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Sample records for andean moist forest

  1. Leaf-level photosynthetic capacity in lowland Amazonian and high-elevation Andean tropical moist forests of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Nur H A; Ishida, F Yoko; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Guerrieri, Rossella; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Bloomfield, Keith J; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L; Meir, Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Cosio, Eric G; Domingues, Tomas F; Quesada, Carlos A; Sinca, Felipe; Escudero Vega, Alberto; Zuloaga Ccorimanya, Paola P; Del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon; Quispe Huaypar, Katherine; Cuba Torres, Israel; Butrón Loayza, Rosalbina; Pelaez Tapia, Yulina; Huaman Ovalle, Judit; Long, Benedict M; Evans, John R; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-05-01

    We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (V cmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (M a , N a and P a , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient. Western blots were used to quantify the abundance of the CO 2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco. Area- and N-based rates of photosynthetic capacity at 25°C were higher in upland than lowland TMFs, underpinned by greater investment of N in photosynthesis in high-elevation trees. Soil [P] and leaf P a were key explanatory factors for models of area-based V cmax and J max but did not account for variations in photosynthetic N-use efficiency. At any given N a and P a , the fraction of N allocated to photosynthesis was higher in upland than lowland species. For a small subset of lowland TMF trees examined, a substantial fraction of Rubisco was inactive. These results highlight the importance of soil- and leaf-P in defining the photosynthetic capacity of TMFs, with variations in N allocation and Rubisco activation state further influencing photosynthetic rates and N-use efficiency of these critically important forests. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Báez Jácome, Vera Selene

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Monta...

  3. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

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    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  4. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil

  5. Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Girardin, C.; Doughty, C.E.; Cahuana, N.; Arenas, C.E.; Oliver, V.; Huaraca Huasco, W.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning

  6. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  7. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  8. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  9. Structure and composition of moist coastal forests in Dorado, Puerto Rico

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    Julio C. Figueroa; Luis Totti; Ariel E. Lugo; Roy O. Woodbury

    1984-01-01

    Changes in forest structure and area over a 44-year period in coastal moist forests in Puerto Rico show succession toward a single climax on white sands. A Pterocarpus forest has not changed and is considered a climax on flooded soils.

  10. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  11. SPECIES RICHNESS AND INDICES OF ABUNDANCE OF MEDIUM-SIZED MAMMALS IN ANDEAN FOREST AND REFORESTATIONS WITH ANDEAN ALDER: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

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    SÁNCHEZ FRANCISCO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and two indices of abundance of medium-sizedmammals in areas with Andean forest and Andean alder (Alnus acuminatareforestations in a reserve at the Central Andes of Colombia. Since reforested areashave a less complex habitat structure and lower plant diversity than native forests, wepredicted that they have lower richness of mammals than areas with Andean forest.We obtained the indices of abundance from direct contacts in transects and from theuse of track stations. Our results suggest that, indeed, areas with Andean forest hada higher richness of mammals than reforestations, but this pattern may be modifiedby anthropogenic factors. We found no differences between the indices of abundanceof the squirrel, Sciurus granatensis, in the two forest types. In contrast, the coatiswere recorded more frequently in the reforestations than in areas with Andean forestat the reserve.

  12. Liana Distribution And Abundance In Moist Tropical Forest In Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We censused lianas in plots that were subjected to three different types of silvicultural intervention in Bobiri forest in Ghana in order to answer two questions: 1) does liana cutting during the initial years of a cutting cycle influence liana densities, basal area and vine loads in tree crowns relative to unlogged forest?; 2) does ...

  13. Bee pollen as non-wood forest product in the eastern Andean highlands of Colombia

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    Fermín José Chamorro García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean forests of the Eastern Andean high-lands of Colombia have a high conservation priority given the vulnerable condition of species such as Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae that inhabit these ecosystems. Beekeeping is regarded as an alternative activity that could play a role in the conservation of Andean forests, but little is known about how the floras of these ecosystems contribute to honey and bee pollen production. We analyzed the contribution of Andean forests to bee pollen production, given the productive potential and commercial importance of this product. Pollen analyses were performed on 25 samples from apiaries near Andean forests located in the states of Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander. We found that Q. humboldtii is an important source of pollen with high potential for monofloral bee pollen production. In addition, bees collect pollen from other Andean forests species such as Weinmannia tomentosa, Viburnum spp. and Morella spp. Utilization of bee pollen could lead to incentives to carry out forest conservation practices through beekeeping management.

  14. Water balance in a moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water balance in a moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana. E Christiansen, T W Awadzi. Abstract. No Abstract. WAJAE Vol. 1 2000: pp. 11-22. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v1i1.40566 · AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  16. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

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    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  17. Overstory structure and soil nutrients effect on plant diversity in unmanaged moist tropical forest

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    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Manhas, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Forests with intensive management past are kept unmanaged to restore diversity and ecosystem functioning. Before perpetuating abandonment after protracted restitution, understanding its effect on forest vegetation is desirable. We studied plant diversity and its relation with environmental variables and stand structure in northern Indian unmanaged tropical moist deciduous forest. We hypothesized that post-abandonment species richness would have increased, and the structure of contemporary forest would be heterogeneous. Vegetation structure, composition, and diversity were recorded, in forty 0.1 ha plots selected randomly in four forest ranges. Three soil samples per 0.1 ha were assessed for physicochemistry, fine sand, and clay mineralogy. Contemporary forest had less species richness than pre-abandonment reference period. Fourteen species were recorded as either seedling or sapling, suggesting reappearance or immigration. For most species, regeneration was either absent or impaired. Ordination and multiple regression results showed that exchangeable base cations and phosphorous affected maximum tree diversity and structure variables. Significant correlations between soil moisture and temperature, and shrub layer was observed, besides tree layer correspondence with shrub richness, suggesting that dense overstory resulting from abandonment through its effect on soil conditions, is responsible for dense shrub layer. Herb layer diversity was negatively associated with tree layer and shrub overgrowth (i.e. Mallotus spp.). Protracted abandonment may not reinforce species richness and heterogeneity; perhaps result in high tree and shrub density in moist deciduous forests, which can impede immigrating or reappearing plant species establishment. This can be overcome by density/basal area reduction strategies, albeit for both tree and shrub layer.

  18. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

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    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  19. Remote sensing for conservation of tropical moist forests: A study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Smith, Robert Myles

    The Indonesian archipelago extends in a great 6000km arc from the northern tip of Sumatra to the eastern border of Irian Jaya. It includes a wide diversity of ecosystems ranging from the floristically rich and economically important lowland tropical rain forests to the 'moss' and sub-alpine meadows of the higher mountains and from fresh-water swamp forest to the dry monsoon forest and savanna woodlands of the lesser Sunda islands. These forests are of importance for the protection of watersheds and catchment areas, for the maintenance of water supplies, and for their general and local influence upon climate. They are the habitat of a large number of rare, endangered and endemic plant and animal species; also many other birds, mammals, reptiles and insects which form a colourful, scientifically valuable and irreplaceable part of the national heritage and world genetic resources. This study examines an area of great ecological importance in Sulawesi, and an attempt is made to map a number of ecosystems in the area. Landsat multispectral imagery (1972) was the basis of the mapping and field work was completed in 1980. The satellite imagery proved to be a satisfactory mapping tool in these tropical moist forest conditions.

  20. Dispersal, isolation and diversification with continued gene flow in an Andean tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Pennington, R; Lavin, Matt

    2017-07-01

    The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin. In a recent issue of Molecular Ecology, Oswald, Overcast, Mauck, Andersen, and Smith (2017) investigate the biogeography and diversification of bird species in the Andes of Peru and Ecuador. Their study is novel in its focus on tropical dry forests (Figure 1) rather than more mesic biomes such as rain forests, cloud forests and paramos, which tend to be the focus of science and conservation in the Andean hot spot. It is also able to draw powerful conclusions via the first deployment of genomic approaches to a biogeographic question in the threatened dry forests of the New World. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  2. Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; William Gould; Andrew T. Hudak; Teresa Nettleton Hollingsworth

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we set up a wood decomposition experiment to i) quantify the percent of mass remaining, decay constant and performance strength of aspen stakes (Populus tremuloides) in dry and moist boreal (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), temperate (Washington and Idaho, USA), and tropical (Puerto Rico) forest types, and ii) determine the effects of...

  3. Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest-pasture-urban gradient in Andean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Rausche, Sirkka; Cueva, Augusta; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Espinosa, Carlos; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites. Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf-shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected. In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species (Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera) on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of

  4. [Diversity and dynamics of a high sub-Andean forest from Northern Andes, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez; Maniguaje, Nancy Lorena; Duque, Alvaro Javier

    2012-06-01

    The sub-Andean forests are characterized by a high biodiversity, but little is known about their natural dynamics. In order to generate new information, this study assessed two permanent plots of one hectare each, in the Northern Andean area of the Western Cordillera, Colombia. Methodology included the evaluation of diversity patterns, above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics, and mortality and recruitment rates. Besides, we used the Fisher's Alpha index to calculate species diversity. Forest dynamics and AGB were evaluated in both plots by means of three censuses carried out within a nine years period. In total, we found 1 664 individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH)> or =10cm belonging to 222 species, 113 genera and 60 families. Mean species richness was of 156 species/ha and a mean Fisher's Alpha index of 56.2/ha. The mortality rate was 0.88% and recruitment was 1.16%, which did not allow to lay any external effect of global warming or climate change on individual forest dynamics. However, the mean AGB was 243.44+/-9.82t/ha, with an annual average increase of 2.9t/ha, a higher value than the one reported in other studies of high sub-Andean forests, which suggests that equilibrium in terms of the AGB have not yet been reached. Besides, according to field observations, a recovery process, from a disturbance that occurred in the past, might be on his way.

  5. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slik, J.W.Ferry; Paoli, Gary; McGuire, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Aim Large trees (d.b.h. ≥ 70 cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore...

  6. New records in the Tubeufiaceae from Andean Patagonian forests of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Romina Magali; Bianchinotti, Maria Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Tubeufiaceae (Pleosporales, Ascomycota) occurring on native trees from the Andean Patagonian forests in Argentina are described and illustrated. Acanthostigma minutum and Tubeufia cerea with its anamorphic state are reported from South America for the first time on Nothofagus dombeyi and N. antarctica, respectively. Both species were up to now only known from the Northern Hemisphere. Fil: Sanchez, Romina Magali. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico ...

  7. Oxyoppia mustaciata n. sp. from andean forests of northwestern patagonia and key to oxyoppiinae from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; During a three-year survey of oribatid mites in soil and leaf litter of Andean North patagonian forests, specimens belonging to the genus Oxyoppia were collected. Even though the specimens could be recognized by the use of previous descriptions and existing keys as being close to Oxyoppia (Oxyoppiella) suramericana, morphological analyses suggest enough differences to propose a new species Oxyoppia mustaciata n. sp. A new identification key to species of Oxyoppiinae fr...

  8. Patterns of diversity and regeneration in unmanaged moist deciduous forests in response to disturbance in Shiwalik Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied vegetation attributes in Indian tropical moist deciduous unmanaged forests to determine the influence of forest disturbances on them. We enumerated 89 species: 72 under moderate disturbance and 54 under least disturbance. The data from 3399 stems [>5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh] decreased linearly along the disturbance gradient. The basal area was largest in least disturbed forests (61 m2/ha and smallest in intensely disturbed forest (41 m2/ha. Under least and moderate disturbance, tree density-diameter distribution had negative exponential curves, whereas highly disturbed forests had unimodal-shaped curves where a few trees 5–10 cm and >50 cm in diameter were recorded. Most tree and shrub layer species under heavy and intense disturbance had impaired regeneration. Moderate disturbance intensity thus apparently benefits species diversity, stand density, and regeneration. Decline in seedlings and saplings, especially tree species, threaten forest regeneration and the maintenance of species diversity of unmanaged tropical forests.

  9. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  10. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  11. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  12. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  13. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  14. The niche and phylogeography of a passerine reveal the history of biological diversification between the Andean and the Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; Dantas, Gisele P M; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Naoki, Kazuya; Gómez, Maria I; Santos, Fabricio R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Aleixo, Alexandre; Tubaro, Pablo L; Cabanne, Gustavo S

    2017-07-01

    The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  16. The ecology and management of moist mixed-conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington: a synthesis of the relevant biophysical science and implications for future land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Stine; Paul Hessburg; Thomas Spies; Marc Kramer; Christopher J. Fettig; Andrew Hansen; John Lehmkuhl; Kevin O' Hara; Karl Polivka; Peter Singleton; Susan Charnley; Andrew Merschel; Rachel. White

    2014-01-01

    Land managers in the Pacific Northwest have reported a need for updated scientific information on the ecology and management of mixed-conifer forests east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington. Of particular concern are the moist mixed-conifer forests, which have become drought-stressed and vulnerable to high-severity fire after decades of human disturbances...

  17. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  18. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 m were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  19. Seedbank in disturbed sub-andean forest areas in San Bernardo (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Romero López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The germinable seed bank (BSG was characterized by disturbances associated with grazing and forest plantations in the sub-Andean forest of the municipality of San Bernardo (Cundinamarca - Colombia. Three coverages were sampled (forest relict, an Eucalyptus globulus plantation and pasture, by means of transects. The BSG was evaluated by the method of direct germination. The alpha diversity was calculated from the indexes of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson. The beta diversity was analyzed with the index of Sorensen. To compare the BSG in each coverage, a ANOVA analysis was performed. In total, 127343 seeds/m2 germinated in the forest relict, 44,678 seeds/m2 in the plantation and 107,747 seeds/m2 in the pasture. 22 families and 42 species were recorded in the forest relict, 18 families and 36 species in the plantation and 20 families and 40 species in the pasture. The diversity values ​​of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson and the Sorensen index were similar for all three coverages. The abundance was differed between the coverages. The BSG found is a reflection of disturbances in adjacent areas that provide seeds of exotic species mainly in the three coverages analyzed.

  20. Long-term growth decline in Toona ciliata in a moist tropical forest in Bangladesh: Impact of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; Islam, Rofiqul; Islam, Mahmuda

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forests are carbon rich ecosystems and small changes in tropical forest tree growth substantially influence the global carbon cycle. Forest monitoring studies report inconsistent growth changes in tropical forest trees over the past decades. Most of the studies highlighted changes in the forest level carbon gain, neglecting the species-specific growth changes which ultimately determine community-level responses. Tree-ring analysis can provide historical data on species-specific tree growth with annual resolution. Such studies are inadequate in Bangladesh, which is one of the most climate sensitive regions in the tropics. In this study, we investigated long-term growth rates of Toona ciliata in a moist tropical forest of Bangladesh by using tree-ring analysis. We sampled 50 trees of varying size, obtained increment cores from these trees and measured tree-ring width. Analyses of growth patterns revealed size-dependent growth increments. After correcting for the effect of tree size on tree growth (ontogenetic changes) by two different methods we found declining growth rates in T. ciliata from 1960 to 2013. Standardized ring-width index (RWI) was strongly negatively correlated with annual mean and maximum temperatures suggesting that rising temperature might cause the observed growth decline in T. ciliata. Assuming that global temperatures will rise at the current rate, the observed growth decline is assumed to continue. The analysis of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes may reveal more insight on the physiological response of this species to future climatic changes.

  1. Research Priorities for the Conservation and Sustainable Governance of Andean Forest Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The long-term survival of Andean forest landscapes (AFL and of their capacity to contribute to sustainable development in a context of global change requires integrated adaptation and mitigation responses informed by a thorough understanding of the dynamic and complex interactions between their ecological and social components. This article proposes a research agenda that can help guide AFL research efforts for the next 15 years. The agenda was developed between July 2015 and June 2016 through a series of workshops in Ecuador, Peru, and Switzerland and involved 48 researchers and development experts working on AFL from different disciplinary perspectives. Based on our review of current research and identification of pressing challenges for the conservation and sustainable governance of AFL, we propose a conceptual framework that draws on sustainability sciences and social–ecological systems research, and we identify a set of high-priority research goals and objectives organized into 3 broad categories: systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge. This paper is intended to be a reference for a broad array of actors engaged in policy, research, and implementation in the Andean region. We hope it will trigger collaborative research initiatives for the continued conservation and sustainable governance of AFL.

  2. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-López, Richard; Bolaños, Rafael; Contreras-Gutierrez, MarIa; Carrero-Sarmiento, Diego

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp--townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia), while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni). A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.

  3. Water Balance in a Moist Semi-Deciduous Forest of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deciduous forest of Ghana was selected for this study because most food and export crops are grown there. Available water ... balance model can be used in place of complicated models in the determination of soil water balance in the tropics. Key words: water ...... A study of evaporation from tropical rain forest h. West lava.

  4. Restoration of tropical moist forest on bauxite mined lands in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Pará), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber...

  5. Impacts of Resettlement Programs on Deforestation of Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefelegn Getahun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned on the forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover were mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The rate of deforestation was analyzed using overlay and buffer analysis techniques available in ArcGIS software. Focus group discussions and household surveys were conducted to collect information on landscape (forest change and the causes and consequences of deforestation. Results from the forest cover change analysis revealed that the study area lost large tracts (80% of its forest cover between 1957 and 2007. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural changes introduced by migrants were the leading drivers of deforestation in the study area. In addition, the rate of deforestation in the region has been exacerbated by a low level of education and awareness of the local people about the benefits of forests, lack of regulations to protect the forests, habitat destruction to deter crop-damaging wild pests, forest clearing for fuelwood and charcoal making, and wood extraction for construction and household furniture purposes.

  6. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  7. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  8. Edge effects on understory epiphytic ferns and epiphyllous bryophytes in moist afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylander Kristoffer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on edge effects in tropical forests have been conducted in landscapes with low human population density and in situations where the edges have been left unused after logging of the adjacent area. Here we studied forest margins heavily used by local farmers in a forest/agriculture mosaic landscape in Ethiopia. We compared forest structure and plant species composition across 41 forest-agriculture ecotones from 200 m out into the agricultural area to 200 m into the forest. There are strong edge effects from the edge and into the forest on canopy cover and number of stumps and apparently these forest-agricultural edges are intensively used by humans. They are penetrated by paths, beehives are found in the trees, timber of various dimensions is harvested and there is sometimes substantial cover of perennial wild (or semi-wild crops such as coffee and spices. The number of understory epiphytic fern species as well as number of epiphyllous (i.e., growing on leaves bryophyte species was lower at 20 m than at 75 m from the edge. The number of fern species was higher in newly created edges and thereafter they declined, which indicates an extinction debt. This pattern was not seen for the epiphyllous bryophytes. It is likely that different human management activities are responsible for many of the found edge effects besides wind and sun effects from the edge. Tropical forest margins provide important resources for people in many landscapes. It is important to understand how such use affects the biota of the forests. This study shows that there are substantial edge effects, but that the edge effects do not seem to become worse over time for epiphyllous bryophytes and only slightly so for ferns.

  9. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  10. Some comments on the ‘Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan’

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2016), s. 8846-8848 ISSN 0974-7893 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : forest butterflies * western Bhutan * comments Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://threatenedtaxa.org/index.php/JoTT/article/view/2709

  11. Impacts of Resettlement Programs on Deforestation of Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Kefelegn; Poesen, Jean; Van Rompaey, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned) on Afromontane forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover was mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite i...

  12. How do Light and Water Acquisition Strategies Affect Species Selection during Secondary Succession in Moist Tropical Forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schönbeck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance and tree performance (mortality rate in the field, we assessed how shade and drought tolerance of leaves are related to the species’ positions along a successional gradient in moist tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico. We quantified morphological and physiological leaf shade and drought tolerance indicators for 25 dominant species that characterize different successional stages. We found that light demand decreases with succession, confirming the importance of light availability for species filtering during early stages of succession. In addition, water transport levels in the leaves decreased with succession, but high water transport did not increase the leaf’s vulnerability to drought. In fact, late successional species showed higher mortality in dry years than early successional ones, against suggestions from leaf drought tolerance traits. It is likely that pioneer species have other drought-avoiding strategies, like deep rooting systems and water storage in roots and stems. More research on belowground plant physiology is needed to understand how plants adapt to changing environments, which is crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on secondary forests.

  13. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  14. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  15. The Flora and mammals of the moist semi-deciduous Forest Zone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty species of mammals representing eight orders were recorded, with the dominant orders being Rodentia and Artiodactyla. The greatest faunal diversity occurred in the forest reserves, where suitable habitat niches still occur. There were 48 individuals of seven species of rodents and one individual of one insectivore ...

  16. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Liana infestation impacts tree growth in a lowland tropical moist forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. F. van der Heijden

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-level estimates of the effect of lianas on tree growth in mature tropical forests are needed to evaluate the functional impact of lianas and their potential to affect the ability of tropical forests to sequester carbon, but these are currently lacking. Using data collected on tree growth rates, local growing conditions and liana competition in five permanent sampling plots in Amazonian Peru, we present the first ecosystem-level estimates of the effect of lianas on above-ground productivity of trees. By first constructing a multi-level linear mixed effect model to predict individual-tree diameter growth model using individual-tree growth conditions, we were able to then estimate stand-level above-ground biomass (AGB increment in the absence of lianas. We show that lianas, mainly by competing above-ground with trees, reduce tree annual above-ground stand-level biomass increment by ~10%, equivalent to 0.51 Mg dry weight ha−1 yr−1 or 0.25 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. AGB increment of lianas themselves was estimated to be 0.15 Mg dry weight ha−1 yr−1 or 0.07 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, thus only compensating ~29% of the liana-induced reduction in ecosystem AGB increment. Increasing liana pressure on tropical forests will therefore not only tend to reduce their carbon storage capacity, by indirectly promoting tree species with low-density wood, but also their rate of carbon uptake, with potential consequences for the rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  18. Geological substrates shape tree species and trait distributions in African moist forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km(2) spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different

  19. Geological substrates shape tree species and trait distributions in African moist forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Fayolle

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach.We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km(2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology and historical factors (human disturbance were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata.The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for

  20. Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced

  1. SOM and Biomass C Stocks in Degraded and Undisturbed Andean and Coastal Nothofagus Forests of Southwestern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dube

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and over-exploitation can severely degrade soil in native forests. Considering that productivity in ecosystems is related to soil organic matter (SOM content and quality, the objectives of this study were to: (1 determine the influence of degraded (DEF, partly-degraded (PDF, and undisturbed (UNF Nothofagus forests on the stocks of carbon (C in tree biomass and SOM; (2 evaluate fractions of SOM as indicators of sustainable management; and (3 use the Century model to determine the potential gains of soil organic C (SOC. The forests are located in the Andes and Coastal mountains of southern Chile. The SOM was fractionated to separate the light fraction (LF, macroaggregates (>212 µm, mesoaggregates (212–53 µm, and microaggregates (<53 µm. In two measurement periods, the SOC stocks at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths in macroaggregates were on average 100% higher in the Andean UNF, and SOC was over twice as much at 20–40 cm depth in Andean DEF. Century simulations showed that improved silvopastoral management would gradually increase total SOC in degraded soils of both sites, especially the Ultisol with a 15% increase between 2016 and 2216 (vs. 7% in the Andisol. Greater SOC in macroaggregates (p < 0.05 of UNF indicate a condition of higher sustainability and better management over the years.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of local-scale tree soil associations in a lowland moist tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Schreeg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water. We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the 'traits' (i.e., soil variables evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny

  3. An ecological paradox: high species diversity and low position of the upper forest line in the Andean Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thorsten; Braeuning, Achim; Muenchow, Jannes; Richter, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Systematic investigations of the upper forest line (UFL) primarily concentrate on mid and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, whereas studies of Neotropical UFLs are still fragmentary. This article outlines the extraordinary high tree diversity at the UFL within the Andean Depression and unravels the links between the comparatively low position of the local UFL, high tree-species diversity, and climate. On the basis of Gentry's rapid inventory methodology for the tropics, vegetation sampling was conducted at 12 UFL sites, and local climate (temperature, wind, precipitation, and soil moisture) was investigated at six sites. Monotypic forests dominated by Polylepis were only found at the higher located margins of the Andean Depression while the lower situated core areas were characterized by a species-rich forest, which lacked the elsewhere dominant tree-species Polylepis. In total, a remarkably high tree-species number of 255 tree species of 40 different plant families was found. Beta-diversity was also high with more than two complete species turnovers. A non-linear relationship between the floristic similarity of the investigated study sites and elevation was detected. Temperatures at the investigated study sites clearly exceeded 5.5°C, the postulated threshold value for the upper tree growth limit in the tropics. Instead, quasi-permanent trade winds, high precipitation amounts, and high soil water contents affect the local position of the UFL in a negative way. Interestingly, most of the above-mentioned factors are also contributing to the high species richness. The result is a combination of a clearly marked upper forest line depression combined with an extraordinary forest line complexity, which was an almost unknown paradox.

  4. GROUND WATER LEVELS AND WATER STORAGES IN MOIST MIXED BROADLEAVED FOREST HABITAT IN HYDROLOGICAL YEARS 2000/2001 AND 2009/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Korytowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researches carried out in two hydrological years 2000/2001 and 2009/2010. These two years were wet ones with high precipitation sums. The researches were carried out at the catchment of water pond No 5, located at Laski Forestry of Siemianice Experimental Farm. The area catchment of pond No 5 is about 20 ha and its forestation totals 100%. It is situated in a part of Pomianka catchment – left-side tributary of Prosna River. In the investigated catchment predominant fresh habitats spreading through 95% area. Moist broadleaved forest and moist mixed broadleaved forest are located in the area neighbouring to the pond. The haplic luisol and haplic cambisol (dystric are predominant in soils of the catchment area. Whereas, loamy sand a predominant soil there . The researches and analyses confirmed that retention changes in 1m soil layer as well as changes of groundwater storages had significant meaning in the evaluation of forest habitats retention. The research showed an increase of water storages in both analysed years, whereas in 2009/2010 hydrological year increase was higher than in the first analysed year (2000/2001 of about 160 mm.

  5. 1Moist Forest R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-15

    Nov 15, 2014 ... H. (Lepidoptera, Noctudae), the shoot feeders,. Anomis Leona Shaus, Earias biplaga W. (Lepidoptera-Noctuidae). The major diseases of cocoa are the cacao swollen shoot virus. (CSSV) disease transmitted by mealybugs vectors - Plannococcoides njalences L.,. Planococcus citri R. and Ferrisiana virgrata.

  6. Influence of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Stand Structural Complexity in Andean Temperate Forests: Implications for Managing Key Habitat for Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Forest attributes and their abundances define the stand structural complexity available as habitat for faunal biodiversity; however, intensive anthropogenic disturbances have the potential to degrade and simplify forest stands. In this paper we develop an index of stand structural complexity and show how anthropogenic disturbances, namely fire, logging, livestock, and their combined presence, affect stand structural complexity in a southern Global Biodiversity Hotspot. From 2011 to 2013, we measured forest structural attributes as well as the presence of anthropogenic disturbances in 505 plots in the Andean zone of the La Araucanía Region, Chile. In each plot, understory density, coarse woody debris, number of snags, tree diameter at breast height, and litter depth were measured, along with signs of the presence of anthropogenic disturbances. Ninety-five percent of the plots showed signs of anthropogenic disturbance (N = 475), with the combined presence of fire, logging, and livestock being the most common disturbance (N = 222; 44% of plots). The lowest values for the index were measured in plots combining fire, logging, and livestock. Undisturbed plots and plots with the presence of relatively old fires (> 70 years) showed the highest values for the index of stand structural complexity. Our results suggest that secondary forests forests should be managed to retain structural attributes, including understory density (7.2 ± 2.5 # contacts), volume of CWD (22.4 ± 25.8 m3/ha), snag density (94.4 ± 71.0 stems/ha), stand basal area (61.2 ± 31.4 m2/ha), and litter depth (7.5 ± 2.7 cm). Achieving these values will increase forest structural complexity, likely benefiting a range of faunal species in South American temperate forests. PMID:28068349

  7. Checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest at the Cachalu Biological Reserve, Santander (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Ruth; Reina Miriam; Herrera Edna; Avila Fabio Andres; Chaparro Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Reserva Biologica Cachalu is presented. Cachalu is located on the western slope of the Eastern Andes (Encino - Santander), and represents a sample of the sub - Andean forest of the Colombian Andes. The material was collected over a period of seven months in 2007 and 2008. General collections were carried out through Cachalu, and in a permanent plot at an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2350 m. A total of 443 species, included in 257 genera, and 101 families were recorded. Angiosperms represent 96% of the vascular flora, while pteridophyta 3.5% and gymnosperms only 0.5%. The Rubiaceae family has the highest richness at the genus and species level (18/36), followed by Melastomataceae (13/30), Orchidaceae (13/25), Asteraceae (13/21) and Solanaceae (8/21). The genera Psychotria, Miconia, Solanum and Anthurium show the highest number of species. For each species, the catalog contains the scientific name, collections used, habit, and the altitudinal range. The affinities of the flora of Cachalu with similar forests at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor are discussed. Additionally, species considered at any level of threat are pointed so that they may be prioritized in restoration and conservation programs.

  8. Amazonian biomass burning-derived acid and nutrient deposition in the north Andean montane forest of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jens; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Valarezo, Carlos; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2008-12-01

    We explored the influence of biomass burning in Amazonia and northeastern Latin America on N, C, P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, and Zn cycles of an Andean montane forest in south Ecuador exposed to the Amazon basin between May 1998 and April 2003. We assessed the response of the element budget of three microcatchments (8-13 ha) to the variations in atmospheric deposition between the intensive burning season and outside the burning season in Amazonia. There were significantly elevated H, N, and Mn depositions during biomass burning. Elevated H deposition during biomass burning caused elevated base metal loss from the canopy and the organic horizon and deteriorated already low base metal supply of the vegetation. N was only retained during biomass burning but not during nonfire conditions when deposition was much smaller. We conclude that biomass burning-related aerosol emissions in Amazonia are large enough to substantially increase element deposition at the western rim of Amazonia. Particularly the related increase of acid deposition impoverishes already base metal scarce ecosystems. As biomass burning is most intense during El Niño situations, a shortened El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle because of global warming likely enhances the acid deposition at our study forest.

  9. Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, Kevin A.; Trainor, Anne M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Hopkins, Mariah E.; Campbell, Christina J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many arboreal mammals in Neotropical forests are important seed dispersers that influence the spatial patterns of tree regeneration via their movement patterns, which in turn are determined by the canopy structure of the forest itself. However, the relationship between arboreal mammal

  10. Structure and dynamics of populations of native plants in a Andean forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, KCristian; Martha Isabel Vallejo

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by having high species richness and diversity. There are several hypotheses to explain the origin and maintenance of diversity, which have been studied through a global network of plots. this is the first large scale study on the structure and dynamics of plant populations in a montane forest, through the establishment of a permanent plot at La Planada nature reserve (Narino, Colombia). This plot has enabled the monitoring of more than 130.000 trees and shrubs of 240 species for five years. The results indicate that the average mortality rate is 3.65%/yr and an average recruitment rate of 3.52%/yr; the basal area and biomass increased 5% over five years. Montane forests in the Andes are more dynamic and have slower growth rates compared to lowland tropical forests

  11. Tropical forest soil microbes and climate warming: An Andean-Amazon gradient and `SWELTR'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, A.; Turner, B. L.; Fierer, N.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N. J.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R.; Silman, M.; Bååth, E.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming predicted for the tropics in the coming century will result in average temperatures under which no closed canopy forest exists today. There is, therefore, great uncertainty associated with the direction and magnitude of feedbacks between tropical forests and our future climate - especially relating to the response of soil microbes and the third of global soil carbon contained in tropical forests. While warming experiments are yet to be performed in tropical forests, natural temperature gradients are powerful tools to investigate temperature effects on soil microbes. Here we draw on studies from a 3.5 km elevation gradient - and 20oC mean annual temperature gradient - in Peruvian tropical forest, to investigate how temperature affects the structure of microbial communities, microbial metabolism, enzymatic activity and soil organic matter cycling. With decreased elevation, soil microbial diversity increased and community composition shifted, from taxa associated with oligotrophic towards copiotrophic traits. A key role for temperature in shaping these patterns was demonstrated by a soil translocation experiment, where temperature-manipulation altered the relative abundance of specific taxa. Functional implications of these community composition shifts were indicated by changes in enzyme activities, the temperature sensitivity of bacterial and fungal growth rates, and the presence of temperature-adapted iso-enzymes at different elevations. Studies from a Peruvian elevation transect indicated that soil microbial communities are adapted to long-term (differences with elevation) and short-term (translocation responses) temperature changes. These findings indicate the potential for adaptation of soil microbes in tropical soils to future climate warming. However, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of these processes to climate warming in lowland forests, in situ experimentation is required. Finally, we describe SWELTR (Soil Warming Experiment in Lowland

  12. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  13. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics

  14. Assessment of the Proximity of MODIS Active Fire Detections to Roads and Navigable Rivers in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.; Souza, C., Jr.; Cochrane, M. A.; Boschetti, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brazilian tropical moist forest biome supports the world's largest contiguous area of tropical forests and is experiencing high rates of deforestation. Fires are proxy indicators of human pressure and deforestation. Previous studies using satellite active fire detections and the official Brazilian road vector data (IBGE- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), including state, federal and some private roads, indicate that the majority of fires occur close to roads. In this quantitative study a new data set that also includes unofficial roads and navigable rivers acquired from Imazon (a non-profit research institution with a mission to promote sustainable development in the Amazon) are used to quantify annual distance distributions of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite active fire detections for 2003 to 2009. The majority (> 93%) of active fire detections are within 10 km of a road or a navigable river bank. Inter-state and inter-annual differences in the distance distributions, that may capture inter-annual rates of road expansion and fire variability, are also presented. These results may be useful for improvement of regional fire prediction models.

  15. Carbon concentrations and carbon pool distributions in dry, moist, and cold mid-aged forests of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David Adams

    2010-01-01

    Although "carbon” management may not be a primary objective in forest management, influencing the distribution, composition, growth, and development of biomass to fulfill multiple objectives is; therefore, given a changing climate, managing carbon could influence future management decisions. Also, typically, the conversion from total biomass to total carbon is 50...

