WorldWideScience

Sample records for andean moist forest

  1. Leaf-level photosynthetic capacity in lowland Amazonian and high-elevation Andean tropical moist forests of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Nur H A; Ishida, F Yoko; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Guerrieri, Rossella; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Bloomfield, Keith J; Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Lloyd, Jon; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L; Meir, Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Cosio, Eric G; Domingues, Tomas F; Quesada, Carlos A; Sinca, Felipe; Escudero Vega, Alberto; Zuloaga Ccorimanya, Paola P; Del Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon; Quispe Huaypar, Katherine; Cuba Torres, Israel; Butrón Loayza, Rosalbina; Pelaez Tapia, Yulina; Huaman Ovalle, Judit; Long, Benedict M; Evans, John R; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-07-08

    We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (Ma , Na and Pa , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient. Western blots were used to quantify the abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco. Area- and N-based rates of photosynthetic capacity at 25°C were higher in upland than lowland TMFs, underpinned by greater investment of N in photosynthesis in high-elevation trees. Soil [P] and leaf Pa were key explanatory factors for models of area-based Vcmax and Jmax but did not account for variations in photosynthetic N-use efficiency. At any given Na and Pa , the fraction of N allocated to photosynthesis was higher in upland than lowland species. For a small subset of lowland TMF trees examined, a substantial fraction of Rubisco was inactive. These results highlight the importance of soil- and leaf-P in defining the photosynthetic capacity of TMFs, with variations in N allocation and Rubisco activation state further influencing photosynthetic rates and N-use efficiency of these critically important forests.

  2. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  3. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Maria O.; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered...

  4. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23

  5. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O Hunter

    Full Text Available Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up, and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012 at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8% as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%. On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1. Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively. At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal

  6. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height <10 m. Applying the dynamic definition at both sites, we found over twice as much area in gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8%) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0%). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10% of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6% at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13% and 10%, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23% versus 6

  7. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil co

  8. Andean grasslands are as productive as tropical cloud forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Girardin, C.; Doughty, C.E.; Cahuana, N.; Arenas, C.E.; Oliver, V.; Huaraca Huasco, W.; Malhi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess net primary productivity (NPP) and carbon cycling in Andean tropical alpine grasslands (puna) and compare it with NPP of tropical montane cloud forests. We ask the following questions: (1) how do NPP and soil respiration of grasslands vary over the seasonal cycle? (2) how do burning

  9. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  10. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  11. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought resp

  12. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  13. Remotely Sensed Fire Type Classification of the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation fires in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome can be broadly classified into three types: i) Deforestation fires, lit to aid deforestation by burning of slashed, piled and dried forest biomass, ii) Maintenance fires, lit on agricultural fields or pasture areas to maintain and clear woody material and to rehabilitate degraded pasture areas, iii) Forest fires, associated with escaped anthropogenic fires or, less frequently, caused by lightning. Information on the incidence and spatial distribution of fire types is important as they have widely varying atmospheric emissions and ecological impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers a practical means of monitoring fires over areas as extensive as the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome which spans almost 4 million square kilometers. To date, fire type has been inferred based on the geographic context and proximity of satellite active fire detections relative to thematic land cover classes, roads, and forest edges, or by empirical consideration of the active fire detection frequency. In this paper a classification methodology is presented that demonstrates a way to classify the fire type of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. Training and validation fire type data are defined conservatively for MODIS active fire detections using a land cover transition matrix that labels MODIS active fires by consideration of the PRODES 120m land cover for the previous year and the year of fire detection. The training data are used with a random forest classifier and remotely sensed predictor variables including the number of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite detections, the maximum and median Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW km-2], the scaling parameter of the FRP power law distribution, the number of day and night detections, and the fire surrounding "background" surface brightness temperature [K]. In addition, the total rainfall over periods from 1 to 24 months prior to fire

