, these results indicate that the lm-def gene isolated from maca belong to the plant defensin family with activity against P. infestans. Its expression in potato, as a transgene, might help to control the late blight disease caused by P. infestans with the advantage of being of plant origin.
Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G
Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gustavo A. Ballen
Full Text Available The loricariid catfish genus Dolichancistrus is reviewed and four species recognized. Species of Dolichancistrus are distinguished from each other by the degree of development of the pectoral-fin spine, the form of the distal margin of the pelvic fin, the relative size and form of the cheek plates, the pattern of odontodes along the margin of the snout, the presence versus absence of a buccal papilla at the premaxillary symphysis, and the relative lengths of the anal- versus pelvic-spines. Dolichancistrus atratoensis is known from the río Atrato system and the río Cubarradó on the Pacific versant of Colombia; D. carnegiei occurs in the eastern río Magdalena basin in the departments of Boyacá and Santander, Colombia; D. cobrensis inhabits southern tributaries of the Lago Maracaibo basin in Colombia and Venezuela along with some highland rivers of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela draining into the río Orinoco system; and D. fuesslii is known from the Andean piedmont portions of the río Meta basin in the western río Orinoco system. Pseudancistrus pediculatus is considered a junior synonym of Ancistrus fuesslii. Chaetostomus setosus previously assigned to Dolichancistrus, was found to lack features characteristic of its putative congeners and is rather more closely related to other members of Chaetostoma group. Consequently, the species is herein considered as incertae sedis within that group. Dolichancistrus is diagnosed, a key is provided to the members of the genus, and diagnoses and redescriptions are provided for all of the recognized species.
Moreno, Marcos; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno
The magnitude-8.8 Maule (Chile) earthquake of 27 February 2010 ruptured a segment of the Andean subduction zone megathrust that has been suspected to be of high seismic potential. It is the largest earthquake to rupture a mature seismic gap in a subduction zone that has been monitored with a dense space-geodetic network before the event. This provides an image of the pre-seismically locked state of the plate interface of unprecedentedly high resolution, allowing for an assessment of the spatial correlation of interseismic locking with coseismic slip. Pre-seismic locking might be used to anticipate future ruptures in many seismic gaps, given the fundamental assumption that locking and slip are similar. This hypothesis, however, could not be tested without the occurrence of the first gap-filling earthquake. Here we show evidence that the 2010 Maule earthquake slip distribution correlates closely with the patchwork of interseismic locking distribution as derived by inversion of global positioning system (GPS) observations during the previous decade. The earthquake nucleated in a region of high locking gradient and released most of the stresses accumulated in the area since the last major event in 1835. Two regions of high seismic slip (asperities) appeared to be nearly fully locked before the earthquake. Between these asperities, the rupture bridged a zone that was creeping interseismically with consistently low coseismic slip. The rupture stopped in areas that were highly locked before the earthquake but where pre-stress had been significantly reduced by overlapping twentieth-century earthquakes. Our work suggests that coseismic slip heterogeneity at the scale of single asperities should indicate the seismic potential of future great earthquakes, which thus might be anticipated by geodetic observations.
Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I
Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ortega-Culaciati, F.; Becerra-Carreño, V. C.; Socquet, A.; Jara, J.; Carrizo, D.; Norabuena, E. O.; Simons, M.; Vigny, C.; Bataille, K. D.; Moreno, M.; Baez, J. C.; Comte, D.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Delorme, A.; Genrich, J. F.; Klein, E.; Ortega, I.; Valderas, M. C.
We aim to quantify spatial and temporal evolution of fault slip behavior during all stages of the seismic cycle in subduction megathrusts, with the eventual goal of improving our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the subduction system and its implications for earthquake and tsunami hazards. In this work, we analyze the portion of the Nazca-SouthAmerican plates subduction zone affected by the 1868 southern Peru and 1877 northern Chile mega-earthquakes. The 1868 and 1878 events defined a seismic gap that did not experience a large earthquake for over 124 years. Only recently, the 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, and 2014 Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquakes released only a small fraction of the potential slip budget, thereby raising concerns about continued seismic and tsunami hazard. We use over a decade of observations from continuous and campaign GPS networks to analyze inter-seismic strain accumulation, as well as co-seimic deformation associated to the more recent earthquakes in the in the Central Andean region. We obtain inferences of slip (and back-slip) behavior using a consistent and robust inversion framework that accounts for the spatial variability of the constraint provided by the observations on slip across the subduction megathrust. We present an updated inter-seismic coupling model and estimates of pre-, co- and post- seismic slip behavior associated with the most recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquake. We analyze our results, along with published information on the recent and historical large earthquakes, to characterize the regions of the megathrust that tend to behave aseismically, and those that are capable to accumulate a slip budget (ultimately leading to the generation of large earthquakes), to what extent such regions may overlap, and discuss the potential for large earthquakes in the region.
Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli; Kuhn, Nikolaus
The Chinese Loess Plateau, because of its highly erodible loess soils and hilly topography, has been extensively studied by soil scientists and geomorphologists. As a research hotspot, there are five national-level field stations across the Loess Plateau, with hundreds of erosion plots set up with various sizes, lengths, slope angles and vegetation covers. In addition, huge indoor rain simulation facilities exist in in different institutes which can provide rainfall simulations under a wide range of controlled conditions. Consequently, national-level restoration projects have achieved tremendous improvements in curbing soil erosion and improving regional agro-ecosystem, mostly by afforestation and soil rehabilitation. However, when implementing the advanced techniques and models that have been widely applied in the rest of the world, there are often regional considerations, which demand new approaches to overcome. One example are the unintentional impacts of restoration efforts, such as the establishment of apple orchards. Over 20 years, they have caused an increase in soil erodibility and lowered local ground water levels. Neither before the introduction of this landscape rehabilitation technique, nor now, has the impact of intensive fruit production been systematically studied, despite lending itself to systematic experiments. The lack of research is attributed to the general idea that trees protect soils and improve environmental services. This presentation identifies several such specific regional environmental issues associated with soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and discusses strategies to avoid missing important research questions.
He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.
Lease, Richard O.
Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.
Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina
The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).
Munayco, César V.; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, magister en Epidemiologia y Salud Pública.; Ulloa-Rea, María E.; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. técnico en informática.; Medina-Osis, José; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico.; Lozano-Revollar, Carmen R.; Oficina de Epidemiología, Dirección Regional de Ayacucho. Ayacucho, Perú. licenciada en enfermería.; Tejada, Violeta; Oficina de Epidemiología, Dirección Regional de Andahuaylas. Andahuaylas, Perú. licenciada en enfermería.; Castro-Salazar, Consuelo; Oficina de Epidemiología, Dirección Regional de Huancavelica. Huancavelica, Perú. licenciada en enfermería.; Munarriz-Villafuerte, José; Oficina de Epidemiología, Dirección Regional de Huancavelica. Huancavelica, Perú. bachiller en Ingeniería de Sistemas y Computación.; de Bustos, Cecilia; Programa Mundial de Alimentos de las Naciones Unidas, Sede Perú. Lima, Perú. PhD en Patología experimental.; Arias, Lena; Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF), Sede Perú. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Nutrición.