  16. Incidence of plant cover over the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria population in a fragment of Andean forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Xiomara; Gonzalez, L; Varela, A; Ahumada, J A

    1999-01-01

    It was determined the incidence of plant cover (forest vs. pasture), on the autotrophy nitrifying bacteria, through the effect of biotic factors (radical exudate) and abiotic factors (temperature, ph and humidity), in a high mountain cloud forest fragment. The site of study was located near La Mesa (Cundinamarca) municipality. The temperature of soil was measured in situ, and soil samples were collected and carried to the laboratory for pH and humidity percentage measurements. Serial soil dilution method was used for plating samples on a selective culture medium with ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, in order to estimate the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria population levels. Grown colonies were examined macro and microscopically. The quantity of nitrates produced by bacteria cultured in vitro was determined spectra-photometrical. In relation to the abiotic factors, there was no significant differences of pH between both plant covers, but there were significant for soil humidity and temperature (p<0.05). There were highly significant differences with respect to the bacteria population levels (p<0.0001) and with respect to nitrate production. This suggests a higher bacterial activity in the under forest cover. The radical exudate from both types of plant cover reduced the viability of bacteria in vitro, from 1:1 to 1:30 exudate bacteria proportions. In the soils physical and chemical analysis, it was found a higher P and Al concentrations, and a higher CIC and organic matter content under the forest cover. It is suggested the importance of this functional group in this ecosystem

  17. Model of Ecological Connectivity of Andean Forest Fragments in Santa Elena (Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Colorado Zuluaga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and the associated potential habitat loss is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One strategy that promotes its maintenance at a landscape scale is the establishment of biological corridors that enhance structural and functional connectivity of the biotic components. However, the applicability and functionality of this tool is limited due to the lack of planning at the moment of the design and establishment of corridors or connectivity networks that are guided by detailed and rigorous methods. In this research, we developed a theoretical proposal of ecological connectivity for the Santa Elena village, Medellin municipality, Colombia, using tools from landscape ecology. Initially, 21 forest fragments or nucleus were selected based on their minimum size (larger than 5 ha, core area (larger than 1 ha, and shape index (rounded or nearly rounded. Then, based on a friction matrix, we designed a potential network that would allow to connect 1356.35 ha of remnants forests through 31 ecological corridors of 100 m wide, comprising 208.33 ha in total. Finally, we discussed the importance of promoting this kind of strategies based on landscape ecology that enhance both habitat conservation and landscape connectivity in areas near large Latin-American cities.

  18. A new species ofPhrynopus(Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus . Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis . For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum , P. miroslawae , P. tautzorum , and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  19. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6, and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  20. Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and

  1. Efficacy of Pitfall Trapping, Winkler and Berlese Extraction Methods for Measuring Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Moist-Deciduous Forests in the Western Ghats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides data to decide on the most appropriate method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods measured in a moist-deciduous forest in the Western Ghats in South India. The abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods was compared among large numbers of samples obtained using pitfall trapping, Berlese and Winkler extraction methods. Highest abundance and frequency of most of the represented taxa indicated pitfall trapping as the ideal method for sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods. However, with possible bias towards surface-active taxa, pitfall-trapping data is inappropriate for quantitative studies, and Berlese extraction is the better alternative. Berlese extraction is the better method for quantitative measurements than the other two methods, whereas pitfall trapping would be appropriate for qualitative measurements. A comparison of the Berlese and Winkler extraction data shows that in a quantitative multigroup approach, Winkler extraction was inferior to Berlese extraction because the total number of arthropods caught was the lowest; and many of the taxa that were caught from an identical sample via Berlese extraction method were not caught. Significantly a greater frequency and higher abundance of arthropods belonging to Orthoptera, Blattaria, and Diptera occurred in pitfall-trapped samples and Psocoptera and Acariformes in Berlese-extracted samples than that were obtained in the other two methods, indicating that both methods are useful, one complementing the other, eliminating a chance for possible under-representation of taxa in quantitative studies. PMID:20673122

  2. Diversity of the ground-dwelling ant fauna (Hymenoptera:Formicidae of a moist,montane forest of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L Hites

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the so called "green islands" of the semi-arid Brazilian "Nordeste" are economically, socially, and ecologically important, relatively little is known about their biodiversity. We present the results of the first survey of the ground-dwelling ant fauna of a secondary forest in the Serra de Baturité (4° 05’ - 4° 40’ S / 38° 30’ - 39° 10’ W, among the biggest of the moist, montane forests of the state of Ceará, Brazil. From February to March 2001, samples were taken every 50 m along twelve 200 m transects, each separated from the others by at least 50 m and cut on either side of a recreational trail. Where possible, two transects were cut from the same starting point on the trail, one on either side. At each sample site two methods were used, as recommended in the ALL protocol: a pitfall trap and the treatment of 1 m² of leaf litter with the Winkler extractor. The myrmecofauna of the Serra de Baturité is quite diverse: individuals from 72 species, 23 genera, and six subfamilies were collected. The observed patterns of specific richness show the same tendencies noted in other tropical regions, particularly the frequency of capture distribution with many rare and few abundant species. Differences with the Atlantic and Amazonian forests were also observed, especially the relative importance of the Ponerinae and Formicinae subfamilies, indicating a possible influence of the surrounding "caatinga" (savanna-like ecosystem on the myrmecofauna of the moist,montane forest. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:165-173. Epub 2005 Jun 24Se presentan los resultados del primer inventario de la mirmecofauna del suelo en un parche de bosque montano húmedo del "Nordeste" semi-árido brasileño. Aunque estos parches o "islas verdes" son importantes económica, social, y ecológicamente, se conoce relativamente poco acerca de su biodiversidad. La investigación fue llevada a cabo en un bosque secundario en la Serra de Baturité, uno de los mayores del

  3. Balligratus, new genus of wingless ground beetles from equatorial Andean montane forest (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lachnophorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Pierre; Ortuño, Vicente M

    2017-04-27

    A new carabid beetle genus, Balligratus gen. nov., belonging to the tribe Lachnophorini, is described. It is geographically restricted to the equatorial Andes, and ecologically linked to the montane pluvial forest ecosystem, at elevations ranging from 1,200 to 3,600 m. As other carabid lineages that have radiated in such environments, Balligratus gen. nov. is a wingless clade, characterized by the loss of flight wings associated with metathoracic reduction, constriction of the elytral base, and reduced eye size. This evolution is unique among Lachnophorini. Four new species are described, all of them from Ecuador: Balligratus brevis sp. nov., Balligratus globosus sp. nov., Balligratus gracilis sp. nov. and Balligratus humerangulus sp. nov.

  4. Functional diversity and environmental services in landscapes in moor and high Andean forest Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Burgos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how functional diversity operates to provide environmental services in the various landscapes ecosystem, is crucial to maintain the welfare of the people who depend on them. This review aims to address: 1. Overview of functional diversity and state of research in the páramo and forest altondino of Boyacá. 2. The loan provides environmental services functional diversity boyacense population, which has a high percentage rural (49% for both lives immersed in these landscapes, facing their importance in environmental and public policy decisions. 3. The description of the modeling of the landscape as a determinant, largely on the structure of ecological communities, functioning and ecosystem services. This is formulated with the aim of reversing the focus of research so far has been aimed at quantification studies of local diversity, to effects involving landscape modeling functional biodiversity, this approach to be critical for the development of joint solutions for the sake of the future of biodiversity and ecosystem services management

  5. Enrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata in a Central African Moist Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance, suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps.

  6. Unveiling current Guanaco distribution in chile based upon niche structure of phylogeographic lineages: Andean puna to subpolar forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A González

    provides a scientific tool to further develop large scale plans for habitat conservation and preservation of intraspecific genetic variability for this far ranging South American camelid, which inhabits a diversity of ecoregion types from Andean puna to subpolar forests.

  7. Use of a forest sapwood area index to explain long-term variability in mean annual evapotranspiration and streamflow in moist eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Jaskierniak, Dominik; Kuczera, George; Haydon, Shane R.

    2015-07-01

    Mean sapwood thickness, measured in fifteen 73 year old Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis stands, correlated strongly with forest overstorey stocking density (R2 0.72). This curvilinear relationship was used with routine forest stocking density and basal area measurements to estimate sapwood area of the forest overstorey at various times in 15 research catchments in undisturbed and disturbed forests located in the Great Dividing Range, Victoria, Australia. Up to 45 years of annual precipitation and streamflow data available from the 15 catchments were used to examine relationships between mean annual loss (evapotranspiration estimated as mean annual precipitation minus mean annual streamflow), and sapwood area. Catchment mean sapwood area correlated strongly (R2 0.88) with catchment mean annual loss. Variation in sapwood area accounted for 68% more variation in mean annual streamflow than precipitation alone (R2 0.90 compared with R2 0.22). Changes in sapwood area accounted for 96% of the changes in mean annual loss observed after forest thinning or clear-cutting and regeneration. We conclude that forest inventory data can be used reliably to predict spatial and temporal variation in catchment annual losses and streamflow in response to natural and imposed disturbances in even-aged forests. Consequently, recent advances in mapping of sapwood area using airborne light detection and ranging will enable high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of mean annual loss and mean annual streamflow over large areas of forested catchment. This will be particularly beneficial in management of water resources from forested catchments subject to disturbance but lacking reliable long-term (years to decades) streamflow records.

  8. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political...

  9. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political, so...

  10. Organic Matter Stocks and the Interactions of Humic Substances with Metals in Araucaria Moist Forest Soil with Humic and Histic Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils with humic and histic horizons in tropical and subtropical ecosystems play an important role in determining the atmospheric C stock and its stabilization, climate regulation, water holding capacity, and environmental filtering, due to the different functions of soil organic matter (SOM. However, the processes and mechanisms that regulate SOM dynamics in these soils are not clear. The objectives of this study were: i determine the C and N stocks and ii investigate the SOM chemical fractions and their interactions with Fe and Al ions in soils with humic and histic horizons of a toposequence under Araucaria moist forest in southern Brazil. The soils sampled were classified as Humic Hapludox (top - not hydromorphic, Fluvaquentic Humaquepts (lower third - hydromorphic, and Typic Haplosaprists (floodplain - hydromorphic. The C and N contents were determined in bulk soil samples and SOM chemical fractions; in these fractions, Fe and Al co-extracted contents were also determined. The chemical composition of humin and humic acid fractions was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The C content in the toposequence increased from the top to the lowest position. The differences observed in SOM content and SOM chemical composition were defined by the differences in soil water regime. The amount of C stored in the subsurface horizons is about 70 % of total organic C. The carbohydrate-like structures in the humin fraction were protected from solubilization through interaction with iron oxides, which may represent an important mechanism for labile organic compound preservation in these soils. The soluble humic substances showed the highest Fe and Al contents, and their compartments have different affinities for Fe and Al.

  11. Population structure and demography of the palm wettinia kalbreyeri from an andean montane forest of colombia / estructura poblacional y demografía de la palma macana wettinia kalbreyeri en un bosque altoandino de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Vásquez, Carlos Esteban; Díez Gómez, María Claudia; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio Humberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Wettinia kalbreyeri is a monoecious palm distributed on the Andean highland forests from Colombia and Ecuador with high ecological and economical value. For several decades, its populations have been intensively harvested, which caused a significant decrease of its natural stocks. However, no research has been done yet on the regeneration and dynamics of this important species. In order to get critical information for its management, we characterized the life cycle and surveyed for ...

  12. Activity patterns and habitat use of mammals in an Andean forest and a Eucalyptus reforestation in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Mejía, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    To mitigate deforestation effects, reforestation programs with native and/or exotic species have been implemented in the Colombian Andes, but little is known about how such reforestations affect wildlife. Using camera-traps, we studied the species richness, activity patterns, and habitat use of middle and large mammals in two adjacent forests, a native forest and a Eucalyptus grandis reforestation located at the Colombian Central Andes. Since the two forests were adjacent, we expected no diff...

  13. Hydrolysis of cellulose and oil palm empty fruit bunches by using consortia of fungi isolated from the soil of Colombian high andean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Aida Moya A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic activity was evaluated in a mixture of supernatants produced by filamentous fungi grown individually on microcrystalline cellulose and empty fruit bunches. The strains that were used correspond to two types of isolates; the first was made from soil samples from a transect of a high andean forest of Colombia, in the Parque Natural Nacional de Los Nevados, where, based on previous studies, we selected the strains B7, B11, B11M and B19. The second isolate was obtained from a pool of oil palm empty fruit bunches (Eleaeis guinensis Jacq. in different states of decomposition on the Unipalma plantation located in the eastern plains; strains TA1 and TA2. To perform the hydrolysis of cellulose and empty fruit bunches, the previously obtained supernatants from each of the selected strains were cultivated for 300 hours in cellulose and characterized individually by endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activity. Individual supernatants were mixed at a 1:1 ratio to form consortia; and hydrolytic activity was evaluated in the substrates at two hours. The glucose concentration was determined by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results show that hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch to glucose was favored by three pools of supernatants, with increases greater than 400% in comparison with the hydrolysis obtained by individual supernatants, demonstrating the potential to decompose palm empty fruit bunches; thereby contributing to the reduction of decay time of empty fruit bunches and the decrease of environmental and health problems

  14. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth and survival during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.; Breugel, van P.; Jansen, P.A.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Competition between neighboring plants plays a major role in the population dynamics of tree species in the early phases of humid tropical forest succession. We evaluated the relative importance of above- versus below-ground competition during the first years of old-field succession on soil with low

  15. Large-scale spatial variation in palm fruit abundance across a tropical moist forest estimated from high-resolution aerial photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Olff, Han; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wright, S. Joseph; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Fruit abundance is a critical factor in ecological studies of tropical forest animals and plants, but difficult to measure at large spatial scales. We tried to estimate spatial variation in fruit abundance on a relatively large spatial scale using low altitude, high-resolution aerial photography. We

  16. Large-scale spatial variation in palm fruit abundance across a tropical moist forest estimated from high-resolution aerial photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bohlman, S.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Olff, H.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit abundance is a critical factor in ecological studies of tropical forest animals and plants, but difficult to measure at large spatial scales. We tried to estimate spatial variation in fruit abundance on a relatively large spatial scale using low altitude, high-resolution aerial photography. We

  17. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  18. Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil Medicinal plants in a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest, Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar dados químicos, biológicos e etnobotânicos na literatura científica de espécies medicinais de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana. A base para este estudo foi um levantamento florístico realizado na Fazenda das Nascentes, Urupema-SC entre agosto de 2007 e setembro de 2008. A partir da lista de espécies que resultou deste levantamento, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o potencial medicinal das espécies inventariadas. Para as espécies com dados de ação medicinal, foi elaborada chave de identificação vegetativa. Das 64 espécies listadas foram encontradas informações na bibliografia consultada sobre o potencial medicinal de 29. As principais familias foram Asteraceae (oito espécies e Myrtaceae (três espécies. O hábito que mais se destacou entre as plantas com potencial medicinal foi o arbóreo (13 espécies. O componente químico de maior ocorrência entre as espécies foi o óleo essencial (60% das espécies. As atividades terapêuticas mais citadas na literatura consultadas foram antimicrobiana, anti-oxidante, anti-inflamatória, antiviral, antifúngica e anestésica. Os resultados encontrados indicam o imenso potencial econômico da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e ambientes associados como fonte de recursos naturais que fazem parte da cultura e do patrimônio catarinense.The aim of this work was to search for chemical, biological and ethnobotanical data in the scientific literature on medicinal species from a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest. This study was based on the floristics performed in "Fazenda das Nascentes", Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between August 2007 and September 2008. From the list of species obtained in this survey, a review on the medicinal potential of these recorded species was done. A vegetative identification key was elaborated for species with medicinal action Information about medicinal

  19. Características de la avifauna en un fragmento de bosque húmedo premontano afectado por ruido vehicular (Features of the avifauna in a fragment of premontane moist forest affected by vehicular noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nathalia Sánchez-Guzmán

    2016-09-01

    fragment of premontane moist forest within the University of Tolima. The song birds were recorded for ten min/hour and the maximum value of noise (dB obtained in two minutes was recorded. The songs were analyzed using Audacity® and determination of species was conducted by consulting experts and confronting with databases. Were identified songs of 43 species mainly from the family Tyrannidae and Thraupidae. Significant differences were registered in the number of species (F3,47 = 4.38; p = 0.025 and the number of detections (F3,47 = 4.51; p = 0.02 between months, and the number of species (F3.1 = 3.14; p = 0.05 and the number of detections (F3.1 = 6.03; p = 0.004 between hours. There were no significant differences in the variables in relation to the intensity of vehicular noise, or noise values in the months and hours sampled. Finally, an increase in the number of detections as the transition from dry to rainy season was evident generated, so it is recommended that realize such studies to annual time scale.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of exindusiate Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monique A; Barrington, David S

    2014-02-01

    Uplift of the tropical Andes had a significant impact on the diversification of South American flora and fauna. Recent biogeographic inquiries have established patterns of Andean divergence, but investigations on ferns are scant. The fern genus Polystichum Roth (Dryopteridaceae) combines widespread geographic and elevational distribution with a large number of species to form an ideal system for investigation of the origin and diversification patterns of a fern lineage in the tropical Andes. The relationships among 42 Polystichum species, including taxa from all major biogeographic regions, were analyzed with 2591 aligned nucleotides from four plastid markers using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The resulting phylogeny was then used to estimate divergence times and reconstruct both ancestral areas and ancestral elevations. Tropical Andean South American polystichums that lack an indusium (sori exindusiate) were confirmed to form a monophyletic group. This exindusiate Andean Polystichum clade diverged from a middle-elevation forest lineage now rich in species endemic to Mexico during the middle Miocene (13.12 million years ago). The majority of diversification that followed took place in the montane regions of the central Andes with radiations to the northern Andes, southeastern Brazil, and alpine regions. The monophyletic exindusiate Andean Polystichum lineage diverged from a Mexican lineage in the middle Miocene and diversified in the central Andes before dispersing northward. This south-to-north dispersal pattern, documented for many other Andean lineages, corresponds with episodes of uplift in the tropical Andes.

  1. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  2. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.

  3. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Zakinyan; Arthur Zakinyan; Roman Ryzhkov; Kristina Avanesyan

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq appr...

  4. CICLAJE Y PÉRDIDA DE NUTRIENTES DEL SUELO EN BOSQUES ALTOANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NUTRIENT CYCLING AND NUTRIENT LOSSES IN ANDEAN MONTANE FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Londoño Álvarez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El agua gravitacional y su composición química fueron medidos en bosques montanos de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, por un período de tiempo de dos años. Se utilizaron lisímetros sin tensión con el fin de estimar el agua gravitacional y los flujos de nutrientes a diferentes profundidades en el perfil del suelo. El mayor valor anual de agua gravitacional en el nivel más profundo (50- 80 cm, fue hallado en la cobertura de ciprés ( 492,7 mm, seguido por pino pátula ( 14,2 mm y roble ( 2,0 mm. De manera similar ocurrió con la pérdida de nutrientes, mostrando el mismo patrón hallado para el agua gravitacional. Así, para roble, pátula y ciprés, en su orden, se presentaron los siguientes valores de pérdida: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 y 2,270 kg ha-1 año-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 y 1,234 kg ha-1 año-1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 y 0,667 kg ha-1 año-1. De K se registraron 0,08 y 7,092 kg ha-1 año-1 para roble y ciprés respectivamente. Estos flujos siguieron el siguiente orden según cobertura, roble: K>P>Ca>Mg, pátula: Ca>Fe>P>Mg>Zn>Mn, y ciprés: K>Mn>Ca>P>Fe>Zn>Mg.Gravitational flow and its chemical composition were measured in montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii, in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia , over two years. Zero tension lysimeters were used at different depth soil levels. The highest gravitational flow value at highest depth (50- 80 cm was obtained in cypress plot ( 492,7 mm, followed by pine ( 14,2 mm and oak forest ( 2,0 mm. A similar behavior was encountered for nutrient losses, following the same pattern as gravitational flow. Thus, for oak, pine and cypress, nutrient losses were respectively: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 and 2,270 kg ha-1 y-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 and 1,234 kg ha-1 y -1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 and 0,667 kg ha-1 y-1. K losses were 0,08 and 7,092 kg ha-1 y-1 for oak forest and

  5. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  6. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  7. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE PALM Wettinia kalbreyeri FROM AN ANDEAN MONTANE FOREST OF COLOMBIA ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL Y DEMOGRAFÍA DE LA PALMA MACANA Wettinia kalbreyeri EN UN BOSQUE ALTOANDINO DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Esteban Lara Vásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Wettinia kalbreyeri is a monoecious palm distributed on the Andean highland forests from Colombia and Ecuador with high ecological and economical value. For several decades, its populations have been intensively harvested, which caused a significant decrease of its natural stocks. However, no research has been done yet on the regeneration and dynamics of this important species. In order to get critical information for its management, we characterized the life cycle and surveyed for one year an undisturbed natural forest dominated by this palm in the Western Cordillera of Colombia. We established 10 permanent plots (0.1- ha each and evaluated the structure and population dynamics with a matrix model structured by sizes. We found a high density of individuals up to 50 cm- height (129.520 ± 72.701 ha-1; the density of adult palms was also high (768 ± 263 ha-1, with an average basal area of 21.34 ± 8.84 m² ha-1. Population growth was positive during the period evaluated (l = 1.079; results of the elasticity analysis suggest that changes of adult density could severely impact the population dynamics. Because of the high temporal variability of natural populations, a longer monitoring time is important to improve the reliability of estimates.Resumen. Wettinia kalbreyeri es una palma monoica de los bosques altoandinos de Colombia y Ecuador, con un alto valor ecológico y económico. Durante varias décadas sus poblaciones han sido aprovechadas intensivamente, lo cual generó una notable disminución de sus existencias naturales. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado ningún trabajo sobre la regeneración y dinámica de esta importante especie. Con el fin de acopiar información fundamental para su manejo, se caracterizó su ciclo de vida y se monitoreó durante un año un bosque natural no intervenido dominado por esta palma en la cordillera occidental de Colombia. Para ello se establecieron 10 parcelas permanentes de crecimiento de

  8. The reaction of uranium with moist hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, R.J.; Kay, P.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of uranium in moist hydrogen at a total pressure of 101 kPa over the temperature range 105 0 -200 0 C and water vapour pressures in the range 5-100 kPa has been examined in a limited thermogravimetric study. It has been shown that initially there is a period during which only linear kinetics are observed with a rate similar to that exhibited in similarly moist argon, i.e. hydrogen has no apparent effect on the reaction. At water vapour pressures of and above 49 kPa, corresponding to hydrogen:water vapour pressure ratios in the range 1:1 to 1:100, over the exposure times studied (not > 20h) only such linear kinetics are observed. Below this water vapour pressure and after an initial period of linear kinetics a continuously increasing reaction rate was observed in some instances resulting from rapid attach on localised areas. The localised reaction rates were approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than the original linear reaction kinetics and the interaction rates in either moist argon or moist air. Comparison with a single experiment carried out at 150 0 C indicated that breakaway rates were approaching that in dry hydrogen. During breakaway attack there was a significant increase in the relative amounts of uranium hydride formed. The duration of the linear kinetics phase was extended by pre-oxidation of the uranium surface, decreasing temperature at a constant water vapour pressure, or increasing water vapour pressure (or water vapour: hydrogen pressure ratio) at a constant temperature. (author)

  9. Extreme High Prevalence of a Defective Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL2) Genotype in Native South American West Andean Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence...

  10. Caracterización Física, Química y Mineralógica de Suelos con Vocación Forestal Protectora Región Andina Central Colombiana / Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Soils with a Protective Forest Vocation, Central Andean Region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el dominio de clase textural areno francosa en la plantación de aliso y franco arenoso en el bosque secundario. Químicamente el suelo del perfil plantado con aliso, presentó valores de pH más bajos, mayor saturación de acidez intercambiable y menor saturación de bases en comparación con el perfil del bosque secundario. En ambos perfiles, el análisis óptico con microscopio petrográfico, permitió observar que los feldespatos, del grupo de las plagioclasas y el vidrio volcánico, se destacan como minerales abundantes en la fracción arena; mientras que en la fracción arcilla, el material no cristalino, seconsidera mineral predominante, seguido de la cristobalita y los feldespatos, según la metodología de difracción de rayos X. Se concluye que la vocación de uso forestal protector, bajo el cual se encuentran sometidos ambos suelos, es el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta que las limitaciones químicas, dificultan el establecimiento de sistemas de producción agropecuaria. / Abstract. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of two soil profiles on two slopes, with a management currently corresponding to an Andean alder plantation (Alnus acuminata and a secondary forest, was carried out at the Protective Forest Reserve of the CHEC. This reserve is located on the western slope of the Central Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes, in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria, Caldas Department. The results

  11. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  12. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  13. Land cover change in Colombia: surprising forest recovery trends between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Cuervo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km(2 while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km(2, which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km(2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions should be considered for new protected areas.

  14. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  15. Development of moist atmospheric dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1998-12-01

    WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a system for rapid prediction of long-range atmospheric dispersion and radiological impact due to a nuclear accident. At present, the atmospheric dispersion model GEARN in WSPEEDI simply parameterizes the turbulence diffusion and precipitation scavenging, i.e. rain-out and washout, because information on the boundary layer, cloud and precipitation is insufficient in global forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency which are input data for WSPEEDI. Thus, to provide GEARN with such information, this study aims to introduce a hydrodynamic model into WSPEEDI, which can predict boundary layer processes and moist processes. As the first step, prognostic equations for hydrometeors, cloud formation and precipitation processes are added to the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. This report describes the detail of the modified model code and the results of test calculation. (author)

  16. 77 FR 31039 - Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-352] Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication AGENCY: United States International Trade.... 332-352, Andean Trade Preference Act: Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Andean Drug Crop Eradication...

  17. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique

    2013-01-01

    One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrat...

  18. Prices and Politics in Andean Water Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Water rights are best understood as politically contested and culturally embedded relationships among different social actors. In the Andean region, existing rights of irrigators¿ collectives often embody historical struggles over resources, rules, authorities and identities. This article argues,

  19. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández; Katherine Renton

    2017-01-01

    The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae) is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poo...

  20. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governance nature.  This research is an interdisciplinary study on the Colombian cape gooseberry value chain. It aimed to evaluate quality attributes of the fruit during the supply chain, including t...

  1. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  2. Assessment of algorithms for computing moist available potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bethan L.; Tailleux, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric moist available potential energy (MAPE) has been traditionally defined as the potential energy of a moist atmosphere relative to that of the adiabatically sorted reference state defining a global potential energy minimum. Finding such a reference state was recently shown to be a linear assignment problem, and therefore exactly solvable. However, this is computationally extremely expensive, so there has been much interest in developing heuristic methods for computing MAPE in practi...

  3. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape......-Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual...

  4. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43 ± 0.35 PgC yr-1). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  5. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  6. Forest floor temperature and relative humidity following timber harvesting in southern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Thomas D. Kyker-Snowman

    2008-01-01

    Forest amphibians, especially salamanders, prefer forests with shaded, cool, and moist forest floors. Timber harvesting opens the forest canopy and exposes the forest floor to direct sunlight, which can increase forest floor temperatures and reduce soil moisture. These microclimatic changes can potentially degrade the harvested stand for amphibian habitat or affect...

  7. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  8. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  9. Volcanism and associated hazards: The Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  10. Oxidation of uranium monocarbide in dry or moist oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.; Herrmann, F.J.

    1968-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of uranium monocarbide either in dry or moist air or in oxygen-argon mixtures, has been studied thermogravimetrically, between 500 and 800 C in a circulating atmosphere. In all cases the oxidation leads to the formation of U 3 O 8 . Between 500 and 700 C, the activation energy is about 21 +3 kcal/mole. It seems to decrease between 700 and 800 C, but the reaction follows always a linear rate law. In moist air, the oxidation proceeds more swiftly, due to an increase in the reactional interface. An evaluation of the over-temperature has been made at 800 C. (author) [fr

  11. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  12. Annotated checklist and key to the species of amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the northern Peruvian dry forest along the Andean valley of the Marañón River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Cruz, Roy Santa; BÖhme, Wolfgang

    2018-02-22

    A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of 35 localities situated in the northern Peruvian dry forest valley of the Marañón River and its tributaries, containing 14 species of amphibians and 54 species of reptiles, is provided from data collected between July 2005 and April 2014 during several herpetological surveys and from the literature. Detailed accounts are given for each collected species containing morphometric and scalation data, information on natural history, comments regarding their distribution, the conservation status and key literature. Eleven new species were discovered and described during the survey period. At least five additional taxa might also represent new species but more field work and data collection are necessary to determine their status. For two snake species we provide the first country record and for 23 further species new departamental records are provided.

  13. The fabrication of andean particularism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    original culture through resistance, it focuses on the fabrication of tradition within the disciplinary strategies of the colonial order and on the local re-employment of those productions in political mobilizations. The discussion of this major issue within the field of Andean history is undertaken against the horizon of a case of resistance focusing on the Inca from the Audiencia of Quito in the seventeenth century. Such an incident affords a privileged field for the investigation of the connections between colonial authority and origins, since it stages the recall, simulation and reinstatement of the past.

  14. Predation drives nesting success in moist highland grasslands: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By focusing on process-oriented data rather than inventory-type data, this study provides a robust understanding of the effects of agricultural management on grassland bird reproductive output in the moist highland grasslands (MHGs) of South Africa. Four-hundred and four nests of 12 grassland-breeding bird species were ...

  15. Effects of reforestation on degraded soils in the moist semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforestation with trees and shrubs may be an effective means of increasing soil organic matter content and for regeneration of degraded lands. A study was conducted on a degraded farmland Chromic Luvisol (UNESCO/FAO) or Udic Rhodustalf (USDA, 1999) in the moist semi deciduous zone of West Africa, near Onwe, ...

  16. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  17. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  18. Climate Change Impacts in a Colombian Andean Tropical Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N

  19. Andean Mountain Building Did not Preclude Dispersal of Lowland Epiphytic Orchids in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Klitgård, Bente B; Pansarin, Emerson; Gerlach, Günter

    2017-07-07

    The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages. Using novel molecular sequences (five nuclear and plastid regions) and twelve biogeographic models, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of Cycnoches originated in Amazonia ca 5 Mya. The first colonization of Central America occurred from a direct migration event from Amazonia, and multiple bidirectional trans-Andean migrations between Amazonia and Central America took place subsequently. Notably, these rare biological exchanges occurred well after major mountain building periods. The Andes have limited plant migration, yet it has seldom allowed episodic gene exchange of lowland epiphyte lineages such as orchids with great potential for effortless dispersal because of the very light, anemochorous seeds.

  20. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent

  1. Diversidad de coleópteros en un bosque alto andino del municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá (Diversity of coleoptera in a high forest Andean in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bohórquez Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio desarrollado en el municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo, ubicado a 2750 msnm, en un relicto de bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-M. Dicho estudio tuvo como finalidad identificar la diversidad y riqueza de entomofauna referida al orden Coleóptera, en los predios de la Escuela de Policía Rafael Reyes (ESREY. Es importante señalar que este es el primer estudio de este tipo realizado en la zona. Se reportan un total de 270 individuos capturados pertenecientes a 17 familias, 25 subfamilias, 30 tribus y 44 géneros; siendo Coccinellidae la familia más representativa (19,3% y Dryophthoridae la familia menos representativa (0,4%. Vale la pena mencionar que, según lo reportado por Martínez (2005, no se encuentran registros de ningún género de Carabidae en el municipio, por lo que se puede destacar que los resultados publicados en este artículo son los primeros registros para Santa Rosa de Viterbo. Así mismo, la revisión de Medina, Lopera-Toro, Vitolo & Gill, (2001 sobre escarabajos coprófagos de Colombia indica que los géneros encontrados en este estudio no se registran a una altitud mayor a 2600 msnm por lo que se puede reportar un registro altitudinal para Canthon y Dichotomius Finalmente, en el artículo se presentan los resultados de un proceso de educación desarrollado con niños de grado quinto de primaria de una institución educativa del municipio y con los semilleros de investigación de la ESREY, proceso que fue diseñado como estrategia para promover la apropiación social de conocimiento y divulgación de los resultados del trabajo. (Abstract. This article presents the results of a study conducted in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo, located at 2750 meters above sea level, in a relict humid montane forest under (bh-M. This study aimed to identify the diversity and richness of Coleoptera order entomofauna referred to in the grounds of the School of Police Rafael Reyes

  2. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  3. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  4. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  5. Millimeter Wave Attenuation in Moist Air: Laboratory Measurements and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    estimated by possible, though very weak, electric dipole transitions in isotopic species of . N2 and 02 [20]. LA .* 2.2 Modeling * Modeling reduces the... engen in the quantitative deorip im of the inter- (0) Water ion activity ...... .28. 45 action betven, millimeter waves and moist air. The water...over the range t - 0.77 to 0.84. The e ratios generates high electric field strengths and lightning discharges 04 are CIDe to values of C defined in

  6. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Mitchell Aide, T

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ∼1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001–2006 and 2007–2013. Approximately 1680 km 2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007–2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós–Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena–Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ∼32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems

  7. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod

    2006-01-01

    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  8. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  9. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  10. Effects of model choice and forest structure on inventory-based estimations of Puerto Rican forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Maria Del Rocio; Suarez Rozo

    2005-01-01

    Total aboveground live tree biomass in Puerto Rican lower montane wet, subtropical wet, subtropical moist and subtropical dry forests was estimated using data from two forest inventories and published regression equations. Multiple potentially-applicable published biomass models existed for some forested life zones, and their estimates tended to diverge with increasing...

  11. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  12. Deforestation and Benthic Indicators: How Much Vegetation Cover Is Needed to Sustain Healthy Andean Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez–Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans–Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments. PMID:25147941

  13. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  14. The Red de Monitoreo de BosquesAndinos: A communication platform for science and policy in the Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop held in October 2012 in Lima, Peru, brought together more than 40 scientists and policy makers working in Andean forest ecosystems, one of the richer and most threatened ecosystems of the world. Among the various results of the workshop, there is the formation of the network "Red de Bosques Andinos". The goals of the network include to stimulate scientific research in Andean forest ecosystems by promoting collaboration among scientists, and to serve as a platform to facilitate applied research and communication between scientists and policy makers. Current members of the network include scientists of Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Peru, USA, and representatives of Ministries of Environment and the National Climate Change Adaptation Programs of Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. The network has started to work in two critical documents for the region. The first one is an extended protocol to monitor diversity and carbon in Andean forests. This protocol, partly based on unpublished efforts, has been developed by the Instituto de Ecología Regional, Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and has been revised and improved by experts working in the Andes. The document describe methods to document ecological changes that take place over mid- and long periods of time. It focuses on monitoring changes on the diversity and growth of trees, shrubs and lianas, cover of herbaceous species, and carbon content in forests. This extended protocol will be a useful tool for students and researchers interested in conducting long-term ecological research. Moreover, the use of this tool will produce standardized data needed to understand ecological processes that take place at large spatial scales. The document will be freely available at www.condesan.org. The second document consists of an analysis of the dynamics of trees and carbon in the Andean region. The members of the network have contributed with data of more than 70 permanent forest plots located from

  15. The equations of motion for moist atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, Anastassia M.; Gorshkov, Victor G.; Nefiodov, Andrei V.; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio Donato; Bunyard, Peter; Nobre, Paulo; Li, Bai-Lian

    2017-07-01

    How phase transitions affect the motion of moist atmospheric air remains controversial. In the early 2000s two distinct differential equations of motion were proposed. Besides their contrasting formulations for the acceleration of condensate, the equations differ concerning the presence/absence of a term equal to the rate of phase transitions multiplied by the difference in velocity between condensate and air. This term was interpreted in the literature as the "reactive motion" associated with condensation. The reasoning behind this reactive motion was that when water vapor condenses and droplets begin to fall the remaining gas must move upward to conserve momentum. Here we show that the two contrasting formulations imply distinct assumptions about how gaseous air and condensate particles interact. We show that these assumptions cannot be simultaneously applicable to condensation and evaporation. Reactive motion leading to an upward acceleration of air during condensation does not exist. The reactive motion term can be justified for evaporation only; it describes the downward acceleration of air. We emphasize the difference between the equations of motion (i.e., equations constraining velocity) and those constraining momentum (i.e., equations of motion and continuity combined). We show that owing to the imprecise nature of the continuity equations, consideration of total momentum can be misleading and that this led to the reactive motion controversy. Finally, we provide a revised and generally applicable equation for the motion of moist air.