  14. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  15. Overstory structure and soil nutrients effect on plant diversity in unmanaged moist tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Manhas, Rajesh Kumar; Tripathi, Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Forests with intensive management past are kept unmanaged to restore diversity and ecosystem functioning. Before perpetuating abandonment after protracted restitution, understanding its effect on forest vegetation is desirable. We studied plant diversity and its relation with environmental variables and stand structure in northern Indian unmanaged tropical moist deciduous forest. We hypothesized that post-abandonment species richness would have increased, and the structure of contemporary forest would be heterogeneous. Vegetation structure, composition, and diversity were recorded, in forty 0.1 ha plots selected randomly in four forest ranges. Three soil samples per 0.1 ha were assessed for physicochemistry, fine sand, and clay mineralogy. Contemporary forest had less species richness than pre-abandonment reference period. Fourteen species were recorded as either seedling or sapling, suggesting reappearance or immigration. For most species, regeneration was either absent or impaired. Ordination and multiple regression results showed that exchangeable base cations and phosphorous affected maximum tree diversity and structure variables. Significant correlations between soil moisture and temperature, and shrub layer was observed, besides tree layer correspondence with shrub richness, suggesting that dense overstory resulting from abandonment through its effect on soil conditions, is responsible for dense shrub layer. Herb layer diversity was negatively associated with tree layer and shrub overgrowth (i.e. Mallotus spp.). Protracted abandonment may not reinforce species richness and heterogeneity; perhaps result in high tree and shrub density in moist deciduous forests, which can impede immigrating or reappearing plant species establishment. This can be overcome by density/basal area reduction strategies, albeit for both tree and shrub layer.

  16. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  17. Estimating Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Periurban Andean Secondary Forests Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Clerici

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Periurban forests are key to offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions, but they are under constant threat from urbanization. In particular, secondary Neotropical forest types in Andean periurban areas have a high potential to store carbon, but are currently poorly characterized. To address this lack of information, we developed a method to estimate periurban aboveground biomass (AGB—a proxy for multiple ecosystem services—of secondary Andean forests near Bogotá, Colombia, based on very high resolution (VHR GeoEye-1, Pleiades-1A imagery and field-measured plot data. Specifically, we tested a series of different pre-processing workflows to derive six vegetation indices that were regressed against in situ estimates of AGB. Overall, the coupling of linear models and the Ratio Vegetation Index produced the most satisfactory results. Atmospheric and topographic correction proved to be key in improving model fit, especially in high aerosol and rugged terrain such as the Andes. Methods and findings provide baseline AGB and carbon stock information for little studied periurban Andean secondary forests. The methodological approach can also be used for integrating limited forest monitoring plot AGB data with very high resolution imagery for cost-effective modelling of ecosystem service provision from forests, monitoring reforestation and forest cover change, and for carbon offset assessments.

  18. Taxonomic and functional assignment of cloned sequences from high Andean forest soil metagenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montaña, José Salvador; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Angel, Tatiana; Hernández, Mónica; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Total metagenomic DNA was isolated from high Andean forest soil and subjected to taxonomical and functional composition analyses by means of clone library generation and sequencing. The obtained yield of 1.7 μg of DNA/g of soil was used to construct a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clon

  19. A novel cold active esterase derived from Colombian high Andean forest soil metagenome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Alvarez, Diana; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    In order to search new lipolytic enzymes and conduct bioprospecting of microbial communities from high Andean forest soil, a metagenomic library of approximately 20,000 clones was constructed in Escherichia coli using plasmid p-Bluescript II SK+. The library covered 80 Mb of the metagenomic DNA main

  20. Forests of the tropical eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárdenas, M.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Pennington, R.T.; Poole, I.; Sherlock, S.C.; Mothes, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inter-bedded volcanic and organic sediments from Erazo (Ecuador) indicate the presence of four different forest assemblages on the eastern Andean flank during the middle Pleistocene. Radiometric dates (40Ar-39Ar) obtained from the volcanic ash indicate that deposition occurred between 620,000 and 19