The aim of this research was to determine the impact of the strategy of multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMN) on the childhood anemia in three Andean regions of Peru. A sentinel surveillance system was established in 29 health centers of Andahuaylas, Ayacucho and Huancavelica (Peru) to monitor a cohort of children of 6 to 35 months of age whom been received MMM for a period of 12 months. Data regarding hemoglobin levels were gathered at the beginning and at the end of the research; th...
Gavilan, C.; Grunwald, S.; Quiroz, R.
The Andes represent the largest and highest mountain range in the tropics and is considered an important reserve of biodiversity, water provision and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Nevertheless, limited attention has been given to estimate these stocks due to the lack of recent soil data, the poor accessibility and the wide range of coexistent ecosystems. In addition, conventional methods to determine SOC are usually time consuming and expensive to use in large-scale studies, hindering the possibility to have an accurate SOC assessment in the region. Proximal soil sensing techniques, such as visible near infrared (VNIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, have proven to be useful as an alternative to conventional methods for characterizing SOC but have not been tested in Andean soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of using VNIR and MIR spectroscopy to predict SOC content in the Central Andean region, using multivariate methods. Three study areas were selected across the Peruvian Central Andes. A total of 400 topsoil samples (0-30 cm) were collected and analyzed for SOC. The VNIR and MIR reflectance of the soil samples was measured in the laboratory. Three modeling approaches: Partial least squares regression (PLSR), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to predict SOC from VNIR and MIR spectra in the study areas. The data was preprocessed in order to minimize the noise and optimize the accuracy of predictions. The models, for each study area, were assessed using 10-fold cross validation. Independent validation was implemented in the whole dataset (400 observations) by splitting it into calibration (70 %) and validation (30%) sets. Overall, the results indicate potential for both VNIR and MIR spectra to predict SOC content in the Andean soils. SOC content predictions from MIR spectra outperformed those from VNIR spectra. The evaluation of model performance shows that RF and SVM provide more accurate SOC predictions
Kenneth J. Wurdack
Full Text Available Incadendron esseri K.Wurdack & Farfan, gen. & sp. nov., from the wet sub-Andean cordilleras of Ecuador (Cordillera del Cóndor and Peru (Cusco, Oxapampa is described and illustrated. This recently discovered large canopy tree with a narrow elevational range presents an unusual combination of rare morphological characters in Hippomaneae including mucilage-secreting sheathing stipules, conduplicate ptyxis, and large, woody fruits. The broader significance of these characters in Hippomaneae is discussed. The morphology and anatomy of Incadendron were investigated, highlighting its fruit similarities with Guiana Shield endemic Senefelderopsis, and the systematics value of ptyxis variation, which remains poorly studied for the family.
Alberto Diniz Filho
Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao
Black carbon (BC), also known as soot, has been identified as the second most important anthropogenic emissions in terms of global climate forcing in the current atmosphere. Ample evidence has shown that BC deposition is an important driver of rapid snow melting and glacier retreat over the Tibetan Plateau, which holds the largest snow/ice mass outside polar regions. However, the climatic effects of BC over the Tibetan Plateau have not been thoroughly investigated in such a manner as to understand, quantify, and reduce large uncertainties in the estimate of radiative and hydrological effects. Thus, this Ph.D. study seeks to understand and improve key processes controlling BC life cycle in global and regional models and to quantify BC radiative effects over the Tibetan Plateau. First, the capability of a state-of-the-art global chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem, and the associated model uncertainties are systematically evaluated in simulating BC over the Tibetan Plateau, using in situ measurements of BC in surface air, BC in snow, and BC absorption optical depth. The effects of three key factors on the simulation are also delineated, including Asian anthropogenic emissions, BC aging process, and model resolution. Subsequently, a microphysics-based BC aging scheme that accounts for condensation, coagulation, and heterogeneous chemical oxidation processes is developed and examined in GEOS-Chem by comparing with aircraft measurements. Compared to the default aging scheme, the microphysical scheme reduces model-observation discrepancies by a factor of 3, particularly in the middle and upper troposphere. In addition, a theoretical BC aging-optics model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC particles undergoing further hygroscopic growth. The geometric-optics surface-wave (GOS) approach is employed to compute the BC single-scattering properties at each aging stage
Cinque, Mark E.; Godin, Jonathan A.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; Kruckeberg, Bradley M.; Pogorzelski, Jonas; LaPrade, Robert F.
Background: Tibial plateau fractures account for a small portion of all fractures; however, these fractures can pose a surgical challenge when occurring concomitantly with ligament injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare 2-year outcomes of soft tissue reconstruction with or without a concomitant tibial plateau fracture and open reduction internal fixation. We hypothesized that patients with a concomitant tibial plateau fracture at the time of soft tissue surgery...
Govin, Gwladys; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Copley, Alex; Millar, Ian; Van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Grujic, Djordje; Davenport, Jesse
The Shillong Plateau (northeastern India) constitutes the only significant topography in the Himalayan foreland. Knowledge of its surface uplift history is key to understanding topographic development and unraveling tectonic–climate–topographic coupling in the eastern Himalaya. We use the sedimentary record of the Himalayan foreland basin north of the Shillong Plateau to show that the paleo-Brahmaputra river was redirected north and west by the rising plateau at 5.2–4.9 Ma. We suggest that on...
Katerina D Oikonomou
Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features:  they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area,  covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines,  possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and  experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.
Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika
To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris.
Rodríguez Jairo E.
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En el presente trabajo, se evaluó el comportamiento de tres boquillas para la aplicación de plaguicidas (Maruyama C-35. Maruyama D-35 y Albuz APT Lila a tres presiones diferentes en un cultivo de Clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L, bajo condiciones de invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Inicialmente, se realizaron evaluaciones físicas para determinar la calidad de la aplicación, considerando los parámetros de Cobertura (Gotas/cm, Uniformidad en la aplicación y Penetración al interior del follaje, buscando la factibilidad de reducir volúmenes de aplicación L/cama. Para estas evaluaciones, se utilizaron como colectores, tarjetas de Papel Hidrosensible (WSP. El diseño estadístico fué un Cuadrado latino (9X9. Que resulta de la interacción de los factores tres boquillas por tres presiones, con nueve repeticiones. Se hicieron dos tipos de ensayos. Uno en Cobertura Total (Aplicación a los tres tercios del cultivo y otro en Cobertura a Flor (Aplicación dirigida al Tercio Superior. Por tipos de boquillas, los
Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)
North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.