  16. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  17. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  18. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  19. Continuous Cropping and Moist Deep Convection on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon E. Worth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summerfallow is cropland that is purposely kept out of production during a growing season to conserve soil moisture. On the Canadian Prairies, a trend to continuous cropping with a reduction in summerfallow began after the summerfallow area peaked in 1976. This study examined the impact of this land-use change on convective available potential energy (CAPE, a necessary but not sufficient condition for moist deep convection. All else being equal, an increase in CAPE increases the probability-of-occurrence of convective clouds and their intensity if they occur. Representative Bowen ratios for the Black, Dark Brown, and Brown soil zones were determined for 1976: the maximum summerfallow year, 2001: our baseline year, and 20xx: a hypothetical year with the maximum-possible annual crop area. Average mid-growing-season Bowen ratios and noon solar radiation were used to estimate the reduction in the lifted index (LI from land-use weighted evapotranspiration in each study year. LI is an index of CAPE, and a reduction in LI indicates an increase in CAPE. The largest reductions in LI were found for the Black soil zone. They were −1.61 ± 0.18, −1.77 ± 0.14 and −1.89 ± 0.16 in 1976, 2001 and 20xx, respectively. These results suggest that, all else being equal, the probability-of-occurrence of moist deep convection in the Black soil zone was lower in 1976 than in the base year 2001, and it will be higher in 20xx when the annual crop area reaches a maximum. The trend to continuous cropping had less impact in the drier Dark Brown and Brown soil zones.

  20. NPP Tropical Forest: Barro Colorado, Panama, 1969-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). One file provides net primary productivity (NPP) data for the moist lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado...

  1. 75 FR 5941 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District, Walla Walla, WA; Cobbler II Timber Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... timber harvest, including treatment of activity and natural fuels within harvest units, temporary road... show that old forest structure is within historical range for moist forest biophysical group, but outside of historical range for dry forest biophysical group in old forest single stratum (OFSS...

  2. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  3. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, Götz; Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist

  4. Health constraints of Cart Horses in the Dry warm, Sub-moist tepid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify the major health and welfare constraints of cart horses in the dry warm, sub-moist tepid and moist cool climatic zones of Ethiopia. The study was cross sectional and a total of 837 horses were examined. Five major health problems and welfare issues were identified. Lymphangitis ...

  5. Dry and moist heat sterilisation cannot inactivate pyrogenicity of Gram positive microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D

    2005-01-01

    In the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 pyrogens induce interleukin-6 secretion dose dependently. The aim of this study is to examine the interleukin-6 inducing capacity of Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis endospores after moist and dry heat sterilisation. Moist heat...

  6. Plant species composition and structure of the Mana Angetu moist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A floristic composition and structure study of the Mana Angetu Forest was carried out between July 2003 and June 2004 at four sites of the forest with an altitudinal range of 1533-2431 m. Three transects, 750 ... Analysis of Importance Value Index indicated that Vepris dainellii had the highest value (79). The population ...

  7. Forest dynamics in tropical rain forests of Uttara Kannada district in Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, DM; Naik, MB; Patagar, SG; Hegde, GT; Kanade, YG; Hegde, GN; Shastri, CM; Shetti, DM; Furtado, RM

    2000-01-01

    Species richness, tree and stem density, basal area and recruitment details were monitored for ten years (1984 to 1994) in eight one-hectare forest sites in evergreen and moist deciduous forest zones of the tropical rain forests in Uttara Kannada district of the Western Chats in southern India, Changes in species richness and basal area were observed in majority of the forest sites. Loss of more number of stems and trees as well as species was observed in minor forests of the evergreen forest...

  8. Projected distribution shifts and protected area coverage of range-restricted Andean birds under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica del Rosario Avalos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we projected the effect of anthropogenic climate change in endemic and restricted-range Andean bird species that spread out from the center of Bolivia to southeastern Peru. We also analyzed the representation of these species in protected areas. The ensemble forecasts from niche-based models indicated that 91–100% of species may reduce their range size under full and no dispersal scenarios, including five species that are currently threatened. The large range reduction (average 63% suggests these mountain species may be threatened by climate change. The strong effects due to range species losses are predicted in the humid mountain forests of Bolivia. The representation of bird species also decreased in protected areas. Partial gap species (94–86% are expected to increase over the present (62%. This suggests climate change and other non-climate stressors should be incorporated in conservations plans for the long-term persistence of these species. This study anticipates the magnitude of shifts in the distribution of endemic birds, and represents in the study area the first exploration of the representation of range-restricted Andean birds in protected areas under climate change.

  9. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  10. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-09-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  11. Environment, vulnerability, and gender in Andean ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larme, A C

    1998-10-01

    In Cuyo Cuyo, in the southern Peruvian highlands, ethnomedicine is rife with images of human vulnerability to a hostile and unpredictable environment. This is represented in the ethnomedical system by a focus on wayras, air- or wind-borne illnesses that enter through vulnerable body openings such as the head, orifices, lower back, and feet. Women are viewed to be more vulnerable, or débil, than men to illness because they have an extra orifice, the vagina, they lose copious amounts of blood, which is thought to be irreplaceable, during childbirth. and because they suffer more negative emotions, which are thought to attract wayras and other illnesses to the body. The relationship of ethnomedical beliefs to the Andean physical and political economic environment is explored within the context of social and economic change. Negative beliefs about women's bodies have negative effects on women's roles and position vis-à-vis men in present day Cuyo Cuyo. Ethnomedical beliefs reflect and reinforce gender inequalities in present day Peru and are part of a cultural ideology that in general devalues women. This case study demonstrates that power is a key dimension in the cultural construction of medical knowledge. whether in non-Western or Western societies.

  12. The functional extinction of Andean megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Davila, Angela; Valencia, Bryan G; Bush, Mark B

    2016-10-01

    Controversy exists over the cause and timing of the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In the tropical Andes, deglaciation and associated rapid climate change began ~8,000 years before human arrival, providing an opportunity to separate the effects of climate change from human hunting on megafaunal extinction. We present a paleoecological record spanning the last 25,000 years from Lake Pacucha, Peru (3,100 m elevation). Fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms, and the dung fungus Sporormiella, chronicle a two-stage megaherbivore population collapse. Sporormiella abundance, the proxy for megafaunal presence, fell sharply at ~21,000 years ago, but rebounded prior to a permanent decline between ~16,800 and 15,800 years ago. This two-stage decline in megaherbivores resulted in a functional extinction by ~15,800 years ago, 3,000 years earlier than known human occupation of the high Andes. Declining megaherbivore populations coincided with warm, wet intervals. Climatic instability and megafaunal population collapse triggered an ecological cascade that resulted in novel floral assemblages, and increases in woody species, fire frequency, and plant species that were sensitive to trampling. Our data revealed that Andean megafaunal populations collapsed due to positive feedbacks between habitat quality and climate change rather than human activity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. 75 FR 1748 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... prepare an environmental impact statement for vegetation management actions north and west of the community of Lincoln, MT. Fire suppression and moist growing conditions through much of this century...

  14. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  15. Andean and Tibetan patterns of adaptation to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen G; Kiyamu, Melisa; Vargas, Enrique; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Rodriquez, Carmelo; Browne, Vaughn A; Parra, Esteban; Brutsaert, Tom D; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia, or decreased oxygen levels caused by low barometric pressure, challenges the ability of humans to live and reproduce. Despite these challenges, human populations have lived on the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau for millennia and exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. We and others have identified natural selection candidate genes and gene regions for these adaptations using dense genome scan data. One gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. Interestingly, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Continued research among Tibetan populations has identified statistical associations between hemoglobin concentration and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype at EGLN1 and a second gene, endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1). To measure for the effects of EGLN1 and EPAS1 altitude genotypes on hemoglobin concentration among Andean highlanders, we performed a multiple linear regression analysis of 10 candidate SNPs in or near these two genes. Our analysis did not identify significant associations between EPAS1 or EGLN1 SNP genotypes and hemoglobin concentration in Andeans. These results contribute to our understanding of the unique set of adaptations developed in different highland groups to the hypoxia of high altitude. Overall, the results provide key insights into the patterns of genetic adaptation to high altitude in Andean and Tibetan populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Andean Ores, Bronze Artifacts, and Lead Isotopes: Constraints on Metal Sources in Their Geological Context

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Andrew W.; Lechtman, Heather Nan

    2014-01-01

    With a focus on bronze production in the south-central Andes during the Middle Horizon, this study reports the first archaeological use of lead isotope analysis to investigate metallic ores and metal artifacts in the Andean zone of South America. Because the vast majority of metal deposits in the Andean cordillera formed in a convergent plate boundary setting, lead isotope compositions of most Andean ore sources are not unique. Lead isotope ratios of central and south-central Andean ores defi...

  17. Landscape effects on structure and species composition of tabonuco forests in Puerto Rico: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdalia Alvarez Ruiz; Ariel E. Lugo

    2012-01-01

    We studied the structure and species composition of nine residual forest stands of Dacryodes excelsa (tabonuco), a dominant vegetation type in the moist and wet lower montane forests of the Caribbean. The stands were scattered over three different landscapes with different degrees of anthropogenic disturbance: forested, shade coffee, and tobacco. We compared our...

  18. Non-timber forest products: ramps in the Waynesville, NC watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina Connor; Jim Chamberlain III; Hilliard Gibbs Jr.; Matt Winn

    2015-01-01

    The potential of forest farming was noted as far back as 1929, but the recognition of its importance dates back only 20 to 30 years. The U.S. market for harvested foods and medicinal plants from forests now exceeds $4 billion annually. Ramps (Allium tricoccum Aiton), or wild leeks, grow in patches in the rich moist forests of the eastern United...

  19. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    and neighboring habitats like mountain forests, páramos, Pacific and Amazonian lowlands. No prior study of dry valleys anywhere in the Neotropics has explored how species are shared with other habitats. 4) This paper presents a spatial hierarchical prioritization analysis for 95 species of DIAVs vegetation......Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...

  20. Technical note: A noniterative approach to modelling moist thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisseeva, Nadya; Stull, Roland

    2017-12-01

    Formulation of noniterative mathematical expressions for moist thermodynamics presents a challenge for both numerical and theoretical modellers. This technical note offers a simple and efficient tool for approximating two common thermodynamic relationships: temperature, T, at a given pressure, P, along a saturated adiabat, T(P, θw), as well as its corresponding inverse form θw(P, T), where θw is wet-bulb potential temperature. Our method allows direct calculation of T(P, θw) and θw(P, T) on a thermodynamic domain bounded by -70 ≤ θw 1 kPa and -100 ≤ T 1 kPa, respectively. The proposed parameterizations offer high accuracy (mean absolute errors of 0.016 and 0.002 °C for T(P, θw) and θw(P, T), respectively) on a notably larger thermodynamic region than previously studied. The paper includes a method summary and a ready-to-use tool to aid atmospheric physicists in their practical applications.

  1. Swedish moist snuff and myocardial infarction among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergens, Maria-Pia; Ahlbom, Anders; Andersson, Tomas; Pershagen, Göran

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have provided inconsistent results on possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease with the use of smokeless tobacco. The aim of this study was to assess whether long-term use of Swedish moist snuff (widely used among Swedish men) increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction. This case-control study was conducted in 2 Swedish counties. We identified 1760 men, age 45-70 years, who had a myocardial infarction in 1992-1994. We randomly selected male controls from the study base after stratification for age and hospital catchment area. Information about snuff consumption, smoking history, hypertension, and other factors was obtained by mailed questionnaire and medical examination. The participation rate was 77% among cases and 78% among controls, with tobacco use data available for 1432 cases and 1810 controls. After adjustment for age, hospital catchment area, and smoking, the relative risk of first acute myocardial infarction was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.8-1.5) for former snuff users and 1.0 (0.8-1.3) for current snuff users. Analyses limited to either nonfatal or fatal cases did not change the results. Among the controls, the consumption of smokeless tobacco was strongly associated with certain risk factors for myocardial infarction such as smoking, hypertension, and high body mass index. The hypothesis that smokeless tobacco increases the risk for myocardial infarction is not supported in the present study.

  2. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  3. Reproductive traits associated with species turnover of amphibians in Amazonia and its Andean slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Robles, Octavio; Guayasamin, Juan M; Ron, Santiago R; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a.s.l.). At local scale, species composition showed strong differences among habitats, explained mainly by turnover. Reproductive modes occurred differently across habitats (e.g., prevalence of direct developers at high elevation, where breeding in ground level water disappears). At regional scale, elevation was the most important factor explaining the changes in species richness, reproductive trait occurrences, and biotic dissimilarities. Species number in all groups decreased with elevation except for those with lotic tadpoles and terrestrial reproduction stages. Seasonality, annual precipitation, and relative humidity partially explained the occurrence of some reproductive traits. Biotic dissimilarities were also mostly caused by turnover rather than nestedness and were particularly high in montane and foothill sites. Within lowlands, geographic distance explained more variability than elevation. Habitat filtering was supported by the different occurrence of reproductive traits according to elevation, water availability, and breeding microhabitats at both scales, as well as other assembly mechanisms based in biotic interactions at local scale. Human-generated land use changes in Amazonia and its Andean slopes reduce local amphibian biodiversity by alteration of primary forests and loss of their

  4. Biodiversity of Andean potatoes: Morphological, nutritional and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliope, Sonia Rosario; Lobo, Manuel Oscar; Sammán, Norma Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum andigenum) are a staple food for Andean population; there is great biodiversity but only few varieties are cultivated nowadays. In order to contribute to biodiversity conservation of Andean potatoes, information about their morphological, nutritional and functional characteristics was generated. In gene bank (INTA-Balcarce), varieties collected from regional producers were preserved. Forty-four genotypes were multiplied and characterized. Morphological characteristics; proximate composition and functional compounds were analyzed. Cluster analysis separated them into 3 groups according to distinguishing characteristics, which define industrial or nutritional applications. Group 2 was characterized by higher content of macronutrients and Group 3 with the highest antioxidant activity, both would be advisable for direct consumption. Genotype CS 1418 had big size and oval form so it could be destined to potato chips industry. Knowledge on nutritional and functional properties of genotypes contributes to promoting the cultivation depending on properties and also to preserve biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmughavel, P.; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest in closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied using standard regression analysis and the clear-cut method for shrubs and herbs. The total biomass was 360.9 t/ha and its allocation in different layers was: tree layer 352.5 t/ha, shrub layer 4.7 t/ha, liana 3.1 t/ha and herb layer 0.5 t/ha. Most of the biomass was concentrated in the trees: stem 241.2 t/ha, root 69.6 t/ha, branch 37.2 t/ha and leaves 4.3 t/ha. The DBH class allocation of the tree biomass was concentrated in the middle DBH class. The biomass of six DBH classes from 20 to 80 cm was 255.4 t/ha. There are twenty-six species with biomass over 0.5% of the total biomass of the tree layer, and three species with biomass over 5%, i.e., Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya (5.4%) and Terminalia myriocarpa (5.2%). Data on stem, branch, leaves and root of the individual tree species were used to develop regression models. D{sup 2}H was found to be the best estimator of the biomass in this tropical rain forest. However, higher biomass figures have been reported from tropical forests elsewhere e.g., 415-520 t/ha in the tropical forests of Cambodia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests, and the tropical moist logged moist evergreen-high, medium, and low yield forests of Sri Lanka. In some forests, lower accumulation of biomass was reported, e.g., 10-295 t/ha in the tropical moist forests of Bangladesh, the tropical moist dense forest of Cambodia, the tropical dry forests of India, the tropical moist forests of Peninsular-Malaysia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests of Sarawak-Malaysia, the tropical evergreen forests of

  6. Monitoring the Diversity of Hunting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Fragmented and Restored Andean Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I

    2015-10-01

    Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian; Doucet, Jean Louis; Finegan, Bryan; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Healey, John R.; Livoreil, Barbara; Nasi, Robert; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E.; Zhou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests

  8. Diversity and composition of tropical secondary forests recovering from large-scale clearing : results from the 1990 inventory in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Danilo Chinea; Eileen H. Helmer

    2003-01-01

    The extensive recovery from agricultural clearing of Puerto Rican forests over the past half-century provides a good opportunity to study tropical forest recovery on a landscape scale. Using ordination and regression techniques, we analyzed forest inventory data from across Puerto Rico’s moist and wet secondary forests to evaluate their species composition and whether...

  9. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes

  10. Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Zhiwei; Norberg, Margareta; Forsgren, Lars; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Bellocco, Rino; Alfredsson, Lars; Knutsson, Anders; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Wennberg, Patrik; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Lager, Anton C J; Araghi, Marzieh; Lundberg, Michael; Magnusson, Cecilia; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. It is unclear what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. Use of Swedish moist smokeless tobacco (snus) can serve as a model to disentangle what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether snus use was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Individual participant data were collected from seven prospective cohort studies, including 348 601 men. We used survival analysis with multivariable Cox regression to estimate study-specific relative risk of Parkinson's disease due to snus use, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. The primary analyses were restricted to never-smokers to eliminate the potential confounding effect of tobacco smoking. During a mean follow-up time of 16.1 years, 1199 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. Among men who never smoked, ever-snus users had about 60% lower Parkinson's disease risk compared with never-snus users [pooled hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.61]. The inverse association between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk was more pronounced in current (pooled HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63), moderate-heavy amount (pooled HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.90) and long-term snus users (pooled HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.83). Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecological-evolutionary classification of Amazonian triatomines is proposed based on a revision of their main contemporary biogeographical patterns. Truly Amazonian triatomines include the Rhodniini, the Cavernicolini, and perhaps Eratyrus and some Bolboderini. The tribe Rhodniini comprises two major lineages (pictipes and robustus. The former gave rise to trans-Andean (pallescens and Amazonian (pictipes species groups, while the latter diversified within Amazonia (robustus group and radiated to neighbouring ecoregions (Orinoco, Cerrado-Caatinga-Chaco, and Atlantic Forest. Three widely distributed Panstrongylus species probably occupied Amazonia secondarily, while a few Triatoma species include Amazonian populations that occur only in the fringes of the region. T. maculata probably represents a vicariant subset isolated from its parental lineage in the Caatinga-Cerrado system when moist forests closed a dry trans-Amazonian corridor. These diverse Amazonian triatomines display different degrees of synanthropism, defining a behavioural gradient from household invasion by adult triatomines to the stable colonisation of artificial structures. Anthropogenic ecological disturbance (driven by deforestation is probably crucial in the onset of the process, but the fact that only a small fraction of species effectively colonises artificial environments suggests a role for evolution at the end of the gradient. Domestic infestation foci are restricted to drier subregions within Amazonia; thus, populations adapted to extremely humid rainforest microclimates may have limited chances of successfully colonising the slightly drier artificial microenvironments. These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species.

  12. Sterility Maintenance Assessment of Moist/Wet Material After Steam Sterilization and 30-day Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya,Giovana Abrahão de Araújo; Graziano,Kazuko Uchikawa

    2010-01-01

    Moist/wet materials stored after autoclaving are considered contaminated and not recommended for use. This study evaluates the maintenance of sterility in moist/wet material after being submitted to steam sterilization and stored for a period of 30 days. Aiming to support decision-making in emergency situations, 40 surgical boxes packed in nonwoven cloth covering Spunbound, Metblouwn, Spunbound (SMS): half (the experimental group) were placed in an autoclave but the drying phase was interrupt...

  13. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  14. Moist convection: a key to tropical wave-moisture interaction in Indian monsoon intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longtao; Wong, Sun; Wang, Tao; Huffman, George J.

    2018-01-01

    Simulation of moist convective processes is critical for accurately representing the interaction among tropical wave activities, atmospheric water vapor transport, and clouds associated with the Indian monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillation (ISO). In this study, we apply the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate Indian monsoon ISO with three different treatments of moist convective processes: (1) the Betts-Miller-Janjić (BMJ) adjustment cumulus scheme without explicit simulation of moist convective processes; (2) the New Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (NSAS) mass-flux scheme with simplified moist convective processes; and (3) explicit simulation of moist convective processes at convection permitting scale (Nest). Results show that the BMJ experiment is unable to properly reproduce the equatorial Rossby wave activities and the corresponding phase relationship between moisture advection and dynamical convergence during the ISO. These features associated with the ISO are approximately captured in the NSAS experiment. The simulation with resolved moist convective processes significantly improves the representation of the ISO evolution, and has good agreements with the observations. This study features the first attempt to investigate the Indian monsoon at convection permitting scale.

  15. Conceptual frameworks for monitoring of high-altitude Andean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Busch; Xavier Silva

    2006-01-01

    The Ecuadorian government and its partner organizations in the international conservation community share an interest in developing monitoring programs for Andean protected areas to help support management for recreation, education, and ecological sustainability. To accomplish this goal, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Department of the Interior...

  16. Isolation of lipolytic bacteria from Colombian Andean soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Paola Andrea Palacios; Borda-Molina, Daniel; Montaña, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Microbial enrichments with a substrate of interest could enhance the possibility of finding certain desired metabolic activities. As lipases are one of the most important enzymes in industrial applications, the Colombian Andean soils were explored as a source of lipolytic microorganisms. Two Ande...

  17. Cultural Politics, Communal Resistance and Identity in Andean Irrigation Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Gelles, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses two case studies to illustrate how Andean irrigation development and management emerges from a hybrid mix of local community rules and the changing political forms and ideological forces of hegemonic states. Some indigenous water-control institutions are with us today because they

  18. Democratic Governability in the Andean Region : Political and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past 15 years, the Andean countries - Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela - have undertake a number of unsustainable political and institutional reforms that have caused dissatisfaction, exacerbated social and political unrest, and in some cases led to violent confrontation. New political and institutional reforms ...

  19. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  20. The Andean Common Market: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Reynold E.

    The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…

  1. Inflammatory aspects of type 2 diabetes in the Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y. Baldeón Rojas (Lucy)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This thesis deals with the immune inflammatory aspects of obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Andean region, more precisely in Quito, Ecuador. To understand the research questions a short introduction in the

  2. Functional Equivalence in Seed Dispersal Effectiveness of Podocarpus parlatorei in Andean Fruit-Eating Bird Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Blendinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most fleshy-fruited plants establish strong local interactions with a few fruit-eating species across their distribution range, which can differ among sites and have a major impact for the plant population dynamics. In turn, human disturbances alter both the original animal assemblage with which plants interact and the outcome of the mutualistic interaction. Negative consequences of human disturbances can be weakened when different seed dispersers exert similar effects on plant populations, being functionally equivalent. To understand the consequences of variability in seed dispersers on the recruitment of a long-lived tree species, I assessed changes in the assemblages of avian dispersers of Podocarpus parlatorei in subtropical Andean cloud-forests, and how these changes affect the outcome of the interaction at different spatial scales. The seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE concept, defined as the likelihood of a seed removed by a fruit-eating bird to be dispersed to a suitable site for seed survival and germination, provides the framework to compare the contributions of different birds to seed dispersal. I compared the SDE in two old-growth forests dominated by P. parlatorei and a human disturbed forest, and in the main habitat types of these sites. In all sites, highest SDE values were provided by “gulpers” that swallow the whole fleshy cone (“fruit”, predominantly Elaenia and Turdus species. SDE was highest in forest edges and secondary forests, and negligible in other habitats. Equivalence in SDE was relatively low both within and between forest sites. Human forest disturbance modified the functional equivalence, the generalization in mutualistic interactions and the strength of SDE. Secondary forests showed the higher SDE and the greater richness of dispersers high in SDE; as a consequence, the ecological equivalence increased in the most suitable habitat for recruitment. This could lead to greater resilience of plant populations

  3. Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and performance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver H. Knowles; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and sixty taxa of upland moist forest trees were studied with reference to their suitability for forest restoration on bauxite mined Iands in western Para State, Brazil. Over a 14-year period, field observations in native primary forests, nursery studies, and evaluations of over 600 ha of mixed-species reforestation areas were used to characterize fruiting...

  4. Flooding and profuse flowering result in high litterfall in novel Spathodea campanulata forests in northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, dominates many post-agricultural secondary forests in the moist tropics. Some consider these novel forests have no ecological value, yet they appear to restore ecosystem processes on degraded sites. This study describes the litterfall mass and seasonality, canopy phenology, and microclimate of S. campanulata forests on...

  5. Carbohydrate storage and light requirements of tropical moist and dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.

    2007-01-01

    In many plant communities, there is a negative interspecific correlation between relative growth rates and survival of juveniles. This negative correlation is most likely caused by a trade-off between carbon allocation to growth vs. allocation to defense and storage. Nonstructural carbohydrates

  6. Strike-through of moist contamination by woven and nonwoven surgical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufman, H; Eudy, W W; Vandernoot, A M; Harris, C A; Liu, D

    1975-01-01

    A test is described which correlates the stress of stretching surgical gown and drape material with moist bacterial strike-through. By application of this test to a number of woven and nonwoven surgical gown and drape materials, it was found that not all of these materials, either woven or nonwoven, are impermeable to moist contamination for equal periods of time. Nonwoven disposable materials now in use range from those which remain impermeable to moist bacterial permeation through all tests while some remain impermeable for limited periods of time, and others almost immediately permeable to moist bacterial penetration. The same situation holds for woven materials. Under conditions of our test, Quarpel treated Pima tight-woven cotton cloth was impermeable to moist bacterial strike-through, through up to 75 washing and sterilizing cyclings, while ordinary linen and untreated Pima cloth permitted bacterial permeation almost immediately. These results have significance in lengthy wet surgical operations. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1094972

  7. Semi-forest coffee cultivation and the conservation of Ethiopian Afromontane rainforest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Hundera, K; Berecha, G; Gijbels, Pieter; Baeten, Marieke; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Hermy, Martin; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Coffea arabica shrubs are indigenous to the understorey of the moist evergreen montane rainforest of Ethiopia. Semi-forest coffee is harvested from semi-wild plants in forest fragments where farmers thin the upper canopy and annually slash the undergrowth. This traditional method of coffee cultivation is a driver for preservation of indigenous forest cover, differing from other forms of agriculture and land use which tend to reduce forest cover. Because coffee farmers are primarily interes...

  8. Moist-condition Training for Cerebrovascular Anastomosis: A Practical Step after Mastering Basic Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Sato, Kimitoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Isao; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    As cerebrovascular anastomosis is performed in moist conditions that may impede precise manipulations, surgeons must undergo extensive preoperative training. We developed a simple moist-condition training method. It involves placing a free-floating inner platform hosting an artery from a chicken wing in an outer container filled with tap water to just below the specimen. Trainees performed anastomosis under magnification. Training sessions mimicked difficulties encountered during operations such as poor visibility of the lumen and problems handling the sutures. A retrospective comparison of 100 wet- and 100 dry-condition training sessions for end-to-side anastomoses with 8 stitches showed that under moist condition the time required for the entire procedure was significantly longer (17.8 ± 2.1 vs. 15.3 ± 2.1 min, p bridge between training for basic manipulations under dry conditions and actual surgery.

  9. Sterility maintenance assessment of moist/wet material after steam sterilization and 30-day storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Giovana Abrahão de Araújo; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2010-01-01

    Moist/wet materials stored after autoclaving are considered contaminated and not recommended for use. This study evaluates the maintenance of sterility in moist/wet material after being submitted to steam sterilization and stored for a period of 30 days. Aiming to support decision-making in emergency situations, 40 surgical boxes packed in nonwoven cloth covering Spunbound, Metblouwn, Spunbound (SMS): half (the experimental group) were placed in an autoclave but the drying phase was interrupted, yielding moist/wet materials and the other half (the negative control group) underwent the complete cycle. The external parts of each surgical box were deliberately contaminated with Serratia marcescens and subsequently stored for 30 days. After this period, the boxes' contents were submitted to sterility tests and no growth was observed. The presence of moisture inside the surgical boxes did not interfere with maintaining their sterility.

  10. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  11. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  12. Modelling beta diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in High Andean wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Nieto; Daniel A. Dos Santos; Andrea E. Izquierdo; José S. Rodríguez; Héctor R. Grau

    2017-01-01

    Central Andean Highlands represent a singular environment characterized by various extreme conditions. Among them, peatbogs are exceptional marshy habitats scattered throughout this arid and harsh area. In an effort to understand the patterns of beta diversity, we sampled the benthic macroinvertebrates of thirteen peatbogs and related the biological distance with ecological distance using the GDM (Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling) approach. Variables analyzed were altitude, geographical di...

  13. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  14. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  15. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malice M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.

  16. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  17. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-01-01

    This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Variability in High-Andean Ecosystems: Bringing Together Machine Learning and Proximal Soil Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, C.; Grunwald, S.; Quiroz, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Andes represent the largest and highest mountain range in the tropics and is considered an important reserve of biodiversity, water provision and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Nevertheless, limited attention has been given to estimate these stocks due to the lack of recent soil data, the poor accessibility and the wide range of coexistent ecosystems. In addition, conventional methods to determine SOC are usually time consuming and expensive to use in large-scale studies, hindering the possibility to have an accurate SOC assessment in the region. Proximal soil sensing techniques, such as visible near infrared (VNIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, have proven to be useful as an alternative to conventional methods for characterizing SOC but have not been tested in Andean soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of using VNIR and MIR spectroscopy to predict SOC content in the Central Andean region, using multivariate methods. Three study areas were selected across the Peruvian Central Andes. A total of 400 topsoil samples (0-30 cm) were collected and analyzed for SOC. The VNIR and MIR reflectance of the soil samples was measured in the laboratory. Three modeling approaches: Partial least squares regression (PLSR), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to predict SOC from VNIR and MIR spectra in the study areas. The data was preprocessed in order to minimize the noise and optimize the accuracy of predictions. The models, for each study area, were assessed using 10-fold cross validation. Independent validation was implemented in the whole dataset (400 observations) by splitting it into calibration (70 %) and validation (30%) sets. Overall, the results indicate potential for both VNIR and MIR spectra to predict SOC content in the Andean soils. SOC content predictions from MIR spectra outperformed those from VNIR spectra. The evaluation of model performance shows that RF and SVM provide more accurate SOC predictions

  19. Richness and Composition of Ground-dwelling Ants in Tropical Rainforest and Surrounding Landscapes in the Colombian Inter-Andean Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achury, R; Suarez, A V

    2017-11-30

    Tropical rainforests are characterized by having high structural complexity, stratification, and species diversity. In Colombia, tropical rainforests are critically endangered with only 24% of their area remaining. Forest fragments are often valued based on the presence of vertebrate taxa despite that small habitat remnants may still harbor diverse invertebrate communities. We surveyed the ant fauna associated with rainforest fragments and their surrounding landscape elements (including mature forests, flooded forests, gallery forests, live fences, and pastures) in the Magdalena River watershed. Pitfall traps and litter samples were used to estimate ant richness and diversity, and to compare ant composition among landscape elements. We found 135 species from 42 genera, representing 16% of the species and 43% of the genera known for Colombia. Our surveys also uncovered 11 new ant records for the Colombian inter-Andean region and 2 new records for the country of Colombia: Mycocepurus curvispinosus (Mackay) and Rhopalothrix isthmica (Weber). The highest species richness was found in forest-covered sites, and richness and diversity was lower in the disturbed landscapes surrounding the forest patches. Species composition varied significantly between all habitat types, but was most similar between forest types suggesting that a loss of structural complexity has the greatest effect on ant communities. Across our study sites, ten species showed the greatest response to habitat type and could qualify as indicator taxa for this region. We conclude by discussing the value of conserving even small forests in this landscape due to their ability to retain high diversity of ants.

  20. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  1. Ionotropic Receptor-dependent moist and dry cells control hygrosensation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Zachary A; Silbering, Ana F; Cruz, Joyner; Yang, Ludi; Croset, Vincent; Benton, Richard; Garrity, Paul A

    2017-06-16

    Insects use hygrosensation (humidity sensing) to avoid desiccation and, in vectors such as mosquitoes, to locate vertebrate hosts. Sensory neurons activated by either dry or moist air ('dry cells' and 'moist cells') have been described in many insects, but their behavioral roles and the molecular basis of their hygrosensitivity remain unclear. We recently reported that Drosophila hygrosensation relies on three Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) required for dry cell function: IR25a, IR93a and IR40a (Knecht et al., 2016). Here, we discover Drosophila moist cells and show that they require IR25a and IR93a together with IR68a, a conserved, but orphan IR. Both IR68a- and IR40a-dependent pathways drive hygrosensory behavior: each is important for dry-seeking by hydrated flies and together they underlie moist-seeking by dehydrated flies. These studies reveal that humidity sensing in Drosophila , and likely other insects, involves the combined activity of two molecularly related but neuronally distinct hygrosensing systems.

  2. Moist Orographic Convection: Physical Mechanisms and Links to Surface-Exchange Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kirshbaum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current understanding of moist orographic convection and its regulation by surface-exchange processes. Such convection tends to develop when and where moist instability coincides with sufficient terrain-induced ascent to locally overcome convective inhibition. The terrain-induced ascent can be owing to mechanical (airflow over or around an obstacle and/or thermal (differential heating over sloping terrain forcing. For the former, the location of convective initiation depends on the dynamical flow regime. In “unblocked” flows that ascend the barrier, the convection tends to initiate over the windward slopes, while in “blocked” flows that detour around the barrier, the convection tends to initiate upstream and/or downstream of the high terrain where impinging flows split and rejoin, respectively. Processes that destabilize the upstream flow for mechanically forced moist convection include large-scale moistening and ascent, positive surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and differential advection in baroclinic zones. For thermally forced flows, convective initiation is driven by thermally direct circulations with sharp updrafts over or downwind of the mountain crest (daytime or foot (nighttime. Along with the larger-scale background flow, local evapotranspiration and transport of moisture, as well as thermodynamic heterogeneities over the complex terrain, regulate moist instability in such events. Longstanding limitations in the quantitative understanding of related processes, including both convective preconditioning and initiation, must be overcome to improve the prediction of this convection, and its collective effects, in weather and climate models.