  1. Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest-pasture-urban gradient in Andean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Rausche, Sirkka; Cueva, Augusta; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Espinosa, Carlos; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general. Here, we studied the influence of land use (forest-pasture-urban) on stream physico-chemical variables (e.g., water temperature, nutrient concentration, and pH), aquatic communities (macroinvertebrates and aquatic fungi) and leaf litter breakdown rates in Andean streams (southern Ecuador), and how variation in those stream physico-chemical variables affect macroinvertebrates and fungi related to leaf litter breakdown. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites. Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf-shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected. In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species (Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera) on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of

  2. [Diversity and dynamics of a high sub-Andean forest from Northern Andes, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez; Maniguaje, Nancy Lorena; Duque, Alvaro Javier

    2012-06-01

    The sub-Andean forests are characterized by a high biodiversity, but little is known about their natural dynamics. In order to generate new information, this study assessed two permanent plots of one hectare each, in the Northern Andean area of the Western Cordillera, Colombia. Methodology included the evaluation of diversity patterns, above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics, and mortality and recruitment rates. Besides, we used the Fisher's Alpha index to calculate species diversity. Forest dynamics and AGB were evaluated in both plots by means of three censuses carried out within a nine years period. In total, we found 1 664 individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH)> or =10cm belonging to 222 species, 113 genera and 60 families. Mean species richness was of 156 species/ha and a mean Fisher's Alpha index of 56.2/ha. The mortality rate was 0.88% and recruitment was 1.16%, which did not allow to lay any external effect of global warming or climate change on individual forest dynamics. However, the mean AGB was 243.44+/-9.82t/ha, with an annual average increase of 2.9t/ha, a higher value than the one reported in other studies of high sub-Andean forests, which suggests that equilibrium in terms of the AGB have not yet been reached. Besides, according to field observations, a recovery process, from a disturbance that occurred in the past, might be on his way.

  3. Wildland fires and moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India:di-vergent component assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. H. Kittur; S. L. Swamy; S. S. Bargali; Manoj Kumar Jhariya

    2014-01-01

    We studied moist deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh, India (1) to assess the effect of four levels of historic wildland fire frequency (high, medium, low, and no-fire) on regeneration of seedlings in fire affected areas during pre and post-fire seasons, (2) to evaluate vegetation struc-ture and diversity by layer in the four fire frequency zones, (3) to evalu-ate the impact of fire frequency on the structure of economically impor-tant tree species of the region, and (4) to quantify fuel loads by fire fre-quency level. We classified fire-affected areas into high, medium, low, and no-fire frequency classes based on government records. Tree species were unevenly distributed across fire frequency categories. Shrub density was maximum in zones of high fire frequency and minimum in low-frequency and no-fire zones. Lower tree density after fires indicated that regeneration of seedlings was reduced by fire. The population structure in the high-frequency zone was comprised of seedlings of size class (A) and saplings of size class (B), represented by Diospyros melanoxylon, Dalbergia sissoo, Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis. Younger and older trees were more abundant for Tectona grandis and Dalbargia sis-soo after fire, whereas intermediate-aged trees were more abundant pre-fire, indicating that the latter age-class was thinned by the catastrophic effect of fire. The major contributing components of fuel load included duff litter and small woody branches and twigs on the forest floor. Total fuel load on the forest floor ranged from 2.2 to 3.38 Mg/ha. The net change in fuel load was positive in high- and medium-frequency fire zones and negative under low- and no-fire zones. Repeated fires, how-ever, slowly reduced stand stability. An ecological approach is needed for fire management to restore the no-fire spatial and temporal structure of moist deciduous forests, their species composition and fuel loads. The management approach should incorporate participatory forest manage

  4. Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross

  5. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slik, J.W.Ferry; Paoli, Gary; McGuire, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Aim Large trees (d.b.h. ≥ 70 cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore...