Slessarev, Marat; Mardimae, Alexandra; Preiss, David; Vesely, Alex; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Greene, Richard; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A
We used Duffin's isoxic hyperoxic ( mmHg) and hypoxic ( mmHg) rebreathing tests to compare the control of breathing in eight (7 male) Andean highlanders and six (4 male) acclimatizing Caucasian lowlanders after 10 days at 3850 m. Compared to lowlanders, highlanders had an increased non-chemoreflex drive to breathe, characterized by higher basal ventilation at both hyperoxia (10.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.5 l min(1), P = 0.002) and hypoxia (13.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 5.7 +/- 0.9 l min(1), P patterning threshold. There was no difference in ventilatory recruitment thresholds (VRTs) between populations (P = 0.209). Hypoxia decreased VRT within both populations (highlanders: 36.4 +/- 1.3 to 31.7 +/- 0.7 mmHg, P hypoxia had no effect on either of the sensitivities (P = 0.192). We conclude that the control of breathing in Andean highlanders is different from that in acclimatizing lowlanders, although there are some similarities. Specifically, acclimatizing lowlanders have relatively lower non-chemoreflex drives to breathe, increased ventilatory sensitivities to CO(2), and an altered pattern of ventilatory response to CO(2) with two ventilatory sensitivities separated by a patterning threshold. Similar to highlanders and unlike lowlanders at sea-level, acclimatizing lowlanders respond to hypobaric hypoxia by decreasing their VRT instead of changing their ventilatory sensitivity to CO(2).
Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei
Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cailly Arnulphi, Verónica B.; Lambertucci, Sergio A.
Human-wildlife conflicts currently represent one of the main conservation problems for wildlife species around the world. Vultures have serious conservation concerns, many of which are related to people's adverse perception about them due to the belief that they prey on livestock. Our aim was to assess local perception and the factors influencing people's perception of the largest scavenging bird in South America, the Andean condor. For this, we interviewed 112 people from Valle Fértil, San Juan province, a rural area of central west Argentina. Overall, people in the area mostly have an elementary education, and their most important activity is livestock rearing. The results showed that, in general, most people perceive the Andean condor as an injurious species and, in fact, some people recognize that they still kill condors. We identified two major factors that affect this perception, the education level of villagers and their relationship with livestock ranching. Our study suggests that conservation of condors and other similar scavengers depends on education programs designed to change the negative perception people have about them. Such programs should be particularly focused on ranchers since they are the ones who have the worst perception of these scavengers. We suggest that highlighting the central ecological role of scavengers and recovering their cultural value would be fundamental to reverse their persecution and their negative perception by people. PMID:28950019
Mario E. Gimenez
Full Text Available A gravimetric study was carried out in a region of the Central Andean Range between 28∘ and 32∘ south latitudes and from 72∘ and 66∘ west longitudes. The seismological and gravimetrical Moho models were compared in a sector which coincides with the seismological stations of the CHARGE project. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the gravity Moho depths and those obtained from seismological investigations (CHARGE project, the latter giving deeper values than those resulting from the gravimetric inversion. These discrepancies are attenuated when the positive gravimetric effect of the Nazca plate is considered. Nonetheless, a small residuum of about 5 km remains beneath the Cuyania terrane region, to the east of the main Andean chain. This residuum could be gravimetrically justified if the existence of a high density or eclogitized portion of the lower crust is considered. This result differed from the interpretations from Project “CHARGE” which revealed that the entire inferior crust extending from the Precordillera to the occidental “Sierras Pampeanas” could be “eclogitized”. In this same sector, we calculated the effective elastic thickness (Te of the crust. These results indicated an anomalous value of Te = 30 km below the Cuyania terrane. This is further conclusive evidence of the fact that the Cuyania terrane is allochthonous, for which also geological evidences exist.
Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M
The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.
Full Text Available Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1 determine the influence of degraded (DEF, partly-degraded (PDF, and undisturbed (UNF Nothofagus forests on the stocks of carbon (C in tree biomass and SOM; (2 evaluate fractions of SOM as indicators of sustainable management; and (3 use the Century model to determine the potential gains of soil organic C (SOC. The forests are located in the Andes and Coastal mountains of southern Chile. The SOM was fractionated to separate the light fraction (LF, macroaggregates (>212 µm, mesoaggregates (212–53 µm, and microaggregates (<53 µm. In two measurement periods, the SOC stocks at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths in macroaggregates were on average 100% higher in the Andean UNF, and SOC was over twice as much at 20–40 cm depth in Andean DEF. Century simulations showed that improved silvopastoral management would gradually increase total SOC in degraded soils of both sites, especially the Ultisol with a 15% increase between 2016 and 2216 (vs. 7% in the Andisol. Greater SOC in macroaggregates (p < 0.05 of UNF indicate a condition of higher sustainability and better management over the years.
Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Graham, Peter H; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela
The taxonomic affiliations of nineteen root-nodule bacteria isolated from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico, Ecuador and Brazil were investigated by analyses of 16S rRNA and of four protein-coding housekeeping genes. One strain from Mexico could be assigned to Rhizobium etli and two from Brazil to Rhizobium leucaenae, whereas another from Mexico corresponded to a recently described bean-nodulating species-level lineage related to R. etli and Rhizobium phaseoli. Ten strains isolated in Ecuador and Mexico corresponded to three novel Rhizobium lineages that fall into the R. phaseoli/R. etli/Rhizobium leguminosarum clade. One of those lineages, with representatives isolated mostly from Ecuador, seems to be dominant in beans from that Andean region. Only one of the Mexican strains clustered within the Rhizobium tropici clade, but as an independent lineage. Interestingly, four strains were affiliated with species within the Rhizobium radiobacter clade. The existence of yet non-described native Rhizobium lineages in both the Andean and Mesoamerican areas is discussed in relation to common-bean diversity and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tassara, Andrés.; Echaurren, Andrés.
We present an upgraded version of a previously published 3-D density model of the Andean subduction zone between 18°S and 45°S. This model consists of 3-D bodies of constant density, which geometry is constrained by independent seismic data and is triangulated from vertical cross-sections. These bodies define the first-order morphology and internal structure of the subducted Nazca slab and South American Plate. The new version of the density model results after forward modelling the Bouguer anomaly as computed from the most recent version of the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008). The 3-D density model incorporates new seismic information to better constrain the geometry of the subducted slab and continental Moho (CMH) and has a trench-parallel resolution doubling the resolution of the previous model. As an example of the potential utility of our model, we compare the geometry of the subducted slab and CMH against the corresponding global models Slab1.0 and Crust2.0, respectively. This exercise demonstrates that, although global models provide a good first-order representation of the slab and upper-plate crustal geometries, they show large discrepancies (up to ±40 km) with our upgraded model for some well-constrained areas. The geometries of the slab, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary below the continent, CMH and intracrustal density discontinuity that we present here as Supporting Information can be used to study Andean geodynamic processes from a wide range of quantitative approaches.