  3. Randomized Comparison of Dry Dressings Versus Hydrogel in Management of Radiation-Induced Moist Desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macmillan, Maureen S.; Wells, Mary; MacBride, Sheila; Raab, Gillian M.; Munro, Alastair; MacDougall, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a randomized controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effect of a hydrogel or dry dressing on the time to healing of moist desquamation after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck, breast, or anorectal areas. Methods and Materials: A total of 357 patients were randomized before radiotherapy to receive simple dry dressings (Tricotex) or a hydrogel (Intrasite), with Tricotex as a secondary dressing. Patients were instructed to use their dressings from the onset of moist desquamation, if it occurred. Results: Of the 357 patients, 100 (28%) developed moist desquamation. The time to healing was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.99), in patients assigned to gel dressings. No evidence was found that gel dressings had a significant impact on subjectively reported skin symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study have not supported the routine use of hydrogels in the care of patients with moist desquamation and suggests that the healing times are prolonged, without any improvement in patient comfort

  4. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above a dry and moist sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent maximum flux conditions achieved during alongshore winds. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented sand traps, the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was higher than above the dry surface, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces.The regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds, whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind becomes stronger and when the layer in which the

  5. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above dry and moist sandy beach surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent saturated flux conditions. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented passive sand traps, while the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was up to 90% higher than above the dry surface for wind speeds of 7-11 m/s, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces. Moreover, the regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds (up to 6-7 m/s), whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind

  6. Photos provide information on age, but not kinship, of Andean bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Russell C; Zug, Becky; Appleton, Robyn D; Velez-Liendo, Ximena; Paisley, Susanna; LaCombe, Corrin

    2015-01-01

    Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs camera trap photos are one of the most readily available sources of information on large cryptic mammals, we suggest that similar methods be tested for use in other poorly understood species.

  7. Recognizing Andean Uplift and the Growth of Continuous Topographic Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Although long debated, the timing of Andean uplift and establishment of a continuous topographic barrier along western South America remains critical to biogeographic assessments of the influence of mountain uplift and erosion on Neotropical biodiversity. Recent methodological advances allow independent geologic estimates of barrier uplift and river drainage shifts that can be compared with molecular-clock calculations of genetic divergence times for various Andean and Amazonian populations. Emerging results from U-Pb geochronology and stable-isotope paleoaltimetry suggest a nearly continuous western barrier since the late Eocene-Oligocene and a complex yet decipherable Miocene-Quaternary history of eastward advancing Andean deformation, upper-crustal erosion, and foreland-directed fluvial transport. In the central Andes, U-Pb ages for detrital zircon minerals from multiple sedimentary basins suggest continuous contributions of Cenozoic-age volcanic detritus from the Western Cordillera since late Eocene-Oligocene time. Hydrogen stable isotopic signatures from volcanic glasses further suggest that the long-lived Western Cordillera magmatic arc attained modern elevations by 19-16 Ma in southern Peru. In the northern Andes, major shifts in detrital age signatures, sandstone compositions, and sediment dispersal for hinterland basins of southern Colombia and Ecuador record punctuated 12-6 Ma uplift of the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt. This eastward advance of deformation helped establish the modern Amazon, Magdalena, and Orinoco river drainage systems, terminating any significant west-directed sediment transport and likely explaining late Miocene vicariance events among taxa of the northern Andes, western forearc slope, and Amazonian foreland basin.

  8. Pharmaceutical policy of the Andean sub-region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Senior policy makers and health officials from the Andean countries--Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela--have developed a common pharmaceutical policy. The government's role is to assure availability and equal access to effective, quality, and affordable drugs and to safeguard their proper use. The government cannot delegate this role. The availability and accessibility of drugs gauge quality of health services and are social indicators of justice and equity. The public sector must use drugs from the essential drug list. These drugs are also valuable for the private sector. Drugs must not be treated like other merchandise, because the drug market is susceptible to misuse since the consumer cannot select the drug. Commercial advertising strongly influences prescribing of drugs and their use. The 2 major policy points are that promotion of essential drugs is the best approach from a health viewpoint and promotion of generic drug use is the best commercial alternative. The policy calls for the individual countries to pass a comprehensive drug law that reflects commitment to equity and appropriate use and incorporates standardization mechanisms. Criteria for selecting which drugs are allowed on the market include safety, proven efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, and treating the most common health problems at the lowest possible price. The Andean group is working towards harmonization of national essential drugs lists. To assure quality, health authorities must develop the capacity to enforce regulations when situations arise that threaten individual and community health. Supply, marketing, and logistics activities need to be improved and coordinated between the commercial and public sectors. Drug prices are being distanced from administrative control mechanisms and are going to be determined by a dynamic and well-supplied market. Drug information centers and prescription training are needed to achieve rational use of drugs. A joint pharmaceutical market for

  9. Macrophyte Communities of Andean Rivers: Composition and Relation with Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío and Otún (Risaralda river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of land use on the structure of macrophyte communities. Streams running exclusively through each land use were selected. Sampling was done in two different climatic seasons of year 2006. Vegetation found (54 species belonging to 25 families was dominated by species with high capability of adaptation to changing and disturbed environments. Richness and abundance of macrophytes were lower than those reported in other tropical aquatic systems. Variables associated with land use, such as temperature, conductivity and type of substrate of the streams mainly explained the structure of the macrophyte communities: streams running on meat-cattle areas -with higher temperatures, conductivity and dominance of sandy-slimy substrates- had higher macrophyte species richness and abundance than streams of protected-forest areas, with higher coverage by riparian vegetation, lower temperatures and conductivity and rocky substrates.

  10. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

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    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  11. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  12. Two newLiolaemuslizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) and Eulaemus , distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus , which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus ( sensu stricto ) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis . Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus .

  13. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Troncoso-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The L. elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto, especially the species closely related to L. elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the L. elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that L. lonquimayensis is a synonym of L. elongatus.

  14. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Mackey, Brendan G.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2009-01-01

    From analysis of published global site biomass data (n = 136) from primary forests, we discovered (i) the world's highest known total biomass carbon density (living plus dead) of 1,867 tonnes carbon per ha (average value from 13 sites) occurs in Australian temperate moist Eucalyptus regnans forests, and (ii) average values of the global site biomass data were higher for sampled temperate moist forests (n = 44) than for sampled tropical (n = 36) and boreal (n = 52) forests (n is number of sites per forest biome). Spatially averaged Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change biome default values are lower than our average site values for temperate moist forests, because the temperate biome contains a diversity of forest ecosystem types that support a range of mature carbon stocks or have a long land-use history with reduced carbon stocks. We describe a framework for identifying forests important for carbon storage based on the factors that account for high biomass carbon densities, including (i) relatively cool temperatures and moderately high precipitation producing rates of fast growth but slow decomposition, and (ii) older forests that are often multiaged and multilayered and have experienced minimal human disturbance. Our results are relevant to negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding forest conservation, management, and restoration. Conserving forests with large stocks of biomass from deforestation and degradation avoids significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere, irrespective of the source country, and should be among allowable mitigation activities. Similarly, management that allows restoration of a forest's carbon sequestration potential also should be recognized. PMID:19553199

  15. Integration, migration and sustainable development in the Andean group of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R; Kratochwil, H

    1993-04-01

    This paper, which was presented at the 1993 meeting of the International Organization for Migration, summarizes past and recent progress in Andean integration and migration arrangements. Changes in the strategy of the Andean group of nations (GAN) have occurred in the adjustment to prevailing conditions at the subregional and international level. GAN includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The Andean Pact originated with the signing of the Cartegena Agreement in 1969. Members approved the Andean Strategic Design in 1989, which loosened up trade integration and the movement of capital, services, and persons across shared borders. The Strategic Design also addressed issues resulting from economic and social integration. A statement of migratory patterns among GAN, Andean integration during 1969-89, and the goals and operation of the Andean Strategic Design and integration are discussed in some detail. The Galapagos Declaration and the La Paz Statement of 1990 are also described. The present situation with Andean integration is based on the following meetings of Andean nations: the First Meeting of Migration Officials of the Andean Group of Nations in March 1991, the Second Meeting of Migration Officials in September 1991, and bilateral agreements between Andean nations. Seven basic conclusions are drawn: 1) the strategy is an institutional, deliberate, programmed process; 2) integration within GAN is the culmination of a joint, coordinated directive of achievement of sustainable development in the subregion which aims to reduce the economic gaps between the North and the South, to lessen the impact of protected markets of the North and their migration barriers, and to improve the possibility of development of technologically sophisticated human capital; 3) subregional policies are more sensitive to short-term change in domestic politics; 4) integration and migration can be sustained better with deliberate planning; 5) implementation is dependent on

  16. Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Gomez L, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-02-01

    The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly's higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  18. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes.

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    Neal Michelutti

    Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  19. Modelling beta diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in High Andean wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nieto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central Andean Highlands represent a singular environment characterized by various extreme conditions. Among them, peatbogs are exceptional marshy habitats scattered throughout this arid and harsh area. In an effort to understand the patterns of beta diversity, we sampled the benthic macroinvertebrates of thirteen peatbogs and related the biological distance with ecological distance using the GDM (Generalized Dissimilarity Modelling approach. Variables analyzed were altitude, geographical distance, physical and chemical parameters of the water. A coefficient based on the ordering properties of count data, from the perspective of both sites and taxa, was used to measure the compositional similarity between samples. The most frequent taxa were: Hyallela, Simuliidae, Andesiops, Austrelmis, Podonominae, Protallagma, Trichocorixa, Orthocladiinae and Glossiphonidae. The highest altitudinal record ever for leeches is reported here. Altitude and conductivity contributed greatly to the single ecological predictor of beta diversity. Sampling points can be classified first by altitude (cutoff sets at 4,200 m, which can be considered a surrogate of a regional factor (distinction between Puna and High Andean ecoregions and then by conductivity (cutoff sets at 135 µS cm-1, which can be considered a proxy of a local factor (distinction between hyperfresh and more mineralized habitats. These results suggest a system of ecological filters acting on them. 

  20. Forest sector: A world bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  1. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, E; Varrela, J; Lassila, L; Vallittu, P K

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) was measured using specimens that were (1) moist and (2) air-dried (n = 5). Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm(2)), and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm(2) for enamel and 398 mW/cm(2) for dentin (p Beer-Lambert's law.

  2. Heating capacity of rebound shortwave diathermy and moist hot packs at superficial depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Amanda R; Draper, David O; Johnson, A Wayne; Diede, Mike T; Rigby, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a new continuous diathermy unit, ReBound, as a heating modality is unknown. To compare the effects of ReBound diathermy with silicate-gel moist hot packs on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Crossover study. University research laboratory. A total of 12 healthy, college-aged volunteers (4 men, 8 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.25 years, calf subcutaneous fat thickness = 7.2 ± 1.9 mm). On 2 different days, 1 of 2 modalities (ReBound diathermy, silicate-gel moist hot pack) was applied to the triceps surae muscle of each participant for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the modality was removed, and temperature decay was recorded for 20 minutes. Medial triceps surae intramuscular tissue temperature at a depth of 1 cm was measured using an implantable thermocouple inserted horizontally into the muscle. Measurements were taken every 5 minutes during the 30-minute treatment and every minute during the 20-minute temperature decay, for a total of 50 minutes. Treatment was analyzed through a 2 × 7 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Temperature decay was analyzed through a 2 × 21 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. During the 30-minute application, tissue temperatures at a depth of 1 cm increased more with the ReBound diathermy than with the moist hot pack (F6,66 = 7.14, P hot packs increased tissue temperatures 3.69°C ± 1.50°C and 2.82°C ± 0.90°C, respectively, from baseline. Throughout the temperature decay, ReBound diathermy produced a greater rate of heat dissipation than the moist hot pack (F20,222 = 4.42, P hot packs.

  3. Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bopape, Mary-Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] Development of a moisture scheme for the explicit numerical simulation of moist convection M BOPAPE, F ENGELBRECHT, D RANDALL AND W LANDMAN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: mbopape... sigma coordinate model that incorporates moisture effects, so that it can simulate convective clouds and precipitation. moisture terms equivalent to those of the miller and pearce (1974) model are incorporated in the equation set used: ; (1) ; (2...

  4. Comparison of ethanol hand sanitizer versus moist towelette packets for mealtime patient hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Herleen; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-09-01

    To facilitate patient hand hygiene, there is a need for easy-to-use products. In a survey of 100 patients, a single-use ethanol hand sanitizer packet took less time to access than a single-use moist towelette packet (3 vs 23 seconds) and was preferred by 74% of patients for mealtime hand hygiene. Performance of patient hand hygiene increased when a reminder was provided at the time of meal tray delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. HUBUNGAN PRINSIP DAN JENIS BALUTAN DENGAN PENERAPAN TEKNIK MOIST WOUND HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Merdekawati; Rasyidah AZ

    2017-01-01

    Salah satu komplikasi yang paling sering terjadi dilapangan pada penderita diabetes melitus yaitu adanya ulkus diabetikum atau gangren dan biasanya penyakit ini menyerang penderita pada usia produktif yaitu antara umur 30-50 tahun. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan prinsip dan jenis balutan dengan penerapan tehnik moist wound healing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode cross secsional. Sebanyak 31 responden terlibat dalam penelitian ini. Pengump...

  6. Magnetic Ekman Layers, Hurricanes, and Moist Convection on the Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, U. A.; Liu, J.

    2007-10-01

    Although giant planets do not have solid surfaces, they do have Ekman layers. The electrical conductivity increases exponentially with depth until the hydrogen becomes metallic, so there is a layer in the semi-conducting zone where the Lorentz force is comparable to the Coriolis force, although both will be small if the velocity is small. In this layer, the Lorentz force plays the role that friction plays in an ordinary Ekman layer, leading to convergence and upwelling in a low and divergence and downwelling in a high. In meteorology the effect is called Ekman pumping and is important in terrestrial hurricanes: The low pressure in the center drives moist inflow in the boundary layer, and the resulting upward flow around the eye releases latent heat and powers the storm. A structure with hurricane-like features exists at Saturn's south pole (Dyudina et al., BAAS, 2007). At other latitudes on both Jupiter and Saturn the cyclonic belts are the low pressure features. Upwelling there is consistent with lightning and other evidence of moist convection (Little et al., Icarus, 1999; Porco et al., Science, 2003). As in a terrestrial hurricane, the outflow from the belts takes place at high altitudes where friction with the underlying layers puts angular momentum back into the outflowing air. Moist convective towers provide the friction, so the outflow layer is near the top of the water cloud. On the giant planets, this is below the level of ammonia condensation, which explains the puzzling observation that the vertical velocity in the belts is downward at the level of the ammonia cloud and is presumably upward at the level of the water cloud, since moist convection is occurring there (Gierasch et al., Nature, 2000; Ingersoll et al., Nature, 2000).

  7. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  8. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused ...

  9. Comparative repeatome analysis on Triatoma infestans Andean and Non-Andean lineages, main vector of Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francisco; Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Cuadrado, Ángeles; Sánchez, Antonio; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is the most important Chagas disease vector in South America. Two main evolutionary lineages, named Andean and non-Andean, have been recognized by geographical distribution, phenetic and genetic characteristics. One of the main differences is the genomic size, varying over 30% in their haploid DNA content. Here we realize a genome wide analysis to compare the repetitive genome fraction (repeatome) between both lineages in order to identify the main repetitive DNA changes occurred during T. infestans differentiation process. RepeatExplorer analysis using Illumina reads showed that both lineages exhibit the same amount of non-repeat sequences, and that satellite DNA is by far the major component of repetitive DNA and the main responsible for the genome size differentiation between both lineages. We characterize 42 satellite DNA families, which are virtually all present in both lineages but with different amount in each lineage. Furthermore, chromosomal location of satellite DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that genomic variations in T. infestans are mainly due to satellite DNA families located on the heterochromatic regions. The results also show that many satDNA families are located on the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes. PMID:28723933

  10. Efficacy of Microwave Disinfection on Moist and Dry Dental Stone Casts with Different Irradiation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Robati Anaraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental practice contains the use of instruments and multiuse items that should be sterilized or disinfected properly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on dental stone cast disinfection in moist and dry condition. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 76 stone casts were prepared by a sterile method. The casts were contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 as well as Candida albicans (ATCC 10231. Half the samples were dried for two hours and the other half was studied while still moist. The samples were irradiated by a household microwave at 600 W for 3, 5 and 7 minutes. The microorganisms on the samples were extracted by immersion in tryptic soy broth and .001 ml of that was cultured in nutrient agar media, incubated overnight and counted and recorded as colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL. Results: The findings showed that microorganisms reduced to 4.87 logarithm of CFU/mL value on dental cast within seven minutes in comparison with positive control. Although microbial count reduction was observed as a result of exposure time increase, comparison between moist and dried samples showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Seven-minute microwave irradiation at 600 W can effectively reduce the microbial load of dental stone casts. Wetting the casts does not seem to alter the efficacy of irradiation.   Keywords: Microwave Disinfection; Dental Stone Casts; Irradiation Times

  11. Clinical Impact Upon Wound Healing and Inflammation in Moist, Wet, and Dry Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Johan P.E.; Kamel, Rami A.; Caterson, E.J.; Eriksson, Elof

    2013-01-01

    Significance Successful treatment of wounds relies on precise control and continuous monitoring of the wound-healing process. Wet or moist treatment of wounds has been shown to promote re-epithelialization and result in reduced scar formation, as compared to treatment in a dry environment. Recent Advances By treating wounds in a controlled wet environment, delivery of antimicrobials, analgesics, other bioactive molecules such as growth factors, as well as cells and micrografts, is allowed. The addition of growth factors or transplantation of cells yields the possibility of creating a regenerative wound microenvironment that favors healing, as opposed to excessive scar formation. Critical Issues Although several manufacturers have conceived products implementing the concept of moist wound healing, there remains a lack of commercial translation of wet wound-healing principles into clinically available products. This can only be mitigated by further research on the topic. Future Directions The strong evidence pointing to the favorable healing of wounds in a wet or moist environment compared to dry treatment will extend the clinical indications for this treatment. Further advances are required to elucidate by which means this microenvironment can be optimized to improve the healing outcome. PMID:24587972

  12. Moist static energy budget analysis of tropical cyclogenesis in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Kim, D.; Sobel, A. H.; Murakami, H.; Zhao, M.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore the tropical cyclogenesis processes in four high-resolution climate models, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter was originally developed to study the mechanisms of tropical convective organization in idealized cloud-resolving model, and allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis both along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. The advantage of this approach is that that we can directly compare the genesis processes between the several different climate models and with existing cloud-resolving model simulations. We also use these and other process-based diagnostics to identify model characteristics that are responsible for a good simulation of tropical cyclone activity.

  13. Moist Thermodynamics of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Intensification in High-Resolution Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.; Kim, D.; Moon, Y.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Murakami, H.; Reed, K. A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Wehner, M. F.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However, biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore tropical cyclogenesis and intensification processes in six high-resolution climate models from NOAA/GFDL, NCAR, and NASA, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis, including surface flux feedbacks and cloud-radiative feedbacks. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. We use two methods of compositing: a composite over all TC track points in a given intensity range, and a composite relative to the time of lifetime maximum intensity for each storm (at the same stage in the TC life cycle).

  14. Management of minor acute cutaneous wounds: importance of wound healing in a moist environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korting, H C; Schöllmann, C; White, R J

    2011-02-01

    Moist wound care has been established as standard therapy for chronic wounds with impaired healing. Healing in acute wounds, in particular in minor superficial acute wounds - which indeed are much more numerous than chronic wounds - is often taken for granted because it is assumed that in those wounds normal phases of wound healing should run per se without any problems. But minor wounds such as small cuts, scraps or abrasions also need proper care to prevent complications, in particular infections. Local wound care with minor wounds consists of thorough cleansing with potable tap water or normal saline followed by the application of an appropriate dressing corresponding to the principles of moist wound treatment. In the treatment of smaller superficial wounds, it appears advisable to limit the choice of dressing to just a few products that fulfil the principles of moist wound management and are easy to use. Hydroactive colloid gels combining the attributes of hydrocolloids and hydrogels thus being appropriate for dry and exuding wounds appear especially suitable for this purpose - although there is still a lack of data from systematic studies on the effectiveness of these preparations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Asymptotics for moist deep convection I: refined scalings and self-sustaining updrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittmeir, Sabine; Klein, Rupert

    2018-04-01

    Moist processes are among the most important drivers of atmospheric dynamics, and scale analysis and asymptotics are cornerstones of theoretical meteorology. Accounting for moist processes in systematic scale analyses therefore seems of considerable importance for the field. Klein and Majda (Theor Comput Fluid Dyn 20:525-551, 2006) proposed a scaling regime for the incorporation of moist bulk microphysics closures in multiscale asymptotic analyses of tropical deep convection. This regime is refined here to allow for mixtures of ideal gases and to establish consistency with a more general multiple scales modeling framework for atmospheric flows. Deep narrow updrafts, the so-called hot towers, constitute principal building blocks of larger scale storm systems. They are analyzed here in a sample application of the new scaling regime. A single quasi-one-dimensional upright columnar cloud is considered on the vertical advective (or tower life cycle) time scale. The refined asymptotic scaling regime is essential for this example as it reveals a new mechanism for the self-sustainance of such updrafts. Even for strongly positive convectively available potential energy, a vertical balance of buoyancy forces is found in the presence of precipitation. This balance induces a diagnostic equation for the vertical velocity, and it is responsible for the generation of self-sustained balanced updrafts. The time-dependent updraft structure is encoded in a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the precipitation mixing ratio. Numerical solutions of this equation suggest that the self-sustained updrafts may strongly enhance hot tower life cycles.

  16. The «Andean judge» in intellectual property issues: application to the Peruvian case

    OpenAIRE

    Rejanovinschi Talledo, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the role of Andean Tribunal of Justice, however disagrees with criteria used to recognize administrative entities such as «national judge» or «Andean judge». If we apply the Tribunal criteria, several administrators of justice in Intellectual Property will be exempt of collaborating with Andean integration. El presente documento enfatiza el rol del Tribunal de Justicia de la Comunidad Andina pero discrepa de los criterios establecidos para reconocer a las entidades ad...

  17. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, H R; Koh, H; Connolly, G N

    2008-10-01

    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. This study examines the possibility that company-specific and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study looks at the current total US moist snuff market with product design data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. (1) The levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; (2) the number and variety of sub-brands have increased over time; (3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; (4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and (5) youth use has increased. A combination of factors including brand proliferation, control of free nicotine and product design has most likely resulted in the expanded consumption of moist snuff, particularly among young people.

  18. New Evidence For A Late Miocene Onset Of The Amazon River Following Andean Tectonics And Quaternary Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, M. C.; Bogota-Angel, G.; Romero-Baez, M.; Lammertsma, E.; Flantua, S. G. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Dino, R.; do Carmo, D.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon River influenced biotic evolution on land and at sea, but its onset and development are still debated. Terrestrial sedimentary records are sparse, far apart, and do not present a continuous stratigraphy and thus greatly complicate the reconstruction of the history of this river system. At sea the stratigraphic record is better known thanks to hydrocarbon exploration efforts, but these data are not in the public domain. Renewed exploration in the Amazon submarine fan (Brazilian Equatorial Margin) has provided novel data and materials from wells drilled along the slope of the Amazon submarine fan, that are now partially available for scientific research. Here we report on the results of a geochemical and palynological study of `Well 2' based on which we determined the age and provenance of early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. The palynological data were also used to reconstruct past biomes on land, which ranged from mangrove and lowland forest to alpine vegetation. A distinct change in provenance was observed between 9.4 Ma and 9 Ma, which represented a change from Amazonian to Andean sediment source. This signal is replicated in the palynological record, which shows a shift from lowland to high-mountain taxa. Furthermore, we observed a very large increase of grass pollen from the Pliocene onwards with a further rise in the Pleistocene. These changes coincide with a rise in sedimentation rates. We interpret these results as following: a) the arrival of Andean sediments is related to the onset of the transcontinental river, b) the two-step rise of grass pollen and manifold increase in sediment discharge are related to Quaternary climatic change. These results agree with earlier and recent findings on the Ceara Rise and firmly place the birth of this river in the late Miocene. This study exemplifies the continental scale of tectonic changes on fluvial environments and biota across a W-E transect of South America. The study of this well is continued and we

  19. Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Finegan, Bryan; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Healey, John R.; Livoreil, Barbara; Nasi, Robert; Pena-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E.; Zhou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. I...

  20. Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Finegan, Bryan; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Healey, John R.; Livoreil, Barbara; Nasi, Robert; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E.; Zhou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. In...

  1. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  2. Bioactive Potential of Andean Fruits, Seeds, and Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Chirinos, Rosana; Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Pedreschi, Romina

    2018-01-01

    The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess. In this chapter, main Andean fruits, seeds, and roots and tubers have been selected and detailed nutritional and functional information is provided. In addition, traditional and current uses are provided and their bioactive potential is reported based on published scientific literature. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of starch films from Andean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E

    2011-05-01

    Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Outbreak of Bartonella bacilliformis in an Endemic Andean Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Sanchez Clemente

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited.Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003.The majority of cases (65% were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths.Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control.

  5. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  6. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia

    2011-02-09

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  7. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

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    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  8. Watershed-based natural research management: Lessons from projects in the Andean region

    OpenAIRE

    Sowell, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This Undergraduate Honors Thesis focuses on how different factors affect the success of a watershed management project and lessons learned from projects in the Andean Region. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)

  9. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C M; Gairola, Sumeet; Baduni, N P; Ghildiyal, S K; Suyal, Sarvesh

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken in seven major forest types of temperate zone (1500 m a.s.l. to 3100 m a.s.l.) of Garhwal Himalaya to understand the effect of slope aspects on carbon (C) density and make recommendations for forest management based on priorities for C conservation/sequestration. We assessed soil organic carbon (SOC) density, tree density, biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) on four aspects, viz. north/east (NE), north/west (NW), south-east (SE) and south-west (SW), in forest stands dominated by Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Cupressus torulosa, Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia and Quercus leucotrichophora. TCD ranged between 77.3 CMg ha⁻¹ on SE aspect (Quercus leucotrichophora forest) and 291.6 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC varied between 40.3 CMg ha⁻¹ on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 177.5 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). Total C density (SOC+TCD) ranged between 118.1 CMg ha⁻¹ on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 469.1 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC and TCD were significantly higher on northern aspects as compared with southern aspects. It is recommended that for C sequestration, the plantation silviculture be exercised on northern aspects, and for C conservation purposes, mature forest stands growing on northern aspects be given priority.

  10. From Dearth to El Dorado: Andean Nature, Plate Tectonics, and the Ontologies of Ecuadorian Resource Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kneas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the Ecuadorian government has pledged to convert the nation into a “mining country” of global standing. Contemporary claims of mineral wealth, however, stand in stark contrast to previous assessments. Indeed, through much of the 20th century, geologists described Ecuador as a country of mineral dearth. Exploring the process through which Ecuador seemingly transitioned from a nation of resource scarcity to one of mineral plenty, I demonstrate how assessments of Ecuador’s resource potential relate to ideas of Andean nature. Promoters of resource abundance have emphasized Andean uniformity and equivalence—the notion that Ecuador’s mineral wealth is inevitable by virtue of the resource richness of its Andean neighbors. Geologists who have questioned Ecuador’s mineral content, on the other hand, have emphasized Andean heterogeneity. In the recent promotion of Ecuador’s resource potential, notions of Andean uniformity have been bolstered by models of subsoil copper that emerged in the in 1970s in the context of plate-tectonic theory. In highlighting the linkage between ideas of Andean nature and appraisals of Ecuadorian resource potential since the late 19th century, I outline the dialectics between nature and natural resources that underpin processes of resource becoming.

  11. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

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    Marc-Oliver Adams

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  12. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  13. Stochastic eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux parameterization for moist convective boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suselj, K.; Teixeira, J.

    2012-12-01

    A new eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux (EDMF) based parameterization for moist convective boundary layers is introduced. In this EDMF framework, turbulent fluxes are a sum of a deterministic turbulent-kinetic-energy based eddy diffusivity component and a stochastic mass-flux component. The mass-flux component is represented by a fixed number of steady state plumes and plays a dominant role in the convection-dominated regimes. Two important, yet poorly understood components of the parameterization are: i) the within-plume variability of the model variables, and ii) the interaction between plume and the environment. To properly compute vertical profiles and the condensation within moist plumes, the above-mentioned processes have to be reasonably well represented. In the new parameterization, the within plume variability at the cloud base is represented by a diagnostically derived probability density function of the plume variables. The plume properties in the model are determined randomly by a Monte-Carlo type approach. The interaction between plumes and environment is represented as a lateral entrainment of the environmental air into the plumes. In our new EDMF approach the entrainment rate is modeled as a simple stochastic process following a Poison distribution. This stochastic parameterization of entrainment attempts at representing the possible intermittency of the entire entrainment process as well as the uncertainties related to entrainment. The EDMF parameterization is integrated into a single-column-model with a probability-density-function based description of cloudiness and simple long-wave radiation. We show that the model is able to capture essential features of moist boundary layers, ranging from the stratocumulus to shallow-cumulus regimes. Detailed comparisons of a few important cases with LES results are shown to confirm the value of the present approach.

  14. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel

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    E. Uusitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm was measured using specimens that were (1 moist and (2 air-dried (n=5. Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm2, and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm2 for enamel and 398 mW/cm2 for dentin (p<0.05. The increase of the specimen thickness decreased light transmission in all groups (p<0.005, and moist specimens attenuated light less than air-dried specimens in all thicknesses (p<0.05. EDTA treatment increased light transmission from 398 mW/cm2 to 439 mW/cm2 (1 mm dentin specimen thickness (p<0.05. Light transmission through intact premolar was 6.2 mW/cm2 (average thickness 8.2 mm and through incisor was 37.6 mW/cm2 (average thickness 5.6 mm. Conclusion. Light transmission through enamel is greater than that through dentin, probably reflecting differences in refractive indices and extinction coefficients. Light transmission through enamel, dentin, and extracted teeth seemed to follow Beer-Lambert’s law.

  15. Changes of mycorrhizal colonization along moist gradient in a vineyard of Eger (Hungary

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    Donkó Ádám

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of mycorrhizal fungi has special importance in the case of low soil moisture because the colonization of vine roots by mycorrhiza increases water and nutrient uptake and thus aids the avoidance of biotic and abiotic stresses of grape. Our aim was to investigate in the Eger wine region the changes of mycorrhizal colonization, water potential, and yield quality and quantity of grape roots at three altitudes, along a changing soil moist gradient. Our results show that the degree of mycorrhizal colonization is higher in drier areas, which supports the water and nutrient uptake of the host plant.

  16. Floristic Succession and Litter Production and Decomposition Dynamics in The Tropical Moist Forest of The Bajo Calima, Valle del Cauca Department Sucesión florística y dinámica de la producción y descomposición del mantillo en el bosque muy húmedo tropical del bajo calima, en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello Arias Heliodoro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia as in other tropical areas, the agricultural frontier expantion is addressed toward fragile ecosystems like the tropical rain forest. One of the problems in these areas is the pressure from the communities, through the shifting agriculture, resulting in a natural resources misuse. The literature shows a lot of information conceming the natural succession role in Ihe recuperation of the ecosystem stability afier !he shifting agriculture fields are abandoned. It is known that if people allow the neccessary time, the abandoned areas can develop cibernetic mechanisms, like nutrient cycling, able lo restare the soil fertility to some level enough to produce a high net productivity. This research is part of the activities done in the Bajo Calima area with the general objective of to know the dynamic of the mechanisms with the ability to restare the soil fertility through the natural succession in those areas previously cultivated. Three basic aspects are considered: a floristic succession, and identilication of those species potentially responsibles for most of the litterfall production; b litterfall, and litter production; e cualitative and cuantitative description of the fundamental aspects involved in the litter decomposition and mineralization.
    In this first paper are described both, those changes, in the floristic succession, related with the nutrient cycling; and those structural changes that establish some diferences in the successional stages of the vegetation between 2 and 14 years.
    En Colombia, como en otras regiones tropicales, la ampliación de la frontera agrlcola se dirige hacia ecosistemas frágiles, como el bosque húmedo tropical. La subsistencia de comunidades a través de la agricultura migratoria constituye una de las problemáticas que afectan los recursos naturales en estas áreas. La literatura muestra información abundante respecto del papel que cumple la sucesión natural en la recuperación de la

  17. Dry and moist heating-induced changes in protein molecular structure, protein subfraction, and nutrient profiles in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Yu, P

    2011-12-01

    Heat processing has been used to improve protein utilization and availability of animal nutrition. However, to date, few studies exist on heat-induced protein molecular structure changes on a molecular basis. The aims of this study were to use molecular spectroscopy as a novel approach to determine heat-induced protein molecular structure changes affected by moist and dry heating and quantify protein molecular structures and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. In this study, soybean was used as a model for feed protein and was autoclaved at 120°C for 1h (moist heating) and dry heated at 120°C for 1h. The parameters assessed in this study included protein structure α-helix and β-sheet and their ratio, protein subfractions associated with protein degradation behaviors, intestinal protein availability, and energy values. The results show that heat treatments changed the protein molecular structure. Both dry and moist heating increased the amide I-to-amide II ratio. However, for the protein α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio, moist heating decreased but dry heating increased the ratio. Compared with dry heating, moist heating dramatically changed the chemical and nutrient profiles of soybean seed. It greatly decreased soluble crude protein, nonprotein nitrogen, and increased neutral detergent insoluble protein. Both dry and moist heating treatments did not alter digestible nutrients and energy values. Heating tended to decrease the nonprotein nitrogen fraction (soluble and rapidly degradable protein fraction) and true protein 1 fraction (fast-degradable protein fraction). Conversely, the true protein 3 fraction (slowly degradable fraction) significantly increased. The in situ rumen study showed that moist heating decreased protein rumen degradability and increased intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein. Compared with the raw soybeans, dry heating did not affect rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility. In conclusion, compared

  18. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  19. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Caroline M.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I rel ). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  20. Comparison of Muscle Temperature Increases Produced by Moist Hot Pack and ThermoStim Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jennifer

    2018-02-06

    ThermoStim Probe (TSP) has recently joined the market as a superficial heating modality. While there is limited research into the intramuscular heating capability of superficial heating modalities in general (moist hot pack, paraffin, warm whirlpool), no previous research has examined intramuscular heating capability of TSP. Evaluate rate and magnitude of intramuscular heating via TSP as compared to hydrocollator moist hot pack (MHP); determine if TSP can increase tissue temperature 3-4°C (vigorous heating range). Repeated-measures counterbalanced study. Multi-site trial; two college/university research laboratories. 18 healthy college-aged participants (11 females, 7 males, age: 23.0±2.1, weight: 74.64±18.64kg, height: 168.42±9.66cm, subcutaneous adipose: 0.71±0.17cm) with calf subcutaneous adipose heated faster than TSP at minutes 12 (p=.017), 16 (p=.002), and 20 (p=.001). There was no significant correlation between subcutaneous adipose thickness and maximum temperature increase obtained with either MHP (r=-.033, p=.896) or TSP (r=-.080, p=.753). MHP increased intramuscular temperature significantly more than TSP, however neither modality was capable of producing a 3-4°C temperature increase associated with increased tissue extensibility.