  6. [Floristic composition and structure of a premontane moist forest in Central Valley of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante, A; Estrada, A

    2001-03-01

    The floristic composition and structure of a premontane moist forest remnant were studied in the El Rodeo Protected Zone, Central Valley of Costa Rica. Three one-hectare plots were established in the non-disturbed forest, and all trees with a diameter at breast height (dbh) of 10 cm or greater were marked, measured and identified. The plots were located within a radius of 500 m from each other. A total of 106 tree species were recorded in the three plots. Average values: species richness 69.6 species ha-1, abundance 509 individuals ha-1, basal area 36.35 m2 ha-1. Total diversity was 3.54 (Shannon Index, H'), and the species similarity among the plots ranged between S = 0.68 and 0.70 (Sørensen Similarity Index). Most tree species are represented by few individuals (five or less). There is a lack of emergent trees and arborescent palms in the forest canopy. According to the Familial Importance Value, Moraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lauraceae, and Sapotaceae, largely dominates this forest. Pseudolmedia oxyphillaria (Moraceae) is the dominant species (Importance Value Index), accounting for 25% of all the marked trees in the plots, followed by Clarisia racemosa (Moraceae), Heisteria concinna (Olacaceae), and Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae). The size class distributions were similar among plots, and in general followed the expected J-inverted shape. Differences in tree abundance, floristic composition, and spatial distribution of some species among the plots suggest heterogeneity of this ecosystem's arborescent vegetation. Moreover, it is an important natural reservoir for the conservation of rare and endangered tree species in a national level. Using these results as a baseline, this study should start a long term monitoring of the structure and composition of this very reduced and fragmented ecosystem.

  7. Patterns of diversity and regeneration in unmanaged moist deciduous forests in response to disturbance in Shiwalik Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied vegetation attributes in Indian tropical moist deciduous unmanaged forests to determine the influence of forest disturbances on them. We enumerated 89 species: 72 under moderate disturbance and 54 under least disturbance. The data from 3399 stems [>5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh] decreased linearly along the disturbance gradient. The basal area was largest in least disturbed forests (61 m2/ha and smallest in intensely disturbed forest (41 m2/ha. Under least and moderate disturbance, tree density-diameter distribution had negative exponential curves, whereas highly disturbed forests had unimodal-shaped curves where a few trees 5–10 cm and >50 cm in diameter were recorded. Most tree and shrub layer species under heavy and intense disturbance had impaired regeneration. Moderate disturbance intensity thus apparently benefits species diversity, stand density, and regeneration. Decline in seedlings and saplings, especially tree species, threaten forest regeneration and the maintenance of species diversity of unmanaged tropical forests.

  8. Above ground biomass estimation from lidar and hyperspectral airbone data in West African moist forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Chen, Qi; Lindsell, Jeremy; Coomes, David; Cazzolla-Gatti, Roberto; Grieco, Elisa; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The development of sound methods for the estimation of forest parameters such as Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and the need of data for different world regions and ecosystems, are widely recognized issues due to their relevance for both carbon cycle modeling and conservation and policy initiatives, such as the UN REDD+ program (Gibbs et al., 2007). The moist forests of the Upper Guinean Belt are poorly studied ecosystems (Vaglio Laurin et al. 2013) but their role is important due to the drier condition expected along the West African coasts according to future climate change scenarios (Gonzales, 2001). Remote sensing has proven to be an effective tool for AGB retrieval when coupled with field data. Lidar, with its ability to penetrate the canopy provides 3D information and best results. Nevertheless very limited research has been conducted in Africa tropical forests with lidar and none to our knowledge in West Africa. Hyperspectral sensors also offer promising data, being able to evidence very fine radiometric differences in vegetation reflectance. Their usefulness in estimating forest parameters is still under evaluation with contrasting findings (Andersen et al. 2008, Latifi et al. 2012), and additional studies are especially relevant in view of forthcoming satellite hyperspectral missions. In the framework of the EU ERC Africa GHG grant #247349, an airborne campaign collecting lidar and hyperspectral data has been conducted in March 2012 over forests reserves in Sierra Leone and Ghana, characterized by different logging histories and rainfall patterns, and including Gola Rainforest National Park, Ankasa National Park, Bia and Boin Forest Reserves. An Optech Gemini sensor collected the lidar dataset, while an AISA Eagle sensor collected hyperspectral data over 244 VIS-NIR bands. The lidar dataset, with a point density >10 ppm was processed using the TIFFS software (Toolbox for LiDAR Data Filtering and Forest Studies)(Chen 2007). The hyperspectral dataset, geo