Full Text Available Fishless Andean high mountain lakes may be vulnerable to fish invasion because they tend to be small, oligotrophic and contain low zooplankton diversity. During the first decades of the twentieth century, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mikiss, was introduced in South America, and stocking of juvenile stages (fry in lakes continues today. However, their effect on plankton in these lakes has been little studied. We performed a mesocosms experiment to assess effects of trout of different ontogenetic stages on zooplankton and phytoplankton in a tropical-Andean high mountain lake. The presence of trout fry resulted in declines in several large zooplankton taxa, increases in chlorophyll a and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN. Our results showed that small fry consume large copepods (Colombodiaptomus brandorffi at a faster rate than larger fry, and also consumed medium sized copepods (Tropocyclops prasinus that are not affected by the larger trout fry. Fish of both sizes consumed Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, a midsize cladoceran. Fish predation had weak effect on the phytoplankton biomass, but we found a correlation between zooplankton biomass and phytoplankton richness, and significantly larger cell of the alga Peridinium in the presence of fish. Our results indicate that trout introduction produces cascading ecological and phenotypic effects on the plankton communities of tropical mountain lakes, similar to those observed in temperate latitudes.
Jaime Fernando Antamba Guasgua
Full Text Available The environmental pollution is a problematics that concerns all countries about the world as result of this pollution there take place the phenomena of climate change, greenhouse effect, acid rain, and diseases in people. To delimit the issues, there were selected the countries that integrate the Andean Community, the project goal is compare by means of static and dynamic tests the values of emission of pollutant gases, with the fuel that is distributed in each of the selected countries. The process of measuring and testing of static tests were developed under NTE INEN 2203:1999 standard, considering the idle condition (820 rpm and high engine speed (2500 RPM, in both these cases, an constant engine oil temperature of 94 ° C and dynamic tests carried out according to ASM 25/25 and ASM 50/15 cycles, the results that have been achieved with the different fuels in a vehicle Chevrolet Sail, the best-selling in the country. Based on tests developed, the evaluated vehicle will be able to circulate without any disadvantage with any of the fuels of the Andean Community according NTE INEN 2204:2002 standard. Accordingly, the fuel with the lowest levels of emissions of gaseous pollutants is the distributed one in Peru.
Chen, Yu-Yen; Chu, Dachen; Chou, Pesus
To distinguish the frequently misdiagnosed plateau iris eyes from pupillary block group and normal group, we compared the ocular biometrical parameters of them by A-scan ultrasongraphy. In total, we retrospectively reviewed general characteristics and ocular findings including ocular biometric measurements of 71 normal, 39 plateau iris, and 83 pupillary block eyes. The normal controls, plateau iris group and pupillary block group were significantly different in age, but not in gender. The anterior chamber depth tended to decrease and the lens thickness tended to increase from normal to plateau iris to pupillary block eyes. Compared to those of plateau iris group, the pupillary block group had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (2.90mm vs. 2.33mm; piris and normal eyes, only axial length and lens/axial length factor were significantly different (23.16 vs. 23.54; pbiometrics of plateau iris were significantly different from those of pupillary block eyes. However, our A-scan ultrasongraphy generally found no significant biometric differences between plateau iris and normal eyes. These findings suggest that while A-scan ultrasonography might be used as a practical tool for differentiating plateau iris and papillary block eyes, a more meticulous gonioscopy and other assessments may be necessary to distinguish plateau iris from normal eyes.
Lobo, Fernando; Laspiur, Alejandro; Acosta, Juan Carlos
As a result of several field trips and studies of collections of Phymaturus samples from Andean areas of central western Argentina (San Juan province), we discovered two populations that exhibit a particular character combination not seen in other species formally recognized in the literature. Based on a detailed analysis of an extended list of morphological characters (93), including scalation, color pattern, gular and nuchal folds, precloacal pores, and morphometric data, we conclude that these populations represent independent lineages that deserve to be considered as new species. According to the most recent revision of the genus and considering the descriptions made in another recent contribution, the taxonomic composition of the genus was increased to 38 species. In this study we provide the formal description of two additional new taxa, including their diagnosis and detailed comparisons with other members of their species group. The two new species belong to the palluma group, and can be assigned to the Puna subclade because they present the typical dorsal "spray" pattern. Other characters described in this study suggest their close phylogenetic relationship with other species of this subclade inhabiting the southern Puna region of Argentina, such as Phymaturus punae. Within the Puna subclade, Phymaturus aguanegra sp. nov. differs from all other members (P. antofagastensis, P. denotatus, P. laurenti, P punae, P extrilidus, P mallimaccii and P paihuanense) exhibiting the following combination of diagnostic characters: a complete melanism over the dorsum of neck, the presence of enlarged scales at the base of tail in males, having strongly keeled tarsal scales, lacking enlarged scales on the anterior margin of the antehumeral fold and centre of chest, females without flank coloration, a vertebral dark gray stripe usually present on the dorsum, females exhibiting a tricolor dorsal pattern, with two types of brown and scattered ferriferous oxide spots, and the
Veloso, E. E.; Tardani, D.; Aron, F.; Elizalde, J. D.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Godoy, B.