  1. Indicios indirectos de la presencia del oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 en el noroeste de Argentina Indirect evidence on the presence of the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus Cuvier, 1825 in northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Del Moral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de osos andinos (Tremarctos ornatus en Argentina ha sido muy discutida debido a la ausencia de evidencia confirmativa. Muchos expertos en el oso dudan actualmente de su presencia en el país. No obstante, la Selva Tucumano-Boliviana o de Yungas es un ecosistema típico donde se puede encontrar esta especie; particularmente en el área estudiada, el hábitat parece ser de alta calidad para los osos. Entre los años 2001 y 2006, se recopilaron 23 casos de evidencia sobre la presencia de osos andinos en las provincias de Salta y Jujuy. Se registraron huellas, restos alimenticios y heces. Adicionalmente, se entrevistó a nativos, agricultores y cazadores para colectar otros datos sobre la especie. Se concluye que las selvas de Yungas del extremo noroeste de Argentina, deben ser consideradas un área con alta probabilidad de mantener una población residente de osos andinos. Aunque posiblemente esta sea una población aislada y pequeña, la presencia permanente de osos andinos en el noroeste de Argentina no debería ser puesta en duda.The presence of Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus in Argentina has been disputed due to the absence of confirming evidence. Many Andean bear experts currently doubt on their presence in this country. Nevertheless, the Tucuman-Bolivian Forest or Yungas is a typical ecosystem where this species can be found, particularly in the studied area, in which the habitat appears to be of high quality for bears. Between 2001 and 2006, 23 cases of evidence on the presence of Andean bears in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy were recorded. Footprints, food remains and scats were found. In addition, natives, farmers, and hunters where interviewed to collect new data of this species. The conclusion is that the Yungas Forest of northwestern Argentina must be considered an area with high probability of maintaining a resident population of Andean bears. Although this is probably a small and perhaps isolated population, the

  2. From Subordinate Marker to Discourse Marker: que in Andean Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna María Escobar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of a redundant use of que ('that' found in Andean Spanish as an expression which has undergone a grammaticalization process. Evidence suggests that the function of que as subordinate marker is much more generalized in this variety than in other dialects of Spanish. que is found to be used as a marker introducing both nominal and adjectival clauses, suggesting that adjectival subordinates behave as nominal subordinates in this variety of Spanish. An intrusive que appears in restricted syntactic and semantic contexts with clauses that have nominal and adjectival functions, and even appears replacing adverbial expressions in some adverbial subordinates (temporal, spatial, and manner. Furthermore, it is found to be sensitive to the degree of the argument’s thematic/semantic function in the subordinate clause. In particular, it seems to occur more often with low-agency arguments in adjectival and nominal contexts, and, in nominal subordinates, tends to appear with a restricted set of epistemic and evidential main verbs (e.g. creer 'to believe', saber 'to know', decir 'to say'. The analysis suggests that que has developed a new function in this variety of Spanish, namely, one of indicating that the information contained in the subordinate clause does not constitute background information (as would be expected in non-contact varieties of Spanish but instead contains information relevant to the discourse.

  3. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  4. Phoretic mites identified on andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae of Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-Orozco

    Full Text Available Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei,A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii,Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis. Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month, a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius andTropicoseius spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite speciesP. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformisand the first record of P. guy as phoretic host forProctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  5. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined.

  6. A review of forest economics research in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country....

  7. A brief botanical survey into Kumbira forest, an isolated patch of Guineo-Congolian biome

    OpenAIRE

    Gon?alves, Francisco M. P.; Goyder, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kumbira forest is a discrete patch of moist forest of Guineo-Congolian biome in Western Angola central scarp and runs through Cuanza Norte and Cuanza Sul province. The project aimed to document the floristic diversity of the Angolan escarpment, a combination of general walk-over survey, plant specimen collection and sight observation was used to aid the characterization of the vegetation. Over 100 plant specimens in flower or fruit were collected within four identified vegetation typ...

  8. Elevational Shifts in the Topographic Position of Polylepis Forest Stands in the Andes of Southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Toivonen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of high-Andean treeline forests has provoked discussion about the relative importance of anthropogenic and climatic causes of this pattern, both of which vary with topography. We aimed to understand the topographic controls on the distribution of Polylepis subsericans treeline forests in the Andes of southern Peru, and the changes in these controls along an elevational gradient. We mapped Polylepis forests in the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, using high-resolution aerial images and related forest cover to topographic variables extracted from a digital terrain model (30-m resolution. The variables were selected based on their expected biological relevance for tree growth at high elevations. We constructed logistic regression models of forest cover, separately for each of five 100-m elevational belts. To deal with spatial autocorrelation, models were based on randomized 10% subsampling of the data with 1000 repetitions. The results suggest a consistent shift in topographic preference with elevation, with forests at lower elevations showing a preference for topographically protected sites near rivers and forests at higher elevations being increasingly restricted to north-facing and well-drained sites. Our study offers the first indication of the ability of Andean treeline forests to benefit from the topographic heterogeneity of the high-Andes. Providing that dispersal and establishment are possible, local relocation between microsites could help these forests to persist regionally in spite of changing climatic conditions.

  9. Andean deformation and rift inversion, eastern edge of Cordillera Oriental (Guateque Medina area), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquet, Y.; Cheilletz, A.; Cobbold, P. R.; Baby, P.; Laumonier, B.; Giuliani, G.

    2002-09-01

    In the Guateque-Medina area, Paleozoic basement and Mesozoic rift basins have been uplifted and exhumed during the Andean orogeny (12 Ma to present). Surface exposures and subsurface data constrain the deformation style and the rift geometry. We have mapped a regional transect and restored a cross section. We have also reconciled existing stratigraphic data, from cordillera, foothills and foreland basin, and have added new data of our own. In Early Cretaceous shales, there is evidence for fault-controlled sedimentation. A brecciated evaporitic layer, which is locally emerald bearing, has acted as a regional detachment. The underlying basement, composed of Paleozoic sediments, crops out as the Quetame Massif. It was uplifted during the Andean orogeny on a series of high-angle reverse faults. The main SE-verging Tesalia fault has resulted from Andean reactivation of an Early Cretaceous normal fault, which bounded a half-rift. A series of NW-verging back-thrusts may have resulted from Andean reactivation of Paleozoic faults. Between the back-thrusts and the Tesalia fault is a basement pop-up. It may be part of a flower structure, because components of right-lateral slip have been identified. These are attributed to eastward subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America. In general, the style and timing of Andean deformation in the Guateque-Medina area are compatible with the plate tectonic setting of the northern Andes.

  10. Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Juan; Gardner, Beth; Lucherini, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) is one of the most endangered, yet least known, felids. Although the Andean cat is considered at risk of extinction, rigorous quantitative population studies are lacking. Because physical observations of the Andean cat are difficult to make in the wild, we used a camera-trapping array to photo-capture individuals. The survey was conducted in northwestern Argentina at an elevation of approximately 4,200 m during October–December 2006 and April–June 2007. In each year we deployed 22 pairs of camera traps, which were strategically placed. To estimate detection probability and density we applied models for spatial capture–recapture using a Bayesian framework. Estimated densities were 0.07 and 0.12 individual/km2 for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Mean baseline detection probability was estimated at 0.07. By comparison, densities of the Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), another poorly known felid that shares its habitat with the Andean cat, were estimated at 0.74–0.79 individual/km2 in the same study area for 2006 and 2007, and its detection probability was estimated at 0.02. Despite having greater detectability, the Andean cat is rarer in the study region than the Pampas cat. Properly accounting for the detection probability is important in making reliable estimates of density, a key parameter in conservation and management decisions for any species.

  11. Use of spatial capture–recapture to estimate density of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.

  12. Lost crops of the Incas: Origins of domestication of the Andean pulse crop tarwi, Lupinus mutabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Guy W; Nevado, Bruno; Eastwood, Ruth J; Contreras-Ortiz, Natalia; Reynel, Carlos; Madriñán, Santiago; Filatov, Dmitry A; Hughes, Colin E

    2016-09-01

    The Andean highlands are a hotspot of domestication, yet our understanding of the origins of early Andean agriculture remains fragmentary. Key questions of where, when, how many times, and from what progenitors many Andean crops were domesticated remain unanswered. The Andean lupine crop tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) is a regionally important pulse crop with exceptionally high seed protein and oil content and is the focus of modern breeding efforts, but its origins remain obscure. A large genome-wide DNA polymorphism data set was generated using nextRADseq to infer relationships among more than 200 accessions of Andean Lupinus species, including 24 accessions of L. mutabilis and close relatives. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses were used to identify the likely progenitor of tarwi and elucidate the area and timing of domestication in combination with archaeological evidence. We infer that tarwi was domesticated once in northern Peru, most likely in the Cajamarca region within, or adjacent to the extant distribution of L. piurensis, which is the most likely wild progenitor. Demographic analyses suggest that tarwi split from L. piurensis around 2600 BP and suffered a classical domestication bottleneck. The earliest unequivocal archaeological evidence of domesticated tarwi seeds is from the Mantaro Valley, central Peru ca. 1800 BP. A single origin of tarwi from L. piurensis in northern Peru provides a robust working hypothesis for the domestication of this regionally important crop and is one of the first clear-cut examples of a crop originating in the highlands of northern Peru. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Contact dermatitis in a child from methlychloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone in moist wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjieva, Jana; Gergovska, Malena; Darlenski, Razvigor

    2014-01-01

    Contact allergic reactions to methlychloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone also widely known as Kathon CG have been reported extensively reported. It is one of the most commonly used preservatives in rinse-off products, cosmetics, and others. Herein, a case of a 50-year-old girl is presented with chronic dermatitis in the anogenital area. The patient was patch tested and had positive reaction to Kathon CG. The detailed history taking revealed that the allergen was present in the moist cleaning wipes used instead of dry toilet paper. The presented case serves as a basis for a appraisal of the use of this preservative in wet wipes. In addition, the duration of the patch test protocol in children has also been discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A novel topical protectant for the prevention of β-radiation induced moist desquamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Effective therapies for the prevention of radiation-induced skin burns that could be readily deployed under a nuclear accident or nuclear terrorism scenario are urgently needed. In this report we describe the efficacy of a novel radioprotectant (DMZ911) in a model of b-radiation induced moist desquamation (MD) in pig skin. DMZ911 is a nitroxide-based topical cream that effectively delivers the nitroxide into viable skin cells. Stable nitroxide compounds have been shown to be effective against both X-ray and ?-ray-induced damage in vivo and in vitro. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced MD was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% moist desquamation in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs. DMZ911 or placebo was applied to various test sites 2 hours prior to radiation exposure. Lesions were scored based on the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. Treatment with DMZ911 resulted in a 31% net reduction in MD when compared to placebo treated sites following an 8-week study period. This reduction was observed whether all sites or only those with severe MD were considered. Skin damage (as indicated by MD) from radiation exposure was significantly reduced by 31% (p = 0.05) following pretreatment with the novel topical radioprotectant DMZ911. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be successfully inhibited by treatment with DMZ911. This topical therapeutic agent represents a novel treatment for nuclear radiation induced skin injury. DMZ911 may have unique applications in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and dermabrasion procedures

  15. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  16. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Larrea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs

  17. How do light and water acquisition strategies affect species selection during secondary succession in moist tropical forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Lohbeck, Madelon; Bongers, Frans; Ramos, Miguel Martínez; Sterck, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance) and tree

  18. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; van Breugel, Paulo; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    fertility in Southern Mexico, using the premise that competition for light is size-asymmetric, unlike competition for nutrients. Plant growth is thus expected to be disproportionally impeded by larger neighbors. We studied how growth and survival of 3.5-5.5 m tall saplings of Cecropia peltata...

  19. Colombian dry moist forest transitions in the Llanos Orientales - A comparison of model and pollen-based biome reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Berrio, J.C.; Behling, H.; Boom, A.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Colombian vegetation, at the ecological level of the biome, is reconstructed at six sites using pollen data assigned a priori to plant functional types and biomes. The chosen sites incorporate four savanna sites (Laguna Sardinas, Laguna Angel, El Piñal and Laguna Carimagua), a site on the

  20. Forest Wealth and Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROB Wijesekara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems are the arsenal that supplies food and medicines for those who are the poorest members of the global community. These are referred to as “forest dwellers”. However the extent of those who depend on the products of the forest go well beyond these humble forest dwellers. In the modern context the forest ecosystems contribute to the diets and the medicines of even urban populations. This being so the widespread destruction of tropical rainforest ecosystems and the consequent extinction of plant and animal species that is ongoing, brings forth consequences that are of mind-boggling proportions. Though tropical moist rainforets are estimated to cover just only 6% of the surface of the earth, they contain an estimated 50% of all species of plants and animal life. The abundant botanical resources of the rainforests have provided mankind, and even neanderthal man, with food and medicines over several millennia. Yet it is just only 1% of this vast resource that has been scientifically evaluated for medicinal potential. At the same time an estimated 2% of the global rain forest resources are irreparably damaged each year, a rate which seems likely to witness the destruction of a possible 20- 25% of the present species of flora and fauna, in a decade from now..The rain forest resources are the basis on which the traditional medical systems have thrived. Medical systems such as the old Arabian-Greek systems from which modern western medicine is derived, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, the Ayurvedic, Siddi, and Unani systems, all depend substantially on plants for their therapeutic armoury. Therefore the safeguarding of the resource which is so vital to global health becomes a major reponsibility of mankind.Download Paper (pdf

  1. Interpretation of simple and cloud-resolving simulations of moist convection radiation interaction with a mock-Walker circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Peters, Matthew E.

    2006-11-01

    An idealized two-dimensional mock-Walker circulation in the tropical atmosphere forced by prescribed horizontal gradients in sea-surface temperature (SST) is discussed. This model problem includes feedbacks between cumulus convection and tropical large-scale circulations that have proved challenging for global climate models to predict accurately. Three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations that explicitly simulate turbulent circulations within individual cloud systems across 4,096 and 1,024 km-wide Walker circulations are compared with a simple theoretical model, the Simplified Quasiequilibrium Tropical Circulation Model (SQTCM). This theoretical model combines the weak-temperature-gradient approximation with a unimodal truncation of tropospheric vertical structure coupled to highly simplified formulations of moist precipitating cumulus convection and its cloud-radiative feedbacks. The rainfall, cloud and humidity distribution, circulation strength, energy fluxes and scaling properties are compared between the models. The CRM-simulated horizontal distribution of rainfall and energy fluxes are adequately predicted by the SQTCM. However, the humidity distribution (drier subsidence regions and high-humidity boundary layers in the CRM), vertical structure and domain-size scaling of the circulation differ significantly between the models. For the SQTCM, the concept of gross moist stability related to advection of moist static energy (MSE) out of tropospheric columns by the mean divergent circulation is used to explain the width and intensity of the rainy region. Column MSE budgets averaged across the ascent branch of the simulated Walker circulation provide similar insight into the cloud-resolving simulations after consideration of the more complex horizontal and vertical circulation structure and the role of transient eddies. A nondimensional ascent-region moist stability ratio α, analogous to the SQTCM gross moist stability, is developed. One term of

  2. Efficient way back litters nutrient potential of a tropical forest of bank. Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Molina, Natalia; Rodriguez Barrios, Javier Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    In three representative forests along the River Gaira, (subtropical wet forest, subtropical moist forest and tropical thorn mount), were measured over six months (wet and dry seasons) fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus through the litter. Concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the litter were relatively similar in the three Nevada de Santa Marta Colombia. Fuentes, Rodriguez. vegetation types (1.71% n and 0.12% p for the subtropical moist forest, followed by the tropical thorn mount with 1.50% n and 0.10% p and the subtropical wet forest with 1.39% n and 0.08% p), with the most significant differences found for nitrogen, which is the major nutrient with the absolute maximum in the subtropical rain forest set in the middle stretch of the basin. The greatest returns on biomass and nutrients occurred in the subtropical moist forest and tropical thorn mount set in the middle and lower reaches of the basin. The leaves showed high concentration of n and consequently, given the high production values of the different fractions, a high potential return of n (78.6 kg ha-1 yr-1). The foliar p concentration showed a potential return of 4.9 kgha1yr-1 and high values of the indices of efficiency in their use (iev: 2888.5) and foliar resorption (ern: 98.2), was the nutrient most limiting.

  3. Fog Collection and its Variability in the Andean Mountain Range of Colombia: A Possible Source for Water Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrological droughts occur naturally in some regions of the Colombian Andean watersheds, some of them associated with large-scale climatic phenomena like El Nino. The associated water scarcity is aggravated by an advancing deforestation of the native highland forests. These events have negative consequences for the environment and for human development. Low water availability in arid/semiarid regions and water scarcity in surface sources in mountainous zones could be managed partially by means of water from fog collection. To date, fog collection variability and potential use of fog water as an alternative for water supply has not been evaluated in Colombia. This study evaluates the spatial and temporal fog collection variability and analyses the potential use of fog as an alternative source of water supply in an Andean rural region of southern Colombia, which is highly affected by droughts and low water availability. Fog collection experiments were carried out, and data collection covered both dry and rainy seasons in the period 2003 - 2005, with daily data registration of fog collection and drizzle/precipitation. Twelve Standard Fog Collectors (SFC), built from polypropylene mesh with a vertical collection surface of 1.0 m2, were installed in a mountainous zone with an area of approximately 500 ha, ranging from 1,680 to 1,850 m a.s.l. Chilean meshes with several shade coefficients were tested. In order to assess the spatial fog variability, isolines of fog-water collection rates were estimated using Kriging as the interpolation method. Our results suggest a high potential for the use of fog to supply domestic water requirements in rural areas. Also, the observed collection yields are consistent with some experimental results of fog harvesting from other countries in South America. Annual average collection rates amounted to 4.2 l/m2/day for precipitation + fog, and 3.3 l/m2/day for fog only. The temporal analysis indicates that the most important month for fog

  4. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  5. Roles of DacB and spm proteins in clostridium perfringens spore resistance to moist heat, chemicals, and UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Nahid; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2008-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens food poisoning is caused mainly by enterotoxigenic type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat resistance. Previous studies have shown that alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP) play a major role in the resistance of Bacillus subtilis and C. perfringens spores to moist heat, UV radiation, and some chemicals. Additional major factors in B. subtilis spore resistance are the spore's core water content and cortex peptidoglycan (PG) structure, with the latter properties modulated by the spm and dacB gene products and the sporulation temperature. In the current work, we have shown that the spm and dacB genes are expressed only during C. perfringens sporulation and have examined the effects of spm and dacB mutations and sporulation temperature on spore core water content and spore resistance to moist heat, UV radiation, and a number of chemicals. The results of these analyses indicate that for C. perfringens SM101 (i) core water content and, probably, cortex PG structure have little if any role in spore resistance to UV and formaldehyde, presumably because these spores' DNA is saturated with alpha/beta-type SASP; (ii) spore resistance to moist heat and nitrous acid is determined to a large extent by core water content and, probably, cortex structure; (iii) core water content and cortex PG cross-linking play little or no role in spore resistance to hydrogen peroxide; (iv) spore core water content decreases with higher sporulation temperatures, resulting in spores that are more resistant to moist heat; and (v) factors in addition to SpmAB, DacB, and sporulation temperature play roles in determining spore core water content and thus, spore resistance to moist heat.

  6. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  7. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  8. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  9. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  10. Habitat Preferences of Boros schneideri (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the Natural Tree Stands of the Białowieża Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jerzy M.; Sućko, Krzysztof; Zub, Karol; Bohdan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed habitat requirements of Boros schneideri (Panzer, 1796) (Coleoptera: Boridae) in the natural forests of the continental biogeographical region, using data collected in the Białowieża Forest. This species has been found on the six host trees, but it preferred dead, standing pine trees, characterized by large diameter, moderately moist and moist phloem but avoided trees in sunny locations. It occurred mostly in mesic and wet coniferous forests. This species demonstrated preferences for old tree stands (over 140-yr old), and its occurrence in younger tree-stand age classes (minimum 31–40-yr old) was not significantly different from random distribution. B. schneideri occupied more frequently locations distant from the forest edge, which were less affected by logging. Considering habitat requirements, character of occurrence, and decreasing number of occupied locations in the whole range of distribution, this species can be treated as relict of primeval forests. PMID:25527586

  11. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of trans-Andean cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Říčan, O.; Říčanová, Š.; Janšta, P.; Gahura, O.; Novák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2015), s. 333-350 ISSN 1864-5755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Andean uplift * Andinoacara * Mesoheros Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2015

  12. Andean mountain building and magmatic arc migration driven by subduction-induced whole mantle flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction along the western margin of South America has been active since the Jurassic, but Andean orogeny started in the middle Cretaceous and was preceded by backarc extension in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The timing and sequence of these events has remained unexplained. Here I present a

  13. Persistence of chironomids in metal polluted Andean high altitude streams: does melanin play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza Muro, R.A.; Marticorena-Ruíz, J.K.; Palomino, E.J.; Merritt, C.; de Baat, M.L.; van Gemert, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    In high altitude Andean streams an intense solar radiation and coinciding metal pollution allow the persistence of only a few specialized taxa, including chironomids. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the mechanisms underlying the persistence of chironomids under these multiple

  14. Photos provide information on age, but not kinship, of Andean bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell C. Van Horn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14, and that ages of adults ≥10 years old may be estimated from the proportion of their nose that is pink with an average error of <0.01 ± 3.5 years (n = 41. We also show that similarity among the bears’ natural markings, as perceived by humans, is not associated with pedigree kinship among the bears (R2 < 0.001, N = 1,043, p = 0.499. Thus, researchers may use photos of wild Andean bears to estimate the ages of young cubs and older adults, but not to infer their kinship. Given that camera trap photos are one of the most readily available sources of information on large cryptic mammals, we suggest that similar methods be tested for use in other poorly understood species.

  15. Regional water resources management in the Andean region with numerical models and satellite remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Mulders, C.W.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development and adaptation of distributed numerical simulation models of hydrological processes in complex watersheds typical of the Andean region. These distributed models take advantage of the synoptic capabilities of sensors on-board satellites and GIS procedures have

  16. Trade in Andean Condor Vulture gryphus feathers and body parts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body parts in the city of Cusco and the Sacred Valley,. Cusco region, Peru. Robert S. R. ... The sale of Andean Condor feathers and body parts is undertaken openly in the tourist markets of Cusco and the Sacred .... and shops. Prices in local currency – Nuevo Sol and US Dollar equivalent given in parentheses). Feather.

  17. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail; Bauchet, Marc; Pinto, Dalila; Mao, Xianyun; Akey, Joshua M; Mei, Rui; Scherer, Stephen W; Julian, Colleen G; Wilson, Megan J; López Herráez, David; Brutsaert, Tom; Parra, Esteban J; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D

    2010-09-09

    High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans) separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association studies necessary

  18. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  19. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  20. A moist static energy framework for zonal-mean storm track intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T.; Barpanda, P.; Donohoe, A.

    2017-12-01

    A moist static energy (MSE) framework for zonal-mean storm track intensity is derived and applied across a range of timescales. Storm track intensity is defined as the extremum of zonal-mean transient eddy MSE flux. According to the framework storm track intensity can be decomposed into contributions from net energy (sum of shortwave absorption and surface heat fluxes into the atmosphere minus outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and atmospheric storage) integrated from the pole to the storm track position and MSE flux by the mean meridional circulation or stationary eddies. The framework predicts storm tracks amplify in spring and decay in fall in response to seasonal insolation. When applied diagnostically the framework shows the amplitude of seasonal intensity in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is consistent with shortwave absorption and surface heat fluxes over land but compensated by OLR (Planck feedback) and stationary eddy MSE flux. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the negligible amplitude of seasonal intensity is consistent with compensation of shortwave absorption by OLR and surface heat fluxes over the ocean (ocean energy storage). On interannual timescales, El Nino minus La Nina conditions amplify the NH storm track and weaken the SH storm track consistent with oceanic surface heat flux changes poleward of the storm track. Finally, on centennial timescales, the CO2 direct and indirect effects produce competing responses on the NH summertime storm track: the indirect effect amplifies the storm track whereas the direct effect weakens it consistent with opposing surface heat flux responses over land and ocean.

  1. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M. [Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR), Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  2. Efficacy of moist heat pack application over static stretching on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D; Swank, A M; Adams, K J; Treolo, D

    2001-02-01

    Inadequate flexibility is a contributing factor to muscle injury, especially with respect to the hamstring muscle group. Simple therapeutic regimens capable of increasing hamstring flexibility may reduce the injury potential of athletes with below-average hamstring flexibility or history of injury. This study compared 30 seconds of static stretching with 20 minutes of heat application on hamstring flexibility. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the subjects attitude toward each treatment and the efficacy of treatment. Thirty undergraduate student athletes who were current members of a Midwestern collegiate football team participated in a 2 (treatment: heat vs. stretching) by 2 (coun-terbalanced order: heat first vs. stretching first) repeated-measures design. Results indicated that significant benefits to increase hamstring flexibility could be gained by using moist heat packs in comparison with static stretching despite a perceived attitudinal bias in favor of stretching. These findings may have implications for orthopedic fitness as well as injury prevention for an athlete with prior hamstring injury or inadequate flexibility.

  3. Degradation of high-Tc superconductors by annealing in dry and moist atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Nowick, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    A study is made of the effects of annealing both La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (for x=0, 0.1, and 0.15) and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 in wet and dry O 2 atmospheres at various temperatures between 200 and 930 degree C. In the case of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , substantial degradation of resistive properties occurs during annealing in moist O 2 , the degradation being highest at 200 degree C as decreasing as the treatment temperature increases. Since the Meissner effect remains unaffected, it is concluded that degradation is due to the formation of a hydroxide species at grain boundaries, which decomposes as the anneal temperature is increased to 930 degree C. In the case of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , on the other hand, moisture does not produce degradation for anneals at 200 degree C and above, but severe degradation of resistive behavior does occur for dry O 2 anneals, with a maximum effect at 500 degree C. It is found that this effect results from a contaminant gas absorbed by the furnace when it is open to air, possibly CO 2 . Again the degradation is due to formation of a grain-boundary phase which decomposes by annealing at 930 degree C

  4. Characteristics of transonic moist air flows around butterfly valves with spontaneous condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Toufique Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of spontaneous condensation of moist air on the shock wave dynamics around butterfly valves in transonic flows are investigated by experimental and numerical simulations. Two symmetric valve disk shapes namely- a flat rectangular plate and a mid-plane cross-section of a prototype butterfly valve have been studied in the present research. Results showed that in case with spontaneous condensation, the root mean square of pressure oscillation (induced by shock dynamics is reduced significantly with those without condensation for both shapes of the valves. Moreover, local aerodynamic moments were reduced in case with condensation which is considered to be beneficial in torque requirement in case of on/off applications of valves as flow control devices. However, total pressure loss was increased with spontaneous condensation in both the valves. Furthermore, the disk shape of a prototype butterfly valve showed better aerodynamic performances compared to flat rectangular plate profile in respect of total pressure loss and vortex shedding frequency in the wake region.

  5. Beyond the brotherhood: Skoal Bandits' role in the evolution of marketing moist smokeless tobacco pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi H; Veffer, Jessica R; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, "snus" smokeless tobacco has been sold in the U.S.. However, U.S. Smokeless Tobacco (USST) and Swedish Match developed and marketed pouched moist snuff tobacco (MST) since 1973. Analysis of previously secret tobacco documents, advertisements and trade press. USST partnered with Swedish Match, forming United Scandia International to develop pouch products as part of the "Lotus Project." Pouched MST was not commonly used, either in Sweden or the U.S. prior to the Lotus Project's innovation in 1973. The project aimed to transform smokeless tobacco from being perceived as an "unsightly habit of old men" into a relevant, socially acceptable urban activity, targeting 15-35 year-old men. While USST's initial pouched product "Good Luck," never gained mainstream traction, Skoal Bandits captured significant market share after its 1983 introduction. Internal market research found that smokers generally used Skoal Bandits in smokefree environments, yet continued to smoke cigarettes in other contexts. Over time, pouch products increasingly featured increased flavor, size, nicotine strength and user imagery variation. Marlboro and Camel Snus advertising mirrors historical advertising for Skoal Bandits, designed to recruit new users and smokers subjected to smokefree places. Despite serious efforts, pouched MST marketing has been unable to dispel its association with traditional smokeless tobacco stereotypes as macho and rural. Public education efforts to discourage new users and dual use of MST and cigarettes should emphasize that "new" pouch products are simply repackaging "old" smokeless tobacco.

  6. Kinetic Modeling of a Silicon Refining Process in a Moist Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-03-01

    We developed a kinetic model that considers both silicon loss and boron removal in a metallurgical grade silicon refining process. This model was based on the hypotheses of reversible reactions. The reaction rate coefficient kept the same form but error of terminal boron concentration could be introduced when relating irreversible reactions. Experimental data from published studies were used to develop a model that fit the existing data. At 1500 °C, our kinetic analysis suggested that refining silicon in a moist hydrogen atmosphere generates several primary volatile species, including SiO, SiH, HBO, and HBO2. Using the experimental data and the kinetic analysis of volatile species, we developed a model that predicts a linear relationship between the reaction rate coefficient k and both the quadratic function of p(H2O) and the square root of p(H2). Moreover, the model predicted the partial pressure values for the predominant volatile species and the prediction was confirmed by the thermodynamic calculations, indicating the reliability of the model. We believe this model provides a foundation for designing a silicon refining process with a fast boron removal rate and low silicon loss.

  7. Leaf-mining Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) from record high altitudes: documenting an entire new fauna in the Andean páramo and puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Gerulaitis, Virginijus; Karsholt, Ole

    2016-11-01

    The monograph treats 29 species of leaf-mining pygmy moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) discovered in the northern Andean bush and grass páramo and the central Andean puna at altitudes above 3700 m. They represent the world's highest-altitudinal Nepticulidae fauna known. The height record belongs to Stigmella nivea sp. nov. from Peru collected at an elevation of 4700 m. Except for one species, all belong to Stigmella Schrank. Twenty-two of the species recorded are new and are named and described in the current paper: Stigmella paramica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. lachemillae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. gynoxyphaga Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. calceolariae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. rigida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. altiplanica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. robusta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. pseudorobusta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. auriargentata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. altimontana Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. pandora Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. ampla Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. evanida Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. mustelina Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. angusta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. alticosma Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. nivea Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. kristenseni Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. lobata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. ageratinae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. clinopodiella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; and S. calceolarifoliae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. Some of these species are leaf-miners on Asteraceae (Pentacalia, Baccharis, Gynoxys, and Ageratina plants), Calceolariaceae (Calceolaria), Lamiaceae (Clinopodium), and Rosaceae (Lachemilla). Twenty species are known only from adults with no data on their biology and host-plants. In addition, we present data and discuss recently discovered nepticulid taxa associated with Polylepis forests that is the natural vegetation in much of the High Andes. All High-Andean Stigmella species treated are illustrated with photographs of the

  8. A Laboratory outbreak investigation of Post-Monsoon Endemic Moist Eczematous Syndrome in cattle in Jhapa District of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar Karki,Poornima Manandhar and Pragya Koirala

    Full Text Available An endemic hyperemic moist eczematous syndrome was reported in Cattle and Buffaloes in Jhapa district of Nepal during month of September after prolong spell of drought followed by heavy rainfall causing water logging total 56 cattle and buffalo were affected and out of which 12 animal died. Rest of ill animals were treated with 5%of Antidegnala liquor and Penta-sulphate. Straw and Skin samples revealed Penicillium sp.Fungus.After long spell of drought period followed by repeated flooding in lowland area in tropical and subtropical there is likely increase risk of fungal infestation in forage fed to cattle buffaloes seems to be risky for occurence of Endemic Moist Eczamztous syndrome, either preventive measure for its prevention or early treatment with either with anti Degnala liquor or Use of pentasulphate seem to prevent loss from this condition. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 233-236

  9. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET(B), serotonin 5-HT(1B), and thromboxane A(2) TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...

  10. Comparision of Vacuum-Asisted Closure and Moist Wound Dressing in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days du...

  11. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Meena .V; Shanthi .C; Madhavi .K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hol...

  13. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  14. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  15. Effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanling; Yao, Meiying; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Yanqing

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sore pertains to tissue damage or necrosis that occurs due to lack of adequate nutrition following long-term exposure to pressure and decreased blood circulation. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention in the treatment of phase III bedsore. In total, 50 patients with phase III bedsore were included in the present study. The patients were randomly divided into the control (n=25) and observation (n=25) groups. Patients in the control group received conventional nursing, while those in the observation group received gelatin sponge combined with moist wound healing nursing. The effects of the two nursing methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the improvement rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The Branden score and area of pressure sore of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). The frequency and time of dressing change and the average cost of hospitalization of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.001). In conclusion, gelatin sponge combined with moist wound-healing nursing intervention may significantly improve the treatment of phase III bedsore.

  16. Comparison of tropical cyclogenesis processes in climate model and cloud-resolving model simulations using moist static energy budget analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Allison; Camargo, Suzana; Sobel, Adam; Kim, Daehyun; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin; Vecchi, Gabriel; Wehner, Michael; Zarzycki, Colin; Zhao, Ming

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore the tropical cyclogenesis processes in five high-resolution climate models, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter was originally developed to study the mechanisms of tropical convective organization in idealized cloud-resolving models, and allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis both along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. We then compare the genesis processes; in particular, the role of cloud-radiation interactions, to those of spontaneous tropical cyclogenesis in idealized cloud-resolving model simulations.

  17. Comparision of vacuum-asisted closure and moist wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  18. Comparision of vacuum-asisted closure and moist wound dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ravari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Results: Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. Conclusion: VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  19. Comparision of Vacuum-Asisted Closure and Moist Wound Dressing in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Hassan; Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi Saeed; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosein; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi; Vatanchi, Attieh Mohammadzadeh; Sangaki, Abolghasem; Shahrodi, Mohammad Vahedian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a new method in wound care which speeds wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates. This study aims to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled in the moist dressing group, and 10 patients in the VAC group. The site, size and depth of the wound were inspected and recorded before and every three days during the study period. Patient satisfaction and formation of granulation tissue were also assessed. Results: Improvement of the wound in the form of reducing the diameter and depth and increasing proliferation of granulation tissue was significant in most of the patients of the VAC group after two weeks. Satisfaction of patients in the VAC group was evaluated as excellent as no amputation was done in this group. Wagner score was reduced in both the study groups, although this decrement was not significant in the moist dressing group. Conclusion: VAC appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than moist dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:23723599

  20. Species-environment relationship in the herb-subshrub layer of a moist Savanna site, Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, C B R; Felfili, J M; Rodrigues, C

    2008-02-01

    The soils are seasonally or permanently saturated in the moist grassland savanna, locally known as Campo Limpo Umido. Soil moisture variation seems to determine spatial distribution of communities. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between environmental variables and the patterns of spatial distribution of species in the herbaceous-subshrub layer of an area of moist grassland at the Agua Limpa Farm, Brasília, DF (15 degrees 56' to 15 degrees 59' S and 47 degrees 55' to 47 degrees 58' W Gr.). An area of 400 x 400 m was divided into four sections of 200 x 200 m where four transects were randomly sampled. A line intercept method was adopted for the phytossociological study. Superficial soils samples (0-20 cm) were collected for chemical and textural analyses. Gravimetric soil moisture was measured quarterly during the study-year. A total of 85 species in 67 genera and 24 families were found. The diversity was high, Shannon's index, H', was 2.60 nats.cover(-1). Floristic composition of the transects in soils with a high gravimetric soil moisture and high content of organic matter and sand differed from those transects in soils with a lower gravimetric soil moisture indicating seasonal variation. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed significant correlations between soil texture and soil moisture features and species distribution. Gravimetric soil moisture, organic matter, clay, silt and sand were significantly correlated to species distribution in the moist grassland determining mosaics in the vegetation.