  9. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  10. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  11. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  12. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  13. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  14. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the U

  15. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; van Breugel, Paulo; Jansen, Patrick A.;

    2012-01-01

    Competition between neighboring plants plays a major role in the population dynamics of tree species in the early phases of humid tropical forest succession. We evaluated the relative importance of above-versus below-ground competition during the first years of old-field succession on soil with low...... on the diameter growth of Cecropia saplings and stem slenderness of Trichospermum saplings. We conclude that competition for light was more important than below-ground competition in this initial phase of moist tropical forest successional, despite the low soil fertility....... and Trichospermum mexicanum, two pioneer species that dominate the secondary forests in the study region, varied with the abundance and size of neighboring trees in 1-2 year old secondary vegetation. We found that local neighborhood basal area varied 10-fold (3 to 30 cm(2) m(-2)) and explained most of the variation...

  16. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoyos-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. Methods: CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. Results: A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp - townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia, while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni. A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. Interpretation & conclusion: The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.

  17. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  18. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  19. Architecture of 54 moist-forest species: traits, trade-offs, and functional groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Bongers, L.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tree architecture is an important determinant of the height extension, light capture, and mechanical stability of trees, and it allows species to exploit the vertical height gradient in the forest canopy and horizontal light gradients at the forest floor. Tropical tree species partition these gradie

  20. Short and Long-Term Soil Moisture Effects of Liana Removal in a Seasonally Moist Tropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pignatello Reid

    Full Text Available Lianas (woody vines are particularly abundant in tropical forests, and their abundance is increasing in the neotropics. Lianas can compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources, including water. As tropical forests experience longer and more intense dry seasons, competition for water is likely to intensify. However, we lack an understanding of how liana abundance affects soil moisture and hence competition with trees for water in tropical forests. To address this critical knowledge gap, we conducted a large-scale liana removal experiment in a seasonal tropical moist forest in central Panama. We monitored shallow and deep soil moisture over the course of three years to assess the effects of lianas in eight 0.64 ha removal plots and eight control plots. Liana removal caused short-term effects in surface soils. Surface soils (10 cm depth in removal plots dried more slowly during dry periods and accumulated water more slowly after rainfall events. These effects disappeared within four months of the removal treatment. In deeper soils (40 cm depth, liana removal resulted in a multi-year trend towards 5-25% higher soil moisture during the dry seasons with the largest significant effects occurring in the dry season of the third year following treatment. Liana removal did not affect surface soil temperature. Multiple and mutually occurring mechanisms may be responsible for the effects of liana removal on soil moisture, including competition with trees, and altered microclimate, and soil structure. These results indicate that lianas influence hydrologic processes, which may affect tree community dynamics and forest carbon cycling.

  1. Height-diameter relationships of tropical Atlantic moist forest trees in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Augusto da Silva Scaranello; Luciana Ferreira Alves; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Carlos Alfredo Joly; Luiz Antônio Martinelli

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific height-diameter models may be used to improve biomass estimates for forest inventories where only diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements are available. In this study, we fit height-diameter models for vegetation types of a tropical Atlantic forest using field measurements of height across plots along an altitudinal gradient. To fit height-diameter models, we sampled trees by DBH class and measured tree height within 13 one-hectare permanent plots established at four altitu...