South of 19°S, geothermal fields and Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone are spatially associated with distinct, large-scale fault systems disrupting the volcanic arc, which control the architecture and dynamics of the fluids reservoirs at shallow crustal levels. Based on an extensive compilation of structural, lithological and isotopic data, and satellite imagery band-ratio analyses, we produced detailed maps of 13 areas comprising 19 identified and/or potential geothermal fields, to examine if particular local-scale tectonic configurations are associated to fluids migrating from different crustal levels. We defined three main tectonic environments according to the specific, kilometer-scale structural arrangement and its spatial relation to the geothermal surface manifestations. T1, dominated by left-lateral, pure strike-slip motion on a NW-trending duplex-like geometry with geothermal fields located along the faults - in turn distributed into five major subparallel zones cutting across the orogenic belt between ca. 20° and 27°S. T2, dominated by shortening on a series of N-trending thrust faults and fault-propagated folds, cut and displaced by the above mentioned NW-trending faults, with geothermal fields hosted at fault intersections and at fold hinges. And T3, characterized by transtension accommodated by NW-to-WNW-trending left-lateral/normal faults, with hot-springs lying along the fault traces. Interestingly, each of the independently defined tectonic environments has distinctive helium (in fluids) and strontium (in lavas) isotopic signatures and estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures. T1 shows a large 4He contribution, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperatures varying between ca. 220°-310°C; T3 low 4He and high 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperature (260°-320°C); T2 isotopic values fall between T1 and T3, yet showing the lowest (130°-250°C) temperatures. We suggest that these particular isotopic signatures are due to
Rainato, Riccardo; Toro, Matteo; Mao, Luca; Fraccarollo, Luigi; Brardinoni, Francesco; Aristide Lenzi, Mario
A proper quantification of bedload transport is crucial in order to improve the knowledge on the morphology and dynamics of river systems. Unfortunately, bedload surveys in mountain streams are notoriously difficult. Also, equations for predicting the transport capacity often overestimate the actual bedload rates, and field measurement are still rare. An alternative to direct bedload sampling during floods is the use of tracers, which allow to obtain precious data on sediment dynamic and transport due to different conditions of hydraulic forcing, especially in mountain streams. In this work, the results obtained by the employment of passive RFID tracers in a steep Andean channel are presented. The study site is the Estero Morales, a high-gradient stream located in the Metropolitan Region (central Chile). The channel bed exhibits boulder-cascade, step-pool and plane bed morphologies while the average slope is of about 9.5%. The basin (27 km2) hosts the San Francisco glacier (1.8 km2) that strongly affects the hydrological regime. In particular during the melt period (December-March) the glacier ensures daily discharge fluctuations with highly variable associated bedload transport rates. Overall, 429 RFID tracers were installed in the Estero Morales and the displacements over a reach of approximately 700 m were monitored through 15 surveys, performed between January and March 2014. The recovery rate ranges between 19% and 97%. Tracers travel distance were paired to the peaks of stream power per unit area (ω, in W/m2) that occurred during the study period. Due to the wide range of flow magnitude observed, the values of stream power were grouped in three classes: low (650-750 W/m2), moderate (750-800 W/m2), and high (800-900 W/m2). Despite the different conditions of hydraulic forcing, moderate and low classes show mean displacement very similar, equal to 33 m and 24 m, respectively. In either cases a size selective transport was observed. On the other hand, the high
León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth
One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine
Pedro G. Blendinger
Full Text Available Most fleshy-fruited plants establish strong local interactions with a few fruit-eating species across their distribution range, which can differ among sites and have a major impact for the plant population dynamics. In turn, human disturbances alter both the original animal assemblage with which plants interact and the outcome of the mutualistic interaction. Negative consequences of human disturbances can be weakened when different seed dispersers exert similar effects on plant populations, being functionally equivalent. To understand the consequences of variability in seed dispersers on the recruitment of a long-lived tree species, I assessed changes in the assemblages of avian dispersers of Podocarpus parlatorei in subtropical Andean cloud-forests, and how these changes affect the outcome of the interaction at different spatial scales. The seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE concept, defined as the likelihood of a seed removed by a fruit-eating bird to be dispersed to a suitable site for seed survival and germination, provides the framework to compare the contributions of different birds to seed dispersal. I compared the SDE in two old-growth forests dominated by P. parlatorei and a human disturbed forest, and in the main habitat types of these sites. In all sites, highest SDE values were provided by “gulpers” that swallow the whole fleshy cone (“fruit”, predominantly Elaenia and Turdus species. SDE was highest in forest edges and secondary forests, and negligible in other habitats. Equivalence in SDE was relatively low both within and between forest sites. Human forest disturbance modified the functional equivalence, the generalization in mutualistic interactions and the strength of SDE. Secondary forests showed the higher SDE and the greater richness of dispersers high in SDE; as a consequence, the ecological equivalence increased in the most suitable habitat for recruitment. This could lead to greater resilience of plant populations
The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are
Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Barichivich, Jonathan; Bopp, Laurent; Brovkin, Victor; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Pongratz, Julia; Viovy, Nicolas; Trudinger, Cathy M.
The high-resolution CO2 record from Law Dome ice core reveals that atmospheric CO2 concentration stalled during the 1940s (so-called CO2 plateau). Since the fossil-fuel emissions did not decrease during the period, this stalling implies the persistence of a strong sink, perhaps sustained for as long as a decade or more. Double-deconvolution analyses have attributed this sink to the ocean, conceivably as a response to the very strong El Niño event in 1940-1942. However, this explanation is questionable, as recent ocean CO2 data indicate that the range of variability in the ocean sink has been rather modest in recent decades, and El Niño events have generally led to higher growth rates of atmospheric CO2 due to the offsetting terrestrial response. Here, we use the most up-to-date information on the different terms of the carbon budget: fossil-fuel emissions, four estimates of land-use change (LUC) emissions, ocean uptake from two different reconstructions, and the terrestrial sink modelled by the TRENDY project to identify the most likely causes of the 1940s plateau. We find that they greatly overestimate atmospheric CO2 growth rate during the plateau period, as well as in the 1960s, in spite of giving a plausible explanation for most of the 20th century carbon budget, especially from 1970 onwards. The mismatch between reconstructions and observations during the CO2 plateau epoch of 1940-1950 ranges between 0.9 and 2.0 Pg C yr-1, depending on the LUC dataset considered. This mismatch may be explained by (i) decadal variability in the ocean carbon sink not accounted for in the reconstructions we used, (ii) a further terrestrial sink currently missing in the estimates by land-surface models, or (iii) LUC processes not included in the current datasets. Ocean carbon models from CMIP5 indicate that natural variability in the ocean carbon sink could explain an additional 0.5 Pg C yr-1 uptake, but it is unlikely to be higher. The impact of the 1940-1942 El Niño on the
Gomez, A.; Berrio, J.C.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Becerra, M.; Marchant, R.
Holocene environments in the intra-Andean basin of Duitama (Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, 2510 m altitude) are presented based on the 620 cm long Vargas pollen and sediment record. Seven AMS radiocarbon dates show these lake and swamp sediments represent the period from 8800 to 2610 14C yr BP. We
Full Text Available Conventional polymer multielectrode arrays (MEAs have limitations resulting from a high Young’s modulus, including low conformability and gaps between the electrodes and neurons. These gaps are not a problem in soft tissues such as the brain, due to the repopulation phenomenon. However, gaps can result in signal degradation when recording from a fiber bundle, such as the spinal cord. Methods: We propose a method for fabricating flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based MEAs featuring plateau-shaped microelectrodes. The proposed fabrication technique enables the electrodes on the surface of MEAs to make a tight connection to the neurons, because the wire of the MEA is fabricated to be plateau-shaped, as the Young’s modulus of PDMS is similar to soft tissues and PDMS follows the curvature of the neural tissue due to its high conformability compared to the other polymers. Injury caused by the movement of the MEAs can therefore be minimized. Each electrode has a diameter of 130 μm and the 8-channel array has a center-to-center electrode spacing of 300 μm. The signal-to-noise ratio of the plateau-shaped electrodes was larger than that of recessed electrodes because there was no space between the electrode and neural cell. Reliable neural recordings were possible by adjusting the position of the electrode during the experiment without trapping air under the electrodes. Simultaneous multi-channel neural recordings were successfully achieved from the spinal cord of rodents. We describe the fabrication technique, electrode 3D profile, electrode impedance, and MEA performance in in vivo experiments in rodents.