  1. Effect of human disturbance on seed and seedling distribution of the Andean Oak (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., Fagaceae) in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Rodriguez, Sandra Bibiana; Paz Camacho, Erika Andrea; Parrado Rosselli, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Animals affect the spatial occupation patterns of tropical forest plants throughout the seed dispersal they perform. Therefore, changes in vertebrate populations by human disturbance might affect re generation dynamics of plant species. We studied differences in the spatial distribution of seeds and seedlings of the Andean oak (Quercus humboldtii) between two nearby forests with contrasting levels of anthropogenic influence in the Colombian Andes. Density and spatial distribution of seedlings were evaluated in 490 and 484 1 m2 plots located in a 28 ha area, in the high and low disturbed site, respectively. In each plot, all seedlings found were sampled and classified into three age categories. Density and spatial distribution of seeds were evaluated in 0.25 m 2s ubplots placed in the same plots described above. Results showed a higher number and density of seedlings in the high disturbed site, as well as a marked decrease in seedling density as age increases. Distances to the nearest neighbour were shorter in the high disturbed site for all seedlings and each age category, in contrast to the low disturbed site. Indexes of spatial distribution indicate an aggregated pattern in the most disturbed site, while a uniform pattern in the low disturbed one. Seeds also exhibited an aggregated pattern in the high disturbed site and a higher seed predation by invertebrates. Results seemed to be a consequence of forest fragmentation and a decrease of vertebrate seed dispersers, seed predators and herbivores associated to the regeneration processes of the species. These results provide important information for the forest management and restoration activities, since in order to maintain plant populations in the long term, presence and viable populations of seed dispersers should be also maintained.

  2. Nationwide classification of forest types of India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-12-01

    India, a mega-diverse country, possesses a wide range of climate and vegetation types along with a varied topography. The present study has classified forest types of India based on multi-season IRS Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data. The study has characterized 29 land use/land cover classes including 14 forest types and seven scrub types. Hybrid classification approach has been used for the classification of forest types. The classification of vegetation has been carried out based on the ecological rule bases followed by Champion and Seth's (1968) scheme of forest types in India. The present classification scheme has been compared with the available global and national level land cover products. The natural vegetation cover was estimated to be 29.36% of total geographical area of India. The predominant forest types of India are tropical dry deciduous and tropical moist deciduous. Of the total forest cover, tropical dry deciduous forests occupy an area of 2,17,713 km(2) (34.80%) followed by 2,07,649 km(2) (33.19%) under tropical moist deciduous forests, 48,295 km(2) (7.72%) under tropical semi-evergreen forests and 47,192 km(2) (7.54%) under tropical wet evergreen forests. The study has brought out a comprehensive vegetation cover and forest type maps based on inputs critical in defining the various categories of vegetation and forest types. This spatially explicit database will be highly useful for the studies related to changes in various forest types, carbon stocks, climate-vegetation modeling and biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  4. Regional Bowen ratio controls on afternoon moist convection: A large eddy simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song-Lak

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the effect of the regional Bowen ratio β, the ratio of the domain-averaged surface sensible heat flux (SHF) to latent heat flux (LHF), on afternoon moist convection. With a temporally evolving but spatially uniform surface available energy over a mesoscale domain under a weak capping inversion, we run large eddy simulation of the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). We first prescribe a small β of 0.56 (a wet surface) and then the reversed large β of 1.80 (a dry surface) by switching the SHF and LHF fields. The perturbation fields of the fluxes are prescribed with the Fourier spectra of κ- 3 (κ is horizontal wave number; strong mesoscale heterogeneity) and κ0 (homogeneity). The large β cases have strong vertical buoyancy fluxes and produce more vigorous updrafts. In the heterogeneous, large β surface case, with the removal of convective inhibition over a mesoscale subdomain of large SHF, deep convection develops. In the heterogeneous, small β surface case, convective clouds develop but do not progress into precipitating convection. In the homogeneous surface cases, randomly distributed shallow clouds develop with significantly more and thicker clouds in the large β case. (Co)spectral analyses confirm the more vigorous turbulent thermals in the large β cases and reveal that the moisture advection by the surface heterogeneity-induced mesoscale flows makes the correlation between mesoscale temperature and moisture perturbations change from negative to positive, which facilitates the mesoscale pool of high relative humidity air just above the CBL top, a necessary condition for deep convection.

  5. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  6. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Nickol, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using 13 C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane

  7. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  8. Non-invasive therapy for the prevention of moist desquamation following β-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In an environment of potential nuclear mishap, effective therapies are lacking for radiation-induced skin burns. In this report we describe an effective, non-invasive therapy for post acute radiation exposure based on skin compression. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced moist desquamation (MD) was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% MD in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs (n 18 per flank). The animals' left flank was placed under pressure from the weight of the pig's own body for 3 hours, immediately following radiation exposure. The right flank served as control, and was not subject to compression following irradiation. Percentage differences in MD were measured between sites on both flanks based on the the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. The incidence of MD was significantly higher on the uncompressed right flank as compared to the compressed left flank (p < 0.005). A 61% and 45% reduction of MD was observed in both total and severe MD, respectively, during the 8-week study period. Radiation-induced MD was significantly reduced by immediate, mild skin compression (approx. 1.5 psi) for 3 hours immediately following exposure. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be modulated non-invasively. Understanding the mechanism(s) at work and developing devices based on this non-invasive therapeutic principle may provide a novel treatment for consequent skin injury in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and derm abrasion procedures

  9. Activities relating to understanding the initiation, organization and structure of moist convection in the Southeast environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1986, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will sponsor the Satellite Precipitation And Cloud Experiment (SPACE) to be conducted in the Central Tennessee, Northern Alabama, and Northeastern Mississippi area. The field program will incorporate high altitude flight experiments associated with meteorological remote sensor development for future space flight, and an investigation of precipitation processes associated with mesoscale and small convective systems. In addition to SPACE, the MIcroburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Study (FLOWS), sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will take place concurrently within the SPACE experiment area. All three programs (under the joint acronym COHMEX (COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment)) will provide a data base for detailed analysis of mesoscale convective systems while providing ground truth comparisons for remote sensor evaluation. The purpose of this document is to outline the experiment design criteria for SPACE, and describe the special observing facilities and data sets that will be available under the COHMEX joint program. In addition to the planning of SPACE-COHMEX, this document covers three other parts of the program. The field program observations' main activity was the operation of an upper air rawinsonde network to provide ground truth for aircraft and spacecraft observations. Another part of the COHMEX program involved using boundary layer mesoscale models to study and simulate the initiation and organization of moist convection due to mesoscale thermal and mechanical circulations. The last part of the program was the collection, archival and distribution of the resulting COHMEX-SPACE data sets.

  10. MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Time average 3-hourly (1.25x1.25L42) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT3CPMST or tavg3_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  11. MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Diurnal (1.25x1.25L42) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUCPMST or tavgU_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  12. MERRA 3D IAU Diagnostic, Moist Physics, Monthly Mean (1.25x1.25L42) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMCPMST or tavgM_3d_mst_Cp data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 3-Dimensional moist process diagnostic that is time averaged on pressure levels...

  13. Woody plant richness and NDVI response to drought events in Catalonian (northeastern Spain) forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, F; Lobo, A; Estevan, H; Maisongrande, P; Vayreda, J; Terradas, J

    2007-09-01

    The role of species diversity on ecosystem resistance in the face of strong environmental fluctuations has been addressed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints to reveal a variety of positive and negative relationships. Here we explore empirically the relationship between the richness of forest woody species and canopy resistance to extreme drought episodes. We compare richness data from an extensive forest inventory to a temporal series of satellite imagery that estimated drought impact on forest canopy as NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) anomalies of the dry summer in 2003 in relation to records of previous years. We considered five different types of forests that are representative of the main climatic and altitudinal gradients of the region, ranging from lowland Mediterranean to mountain boreal-temperate climates. The observed relationship differed among forest types and interacted with the climate, summarised by the Thorntwaite index. In Mediterranean Pinus halepensis forests, NDVI decreased during the drought. This decrease was stronger in forests with lower richness. In Mediterranean evergreen forests of Quercus ilex, drought did not result in an overall NDVI loss, but lower NDVI values were observed in drier localities with lower richness, and in more moist localities with higher number of species. In mountain Pinus sylvestris forests NDVI decreased, mostly due to the drought impact on drier localities, while no relation to species richness was observed. In moist Fagus sylvatica forests, NDVI only decreased in plots with high richness. No effect of drought was observed in the high mountain Pinus uncinata forests. Our results show that a shift on the diversity-stability relationship appears across the regional, climatic gradient. A positive relationship appears in drier localities, supporting a null model where the probability of finding a species able to cope with drier conditions increases with the number of species. However, in

  14. Forests, woods, forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In protected areas the forest ecosystem management is directed to define the best approaches with high protection levels from ecological, historical, anthropological and landscape point of view. The conservation purposes have to be taken in consideration to not disturb the natural and functional processes, and therefore any forest human activity has to be done. Through a detailed analysis of the relations among functionality, stability, productivity and genetic diversity, the statement of the reasons for application of close-to-nature silviculture is described and discussed. Some specific silvicultural systems are illustrated on the basis of very large quantity of data and information originated from researches carried out for long time. A major challenge facing modern silviculture is to reconcile the traditional objectives of timber production with the demand for multifunctional forest ecosystems which arises from the society. The preservation of the functionality is strictly related to the forest genetic pool which is the basis of biodiversity, as it represents the basis for adaptation and survival of species and individual.

  15. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  16. Innovation of a design method (MoIST) that incorporates non-traditional 'soft' systems science into traditional 'hard' information systems design

    OpenAIRE

    Nwako, Judith

    2007-01-01

    The research explores ways of making the information systems development process\\ud more effective. The thesis documents an original design method. This is the method\\ud of incorporating Systems thinking into Information Systems Design (MoIST). The\\ud thesis demonstrates that MoIST improves information systems design and adds to\\ud the effective arsenal of methods that already exist.\\ud The Computer Science literature has identified some weaknesses in the software\\ud development methodologies...

  17. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    Dry valleys in the American Andes and other mountains have provided excellent agricultural lands since millennia. Besides agriculture, wood extraction and the establishment of urban areas have diminished the native vegetation of these valleys. Consequently the original vegetation is now mostly...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...... of Ecuadorian dry inter-Andean valleys vegetation, including information related to the physical settings as well as to the vegetation and flora of the valleys. 2) This chapter unveils the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature in shaping species composition and occurrence. We found...

  18. Molecular identification of cryptic diversity in species of cis-Andean Mylossoma (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateussi, Nadayca T B; Pavanelli, Carla Simone; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Mylossoma is a Serrasalmidae genus with only two current valid species in the cis-Andean region but with several available names, today considered as junior synonymous. Morphological information combined with single-locus DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I gene analysed by Barcode Index Number and General Mixed Yule Coalescent model were used in the present study to help the recognition of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in cis-Andean Mylossoma and discuss species boundaries within the genus. Five OTUs were recognized based on both morphological and molecular approaches. The analysis using the Barcode Index Number resulted in five OTUs, with M. duriventre being split in one unity in the Amazon, one in the Orinoco, one in Paraná-Paraguay and one in Tocantins-Araguaia which is coherent with our morphological results.

  19. Maternal Knowledge and Use of Galactagogues in Andean Communities of Cusco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Monteban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A commonly reported reason for early breastfeeding cessation is inadequate milk production. In response, women across the globe turn to galactagogues – substances used to increase the milk supply. Andean women have traditional knowledge about the medicinal and nutritional properties of plants and animals that are considered good to eat during breastfeeding. This research explores the maintenance and use of galactagogues, and specifically the use of the Andean flicker bird, within the wider framework of breastfeeding and nutrition policies in Peru. To elicit maternal knowledge and use of galactagogues, semi-structured and free-listing interviews were conducted with 33 mothers. Data analysis calculated the frequency and percentage of women reporting each type of galactagogue. In addition, thematic codes and relevant text passages were used in an iterative analytic process to document emerging themes. Identified galactagogues included five plants and six animals. Several galactagogues included protein-rich foods such as lamb meat and the Andean flicker bird. The use of protein-rich galactagogues as solid food is reinforced by public health messages. However, galactagogues in the research communities are usually consumed as soups or drinks, which are less rich in proteins than solid meals. The potential role of liquid galactagogues in the maintenance of appropriate hydration levels during breastfeeding in an environment where safe drinking water is scarce is a new contribution to the existing literature. The results are relevant to the design of maternal and child health policies that comply with intercultural health premises that value and respect the knowledge and practices of Andean Peoples.

  20. Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Biondich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.

  1. High-Up: A Remote Reservoir of Microbial Extremophiles in Central Andean Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Albarrac?n, Virginia H.; Kurth, Daniel; Ordo?ez, Omar F.; Belfiore, Carolina; Luccini, Eduardo; Salum, Graciela M.; Piacentini, Ruben D.; Far?as, Mar?a E.

    2015-01-01

    The Central Andes region displays unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes and salt flats at mean altitudes of 3700 m. Being isolated and hostile, these so-called “High-Altitude Andean Lakes” (HAAL) are pristine and have been exposed to little human influence. HAAL proved to be a rich source of microbes showing interesting adaptations to life in extreme settings (poly-extremophiles) such as alkalinity, high concentrations of arsenic and dissolved salts, intense dryness, large daily ambient ther...

  2. Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles using Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) fruit and leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Kumar; Kumari Smita; Luis Cumbal; Alexis Debut; Yolanda Angulo

    2017-01-01

    Biofabrication of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) of a desired size remains a significant challenge. In this report, CuO-NPs were fabricated by treating 10 mM copper nitrate with Andean blackberry fruit (ABF) and leaf (ABL); and evaluated its antioxidant activity. As-prepared NPs characterization were determined by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...

  3. Ultrasound agitated phytofabrication of palladium nanoparticles using Andean blackberry leaf and its photocatalytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    In this report, ultrasonication and Andean blackberry leaf extract are employed for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs); and further evaluated its photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB). The as-synthesized PdNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM analysis demonstrated the formation of decahedron shape PdNPs with a diameter of 55–60 nm and XRD confi...

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS AND NECTAR ROBBING IN THREE ANDEAN BUMBLE BEE SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, BOMBINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVEROS ANDRE J.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report differences in foraging behavior of three Andean bumblebee species onflowers of Digitalis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae. Bombus atratus was a potentialpollinator while B. hortulanus and B. rubicundus collected nectar by robbing throughholes. We attribute behavioral differences to physical constraints. B. atratus has alonger glossa and a larger body size and is able to reach the nectaries, whereas B.hortulanus and B. rubicundus have shorter glossae and smaller bodies and probablymust rob nectar through holes at the base of flowers.

  5. The TF1 Radio Astronomy Working Group in the Andean ROAD: goals and challenges for 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, G.

    2017-07-01

    Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.

  6. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  7. Sensory evaluation and acceptability of gluten-free Andean corn spaghetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Maria A; Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Roascio, Antonella; Amarillo, Miguel; Sammán, Norma; Lobo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Although pasta is one of the most widely demanded products among gluten-intolerant people, few studies have focused on the sensory analysis and acceptability of these products. Spaghetti was made from Andean corn (Zea mays var. amylacea), capia and cully varieties from northern Argentina, and the flash profile technique was applied by semi-trained assessors to compare the sensory profile of this type of spaghetti with those made with rice and wheat flours. Acceptability of capia corn spaghetti was studied in celiac and non-celiac consumer groups using a 9-point hedonic scale and check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions. Two Andean corn spaghetti samples were described by assessors as rough, odd-smelling and odd-tasting. These terms were also used by non-celiac consumers to describe the capia corn spaghetti sample, which explained its low acceptability scores. However, celiac consumers assigned high acceptability scores to the same sample and described it as tasty, smooth, tender, novel, having a pleasant flavor and good quality, and as a product that can be consumed every day and by the whole family. The results of this study suggest that Andean corn flours are a suitable and acceptable product for celiac consumers and can be used in the production of spaghetti for celiac consumers but should be reformulated for non-celiac consumers. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  9. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.

    1993-01-01

    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  11. Potential Vorticity Asymmetries and Tropical Cyclone Evolution in a Moist Three-Layer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lloyd J.

    2000-11-01

    The role of potential vorticity (PV) asymmetries in the evolution of a tropical cyclone is investigated using a three-layer model that includes boundary layer friction, surface moisture fluxes, and a convergence-based convective parameterization. In a benchmark experiment, a symmetric vortex is first spun up on an f plane for 24 h. The symmetric vortex has a realistic structure, including a local PV maximum inside its radius of maximum wind (RMW). A weak azimuthal-wavenumber 2 PV asymmetry confined to the lower two layers of the model is then added to the vortex near the RMW. After an additional 2 h (for a total 26-h simulation), the asymmetric PV anomaly produces changes in the symmetric vortex that have significant differences from those in dry experiments with the present model or previous barotropic studies. A diagnosis of the contributions to changes in the symmetric wind tendency due to the asymmetry confirm the dominance of horizontal eddy fluxes at early times. The barotropic eddy kick provided by the anomaly lasts 2 h, which is the damping timescale for the disturbance.Additional experiments with an imposed isolated double-PV anomaly are made. Contrary to expectation from the dry experiments or barotropic studies, based on arguments involving `wave activity,' moving the anomaly closer to the center of the vortex or farther out does not change the overall evolution of the symmetric vortex. The physical mechanism responsible for the differences between the barotropic studies and those including moist physics as well as for the robustness of the response is established using a budget for the asymmetric vorticity. It is shown that the interactions between the asymmetries and the symmetric hurricane vortex at early times depend on realistic features of the model hurricane and not on interactions between the asymmetries and the boundary layer, which possibly depend on the convective parameterization. In particular, the changes in the symmetric wind tendency due

  12. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  13. Captivity Shapes the Gut Microbiota of Andean Bears: Insights into Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Borbón-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean bear is an endemic species of the tropical Andes who has an almost exclusively plant-based diet. Since herbivorous mammals do not carry enzymes for fiber degradation, the establishment of symbiosis with cellulolytic microorganisms in their gastrointestinal (GI tract is necessary to help them fulfill their nutritional needs. Furthermore, as described for other mammals, a stable, diverse, and balanced gut microbial composition is an indicator of a healthy status of the host; under disturbances this balance can be lost, leading to potential diseases of the host. The goal of this study was to describe the gut microbiota of wild and captive Andean bears and determine how habitat status influences the composition and diversity of the gut symbiotic community. Fecal samples from wild (n = 28 and captive (n = 8 Andean bears were collected in “Reserva Pantano de Martos” and “Fundación Bioandina”, Colombia. Composition and diversity analyses were performed using amplicons from the V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene sequenced using the Ion PGM platform. PICRUSt algorithm was applied to predict the gene content of the gut microbiome of wild and captive Andean bears. A total of 5,411 and 838 OTUs were identified for wild and captive bears, respectively. Captive bears contained a lower number of bacterial phyla (n = 7 compared to wild individuals (n = 9. Proteobacteria (59.03% and Firmicutes (14.03% were the phyla that contributed the most to differences between wild and captive bears (overall dissimilarity = 87.72%. At family level, Enterobacteriaceae drove the main differences between the two groups (13.7%. PICRUSt metagenomics predictions suggested a similar pattern of relative abundance of gene families associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates across samples in wild individuals, despite the taxonomic differences of their gut microbiota. Captivity alters the availability and diversity of food resources, which likely reduces microbiota

  14. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  15. [Contribution of tropical upland forests to carbon storage in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana; Herrera, Johana; Phillips, Juan; Galindo, Gustavo; Granados, Edwin; Duque, Alvaro; Barbosa, Adriana; Olarte, Claudia; Cardona, María

    2015-03-01

    The tropical montane forests in the Colombian Andean region are located above 1500 m, and have been heavily deforested. Despite the general presumption that productivity and hence carbon stocks in these ecosystems are low, studies in this regard are scarce. This study aimed to (i) to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in forests located in the South of the Colombian Andean region, (ii) to identify the carbon storage potential of tropical montane forests dominated by the black oak Colombobalanus excelsa and to identify the relationship between AGB and altitude, and (iii) to analyze the role of tropical mountain forests in conservation mechanisms such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). Twenty six 0.25 ha plots were randomly distributed in the forests and all trees with D > or =10 cm were measured. The results provided important elements for understanding the role of tropical montane forests as carbon sinks. The information produced can be used in subnational initiatives, which seek to mitigate or reduce the effects of deforestation through management or conservation of these ecosystems, like REDD+ or PES. The AGB and carbon stocks results obtained were similar to those reported for lowland tropical forests. These could be explained by the dominance and abundance of C. excelsa, which accounted for over 81% of AGB/carbon. The error associated with the estimates of AGB/carbon was 10.58%. We found a negative and significant relationship between AGB and altitude, but the higher AGB values were in middle altitudes (approximatly = 700-1800 m), where the environmental conditions could be favorable to their growth. The carbon storage potential of these forests was higher. However, if the historical rate of the deforestation in the study area continues, the gross emissions of CO2e to the atmosphere could turn these forests in to an important emissions source. Nowadays, it is clear that tropical

  16. Moist synoptic transport of carbon dioxide along midlatitude storm tracks, transport uncertainty, and implications for carbon dioxide flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.

    Mass transport along moist isentropic surfaces on baroclinic waves represents an important component of the atmospheric heat engine that operates between the equator and poles. This is also an important vehicle for tracer transport, and is correlated with ecosystem metabolism because large-scale baroclinicity and photosynthesis are both driven seasonally by variations in solar radiation. In this research, I pursue a dynamical framework for explaining atmospheric transport of CO2 by synoptic weather systems at middle and high latitudes. A global model of atmospheric tracer transport, driven by meteorological analysis in combination with a detailed description of surface fluxes, is used to create time varying CO2 distributions in the atmosphere. Simulated mass fluxes of CO2 are then decomposed into a zonal monthly mean component and deviations from the monthly mean in space and time. Mass fluxes of CO2 are described on moist isentropic surfaces to represent frontal transport along storm tracks. Forward simulations suggest that synoptic weather systems transport large amounts of CO2 north and south in northern mid-latitudes, up to 1 PgC month-1 during winter when baroclinic wave activity peaks. During boreal winter when northern plants respire, warm moist air, high in CO2, is swept upward and poleward along the east side of baroclinic waves and injected into the polar vortex, while cold dry air, low in CO 2, that had been transported into the polar vortex earlier in the year is advected equatorward. These synoptic eddies act to strongly reduce seasonality of CO2 in the biologically active mid-latitudes by 50% of that implied by local net ecosystem exchange while correspondingly amplifying seasonality in the Arctic. Transport along stormtracks is correlated with rising, moist, cloudy air, which systematically hides this CO2 transport from satellite observing systems. Meridional fluxes of CO2 are of comparable magnitude as surface exchange of CO2 in mid-latitudes, and

  17. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  18. Impact of Moist Physics Complexity on Tropical Cyclone Simulations from the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, E. A.; Biswas, M.; Newman, K.; Grell, E. D.; Bernardet, L.; Frimel, J.; Carson, L.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of moist physics in numerical weather prediction models plays an important role in modulating tropical cyclone structure, intensity, and evolution. The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational model for tropical cyclone prediction, uses the Scale-Aware Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SASAS) cumulus scheme and a modified version of the Ferrier-Aligo (FA) microphysics scheme to parameterize moist physics. The FA scheme contains a number of simplifications that allow it to run efficiently in an operational setting, which includes prescribing values for hydrometeor number concentrations (i.e., single-moment microphysics) and advecting the total condensate rather than the individual hydrometeor species. To investigate the impact of these simplifying assumptions on the HWRF forecast, the FA scheme was replaced with the more complex double-moment Thompson microphysics scheme, which individually advects cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow, and graupel. Retrospective HWRF forecasts of tropical cyclones that occurred in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific ocean basins from 2015-2017 were then simulated and compared to those produced by the operational HWRF configuration. Both traditional model verification metrics (i.e., tropical cyclone track and intensity) and process-oriented metrics (e.g., storm size, precipitation structure, and heating rates from the microphysics scheme) will be presented and compared. The sensitivity of these results to the cumulus scheme used (i.e., the operational SASAS versus the Grell-Freitas scheme) also will be examined. Finally, the merits of replacing the moist physics schemes that are used operationally with the alternatives tested here will be discussed from a standpoint of forecast accuracy versus computational resources.

  19. Summer temperature increase has distinct effects on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of moist tussock and dry tundra in Arctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-02-01

    Arctic regions are experiencing the greatest rates of climate warming on the planet and marked changes have already been observed in terrestrial arctic ecosystems. While most studies have focused on the effects of warming on arctic vegetation and nutrient cycling, little is known about how belowground communities, such as fungi root-associated, respond to warming. Here, we investigate how long-term summer warming affects ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. We used Ion Torrent sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region to compare ECM fungal communities in plots with and without long-term experimental warming in both dry and moist tussock tundra. Cortinarius was the most OTU-rich genus in the moist tundra, while the most diverse genus in the dry tundra was Tomentella. On the diversity level, in the moist tundra we found significant differences in community composition, and a sharp decrease in the richness of ECM fungi due to warming. On the functional level, our results indicate that warming induces shifts in the extramatrical properties of the communities, where the species with medium-distance exploration type seem to be favored with potential implications for the mobilization of different nutrient pools in the soil. In the dry tundra, neither community richness nor community composition was significantly altered by warming, similar to what had been observed in ECM host plants. There was, however, a marginally significant increase in OTUs identified as ECM fungi with the medium-distance exploration type in the warmed plots. Linking our findings of decreasing richness with previous results of increasing ECM fungal biomass suggests that certain ECM species are favored by warming and may become more abundant, while many other species may go locally extinct due to direct or indirect effects of warming. Such compositional shifts in the community might affect nutrient cycling and soil organic C storage. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change

  20. Mineralization of carbon during moist incubation of soil JF79 treated with organic heat-transfer and storage fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishita, H.; Haug, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradability of four heat transfer/storage fluids (ethylene glycol, Therminol 66, Caloria HT43, and Dow Corning Fluid No. 200) were examined. The degradation was monitored by periodically measuring the mineralization of carbon in moist fluid-contaminated soils incubated at 28/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C for 8 weeks. Ethylene glycol mineralized relatively readily. The other three fluids did not show measurable amount of carbon mineralization during the experimental period. This implies potential long term environmental effects of mismanaged or accidental releases of these fluids into natural environment.

  1. Moist wound healing compared with standard care of treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: a prospective randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V

    2007-01-01

    This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications....... No difference in the infection rate (13% vs. 11%, p=0.73), length of hospital stay, or wound complications was noted between the two groups. We conclude that although the Aquacel dressing needed significantly fewer changes than the conventional dressing, this did not influence the patient comfort. Moreover...

  2. Adaptation of soil nitrifiers to very low nitrogen level jeopardizes the efficiency of chemical fertilization in west african moist savannas

    OpenAIRE

    Ass?mien, F?line L.; Pommier, Thomas; Gonnety, Jean T.; Gervaix, Jonathan; Le Roux, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The moist savanna zone covers 0.5 x 10(6) km(2) in West Africa and is characterized by very low soil N levels limiting primary production, but the ecology of nitrifiers in these (agro) ecosystems is largely unknown. We compared the effects of six agricultural practices on nitrifier activity, abundance and diversity at nine sites in central Ivory Coast. Treatments, including repeated fertilization with ammonium and urea, had no effect on nitrification and crop N status after 3 to 5 crop cycles...

  3. A universal approach to estimate biomass and carbon stock in tropical forests using generic allometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieilledent, G; Vaudry, R; Andriamanohisoa, S F D; Rakotonarivo, O S; Randrianasolo, H Z; Razafindrabe, H N; Rakotoarivony, C Bidaud; Ebeling, J; Rasamoelina, M

    2012-03-01

    Allometric equations allow aboveground tree biomass and carbon stock to be estimated from tree size. The allometric scaling theory suggests the existence of a universal power-law relationship between tree biomass and tree diameter with a fixed scaling exponent close to 8/3. In addition, generic empirical models, like Chave's or Brown's models, have been proposed for tropical forests in America and Asia. These generic models have been used to estimate forest biomass and carbon worldwide. However, tree allometry depends on environmental and genetic factors that vary from region to region. Consequently, theoretical models that include too few ecological explicative variables or empirical generic models that have been calibrated at particular sites are unlikely to yield accurate tree biomass estimates at other sites. In this study, we based our analysis on a destructive sample of 481 trees in Madagascar spiny dry and moist forests characterized by a high rate of endemism (> 95%). We show that, among the available generic allometric models, Chave's model including diameter, height, and wood specific gravity as explicative variables for a particular forest type (dry, moist, or wet tropical forest) was the only one that gave accurate tree biomass estimates for Madagascar (R2 > 83%, bias allometric models. When biomass allometric models are not available for a given forest site, this result shows that a simple height-diameter allometry is needed to accurately estimate biomass and carbon stock from plot inventories.

  4. Drivers of Bird Species Richness within Moist High-Altitude Grasslands in Eastern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphisa, David H; Smit-Robinson, Hanneline; Underhill, Les G; Altwegg, Res

    2016-01-01

    Moist high-altitude grasslands in South Africa are renowned for high avifaunal diversity and are priority areas for conservation. Conservation management of these areas conflicts with management for other uses, such as intensive livestock agriculture, which requires annual burning and leads to heavy grazing. Recently the area has become target for water storage schemes and renewable electricity energy projects. There is therefore an urgent need to investigate environmental factors and habitat factors that affect bird species richness in order to optimise management of those areas set aside for conservation. A particularly good opportunity to study these issues arose at Ingula in the eastern South African high-altitude grasslands. An area that had been subject to intense grazing was bought by the national power utility that constructed a pumped storage scheme on part of the land and set aside the rest for bird conservation. Since the new management took over in 2005 the area has been mostly annually burned with relatively little grazing. The new management seeks scientific advice on how to maintain avian species richness of the study area. We collected bird occurrence and vegetation data along random transects between 2006 and 2010 to monitor the impact of the new management, and to study the effect of the habitat changes on bird species richness. To achieve these, we convert bird transect data to presence only data to investigate how bird species richness were related to key transect vegetation attributes under this new grassland management. First we used generalised linear mixed models, to examine changes in vegetation grass height and cover and between burned and unburned habitats. Secondly, we examined how total bird species richness varied across seasons and years. And finally we investigated which habitat vegetation attributes were correlated with species richness of a group of grassland depended bird species only. Transects that were burned showed a larger

  5. The effect of seed source, light during germination, and cold-moist stratification on seed germination in three species of Echinacea for organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fredy R; Delate, Kathleen; Hannapel, David J

    2005-10-01

    Organic production of one of the most popular botanical supplements, Echinacea, continues to expand in the U.S. Echinacea seeds typically show a high degree of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberelic acid (GA), but these methods are currently disallowed in organic production. In order to determine the efficacy of non-chemical seed treatments, we evaluated the effect of varying seed source and supplying light, with and without cold-moist stratification, on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Treatments included cold-moist stratification under 24 h light, 24 h dark, and 16/8 h light/dark to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was greater in the E. purpurea and E. pallida seeds from a commercial organic seed source compared to a public germplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, 16-24 h light increased germination in E. angustifolia only. Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida seeds that were cold-moist stratified under 16-24 h of light for 4 wk had a significantly greater percentage and rate of germination compared to seeds germinated in the dark. Therefore, cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea.

  6. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...... was kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...

  7. Adaptation of soil nitrifiers to very low nitrogen level jeopardizes the efficiency of chemical fertilization in west african moist savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assémien, Féline L; Pommier, Thomas; Gonnety, Jean T; Gervaix, Jonathan; Le Roux, Xavier

    2017-08-31

    The moist savanna zone covers 0.5 × 10 6 km 2 in West Africa and is characterized by very low soil N levels limiting primary production, but the ecology of nitrifiers in these (agro)ecosystems is largely unknown. We compared the effects of six agricultural practices on nitrifier activity, abundance and diversity at nine sites in central Ivory Coast. Treatments, including repeated fertilization with ammonium and urea, had no effect on nitrification and crop N status after 3 to 5 crop cycles. Nitrification was actually higher at low than medium ammonium level. The nitrifying community was always dominated by ammonia oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira. However, the abundances of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, AOB, and Nitrobacter increased with fertilization after 5 crop cycles. Several AOB populations, some affiliated to Nitrosospira strains with urease activity or adapted to fluctuating ammonium levels, emerged in fertilized plots, which was correlated to nitrifying community ability to benefit from fertilization. In these soils, dominant nitrifiers adapted to very low ammonium levels have to be replaced by high-N nitrifiers before fertilization can stimulate nitrification. Our results show that the delay required for this replacement is much longer than ever observed for other terrestrial ecosystems, i.e. > 5 crop cycles, and demonstrate for the first time that nitrifier characteristics jeopardize the efficiency of fertilization in moist savanna soils.

  8. Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Tatiana A; Morgado, Luis N; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic richness of soil ascomycetes in dry and moist tundra types. Using deep Ion Torrent sequencing, we quantified how OTU assemblage and richness of different orders of Ascomycota changed in response to summer warming. Experimental warming significantly altered ascomycete communities with stronger responses observed in the moist tundra compared with dry tundra. The proportion of several lichenized and moss-associated fungi decreased with warming, while the proportion of several plant and insect pathogens and saprotrophic species was higher in the warming treatment. The observed alterations in both taxonomic and ecological groups of ascomycetes are discussed in relation to previously reported warming-induced shifts in arctic plant communities, including decline in lichens and bryophytes and increase in coverage and biomass of shrubs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit c...

  10. CHANGES GROUND WATER LEVELS AND WATER STORAGES CHOSEN FOREST HABITATS OCCURRENCE IN CATCHMENT OF THE NIESÓB RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Korytowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researches carried out in three hydrological years 2002/2003, 2003/2004 and 2009/2010 of a different precipitation sums. The researches were carried out at catchment of water pond number one, located at Wielisławice Forestry of Siemianice Experimental Farm. The area of investigated catchment of pond number one is about 7.5 ha and its forestation totals 100%. It is situated in a part of Niesób catchment – left-side tributary of Prosna River. In the investigated catchment the predominant fresh habitats spreading through 98% area. Moist mixed broadleaved forest is located at the west part of pond. Proper podzols are predominant in soil cover analysed catchment and to a little extent there are muckous soils. Whereas predominant soil textural group there is loamy sand. The researches indicates that the decrease of water storages in all of the analysed habitats and was from 4 mm in fresh mixed coniferous forest to 18 mm in moist mixed broadleaved forest in a dry 2004/2005 hydrological year. Whereas an increase of water storages was observed in these forest habitats in the next two hydrological years. The highest fluctuations – from 63 mm in fresh mixed coniferous forest to 82 mm in moist mixed broadleaved forest were observed in wet 2009/2010 hydrological year. The researchers also showed that changes of water storages in analysed soil of forest habitat, in winter and summer hydrological half-year was connected to the groundwater levels in these habitats. The coefficient correlation was 0.95 and this relationship was significant at α = 0.01 level.

  11. Ecological Structure of a Tropical Urban Forest in the Bang Kachao Peninsula, Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montathip Sommeechai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has changed the structure and function of natural ecosystems, especially floodplain ecosystems in SE Asia. The ecological structure of vegetation stands and the usefulness of satellite images was investigated to characterize a disturbed tropical urban forest located in the Chao Phraya River lower floodplain, Thailand. Nine sample plots were established on the Bang Kachao Peninsula (BKP within 4 tropical forest types in an urban area: rehabilitation forest, home-garden agroforestry, mangrove and park. The tree habitats were beach forest, swamp forest, moist evergreen forest, dry evergreen forest, mangrove forest and abandoned orchard or home-garden. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values obtained from Landsat 7 satellite images were correlated with plant structure from field surveys. NDVI had the highest relationship with stand factors for number of families, number of species, Shannon-Weiner index and total basal area. Linear regression predicted well the correlation between NDVI and stand factors for families and basal area. NDVI trends reflected urban tropical forest typing and biodiversity, being high in rehabilitation and mangrove forests, moderate in home-gardens and low in parks. We suggest that the application of NDVI for assessments can be useful for future planning, monitoring and management of the BKP and hence may contribute for increasing biodiversity and complexity of these urban forests.

  12. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Watson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biome-averaged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.

  13. IAI Global Change Agenda and Support of Higher Education in the Andean Amazon Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga, R.; McClain, M.; Fierro, V.

    2007-05-01

    The Andean Amazon River Analysis and Management project, an IAI Collaborative Research Network operating during 1999-2004, examined the impacts of climate and land-use changes on the hydrobiogeochemistry of rivers draining the Amazon Andes of Ecuador, Peru, Colombia and Bolivia. The project also provided a means to strengthen scientific collaboration among these Andean countries and the USA. Research in these countries was carried out under the guidance of investigators with backgrounds in the relevant environmental fields, but the bulk of the research activities were carried out by undergraduate and graduate students who studied within these countries and overseas. Twenty graduate students and 15 undergraduates completed studies within the project, in topics related to monitoring hydrometeorological variables both in time and space. Student research and capacity building were focused in areas central to global environmental change, including modeling of precipitation and precipitation-runoff processes, basin-scale water quality characterization and biogeochemical cycling, and socioeconomic controls on the use and management of riverine resources. The analysis of human dimension aspects of climate change research was also featured, especially those aspects that linked the consequences of water quality degradation on human health. Most of undergraduate and graduate students that collaborated in the AARAM project have joined national environmental institutions and some have continued for higher scientific degrees in fields closely related to the IAI scientific agenda. Through this IAI initiative, the number of trained global change scientists in the Andean countries has grown and there is enhanced awareness of key global change science issues among the scientific community.

  14. The potential impact of new Andean dams on Amazon fluvial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, John M.; Dunne, Thomas; Barthem, Ronaldo B.; Goulding, Michael; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Sorribas, Mino V.; Silva, Urbano L.; Weisser, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Increased energy demand has led to plans for building many new dams in the western Amazon, mostly in the Andean region. Historical data and mechanistic scenarios are used to examine potential impacts above and below six of the largest dams planned for the region, including reductions in downstream sediment and nutrient supplies, changes in downstream flood pulse, changes in upstream and downstream fish yields, reservoir siltation, greenhouse gas emissions and mercury contamination. Together, these six dams are predicted to reduce the supply of sediments, phosphorus and nitrogen from the Andean region by 69, 67 and 57% and to the entire Amazon basin by 64, 51 and 23%, respectively. These large reductions in sediment and nutrient supplies will have major impacts on channel geomorphology, floodplain fertility and aquatic productivity. These effects will be greatest near the dams and extend to the lowland floodplains. Attenuation of the downstream flood pulse is expected to alter the survival, phenology and growth of floodplain vegetation and reduce fish yields below the dams. Reservoir filling times due to siltation are predicted to vary from 106–6240 years, affecting the storage performance of some dams. Total CO2 equivalent carbon emission from 4 Andean dams was expected to average 10 Tg y-1 during the first 30 years of operation, resulting in a MegaWatt weighted Carbon Emission Factor of 0.139 tons C MWhr-1. Mercury contamination in fish and local human populations is expected to increase both above and below the dams creating significant health risks. Reservoir fish yields will compensate some downstream losses, but increased mercury contamination could offset these benefits. PMID:28832638

  15. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Mao, Xianyun; Mei, Rui; Brutsaert, Tom; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Parra, Esteban J; Akey, Joshua M; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D

    2009-12-01

    High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF ) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF -targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.

  16. Explaining Andean potato weevils in relation to local and landscape features: a facilitated ecoinformatics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Parsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a "facilitated ecoinformatics" approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp., the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2-46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives.

  17. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  18. TRENDS IN GROUNDWATER LEVEL CHANGES OF FOREST HABITATS IN SIEMIANICE FOREST EXPERIMENTAL FARM IN 2000-2009 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Korytowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researches carried out in 2000-2009 period in pond No. 1 catchment. The pond is located at Siemianice Experimental Forest Farm in Wielisławice forest district. This area is situated at South Wielkopolska Lowland and constitutes its southern frontier. In terms of hydrography, the object is a part of Niesób River catchment area, which is a left-bank tributary of the Prosna River. The catchment area is about 7.5 ha and the forestation is 100%. Fresh mixed broadleaved forest is the dominant area of the catchment. Fresh mixed coniferous forest stands also have a significant share in the catchment area. Moist mixed broadleaved forest stands occupy the rest of the area neighboring the No. 1 pond. Albic Arenosols (FAO1988 consist of sand (USDA are prevalent in the area. The area of the mid-forest pond No. 1 covers about 0.13 ha. The average depth of the postglacial pond is approximately 1.0 m. It is worth noting that the average and dry years dominated in the analyzed period. The researches indicated that the groundwater level lowered by about 70 cm in this period. Retention decrease calculated for analyzed area was about 250 mm, considering the average soil porosity of about 36%.

  19. Diversity of Andean amphibians of the Tamá National Natural Park in Colombia: a survey for the presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, A.A.; Franco, R.; Carrero, D.A.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in diversity and possible decreases in populations of amphibians have not yet been determined in many areas in the Andes. This study aimed to develop an inventory of the biodiversity of amphibians in the Andean areas of the Tamá National Natural Park (Tamá NNP) and to evaluate the patterns of infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in preserved and degraded areas. We performed samplings focused on three habitats (forest, open areas and streams) in four localities from 2,000 to 3,200 m in altitude. Fourteen species were recorded, 12 of which were positive for Bd. A total of 541 individuals were diagnosed and 100 were positive. Our analyses showed that preserved areas play an important role in keeping many individuals Bd–free as compared to those in degraded areas. This was the first study to evaluate diversity and infection by Bd in the northeast region of Colombia. Our findings may help improve our knowledge of the diversity of amphibian species in the area and facilitate the implementation of action plans to mitigate the causes associated with the decrease in amphibian populations. (Author)

  20. Macrophyte Communities of Andean Rivers: Composition and Relation with Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alida Marcela Gómez Rodríguez; Luz Teresa Valderrama Valderrama; Carlos A. Rivera-Rondón

    2017-01-01

    Small streams of tropical Andes have been poorly studied. Therefore, there is little information about the structure, dynamics and function of their macrophyte communities. In this research, aquatic plant communities of 18 Andean streams of La Vieja (Quindío) and Otún (Risaralda) river basins were studied; those are some of the basins most affected by anthropic activities in the country. Streams were selected according to their association with the main land’s uses of the region in both basin...

  1. The genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the Colombian Andean Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Luis Fernando; Wolff, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The number of species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in Colombia is updated to 33. This group represents one of the most common components of the "white grubs" complex, known to damage important agricultural crops, especially in the Colombian Andean Mountains. A commented taxonomic history of the genus is provided, including five new records for the country (P. schizorhina, P. onoreana, P. densata, P. guanacasteca, and P. gigantea) and Phyllophaga tesorito is described as a new species. A key to the identification of male specimens of 30 species is included with a catalogue illustrating their key structures. Finally, aspects related to their ecological importance, geographic distribution, and phenology are discussed.

  2. [Decriminalizing traditional Andean medicine: an interview with Walter Álvarez Quispe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.

  3. The electronic contract formation in the framework of the Andean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William David Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT in all the aspects of the society is an unquestionable fact that implies, for the Law, the inescapable responsibility of fostering the fulfillment of the declarations or objectives of the Society of Information. Today´s world, framed in a process of globalization and regional integration, heads to the normative harmonization. In line with the above, the present document studies the elements supporting the normative unification concerning the formation of the contract by electronic means in the Andean Community.

  4. Evaluation of an andean common bean reference collection under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Vega, Juan Carlos; Blair, Matthew W.; Monserrate, Fredy; Ligarreto Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    More than 60% of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide is impacted by the risk of drought. In this study, the goal was to evaluate 64 bush bean genotypes from the CIAT reference collection to identify possible sources of drought resistance in the Andean gene pool. Phenotypic traits such as yield, 100-seed weight (P100) and days to physiological maturity (Dpm) were evaluated on selected accessions of this collection which was grown in an 8x8 lattice with two repetitions unde...

  5. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  6. Metabolic Changes during Storage of Brassica napus Seeds under Moist Conditions and the Consequences for the Sensory Quality of the Resulting Virgin Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Schweiger, Rabea; Pons, Caroline; Wagner, Claudia; Brühl, Ludger; Matthäus, Bertrand; Müller, Caroline

    2017-12-20

    Virgin rapeseed (Brassica napus) oil is a valuable niche product, if delivered with a high quality. In this study, the effects of moist storage of B. napus seeds for 1 to 4 days on the seed metabolome and the chemo-sensory properties of the produced oils were determined. The concentrations of several primary metabolites, including monosaccharides and amino acids, rapidly increased in the seeds, probably indicating the breakdown of storage compounds to support seed germination. Seed concentrations of indole glucosinolates increased with a slight time offset suggesting that amino acids may be used to modify secondary metabolism. The volatile profiles of the oils were pronouncedly influenced by moist seed storage, with the sensory quality of the oils decreasing. This study provides a direct time-resolved link between seed metabolism under moist conditions and the quality of the resulting oils, thereby emphasizing the crucial role of dry seed storage in ensuring high oil quality.

  7. Patterns in Abundance and Seasonality of Insects in the Siruvani Forest of Western Ghats, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Arun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal abundance patterns of insects inhabiting the understory vegetation of a mixed deciduous forest were examined with the help of the sweep-net sampling method. During the study period of 2 years, insects were sampled regularly from the understory vegetation of the three selected habitats (moist-deciduous, riverine, and teak plantation of the mixed deciduous forest. Insect abundance was maximum in the moist-deciduous habitat and minimum in the teak plantation. Generally, insect abundance was the highest during the southwest monsoon in all habitats. The temporal pattern of fluctuations in the insect abundance followed more or less the same pattern in all the three habitats studied. The insect abundance of the understory vegetation varied among the habitats studied, while the pattern of seasonal fluctuations in insect abundance was comparable among habitats. Composition of the insect community also indicated prominent seasonal changes within habitats than interhabitat changes within a season.

  8. Comparison of shear bond strength between unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The use of dentine bondings on enamel and dentin in total etch protocols has recently become popular. Unfilled resin is hydrophobic and dentin bonding is hydrophilic in nature. This chemical difference could be effective in enamel bonding process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to dry and moist enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 incisor teeth were used. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups of 10. 37% phosphoric acid etchant was applied to the enamel surfaces in each group for 15 seconds, rinsed with water for 20 seconds and dried for 20 seconds with compressed air in groups one and two. After conditioning, group 1 received unfilled resin (Margin Bond, Colten and group 2 received dentin bonding (Single Bond, 3M and in group 3 after conditioning and rinsing with water, a layer of dentin bonding (Single Bond was applied on wet enamel. The enamel and dentin bonding were light cured for 20 seconds. A ring mold 3.5 mm in diameter and 2 mm height was placed over the specimens to receive the composite filling material (Z100, 3M. The composite was cured for 40 seconds. The specimens were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The findings were analyzed by ANOVA One-Way and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Shear bond strength of dentin bonding to dry enamel was significantly less than unfilled resin to dry enamel (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the bond strength of dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel. In addition bond strength of dentin bonding to wet enamel was not significantly different from unfilled resin to dry enamel. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that enamel surface should remain slightly moist after etching before bonding with single bond but when using unfilled resin, the

  9. Climate-driven terrestrial inputs in ultraoligotrophic mountain streams of Andean Patagonia revealed through chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Roberto D; Reissig, Mariana; Queimaliños, Claudia P; Garcia, Patricia E; Dieguez, Maria C

    2015-07-15

    Fluvial networks transport a substantial fraction of the terrestrial production, contributing to the global carbon cycle and being shaped by hydrologic, natural and anthropogenic factors. In this investigation, four Andean Patagonian oligotrophic streams connecting a forested catchment (~125km(2)) and draining to a double-basin large and deep lake (Lake Moreno complex, Northwestern Patagonia), were surveyed to analyze the dynamics of the allochthonous subsidy. The results of a 30month survey showed that the catchment supplies nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the streams. The eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle at the beginning of the study overlapped with seasonal precipitation events. The largest terrestrial input was timed with precipitation which increased particulate materials, nutrients and DOM through enhanced runoff. Baseline suspended solids and nutrients were very low in all the streams (suspended solids: ~1mg/L; total nitrogen: ~0.02mg/L; total phosphorus: ~5μg/L), increasing several fold with runoff. Baseline dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) ranged between 0.15 and 1mg/L peaking up to three-fold. Chromophoric and fluorescent analyses characterized the DOM as of large molecular weight and high aromaticity. Parallel factor modeling (PARAFAC) of DOM fluorescence matrices revealed three components of terrestrial origin, with certain degree of microbial processing: C1 and C2 (terrestrial humic-like compounds) and C3 (protein-like and pigment derived compounds). Seasonal changes in MOD quality represent different breakdown stages of the allochthonous DOM. Our survey allowed us to record and discuss the effects of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption, showing that due to the high slopes, high current and discharge of the streams the volcanic material was rapidly exported to the Moreno Lake complex. Overall, this survey underscores the magnitude and timing of the allochthonous input revealing the terrestrial subsidy to food webs in

  10. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  11. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies from Araucaria angustifolia trees as proxies for investigating the impacts of Andean volcanism on South-Eastern American climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakova (Sidorova), Olga; Saurer, Matthias; Evangelista da Silva, Heitor; Prestes, Alan; Corona, Christophe; Guillet, Sèbastien; Siegwolf, Rolf; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric volcanic eruptions may lead to global cooling effects due to decreasing incoming solar radiation and perturbation of atmospheric circulation masses. Tree rings as indirect climate proxies, are able to capture information about temperature and precipitation changes from seasonal to annual scale. During past decades, studies of the impact of volcanic eruptions on tree-rings as well as stable isotopes in tree rings were focused mostly on the Northern Hemisphere. However, little attention has been paid to the Southern Hemisphere, particular to South America. Therefore, our goal is to quantify the impacts of Andean volcanism on Eastern South American climate in terms of temperature and hydrological changes over the past half millennium. To reconstruct past hydroclimatic and temperature changes after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions of the past 500 years we analyzed carbon and oxygen stable isotopes from cellulose chronologies from Araucaria angustifolia, indigenous climate sensitive conifer species from General Carneiro, State of Paraná, Brazil. The species distribution in southern Brazil is limited between the latitudes of 18° and 30° south, where species occurrence is often associated with Atlantic forest remnants, in mono dominant or mixed forest matrices. To date, a database of 20 tree-ring width chronologies is currently available and spans the last 634 years. We analyzed that material for precipitation and temperature anomalies, and model allocation of atmospheric circulation patterns after major volcanic eruptions. This will improve our understanding of driving factors of Southern Hemispheric climate over the past centuries. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme (BSJRP).

  12. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I; Korets, M A; Conard, S G

    2016-01-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%–90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ∼400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30–40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10–20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%–25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%–50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25–30 m) would occur over 8%–12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30–40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture. (letter)

  13. Two new trans-Andean species of Imparfinis Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ortega-Lara

    Full Text Available Two new species of Imparfinis are described from the trans-Andean region of Colombia. Imparfinis timana is diagnosed by having longer anal fin base (12.4-15.5% in SL, in combination with long adipose fin (24.6-31.3% in SL, 5-6 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 42-43 vertebrae and additional measurements. Imparfinis usmai is distinguished by the combination of first ray of dorsal fin longest, but not projected as a long filament, long adipose fin (21.1-27.0% in SL, maxillary barbel exceeding pelvic-fin base, 39-40 vertebrae, upper caudal-fin lobe pointed and longer than lower lobe, lower lobe rounded, 7-8 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, as well as additional measurements. Imparfinis timana is only known from río Guarapas, a small tributary of the upper course of the río Magdalena. Imparfinis usmai is broadly distributed in the upper basin of ríos Cauca and Magdalena, and in the lower Patía river basin. The restricted distribution of I. nemacheir to trans-Andean drainages (Atrato, Magdalena, and Lago de Maracaibo is also discussed.

  14. The Andean Paepalanthus pilosus complex (Eriocaulaceae): a revision with three new taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensold, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    A herbarium-based revision is provided for Paepalanthus pilosus and allies, five commonly confused species of cushion plants native to Andean paramo. These are placed in the recircumscribed Paepalanthus subsect. Cryptanthella Suess. The group includes Paepalanthus pilosus, Paepalanthus dendroides, and Paepalanthus lodiculoides. An additional two species and one variety are newly described: Paepalanthus caryonauta, Paepalanthus huancabambensis, and Paepalanthus pilosus var. leoniae. The latter two are Peruvian endemics, while Paepalanthus caryonauta is known from four countries, and has long been confused with other species. An additional, possibly undescribed taxon is noted from the Serrania de Perijá, Colombia. Five new synonyms and three lectotypes are proposed, and the common misapplication of some names is noted. Within the Paepalanthus pilosus complex, species differences were found in timing of peduncle elongation, sex ratio, and leaf, perianth, diaspore and nectary morphology. Ecological differences are suggested by specimen data and a review of ecological literature. Descriptions, photographs and maps are provided for all species, as is a key to the groups of eriocaulaceous cushion plants from Andean South America.

  15. Recognizing rural territorial heritage: characterization of Andean tuber production systems in Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Ponce Neidy Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In the municipalities Ventaquemada and Turmequé (Boyacá- Colombia, we identified 20 small agricultures by their production systems including the following Andean tubers: Ullucus tuberosus Caldas (ulluco, Oxalis tuberosa Molina (oca, and Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. (Mashua, which were important in their family meals and culture, however, their use has declined and the area has not seen research and development processes that provide alternatives for handling, conservation, use and marketing, and now are at the risk of disappearing. This research conducted participatory assessment processes for the characterization of production systems and initiated reassessment processes of territorial heritage, identifying common sub-farm agrobiodiversity and projects for these traditional Andean tuber crops in order to enhance the special and knowhow knowledge surrounding the production.

  16. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  17. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  18. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P meat (P meat exhibited a significantly higher moisture release and lower initial hardness, chewdown hardness and residual loose particles. A darker color and enhanced chickeny flavor were observed for OC meat. Based on the unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics in demand, producers should employ appropriate cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  20. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  1. Patterns of frequency and abundance of plant dispersal systems in Colombian forests and its relationship with the geographical regions of the country

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Felipe Correa Gómez; Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Esteban Alvarez; Ana María Aldana; María Natalia Umaña; Ángela Cano; Juan Adarve; Doris Benitez; Alejandro Castaño; Álvaro Cogollo; Wilson Devia; Fernando Fernández; Lina María García; Omar Melo; Maria Cristina Peñuela

    2013-01-01

    The study of plant dispersal systems allows to go in depth in aspects that define the regeneration of forests, being essential to understand not only the population dynamics of plants but also the ecological relationships that emerge within ecosystems. In Colombia there is not a broad scale study showing the patterns of frequency and abundance of dispersal systems in different geographical regions (Amazonian, Andean, Caribbean, Upper Magdalena, Middle Magdalena, Orinoco, Pacific). Based on in...

  2. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  3. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  4. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as

  5. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. IIA. Hepaticae – Oil body structure and ecological distribution of selected species of tropical Andean Jungermanniales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Cleef, A.M.; Fulford, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is the second (Florschütz & Florschütz-de Waard 1974) in the series of reports on cryptogams of Colombia, especially the high Andean bryophytes and lichens, in the framework of recent phytosociological and ecological studies in the area by A. M. Cleef and T. van der Hammen (Amsterdam) and

  6. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...

  7. Solar UVR-induced DNA damage and inhibition of photosynthesis in phytoplankton from Andean lakes of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villafane, VE; Buma, AGJ; Boelen, P; Helbling, EW

    2004-01-01

    During January 1999, studies were carried out in temperate lakes of the Andean region of Argentina (41degreesS, 71degreesW) to determine the short-term effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) upon natural phytoplankton assemblages. Organisms from one 'clear' (Lake Moreno) and two

  8. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  9. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hribljan; D.J. Cooper; J. Sueltenfuss; E.C. Wolf; K.A. Heckman; Erik Lilleskov; R.A. Chimner

    2015-01-01

    The high-altitude (4,500+ m) Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia:...

  10. A spatio-temporal analysis of forest loss related to cocaine trafficking in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.; Tellman, Beth; Wrathall, David; McSweeney, Kendra; Nielsen, Erik; Benessaiah, Karina; Wang, Ophelia; Rey, Luis

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that criminal activities associated with drug trafficking networks are a progressively important driver of forest loss in Central America. However, the scale at which drug trafficking represents a driver of forest loss is not presently known. We estimated the degree to which narcotics trafficking may contribute to forest loss using an unsupervised spatial clustering of 15 spatial and temporal forest loss patch metrics developed from global forest change data. We distinguished anomalous forest loss from background loss patches for each country exhibiting potential ‘narco-capitalized’ signatures which showed a statistically significant dissimilarity from other patches in terms of size, timing, and rate of forest loss. We also compared annual anomalous forest loss with the number of cocaine shipments and volume of cocaine seized, lost, or delivered at country- and department-level. For Honduras, results from linear mixed effects models showed a highly significant relationship between anomalous forest loss and the timing of increased drug trafficking (F = 9.90, p = 0.009) that also differed significantly from temporal patterns of background forest loss (t-ratio = 2.98, p = 0.004). Other locations of high forest loss in Central America showed mixed results. The timing of increased trafficking was not significantly related to anomalous forest loss in Guatemala and Nicaragua, but significantly differed in patch size compared to background losses. We estimated that cocaine trafficking could account for between 15% and 30% of annual national forest loss in these three countries over the past decade, and 30% to 60% of loss occurred within nationally and internationally designated protected areas. Cocaine trafficking is likely to have severe and lasting consequences in terms of maintaining moist tropical forest cover in Central America. Addressing forest loss in these and other tropical locations will require a stronger

  11. Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Pattison; Jeffrey M. Welker

    2014-01-01

    Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous...

  12. Forest ecosystem and mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badrinath, S.D.; Chakraborty, A.; Khan, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sub-continent has a tremendous diversity of plant and animal species. About 80,000 species of animals and 15,000 species of flowering plants have so far been described from India. Profound changes have taken place in this era, the changes driven by an unprecedented level of human demands for the resources. One major crisis is the loss of biological diversity. Tropical moist forest tracts harbouring the bulk of this diversity is of main concern. Many countries largely from tropical belts have been identified as megadiversity countries, for biodiversity conservation. India is one of them. Conserving India's heritage of biodiversity is a great challenge, with large biomass needs of its huge rural population and exploding resource demands of its growing urban-industrial-intensive agricultural sector. One such major impact on the biological diversity is mining. Main environmental problems of mining are deforestation, land damage, visual intrusion, and disturbance of hydrological systems. Opencast mining, specially with multi-seam or steep deposits involves creation of external overburden dumps which destroys further lands and causes visual intrusion. The present paper highlights a few case studies carried out to understand the biological environmental impact assessment due to mining activity and also discusses the management plan for eco-restoration of the mined areas and degraded lands. 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Proposing a Digital Information System for the Management and Conservation of the Qhapaq ÑAN - Andean Road System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperré, G. N.

    2017-08-01

    The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.

  14. Two new cis-Andean species of the South American catfish genus Megalonema allied to trans-Andean Megalonema xanthum, with description of a new subgenus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available A revised diagnosis of the pimelodid catfish genus Megalonema is given based on synapomorphic features of the Weberian complex and gas bladder. Megalonema xanthum from the Magdalena River is redescribed. Two new cis-Andean species of Megalonema are described, M. amaxanthum n. sp. from the Amazon River basin, and M. orixanthum n. sp. from the Orinoco River basin. These three species are differentially diagnosed by shape and size of the supraoccipital posterior process, adipose-fin shape, vertebral counts, eye size, premaxillary bone shape and dentition, length of the anal-fin base, width between the posterior nostrils and presence/absence of dentations on the pectoral spine. Eretmomegalonema new subgenus is established for M. xanthum, M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum and supported by the uniquely synapomorphic paddle-like structure of its pelvic fin and hypertrophied basipterygium. Unambiguous synapomorphies indicate a sister-group relationship between M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum, with M. xanthum basal to this pair. This topology is congruent with the Neogene origins of separate Magdalena, Amazon and Orinoco basins suggesting vicariant control of diversification of Eretmomegalonema.

  15. Evaluation of an Andean common bean reference collection under drought stress Evaluation of an Andean common bean reference collection under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Vega Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    More than 60% of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. production worldwide is impacted by the risk of drought. In this study, the goal was to evaluate 64 bush bean genotypes from the CIAT reference collection to identify possible sources of drought resistance in the Andean gene pool. Phenotypic traits such as yield, 100-seed weight (P100 and days to physiological maturity (Dpm were evaluated on selected accessions of this collection which was grown in an 8x8 lattice with two repetitions under three environments: intermittent drought (SI and irrigation (R in Palmira as well as early drought (ST in Darién, Colombia. The genotypes included 20 from the Nueva Granada 1 (NG1 sub-race, 19 from the Nueva Granada 2 (NG2 sub-race, 10 from race Peru (P, 14 Andean control genotypes and one Mesoamerican check. The variables were analyzed through a combined ANOVA across environments, while simple correlations between yield and others variables were determinate. The genotypes with better adaptation to drought showed higher yields, 100-seed weight and fewer days to physiological maturity. The coefficients of correlations among yield and 100-seed weight were significant and positive, while Dpm showed negative correlation. Fourteen genotypes were identified as drought tolerant: G4001, G5625, G6639, G16115, G17070, G18255, G21210 and G22247 from the NG1 sub-race; G5708, G14253, G18264 and LRK31 from the NG2 sub-race; and DRK47 and G22147 from race Peru.

  16. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  17. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  18. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  19. Taxonomic and ecological diversity of the mycophage entomofauna in a Andean forest of the Oriental Mountain range of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amat Garcia Eduardo C; Amat Garcia, German D; Henao M, Luis G

    2004-01-01

    We describe the structure and composition of the mycophagic insect community of oak woods (Quercus humboldtii) in Boyaca - Colombia. From November 2000 to July 2001, 1778 adults' insects were found and other 3409 were reared in the lab for a total of 5187 insects belonging to 48 morphospecies. Found in 309 fruiting bodies. An insect ecological classification for this fauna (primary mycophagous, secondary mycophagous, detritivorous and predators) is proposed based on the degree of insect dependency on fungi. Host selection and tropic level. The effect of fungi size and state of fungi development on the community structure is estimated. The community shows a classical lognormal distribution model. It is the richest community in insect species compared to as other studies in this country. Insect abundance is modified by fungi size and fungi development state. The richness of species is mainly modified by fungi development state

  20. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  1. Voices and Agencies in the Education of Young Rural Andean Women: A Qualitative Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvarado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study describes the voices and agencialities of female rural Andean students enrolled in high school. The study explores how educational practices and discourses in the school and family context impact these young women’s voices and agencialities. Also analyzed are the actions they are taking to change their existing situation. The post-structural approach and theories of resistance, voice and power inform the literature review and analysis of the study, which describes the many educational and sociocultural obstacles the young women face: an educational curriculum not adapted to their needs, untrained teachers with low expectations for their students’ future, and an educational environment that silences their voices. The results show that despite of all obstacles, these women have a firm determination to seek a different future, rather than live under the oppressive patriarchal cycle their mothers and female relatives have endured.

  2. ANDEAN COSMOLOGY AND RELIGION: A HISTORICAL DYNAMICS OF ENCOUNTERS, MISSED CONNECTIONS AND REUNIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelar Araujo Santos Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.

  3. Collaborative networks and patent production in Andean Community of Nations universities (UCANS, 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.

  4. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  5. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  6. Diversity patterns, environmental drivers and changes in vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β......-diversity correlated with latitude? (iii) what are the major environmental drivers controlling spatial patterns in species composition and occurrence? Methods We established 63 transects of 5 × 100 m in areas with DIAV vegetation, impacted as little as possible by human activities. In each transect, all mature trees...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...

  7. "It Is Not Natural Anymore": Nutrition, Urbanization, and Indigenous Identity on Bolivia's Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Adam C; Leon, Juan S; Calle, Susana C; Andes, Karen L

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article was to characterize how urbanization and indigenous identity shape nutrition attitudes and practices in El Alto, a rapidly urbanizing and predominantly indigenous (Aymara) community on Bolivia's Andean plateau. We took a qualitative ethnographic approach, interviewing health care providers ( n = 11) and conducting focus groups with mothers of young children ( n = 4 focus groups with 25 mothers total [age = 18-43 years, 60% Aymara]). Participants generally described their urban environment as being problematic for nutrition, a place where unhealthy "junk foods" and "chemicals" have supplanted healthy, "natural," "indigenous" foods from the countryside. Placing nutrition in El Alto within a broader context of cultural identity and a struggle to harmonize different lifestyles and worldviews, we propose how an intercultural framework for nutrition can harmonize Western scientific perspectives with rural and indigenous food culture.

  8. [Microarthropods from the altiplanic andean steppe, with focus on oribatid species (Oribatida: Acarina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In soils under seven types of high altitude, native vegetation and one plantation in the northernmost Chilean Altiplanic region, 20 microarthropod orders or suborders were found, including 21 oribatid mite species. Seven of these species are first mentioned for Chile. No oribatid mites were found in soils far from vegetation. Data are given as average densities (n masculine ind./1000 ml), accounting for plant preference, geographical distribution and updated taxonomic status for each species. Ten oribatid species form a group of Andean altiplanic steppe fauna also found in Peru and Bolivia. Other three species have been also found in different austral ecosystems in Argentina, and a group of eight species seems to be cosmopolitan.

  9. History aspects and ecology of the biodiversity nor Andean and Amazonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hammen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The mega-biodiversity of the neotropics is type result of the geological and environmental history. A considerable biodiversity, higher than at present, existed in the Miocene in the low-elevation tropics. The progressive upheaval of the Andes created new life zones that were populated by adaptive evolution and immigration from the austral-Antarctic and laurasiatic-holartic regions. The cooling of the earth during the Neogene and the glacial- interglacial cycles of the quaternary, and the consonant changes of temperature and rainfall, in combination with the topography, had a profound effect on vegetation, flora and fauna, the distribution of species and endemism, both in the low tropical area and in the Andean zones. Presently there is a positive relation of species-density with temperature (altitude) and with rainfall, and partly with relative humidity

  10. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froemming Steve

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains.

  11. Ultrasound agitated phytofabrication of palladium nanoparticles using Andean blackberry leaf and its photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, ultrasonication and Andean blackberry leaf extract are employed for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs; and further evaluated its photocatalytic activity against methylene blue (MB. The as-synthesized PdNPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. TEM analysis demonstrated the formation of decahedron shape PdNPs with a diameter of 55–60 nm and XRD confirmed its crystalline nature. It showed photocatalytic decomposition of MB (>72%, k = 0.002164 min−1, 10 mg/L in an aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. From the results obtained it is suggested that ultrasound agitated aqueous leaf extract demonstrates a simple, rapid, inexpensive method and should be utilized in future as green technology for the fabrication of nanoparticles.

  12. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroma Nwanodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  13. Study of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Andean crop with therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The maca is a native product of the Central Andes of Peru, it is resistant to hail, to frost and to prolonged droughts. It is cultivated from the Inca period in altitudes between 3800 - 4500 meters above sea level. This herbaceous plant, has not only a high nutritional value, but it is also valued for its medicinal role. Among the chemical components of this andean crop that have been related with therapeutic actions the increasing fertility and the energy levels, the antioxidant actions, the improving sexual desire and the growth rate. There are glucosinolates, sterols, fatty acids (macaene and their corresponding amides (macamides, alkaloids (lepidilines A and B, macaridine and polyphenols. This article presents a compilation of the researches that has been performed on the therapeutic properties of maca and its compounds responsible of them.

  14. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Guillaume, E-mail: gfontaine@flacso.org.e [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), Research Laboratory on Governance, Quito (Ecuador)

    2011-05-15

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  15. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  16. Phytosynthesis and photocatalytic activity of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Galeas, Salome; Guerrero, Victor H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a simple, low cost, and ecofriendly synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 NPs) has been developed using Andean blackberry leaf extract. UV–vis spectroscopy technique were used to study the initial formation of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. Morphology, crystallinity and surface properties of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermal gravimetric (TG) techniques. TEM and DLS characterization indicated the formation of spherical Fe 3 O 4 NPs of average size 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. XRD and FTIR studies confirmed the existence of the cubic spinel phase of Fe 3 O 4 NPs and Fe−O peak at 570 cm −1 , whereas TG analysis indicated that the nanoparticles contain 94% metal and 6% capping ligand. It has been observed that, as-synthesized Fe 3 O 4 NPs exhibited photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (k = 0.0105475 min −1 ), congo red (k = 0.0043240 min −1 ), and methyl orange (k = 0.0028930 min −1 ), efficiently. The antioxidant activity of Fe 3 O 4 NPs against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were also evaluated. - Highlights: • We report extracellular phytosynthesis of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles using the Andean blackberry leaf. • The synthesized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are spherical and average size is 54.5 ± 24.6 nm. • It showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and weak antioxidant efficacy. • Environmentally benign, non-toxic and cost-effective method is suggested.

  17. Pre-Andean peraluminous and metaluminous leucogranitoid suites in the High Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Miguel A.