Rolvien, Tim; Barvencik, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Rupprecht, Martin
The use of beta-tricalciumphospate (ß-TCP, Cerasorb®) ceramics as an alternative for autologous bone-grafting has been outlined previously, however with no study focusing on both clinical and histological outcomes of ß-TCP application in patients with multi-fragment tibial plateau fractures. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of ß-TCP in patients with tibial plateau fractures. 52 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent open surgery with ß-TCP block or granulate application. After a mean follow-up of 36months (14-64months), the patients were reviewed. Radiography and computed-tomography were performed, while the Rasmussen score was obtained for clinical outcome. Furthermore, seven patients underwent biopsy during hardware removal, which was subsequently analyzed by histology and backscattered electron microscopy (BSEM). An excellent reduction with two millimeters or less of residual incongruity was achieved in 83% of the patients. At follow-up, no further changes occurred and no nonunions were observed. Functional outcome was good to excellent in 82%. Four patients underwent revision surgery due to reasons unrelated to the bone substitute material. Histologic analyses indicated that new bone was built around the ß-TCP-grafts, however a complete resorption of ß-TCP was not observed. ß-TCP combined with internal fixation represents an effective and safe treatment of tibial plateau depression fractures with good functional recovery. While its osteoconductivity seems to be successful, the biological degradation and replacement of ß-TCP is less pronounced in humans than previous animal studies have indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Colman, Matthew; Wright, Adam; Gruen, Gary; Siska, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Tarkin, Ivan
Fractures of the tibial plateau present a treatment challenge and are susceptible to both prolonged operative times and high postoperative infection rates. For those fractures treated with open plating, we sought to identify the relationship between surgical site infection and prolonged operative time as well as to identify other surgical risk factors. We performed a retrospective controlled analysis of 309 consecutive unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with open plate osteosynthesis at our institution's level I trauma centre during a recent 5-year period. We recorded operative times, injury characteristics, surgical treatment, and need for operative debridement due to infection. Operative times of infected cases were compared to uncomplicated surgical cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for postoperative infection. Mean operative time in the infection group was 2.8h vs. 2.2h in the non-infected group (p=0.005). 15 fractures (4.9%) underwent four compartment fasciotomies as part of their treatment, with a significantly higher infection rate than those not undergoing fasciotomy (26.7% vs. 6.8%, p=0.01). Open fracture grade was also significantly related to infection rate (closed fractures: 5.3%, grade 1: 14.3%, grade 2: 40%, grade 3: 50%, pinfection rates (13.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.36). Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the entire study group identified longer operative times (OR 1.78, p=0.013) and open fractures (OR 7.02, psite infection. Operative times approaching 3h and open fractures are related to an increased overall risk for surgical site infection after open plating of the tibial plateau. Dual incision approaches with bicolumnar plating do not appear to expose the patient to increased risk compared to single incision approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.
Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy
de Silva, S. L.; Byrnes, J. M.; Crown, D. A.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Jimenez, N.; Bills, B. G.
The Altiplano-Puna Plateau of the Central Andes of Bolivia has experienced a climatic and geologic evolution that has resulted in an enticing array of potential Martian analog geologic environments and features. Elevated ~3 ? 4km above the adjacent Atacama desert, the Altiplano-Puna is the highest plateau in the world associated with extensive volcanism; it is second only to Tibet in height and extent. The high elevation adds extreme cold, wind, and lower atmospheric pressure to a hyper-arid climate making this region a compelling analog environment for Mars. The plateau is dominated by the Altiplano basin, which developed as a major intermontane basin since at least 25Ma. This is flanked by major volcanic provinces to the east and south. To the south is the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) where regionally extensive ignimbrite sheets and associated eruptive centers are amongst the largest known volcanic features in the world. The region has proven to be an excellent natural laboratory for remote sensing and field-based studies of volcanism. The extreme cold, wind, and the wide diurnal temperature range, results in geomorphic expressions dominated by physical weathering and aeolian erosion. These factors make this region one of the premier analog environments for Martian features like Amazonis Planitia, and Hadriaca, Alba, and Tyrrhena paterae, as well as the enigmatic Medusa Fossae Formation (MFF) materials. Large ignimbrite shields, are prominent features of volcanic geology of the plateau and are the subject of an ongoing terrestrial analog study for the MFF. The Altiplano basin preserves a long Pleistocene lake history recorded in a well-preserved lake shore geomorphology consisting of both erosional and depositional features. These features are easily identified and studied in the field and on remotely sensed images and may lend valuable insight into the debate over putative paleoshorelines in the northern plains of Mars. Throughout the basin are several
Diniz Filho, Alberto; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Ferreira, Dollores Martins; Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Calixto, Nassim
To investigate, through ultrasound biomicroscopy images, the presence of plateau iris configuration in eyes with narrow-angle from patients with open-angle glaucoma and in eyes with previous acute primary angle-closure and compare the biometric features of eyes with plateau iris configuration with those of normal eyes. Ultrasound biomicroscopic images from 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and 32 patients with acute primary angle-closure were retrospectively analyzed. The inclusion and specific criteria for the diagnosis of plateau iris configuration was the presence of an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes, supporting the peripheral iris so that it was parallel to the trabecular meshwork; the iris root had a steep rise from its insertion point, followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall; presence of a central flat iris plane; an absent (complete plateau iris configuration) or partially absent (incomplete plateau iris configuration) ciliary sulcus. The ultrasound biomicroscopic parameters were compared between complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration. The same parameters of both groups were compared with those of normal eyes. The following measurements were performed: anterior chamber depth; angle opening distance at 500 microm from the scleral spur; peripheral iris thickness at 500 microm from the scleral spur; iris-ciliary process distance; trabecular-ciliary process distance and angle recess area. Plateau iris configuration was found in 33 eyes of 20 (10.2%) out of 196 patients with open-angle glaucoma and narrow-angle and in 4 eyes of 2 (6.3%) out of 32 patients with acute primary angleclosure. Seventeen (77.3%) patients with plateau iris configuration were female and 5 (22.7%) male. Twenty-three (62.2%) out of 37 eyes had complete plateau iris configuration, and 14 (37.8%) had incomplete plateau iris configuration. Complete and incomplete plateau iris configuration presented similar biometric
Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Moral, Pedro; Saenz-Ruales, Nancy; Gerbault, Pascale; Tonasso, Laure; Villena, Mercedes; Vasquez, René; Bravi, Claudio M; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel
Two Bolivian samples belonging to the two main Andean linguistic groups (Aymaras and Quechuas) were studied for mtDNA and Y-chromosome uniparental markers to evaluate sex-specific differences and give new insights into the demographic processes of the Andean region. mtDNA-coding polymorphisms, HVI-HVII control regions, 17 Y-STRs, and three SNPs were typed in two well-defined populations with adequate size samples. The two Bolivian samples showed more genetic differences for the mtDNA than for the Y-chromosome. For the mtDNA, 81% of Aymaras and 61% of Quechuas presented haplogroup B2. Native American Y-chromosomes were found in 97% of Aymaras (89% hg Q1a3a and 11% hg Q1a3*) and 78% of Quechuas (100% hg Q1a3a). Our data revealed high diversity values in the two populations, in agreement with other Andean studies. The comparisons with the available literature for both sets of markers indicated that the central Andean area is relatively homogeneous. For mtDNA, the Aymaras seemed to have been more isolated throughout time, maintaining their genetic characteristics, while the Quechuas have been more permeable to the incorporation of female foreigners and Peruvian influences. On the other hand, male mobility would have been widespread across the Andean region according to the homogeneity found in the area. Particular genetic characteristics presented by both samples support a past common origin of the Altiplano populations in the ancient Aymara territory, with independent, although related histories, with Peruvian (Quechuas) populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Araya, Rocio; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Lopatin, Javier; Hernández, H. Jaime
In the Rio Maipo watershed, situated in central Chile, mining activities are the main factor impacting Andean meadows, through the consumption and exploitation of water and land. As wetlands are vulnerable and particularly susceptible to changes of water supply, alterations and modifications in the hydrological regime have direct effects on vegetation cover. In order to better understand this ecosystem, as well as for conservation planning and resource management, there is a strong need for spatially explicit and update wetland ecosystem assessment. However, there is a lack of baseline dataset and state of knowledge on these habitats. During the last decades remote sensing as evolve as an efficient tool for mapping and monitoring wetland ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales. Accurate and up-to-date mapping and assessment of wetlands allows monitoring the changes in wetlands' vegetation due to natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances. New freely available spaceborne imagery, like Sentinel-2, supports long term monitoring on a high spatial resolution (10 m). The main aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of multi-temporal Sentinel-2 images in the detection and monitoring of water status of Andean meadows with anthropic disturbances. For these tasks we used bias support vector machines (BSVM), a one-class classifier to map and monitor meadow areas, and the support vector machines regression (SVMR) to estimate surface soil moisture (i.e. top 30 cm). BSVM produces probability maps of the class of interest, were only data of this class is needed as input of the model. One-class classifiers are well suited for situations where the numbers of the training samples from the class of interest is small and/or cover a small fraction of the area to be classified. We found that BSVM was capable to classify the meadow areas with an overall accuracy between 65% and 96%. Meanwhile, surface soil moisture prediction using SVMR reached r2 values between 0.2 and
Lima, Flávio C T
A revision of the cis-andean species of Brycon, with the exception of the Brycon pesu species-complex, is presented. Twenty-one Brycon species (including B. pesu) are recognized from cis-andean river systems: Brycon stolzmanni Steindachner, from the upper Río Marañon basin, Peru; Brycon coxeyi Fowler, from the Río Marañon basin, Ecuador and Peru; Brycon polylepis Moscó Morales, from the Lago de Maracaibo, Río Orinoco, upper rio Amazonas, and rio Tocantins basins, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil; Brycon coquenani Steindachner, from the upper Río Caroni, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; Brycon insignis Steindachner, from the rio Paraíba do Sul and small adjacent coastal river basins of eastern Brazil; Brycon vermelha Lima & Castro, endemic from the rio Mucuri basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon howesi new species, endemic from the rio Jequitinhonha basin, Brazil; Brycon dulcis new species, endemic from the rio Doce basin, eastern Brazil; Brycon ferox Steindachner, from several small coastal river systems, including the rio Mucuri basin in eastern Brazil; Brycon vonoi new species, from the rio Pardo basin and apparently also from a adjacent river system, the rio Una, in eastern Brazil; Brycon opalinus (Cuvier), from the headwaters of the rio Paraíba do Sul and rio Doce basins, eastern Brazil; Brycon nattereri Günther, from the headwaters of the upper rio Paraná, rio São Francisco, and upper rio Tocantins basins, Brazil; Brycon orthotaenia Günther, endemic from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil; Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraná and rio Uruguai basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay; Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes), from the rio Paraguai, middle rio Paraná, and upper rio Amazonas basins, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador; Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman, from the Río Orinoco basin in Colombia and Venezuela; Brycon amazonicus (Agassiz), from the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, Brazil, Peru, Colombia
Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M.; Tierney, G.
Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation
Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tierney, G. [Tierney (Gail), Santa Fe, NM (United States)
Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.
Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari
This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.
Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols
STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the Tibetan Plateau (30.5N, 81.5E). The twin lakes with an altitude of 15,550 feet have the greatest visual impact among features on the plateau. The larger lake is Manasarovar and smaller lake is Rakshash Tal. The Hindus believe if you bathe in Manasarovar the sins of a lifetime are washed away. Both lakes are in Tibet, about ten miles north of its border with Nepal. Immediately to the north of Rakshash (down in the image) and just out of the photo is Mt Kailas 6741m. This is the holiest of all mountains for both Tibetan Buddhists and Hindus. Pilgrims come from many miles away to walk around this 'navel of the earth.' NASA scientists studying the STS-42 Earth photography note the intense dryness on the valley floors. Peaks in the Himalaya Range, immediately south, exceed 21,000 feet. Flanks of Ghurla Mandhata, which lies entirely within Tibet and rises 25,000 feet, appear at top.
Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.
Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary
The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events
Honkonen, S E; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Latvala, K; Järvinen, M J
The isokinetic performance of thigh muscles was evaluated in 37 patients at an average of 7 years after sustaining a fracture of the tibial plateau. The mean torque deficit in the quadriceps of the injured limb was an average of 15% at a speed of 60 degrees/s and 16% at 180 degrees/s, while the corresponding deficits in the hamstrings were 3% and 8%. The radiological appearance of the injured knee correlated significantly to the quadriceps deficit at both speeds. Limited knee movement and thigh atrophy also correlated with the deficit at the lower speed. The strength deficit tended to decrease during follow-up. A multiple step-wise regression analysis showed that the radiological result, length of follow-up and thigh atrophy accounted for 47% of the variation in loss of quadriceps strength. At the higher speed, the functional result was associated with the deficit in quadriceps strength, and older patients had greater deficits than younger. Regression analysis indicated that the radiological and functional result accounted for 31% of the variation in quadriceps strength. Anatomical restoration of the tibial plateau and good muscle rehabilitation are important in obtaining good long term results after this fracture.
Gold, C A; Odom, N; Srinivasan, S; Schaff, L; Haggiagi, A; Odia, Yazmín
We describe video electroencephalography (video-EEG) correlates of transient neurological attacks due to plateau waves-paroxysmal elevations in intracranial pressure-in patients with leptomeningeal metastases. We identified 3 patients with leptomeningeal metastases, intracranial hypertension, and transient neurological attacks captured on video-EEG without evidence of seizures or epileptiform activity. We identified all clinical events on video and reviewed the corresponding EEG data for evidence of abnormalities. All 3 patients had mild to moderate slowing and 2 had frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity during background EEG recording. There were 33 clinical events recorded and stereotyped for each patient. All 33 events were associated with an increase in delta range slowing of ≥30% compared to the background. This abnormality started ≤2 minutes before the onset of clinical symptoms and persisted for minutes after clinical resolution. This study is the first to carefully describe the electrographic correlates of transient neurological attacks due to plateau waves in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis. Clinical attacks were consistently associated with a possible EEG signature of diffuse delta range slowing. Future studies can validate the sensitivity and specificity of these EEG changes as a prognostic and/or response biomarker in patients with leptomeningeal metastases with or without intracranial hypertension.
Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.
Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.
Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua
Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy. PMID:25970822
Shi Lin Li
Full Text Available Microbial lipids, which are also known as single cell oils (SCO, are produced by oleaginous microorganisms including oleaginous bacteria, yeast, fungus and algae through converting carbohydrates into lipids under certain conditions. Due to its unique environment having extremely low temperature and anoxia, the Tibetan Plateau is amongst the regions with numerous rare ecotypes such as arid desert, salt marsh, alpine permafrost, hot spring, and lawn. By using a rapid, convenient screening method, we identified 31 strains of oleaginous microorganisms from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau, which include wetlands, lawn, hot spring, alpine permafrost, and saline-alkali soil. Molecular identity analysis showed that they belong to 15 different species, 7 of which are reported for the first time as lipid-producing microorganisms, that is, Cladosporium sp., Gibberella fujikuro, Ochrobactrum sp., Plectosphaerella sp., Tilletiopsis albescens, Backusella ctenidia, and Davidiella tassiana. The distribution of the oleaginous microorganisms varies with habitats. 11 strains were found in hot spring (35.5%, 10 in farmland (32.3%, 6 in lawn (19.4%, 2 in sand (6.4%, 1 in wetland (3.2%, and 1 in permafrost (3.2%. Carbon utilization analysis indicated that most of these filamentous fungi can use xylose and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as carbon source, where Backusella ctenidia, Fusarium sp. and Gibberella fujikuroi have the strongest capability.
Kong, Yang; Xidong, Li; Gaowei, Xu; Wei, Liu; Meerburg, B.G.
In order to manage Eospalax (Myospalax) baileyi (Plateau zokors) pests with physical method, the efficacy of four different arrow traps was tested to control the plateau zokor in Sichuan Northwest Prairie, China. Population densities of 39.7-42.1 ha-1 were found in the test plots. Such densities
Perrier, J F; Mejia-Gervacio, S; Hounsgaard, J
or trifluoperazine reduced the amplitude of depolarization-induced plateau potentials. Inactivation of calmodulin also inhibited facilitation of plateau potentials by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or muscarinic receptors. 3. In low-sodium medium and in the presence of tetraethylammonium...
Wu Yongqiu,; Xie Kunqing,; Zhang Qingchun,; Zhnag Yan,; Xie Yun,; Zhang Guanghui,; Zhang Wenbo,; Ritsema, C.J.
Crop characteristics with obvious seasonal changes strongly influence soil loss. The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the plant characteristics and their seasonal change in the Loess Plateau. A small watershed, Danangou in the Loess Plateau of north China, was selected for this study.
A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier
To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....
Zhou, Yan; Deng, Yong-Ming; Li, Chuan; Gong, Yun-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Jun; Li, Su-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Zheng
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of chronic kidney diseases in the Tibet plateau and the plain. 77 cases from the Tibet plateau and 154 cases from the plain of renal biopsied patients with chronic kidney diseases were compared in a randomized, and parallel controlled manner. Pathological characteristics were defined according to the standards of WHO and associated classifications. The ration of sex was shown that most of patients in the plateau region were female, whereas those in the plain were male. The characteristics of pathological types were shown that the patients in the plateau region were primarily minimal change disease, but IgA nephropathy was rare; meanwhile, the proportional lupus nephritis (LN) ratio of the secondary glomerulonephritis in the plateau region was significantly lower than those in the plain region. The current data demonstrated that the most common kidney disease in the Tibet Plateau region is still the primary glomerulonephritis as the same as those in the plain region. However, the primary glomerular disease in the plateau region is minimal change disease, and the most common clinical manifestations are the nephrotic syndrome. The IgA nephropathy in the plain is the most frequent disease. In terms of the secondary renal diseases, Henoch-Schnolein purpura nephritis are dominated in the plateau region, whereas LN-based diseases are frequently found in the plain. There is a statistical significance existed between those two groups.
Stolte, J.; Venrooij, van B.; Zhang Guanghui,; Trouwborst, K.O.; Liu Guobin,; Ritsema, C.J.; Hessel, R.
On the Loess Plateau in China, soil erosion amounts to between 10 000 and 25 000 tons/km2/year. In 1998, the EROCHINA project was started, with the major objective of developing alternative land-use and soil and water conservation strategies for the Loess Plateau, using the LISEM soil erosion model.
Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Wang, F.
The Chinese Loess Plateau is one of the most rapidly eroding regions in the world. The purpose of this study is to find out to which extent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau is driven by sunspot activity. We analyzed the relation between annual sediment discharge (from 1919 to 2010) from the Loess
Marti, René K.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Rademakers, Maarten V.
OBJECTIVE: Improvement of joint congruency in malunited lateral tibial plateau fractures, reduction of pain, prevention of osteoarthritis. INDICATIONS: Valgus malalignment of the proximal tibia combined with intraarticular depression of the tibial plateau. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Patients in poor general
John S. Luque
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peru has high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to other Andean countries. Therefore,