    Two distinct pre-Andean leucogranitoid suites are recognized in the High Andes of Central Chile (30°31'S): the Hacienda Vieja and Monte Grande Suites (HVS and MGS). Both represent the transition from upper Paleozoic orogenic magmatism to Andean orogenic igneous activity (post-Triassic). The HVS comprises medium-grained peraluminous leucogranites and leucogranodiorites, whereas the MGS includes medium- to fine-grained and porphyritic leucogranites of metaluminous character. The mineralogy of the HVS leucogranitoids consists mainly of plagioclase, quartz, interstitial microcline, biotite ± muscovite ± cordierite, and small andalusite-bearing inclusions. The MGS leucogranites are characterized by large amounts of quartz, plagioclase, and perthitic K-feldspar, and minor Fe-hornblende, Fe-hedenbergite, and biotite. The two suites have a small range of composition caused mainly by intrasuite plagioclase-dominated fractionation. Calculations based on compositions of feldspar, muscovite, biotite, and FeTi oxides indicate that the HVS plutons crystallized at higher total pressure (˜3.0 Kb), lower temperature (˜670°) and higher oxygen fugacities than those of the MGS (P,˜1 Kb; T,˜750°C). Although fractionation of a mantle-derived magma is not ruled out in the origin of the MGS, the two suites may be the products of partial fusion at different crustal depths, and hence H 2O contents of semipelitic protolith in the case of the HVS, and Ca-poor quartzo-feldspathic ( s.l.) rocks in the case of the MGS. Crustal melting was probably induced by a long-lived thermal perturbation caused by voluminous upper Paleozoic mantle-derived magma injection and decompression of the crust linked to an extensional tectonic regime.

  18. Effects of Flat Slab Subduction on Andean Thrust Kinematics and Foreland Basin Evolution in Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; McKenzie, N. R.; Constenius, K. N.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Debate persists over the effects of flat-slab subduction on the kinematics of overriding plate deformation and the evolution of retroarc sedimentary basins. In western Argentina, major spatial and temporal variations in the geometry of the subducting Nazca slab since ~15 Ma provide opportunities to evaluate the late Cenozoic response of the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin to subhorizontal subduction. Preliminary results from several structural and sedimentary transects spanning the frontal thrust belt and foreland basin system between 31°S and 35°S reveal Oligocene-middle Miocene hinterland exhumation during normal-slab subduction followed thereafter by progressive slab shallowing with initial rapid cratonward propagation of ramp-flat thrust structures (prior to basement-involved foreland uplifts) and accompanying wholesale exhumation and recycling of the early Andean foreland basin (rather than regional dynamic subsidence). Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data prove instrumental for revealing shifts in thrust-belt exhumation, defining depositional ages within the foreland basin, and constraining the timing of activity along frontal thrust structures. In both the San Juan (31-32°S) and Malargüe (34-35°S) segments of the fold-thrust belt, geochronological results for volcaniclastic sandstones and syndeformational growth strata are consistent with a major eastward advance in shortening at 12-9 Ma. This episode of rapid thrust propagation precedes the reported timing of Sierras Pampeanas basement-involved foreland uplifts and encompasses modern regions of both normal- and flat-slab subduction, suggesting that processes other than slab dip (such as inherited crustal architecture, critical wedge dynamics, and arc magmatism) are additional regulators of thrust-belt kinematics and foreland basin evolution.

  19. Thoracic skeletal morphology and high-altitude hypoxia in Andean prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Karen J

    2007-09-01

    Living humans from the highland Andes exhibit antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally enlarged chests in response to high-altitude hypoxia. This study hypothesizes that morphological responses to high-altitude hypoxia should also be evident in pre-Contact Andean groups. Thoracic skeletal morphology in four groups of human skeletons (N = 347) are compared: two groups from coastal regions (Ancón, Peru, n = 79 and Arica, Chile, n = 123) and two groups from high altitudes (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, n = 102 and Machu Picchu and Cuzco, Peru, n = 43). Osteometric variables that represent proportions of chest width and depth include sternal and clavicular lengths and breadths and rib length, curvature, and area. Each variable was measured relative to body size, transformed into logarithmic indices, and compared across sex-specific groups using ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Atacama highlanders have the largest sternal and clavicular proportions and ribs with the greatest area and least amount of curvature, features that suggest an antero-posteriorly deep and mediolaterally wide thoracic skeleton. Ancón lowlanders exhibit proportions indicating narrower and shallower chests. Machu Picchu and Cuzco males cluster with the other highland group in rib curvature and area at the superior levels of the thorax, whereas chest proportions in Machu Picchu and Cuzco females resemble those of lowlanders. The variation in Machu Picchu and Cuzco males and females is interpreted as the result of population migrations. The presence of morphological traits indicative of enlarged chests in some highland individuals suggests that high-altitude hypoxia was an environmental stressor shaping the biology of highland Andean groups during the pre-Contact period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Thermochronologic Evidence for Late Eocene Andean Mountain Building at 30°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossada, Ana C.; Giambiagi, Laura; Hoke, Gregory D.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Creixell, Christian; Murillo, Ismael; Mardonez, Diego; Velásquez, Ricardo; Suriano, Julieta

    2017-11-01

    The Andes between 28° and 30°S represent a transition between the Puna-Altiplano Plateau and the Frontal/Principal Cordillera fold-and-thrust belts to the south. While significant early Cenozoic deformation documented in the Andean Plateau, deciphering the early episodes of deformation during Andean mountain building in the transition area is largely unstudied. Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology from a vertical and a horizontal transect reveal the exhumation history of the High Andes at 30°S, an area at the heart of this major transition. Interpretation of the age-elevation profile, combined with inverse thermal modeling, indicates that the onset of rapid cooling was underway by 35 Ma, followed by a significant decrease in cooling rate at 30-25 Ma. AFT thermal models also reveal a second episode of rapid cooling in the early Miocene ( 18 Ma) related to rock exhumation to its present position. Low exhumation between the rapid cooling events allowed for the development of a partial annealing zone. We interpret the observed Eocene rapid exhumation as the product of a previously unrecognized compressive event in this part of the Andes that reflects a southern extension of Eocene orogenesis recognized in the Puna/Altiplano. Renewed early-Miocene exhumation indicates that the late Cenozoic compressional stresses responsible for the main phase of uplift of the South Central Andes also impacted the core of the range in this transitional sector. The major episode of Eocene exhumation suggests the creation of significant topographic relief in the High Andes earlier than previously thought.

  1. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.

  2. Assessment of the Brainstem-Mediated Stapedius Muscle Reflex in Andean Children Living at High Altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; Jacobs, Anthony B; Laurell, Göran

    2017-03-01

    Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Assessment of the brainstem-mediated stapedius muscle reflex in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 18:37-45, 2017.-This study examined the physiological thresholds, amplitude growth, and contraction duration of the acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) in Andean children aged 2-17 years living at altitudes of 2850 m (Altitude I Group) and 3973 m (Altitude II Group) as part of a general medical assessment of the health status of the children. The brainstem-mediated ASR reveals the integrity of the neuronal components of the auditory reflex arc, including the cochlea receptors, eight cranial nerves, and brainstem neural projections to the cochlear nuclei, bilateral superior olivary nuclei, facial nerve nuclei, and facial nerve and its stapedius branch. Uncrossed (ipsilateral) and crossed (contralateral) ASR thresholds (ASRT), ASR amplitude growth (ASRG) function, and ASR muscle contraction duration (decay/fatigue) (ASRD) were measured noninvasively with 500, 1000 Hz and broadband (bandwidth = 125-4000 Hz) noise stimulus activators using a middle ear immittance system. Oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) level and heart rate were measured in a subsample of the study group. Statistical analyses revealed that the Altitude I and Altitude II groups had ASRT, ASRG function, and ASRD rates comparable to children at sea level and that the two groups were not significantly different for any of the ASR measures. No significant association was found between SaO 2 or heart rate and ASRT, growth, and muscle fatigue rate. In conclusion, the assessment of the ASR in children in the high-altitude groups revealed normal function. Furthermore, the results indicate no adverse oto-physiological effects of altitude on the brainstem-mediated ASR at elevations between 2850 and 4000 m and suggest normal middle ear and auditory brainstem function.

  3. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+ uptake by different plankton fractions of Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and the size structure of natural planktonic food webs may provide essential information to understand the fate of mercury and, in particular, the bioaccumulation pattern of Hg2+ in the water column of lake ecosystems. Heterotrophic and autotrophic picoplankton and phytoplankton are the most important entry points for Hg in aquatic ecosystems since they concentrate Hg2+ and MeHg from ambient water, making them available to planktonic consumers at higher trophic levels of lake food webs. In this investigation we studied the uptake of 197Hg2+ in natural plankton assemblages from four Andean lakes (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina, comprised in the size fractions 0.2-2.7 μm (picoplankton, 0.2-20 μm (pico and nanoplankton and 20-50 μm (microplankton through experiments using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The experimental results showed that the uptake of Hg2+ was highest in the smallest plankton fractions (0.2-2.7 μm and 0.2-20 μm compared to the larger fraction comprising microplankton (20-50 um. This pattern was consistent in all lakes, reinforcing the idea that among pelagic organisms, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria with the contribution of nanoflagellates and dinoflagellates constitute the main entry point of Hg2+ to the pelagic food web. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between the Hg2+ uptake and surface index of the planktonic fractions (SIf. Thus, the smaller planktonic fractions which bore the higher SI were the major contributors to the Hg2+ passing from the abiotic to the biotic pelagic compartments of these Andean lakes.

  4. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  5. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  6. Accumulation rate in a tropical Andean glacier as a proxy for northern Amazon precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Ribeiro, Rafael; Simões, Jefferson Cardia; Ramirez, Edson; Taupin, Jean-Denis; Assayag, Elias; Dani, Norberto

    2018-04-01

    Andean tropical glaciers have shown a clear shrinkage throughout the last few decades. However, it is unclear how this general retreat is associated with variations in rainfall patterns in the Amazon basin. To investigate this question, we compared the annual net accumulation variations in the Bolivian Cordillera Real (Andes), which is derived from an ice core from the Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W), covering the period 1960-1999 using the Amazonian Rainfall Index, Northern Atlantic Index (TNA), Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The accumulation rate at the Nevado Illimani ice core decreased by almost 25% after 1980, from 1.02 w.eq. a-1 (water equivalent per year) in the 1961-1981 period to 0.76 w.eq. a-1 in the 1981-1999 period. The Northern Amazonian Rainfall (NAR) index best reflects changes in accumulation rates in the Bolivian ice core. Our proposal is based on two observations: (1) This area shows reduced rainfall associated with a more frequent and intense El Niño (during the positive phase of the MEI). The opposite (more rain) is true during La Niña phases. (2) Comparisons of the ice core record and NAR, PDO, and MEI indexes showed similar trends for the early 1980s, represented by a decrease in the accumulation rates and its standard deviations, probably indicating the same causality. The general changes observed by early 1980s coincided with the beginning of a PDO warm phase. This was followed by an increase in the Amazonian and tropical Andean precipitation from 1999, coinciding with a new PDO phase. However, this increase did not result in an expansion of the Zongo Glacier area.

  7. TREATMENT SUCCESS IN THREE ANDEAN BEARS (TREMARCTOS ORNATUS) WITH ALOPECIA SYNDROME USING OCLACITINIB MALEATE (APOQUEL®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Gabby J; Nuttall, Tim; López, Javier; Magnone, William; Leclerc, Antoine; Potier, Romain; Lécu, Alexis; Guézénec, Maëlle; Kolter, Lydia; Nicolau, Amélie; Lemberger, Karin; Pin, Didier; Cosgrove, Sallie B

    2017-09-01

    Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. This paper describes the successful management of ABAS in three female Andean bears. Skin biopsies and cytology revealed a mixed dermal inflammatory infiltrate, alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and Malassezia dermatitis. Allergen specific serology was positive for environmental allergens in one case. Hematology, serum biochemistry, and thyroid and adrenal function were normal in all cases. There was no consistent response to novel diet trials, antifungals, antihistamines, allergen specific immunotherapy, or topical antimicrobials. There was a partial response to ciclosporin (Atopica® cat, Novartis Animal Health; 5 mg/kg po, sid) in one case and oral glucocorticoids in all cases (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, [Colvasone 0.2%, Norbrook], 0.15 mg/kg po, sid or prednisolone [Deltacortene, Bruno Farmaceutici, and Megasolone 20, Coophavet], 0.3-1.2 mg/kg po, sid), but treatment was withdrawn following adverse effects. Treatment with oclacitinib maleate (Apoquel®, Zoetis; 0.46-0.5 mg/kg po, bid) resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the pruritus with subsequent improvement in demeanor and fur regrowth. After 5 mo, the bears were almost fully furred and off all other medication. Treatment was tapered to the lowest dose that prevented relapse of the pruritus (0.23-0.4 mg/kg po, sid). No adverse effects have been noted. ABAS is usually an intractable condition, and, to our knowledge, oclacitinib is the first treatment shown to result in sustained clinical improvement. Further studies on the etiology of ABAS, and on efficacy and long-term safety of oclacitinib are needed.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  9. Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Strutzenberger

    Full Text Available Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp from one mitochondrial (COI and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited

  10. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snus and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu Cangbao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET B , serotonin 5-HT 1B , and thromboxane A 2 TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24 h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine was kept at plasma level of snus users (25 ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250 ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET B receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT 1B receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ET B , 5-HT 1B , and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25 ng nicotine/ml) lowered the 5-HT 1B receptor-mediated contraction. Furthermore, DSS shifted the TP receptor-mediated contraction curve left-wards with a stronger contraction. High dose of nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml) increased the ET B receptor-mediated contraction. The combined 5-HT 1B and 5-HT 2A receptor-mediated contraction was increased, and both the 5-CT and TxA2 induced contractions were left-ward shifted by WSS, DSS, or nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml). Only the DSS group

  11. Surname-inferred Andean ancestry is associated with child stature and limb lengths at high altitude in Peru, but not at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Moore, Lorna G; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Native Andean ancestry gives partial protection from reduced birthweight at high altitude in the Andes compared with European ancestry. Whether Andean ancestry is also associated with body proportions and greater postnatal body size at altitude is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether a greater proportion of Andean ancestry is associated with stature and body proportions among Peruvian children at high and low altitude. Height, head circumference, head-trunk height, upper and lower limb lengths, and tibia, ulna, hand and foot lengths, were measured in 133 highland and 169 lowland children aged 6 months to 8.5 years. For highland and lowland groups separately, age-sex-adjusted anthropometry z scores were regressed on the number of indigenous parental surnames as a proxy for Andean ancestry, adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age and education, parity, altitude [highlands only]). Among highland children, greater Andean ancestry was negatively associated with stature and tibia, ulna, and lower limb lengths, independent of negative associations with greater altitude for these measurements. Relationships were strongest for tibia length: each additional Andean surname or 1,000 m increase at altitude among highland children was associated with 0.18 and 0.65 z score decreases in tibia length, respectively. Anthropometry was not significantly associated with ancestry among lowland children. Greater Andean ancestry is associated with shorter stature and limb measurements at high but not low altitude. Gene-environment interactions between high altitude and Andean ancestry may exacerbate the trade-off between chest dimensions and stature that was proposed previously, though we could not test this directly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.

  13. Tropical Andean ecosystems and the need to keep warming limits below a +1.5°C threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrascal, D.; Herzog, S. K.; Guitierrez Lagoueyte, M. E.; Gonzalez-Duque, D.; Cuevas-Moreno, J.; del Valle, J. I.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Herrera, D. A.; Martínez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term climate change and rapid land-use change are synergistically threatening the integrity and functioning of tropical Andean ecosystems. The main goal of our research was to integrate climate change projections, biodiversity data and anthropogenically driven ecosystem disruption assessments to quantify the vulnerability of Andean ecosystems and species to global change at a local scale. We merged discernible trends in local quality-controlled weather station data with reanalysis data, as well as with historical and prospective simulation outputs of five well-known GCMs to assess a long-term context for the analysis of climate change exposure (temperature severity intervals). Individual, medium-term, multi-member GCM simulations included: altitude-corrected 2046-2065 (IPCC-AR4) climate change scenarios for the A1B emission scenario; and spatially-downscaled 2040-2069 (IPCC-AR5) projections for the RCP4.5. Previous studies reported mean annual temperature anomaly intervals that resulted in exceedingly high thresholds: the lowest severity interval ( +2.71°C). The least severe interval extended up to the threshold widely recognized as `dangerous' climate change, thereby leading to an underestimation of the true vulnerability of Andean species. Our analyses suggest that temperature anomalies for the full extent of the tropical Andes will likely range from low ( +2.61°C), exceeding the threshold of 'natural' climate variability (+1.78°C). Our results suggest that most species that were used as proxies of ecosystem vulnerabilities will likely experience overall low-to-medium-to-high temperature increases. Since many of them have potentially high sensitivity to such long-term changes, Andean species will likely experience greatly increases in vulnerability. The already-disrupted Andean ecosystems will suffer a further climatic stress, which will worsen the well-known detrimental synergies between climate and land-use changes. There is an imperative need to

  14. The boundary layer moist static energy budget: Convection picks up moisture and leaves footprints in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szoeke, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Averaged over the tropical marine boundary layer (BL), 130 W m-2 turbulent surface moist static energy (MSE) flux, 120 W m-2 of which is evaporation, is balanced by upward MSE flux at the BL top due to 1) incorporation of cold air by downdrafts from deep convective clouds, and 2) turbulent entrainment of dry air into the BL. Cold saturated downdraft air, and warm clear air entrained into the BL have distinct thermodynamic properties. This work observationally quantifies their respective MSE fluxes in the central Indian Ocean in 2011, under different convective conditions of the intraseasonal (40-90 day) Madden Julian oscillation (MJO). Under convectively suppressed conditions, entrainment and downdraft fluxes export equal shares (60 W m-2) of MSE from the BL. Downdraft fluxes are more variable, increasing for stronger convection. In the convectively active phase of the MJO, downdrafts export 90 W m-2 from the BL, compared to 40 W m-2 by entrainment. These processes that control the internal, latent (condensation), and MSE of the tropical marine atmospheric BL determine the parcel buoyancy and strength of tropical deep convection.

  15. Linking Variability In The Planetary Boundary Layer With Moist Convection: An Example From The Jet2000 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Parker, D. J.; Burton, R. R.; Ellis, R. J.

    Rainfall events have a substantial impact on land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) properties in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel. The increased availability of soil moisture for evaporation affects the surface energy balance for several days after a storm, as a deep and warm mixed layer redevelops above. The evolution of the surface and PBL after rainfall therefore provides an important control on convective instability, and may affect subsequent rainfall. The JET2000 aircraft experiment over West Africa provides new insight into the im- pact of these coupled processes on the atmosphere at a range of spatial scales. Tran- sects flown on 28 August 2000, a day with no significant rainfall, traversed the Souda- nian and Sahelian regions. The observations indicate considerable mesoscale varia- tions in low level properties of the atmosphere, superimposed on the characteristic regional scale gradients. These patterns are linked to antecedent rainfall in the region as inferred from Meteosat and rain gauge observations. The location of storms on the previous evening can be identified by areas where the meridional surface tempera- ture gradient reverses. Recently wetted surfaces are overlain by a relatively shallow and moist PBL. Wind observations suggest that neighbouring dry areas are associ- ated with convergence zones. These may be forced by differential surface heating, in accordance with modelling studies of so-called non-classical mesoscale circulations.

  16. High performance of treated and washed MSWI bottom ash granulates as natural aggregate replacement within earth-moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, A; van Zomeren, A; Harpe, P; Aarnink, W; Simons, H A E; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was treated with specially designed dry and wet treatment processes, obtaining high quality bottom ash granulate fractions (BGF) suitable for up to 100% replacement of natural gravel in concrete. The wet treatment (using only water for separating and washing) significantly lowers the leaching of e.g. chloride and sulfate, heavy metals (antimony, molybdenum and copper) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Two potential bottom ash granulate fractions, both in compliance with the standard EN 12620 (aggregates for concrete), were added into earth-moist concrete mixtures. The fresh and hardened concrete physical performances (e.g. workability, strength and freeze-thaw) of high strength concrete mixtures were maintained or improved compared with the reference mixtures, even after replacing up to 100% of the initial natural gravel. Final element leaching of monolithic and crushed granular state BGF containing concretes, showed no differences with the gravel references. Leaching of all mixtures did not exceed the limit values set by the Dutch Soil Quality Degree. In addition, multiple-life-phase emission (pH static test) for the critical elements of input bottom ash, bottom ash granulate (BGF) and crushed BGF containing concrete were assessed. Simulation pH lowering or potential carbonation processes indicated that metal (antimony, barium, chrome and copper) and sulfate element leaching behavior are mainly pH dominated and controlled, although differ in mechanism and related mineral abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of interventions for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedge, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review the currently available high quality evidence evaluating treatments for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Electronic databases, websites, reference lists, key journals and conference proceedings were searched. Attempts were also made to uncover unpublished material. Relevant studies proceeded to data extraction and quality assessment. Results: Twenty studies were found; 10 were eligible for inclusion. Although many studies were small, none had unacceptably poor quality. No meta-analysis was undertaken as the studies were not homogenous in their interventions or methods. No convincing evidence for any intervention was found. Conclusion: Despite being recommended by many guidelines (College of Radiographers Summary of Intervention for Acute Radiotherapy Induced Skin Reactions in Cancer Patients (London, 2001); NHS Quality Improvement Scotland Best Practice Statement: Skincare of Patients Receiving Radiotherapy (Edinburgh, 2004)); there is mixed evidence concerning the use of hydrogels and hydrocolloid dressings. However, improved patient comfort was sometimes seen, which is arguably equally important. There was limited evidence to support other interventions. Further research is urgently needed.

  18. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met) using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG) process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64), polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC) were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water) and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance. PMID:26779418

  19. Development of molecular diagnostic protocols for detecting three types of Entamoeba from diarrheal and asymptomatic pigs and environmental moist soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Yoshimasa; Manchanayake, Tilusha; Yano, Takahisa; Kitahara, Syoei; Koreeda, Terunori; Kamimura, Syunsuke; Sasai, Kazumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-07-01

    Entamoeba suis and Entamoeba polecki subtypes (ST) 1 and 3 have recently been implicated in disease outbreaks in pigs. However, the distributions of these parasites in Japan and the potential sources of infection on farms still remain unclear. Here, we examined a farm of fattening/growing pigs with abnormal feces in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, and found the presence of parasites in the farm environment. Examination of intestinal tissues from pigs presenting with ulcerative colitis revealed a large number of trophozoites that had invaded the lesions. We identified single and mixed infections of E. suis and E. polecki ST1 and ST3 in paraffin sections or fecal samples from affected pigs. Two subtypes of Entamoeba were identified using four primer sets by PCR and sequencing. The parasites were detected in moist soil samples obtained around the drinking water source or puddles, implicating transmission of cysts via contaminated soils. Additionally, we found evidence of Entamoeba spp. and coinfections in surveyed pigs without any diarrhea at two neighboring farms. Our results establish methods for successfully identification of parasites, including cases in which multiple infections are present.

  20. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  1. A systematic review to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of interventions for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedge, Elizabeth M. [Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, B15 2TH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: elizabeth.kedge@uhb.nhs.uk

    2009-08-15

    Aim: To systematically review the currently available high quality evidence evaluating treatments for moist desquamation in radiotherapy patients. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: Electronic databases, websites, reference lists, key journals and conference proceedings were searched. Attempts were also made to uncover unpublished material. Relevant studies proceeded to data extraction and quality assessment. Results: Twenty studies were found; 10 were eligible for inclusion. Although many studies were small, none had unacceptably poor quality. No meta-analysis was undertaken as the studies were not homogenous in their interventions or methods. No convincing evidence for any intervention was found. Conclusion: Despite being recommended by many guidelines (College of Radiographers Summary of Intervention for Acute Radiotherapy Induced Skin Reactions in Cancer Patients (London, 2001); NHS Quality Improvement Scotland Best Practice Statement: Skincare of Patients Receiving Radiotherapy (Edinburgh, 2004)); there is mixed evidence concerning the use of hydrogels and hydrocolloid dressings. However, improved patient comfort was sometimes seen, which is arguably equally important. There was limited evidence to support other interventions. Further research is urgently needed.

  2. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  3. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  4. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...

  5. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  6. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  7. Correlations of Rainfall and Forest Type with Papilionid Assemblages in Assam in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kusum Barua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No comprehensive community studies have been done on the butterflies of the tropical monsoon forests of the East Himalayan region. We described the Papilionidae at one site within the continuous moist deciduous forest belt of Northeast India and their variation with season and forest type. We surveyed 20 permanent line transects, varying with respect to canopy openness and observed levels of disturbance. A total sample effort of 131 days during the dry and wet seasons of a two-year study resulted in 18,373 individuals identified from 28 Papilionidae species. Constrained canonical correspondence ordination was used to examine the effects of season, forest type, rainfall, year, altitude, and geographical position on the species assemblages. Results showed that rainfall, forest type, and season accounted for most variance in papilionid abundance. Rainfall was strongly correlated with the abundance of some species. Nine species were associated with gaps, 16 species were restricted to closed forest, and three species were encountered in both gaps and closed forest. Six species with narrow geographic range were found only in closed forest. The results confirm the strong seasonality of continental Southeast Asian butterfly assemblages.

  8. Improvement of the Antioxidant Properties and Postharvest Life of Three Exotic Andean Fruits by UV-C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Andrade-Cuvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Andean fruits naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam., uvilla (Physalis peruviana L., and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth were subjected to prestorage UV-C treatments (0, 8, or 12.5 kJ m−2 and evaluated weekly to select the most suitable dose for fruit quality maintenance during storage (21 days at 6°C. The highest dose retains quality through lower deterioration index for all three fruits and was selected to further analyze the effects on physicochemical and antioxidant properties during storage. UV-C exposure delayed softening in naranjilla and increased soluble solid content in uvilla. UV-C also improved the maintenance of antioxidant capacity (AC in mortiño and uvilla. Overall, results indicate that short prestorage UV-C exposure may be an effective nonchemical approach to supplement low temperature storage, maintain quality, and extend the postharvest life of Andean naranjilla, uvilla, and mortiño fruit.

  9. The taxonomic status of two Telmatobius frog species (Anura: Telmatobiidae) from the western Andean slopes of northernmost Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Pablo; Sáez, Paola A; Salinas, Hugo; Araya, Carolina; Sallaberry, Michel; Méndez, Marco A

    2017-04-06

    On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, we evaluated the taxonomic identity of two species of Andean frogs of the genus Telmatobius: Telmatobius pefauri and T. zapahuirensis, present in the western Andean slopes at the northern extreme of Chile. We also investigated the taxonomic assignment of five populations of Telmatobius recently discovered around the type localities of these two species. The results indicate that T. pefauri inhabits, not only Murmuntani its type locality, but also the montane localities of Belén, Copaquilla, Lupica, Saxamar and Socoroma. Our study also shows that T. pefauri and T. zapahuirensis are the same taxon. Therefore, Telmatobius zapahuirensis Veloso, Sallaberry, Navarro, Iturra, Valencia, Penna & Díaz, 1982 would be a subjective junior synonym of Telmatobius pefauri Veloso & Trueb, 1976.

  10. The relative roles of vicariance versus elevational gradients in the genetic differentiation of the high Andean tree frog, Dendropsophus labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Amézquita, Adolfo; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-01-01

    There are two main competing hypotheses (vicariance and vertical ecotones) that attempt to explain the tremendous diversity of the tropical Andes. We test these hypotheses at the intraspecific level by analyzing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 24 populations of the high Andean frog, Dendropsophus labialis (Anura: Hylidae). This species displays geographic variation in a number of phenotypic traits. Most of these traits covary with elevation, while few vary along the horizontal (latitudinal) axis. We found that, both, vicariance and elevation had important effects on the genetic differentiation in this species. We detected two highly divergent clades along the south-north axis using independent information from mitochondrial and nuclear genes, suggesting that this differentiation was the result of long-term barriers to gene flow rather than stochastic processes. We hypothesize mechanisms for D. labialis strong differentiation in light of geological and paleoenvironmental models of evolution in the northern Andean highlands.

  11. Comparative study of emission of pollutant gases in vehicle M1, using fuel of the Andean Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Fernando Antamba Guasgua; Guillermo Gorky Reyes Campaña; Miguel Estuardo Granja Paredes

    2016-01-01

    The environmental pollution is a problematics that concerns all countries about the world as result of this pollution there take place the phenomena of climate change, greenhouse effect, acid rain, and diseases in people. To delimit the issues, there were selected the countries that integrate the Andean Community, the project goal is compare by means of static and dynamic tests the values of emission of pollutant gases, with the fuel that is distributed in each of the selected countries. The ...

  12. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    M. Otto; D. Scherer; J. Richters

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and veg...

  13. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    M. Otto; D. Scherer; J. Richters

    2011-01-01

    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) are unique types of wetlands within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derive...

  14. Counternarcotics Assistance: U.S. Agencies Have Allotted Billions in Andean Countries, but DOD Should Improve Its Reporting of Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ecuador is a major transit route for cocaine produced primarily in neighboring Colombia and Peru. Since it uses the U.S. dollar as its currency , Ecuador ...recommendation. What GAO Found No single U.S. counternarcotics strategy exists for the Andean region. In each country—Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador , Peru...Years 2006-2010 30 Figure 11: Total Estimated Allotments for U.S. Counternarcotics Assistance in Ecuador , Fiscal Years 2006-2011 31 Figure 12: Kilos

  15. Bayesian inferences suggest that Amazon Yunga Natives diverged from Andeans less than 5000 ybp: implications for South American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Gouveia, Mateus H; Benazzo, Andrea; Ghirotto, Silvia; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Leal, Thiago P; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Pereira, Latife; Rodrigues, Maira R; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Cabrera, Lilia; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2014-09-30

    Archaeology reports millenary cultural contacts between Peruvian Coast-Andes and the Amazon Yunga, a rainforest transitional region between Andes and Lower Amazonia. To clarify the relationships between cultural and biological evolution of these populations, in particular between Amazon Yungas and Andeans, we used DNA-sequence data, a model-based Bayesian approach and several statistical validations to infer a set of demographic parameters. We found that the genetic diversity of the Shimaa (an Amazon Yunga population) is a subset of that of Quechuas from Central-Andes. Using the Isolation-with-Migration population genetics model, we inferred that the Shimaa ancestors were a small subgroup that split less than 5300 years ago (after the development of complex societies) from an ancestral Andean population. After the split, the most plausible scenario compatible with our results is that the ancestors of Shimaas moved toward the Peruvian Amazon Yunga and incorporated the culture and language of some of their neighbors, but not a substantial amount of their genes. We validated our results using Approximate Bayesian Computations, posterior predictive tests and the analysis of pseudo-observed datasets. We presented a case study in which model-based Bayesian approaches, combined with necessary statistical validations, shed light into the prehistoric demographic relationship between Andeans and a population from the Amazon Yunga. Our results offer a testable model for the peopling of this large transitional environmental region between the Andes and the Lower Amazonia. However, studies on larger samples and involving more populations of these regions are necessary to confirm if the predominant Andean biological origin of the Shimaas is the rule, and not the exception.

  16. Effect of Abutment Preparation and Fatigue Loading in a Moist Environment on the Fracture Resistance of the One-Piece Zirconia Dental Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mohamed; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Flinton, Robert

    One-piece zirconia dental implants have been widely used in Europe for many years. This in vitro study was done to evaluate the effect of abutment preparation and fatigue (cyclic) loading in a moist environment on the fracture resistance of the one-piece zirconia dental implant. Twenty-four Cera Root zirconium oxide dental implants, divided into three groups of eight, were used in this study: group 1 (control group): implants with no preparation, tested in a dry environment; group 2: implants with no preparation, tested in a moist environment (simulating clinical conditions); and group 3: implants after abutment preparation tested in a moist environment. All implants received IPS e.max porcelain crowns. All samples were subjected to nearly 1 million cycles of sinusoidal fatigue loading (-10 N to -200 N) in a universal testing machine. The postfatigue samples were loaded to fracture. Significant differences (α = .05) in mean fracture loads were statistically analyzed. There was no catastrophic failure of any of the implants during the fatigue tests. The mean (SD) of the fracture loads in postfatigue load-to-failure tests were: group 1: 1,202.9 (62.6); group 2: 1,164.6 (73.8); and group 3: 953.5 (103). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey-Kramer contrast revealed a statistically significant difference (P fracture load of group 3 and those of groups 1 and 2, but no significant difference (P > .05) between groups 1 and 2. While there was a statistically significant adverse effect of abutment preparation and fatigue loading in a moist environment on the postfatigue implant failure load, the load-to-fracture mean of surface-prepared implants after fatigue tests was nevertheless significantly higher than the mean fracture load of the crowns (P < .05) as well as the minimum load-bearing requirement (300 N) for anterior restorations. Abutment preparation in a one-piece zirconia implant is therefore considered clinically safe and acceptable.

  17. Management of the Acute Partial-thickness Burned Hand; Moist Exposed Burn Ointment or Silver Sulphadiazine Cream both Combined with a Polyethylene Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, A.M.; Mostafa, W.; Zayed, E.; El-Gamaly, J.

    2007-01-01

    Hand burns predominantly affect young adults, and therefore have serious social and financial implications. In the present work, 106 patients with less than 25% body surface area burns and acute partial-thickness burned hands were managed using polyethylene bags and 1% local silver sulphadiazine (SSD) cream or moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO). Females made up 61.3% of the cases and flame burn was the majority cause (54.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups regard...

  18. A study of the impact of moist-heat and dry-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements migration in food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Qiu, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Using laboratory experiments, the authors investigated the impact of dry-heat and moist-heat treatment processes on hazardous trace elements (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in food waste and explored their distribution patterns for three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components. The results indicated that an insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste-0.61-14.29% after moist-heat treatment and 4.53-12.25% after dry-heat treatment-and a significant reduction in hazardous trace elements (except for Hg without external addition) after centrifugal dehydration (P heat treatment, over 90% of the hazardous trace elements in the waste were detected in the aqueous and solid components, whereas only a trace amount of hazardous trace elements was detected in the oil component (heat treatment process did not significantly reduce the concentration of hazardous trace elements in food waste, but the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk considerably. Finally, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment on the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements. An insignificant reduction of hazardous trace elements in heat-treated waste showed that heat treatment does not reduce trace elements contamination in food waste considerably, whereas the separation process for solid and aqueous components, such as centrifugal dehydration, could reduce the risk significantly. Moreover, combined with the separation technology for solid and liquid components, dry-heat treatment is superior to moist-heat treatment for the removal of external water-soluble ionic hazardous trace elements, by exploring distribution patterns of trace elements in three waste components: oil, aqueous, and solid components.

  19. Drought until death do us part: a case study of the desiccation-tolerance of a tropical moist forest seedling-tree, Licania platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin T. Tyree; Gustavo Vargas; Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht; Thomas A. Kursar

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the desiccation tolerance of 15-month-old Licania platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch seedlings were performed on potted plants. Pots were watered to field capacity and then dehydrated for 23-46 d to reach various visible wilting stages from slightly-wilted to dead. Root hydraulic conductance, kr, was measured with a high-...

  20. Examining effective use of data sources and modeling algorithms for improving biomass estimation in a moist tropical forest of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunyun Feng; Dengsheng Lu; Qi Chen; Michael Keller; Emilio Moran; Maiza Nara dos-Santos; Edson Luis Bolfe; Mateus Batistella

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has explored the potential to integrate lidar and optical data in aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation, but how different data sources, vegetation types, and modeling algorithms influence AGB estimation is poorly understood. This research conducts a comparative analysis of different data sources and modeling approaches in improving AGB estimation....