  2. How do Light and Water Acquisition Strategies Affect Species Selection during Secondary Succession in Moist Tropical Forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schönbeck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance and tree performance (mortality rate in the field, we assessed how shade and drought tolerance of leaves are related to the species’ positions along a successional gradient in moist tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico. We quantified morphological and physiological leaf shade and drought tolerance indicators for 25 dominant species that characterize different successional stages. We found that light demand decreases with succession, confirming the importance of light availability for species filtering during early stages of succession. In addition, water transport levels in the leaves decreased with succession, but high water transport did not increase the leaf’s vulnerability to drought. In fact, late successional species showed higher mortality in dry years than early successional ones, against suggestions from leaf drought tolerance traits. It is likely that pioneer species have other drought-avoiding strategies, like deep rooting systems and water storage in roots and stems. More research on belowground plant physiology is needed to understand how plants adapt to changing environments, which is crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on secondary forests.

  3. Structure and regeneration status of Komto Afromontane moist forest,East Wollega Zone, west Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fekadu Gurmessa; Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study in Komto Forest in East Wollega Zone,Oromia National Regional State,West Ethiopia for determining vegetation structure and regeneration status in this forest.We systematically sampled 53 quadrats (20 m × 20 m) along line transects radiating from the peak of Komto Mountain in eight directions.Vegetation parameters such as DBH,height,seedling and sapling density of woody species,and location and altitude of each quadrat were recorded.In total,103 woody plant species of 87 genera and 45 families were identified.Analysis of selected tree species revealed different population structures.Generally,the forest was dominated by small trees and shrubs characteristic of secondary regeneration.Observations on the regeneration of the forest indicated that there are woody species that require urgent conservation measures.Based on the results of this study,we recommend detailed ecological studies of various environmental factors such as soil type and properties,and ethnobotanical studies to explore indigenous knowledge on uses of plants.

  4. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  5. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of local-scale tree soil associations in a lowland moist tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Schreeg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water. We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the 'traits' (i.e., soil variables evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny

  7. Carbon storage and sequestration rate assessment and allometric model development in young teak plantations of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration through plantations is one of the important mitigation measures for rising levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This study aimed to assess C stocks and their sequestration rate, and to develop allometric models for estimation of C stocking in age-series young teak (Tectona grandis) planta-tions (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) by using biomass and productivity estimation and regression, respectively. These plantations were raised in tropical moist deciduous forests of Kumaun Himalayan tarai. Total C stocks estimated for these plantations were 1.6, 15.8, 35.4, 39.0, 61.5 and 73.2 Mg ha-1, respectively. Aboveground and belowground C storage in-creased with increasing plantation age;however, the range of their percentage contribution showed little variation (87.8–88.2 and 11.7–12.7%, respectively). The rate of C sequestration for these respective plantations was 1.06, 6.95, 5.46, 5.42, 3.39 and 5.37 Mg ha-1 a-1. Forty percent of the aboveground annual storage was retained in the tree while 60%was released in the form of foliage, twigs, and fruit litter. In the case of total (tree) annual production, 43%was retained while 57%was released as litter including root. C stock, C sequestration rate, accumulation ratio (1.4–18.1), root:shoot C ratio (0.61–0.13) and production efficiency (0.01–0.18) were comparable to some previous reports for other species and forests. These data could be useful in deciding the harvesting age for young teak with respect to C storage and sequestration rate. Four allometric models using linear regression equations were developed between biomass (twice the C stock) and diameter, girth, and height of the tree at different ages. The diameter model was found more suitable for C stock predic-tion in similar areas.

  8. Influence of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Stand Structural Complexity in Andean Temperate Forests: Implications for Managing Key Habitat for Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Forest attributes and their abundances define the stand structural complexity available as habitat for faunal biodiversity; however, intensive anthropogenic disturbances have the potential to degrade and simplify forest stands. In this paper we develop an index of stand structural complexity and show how anthropogenic disturbances, namely fire, logging, livestock, and their combined presence, affect stand structural complexity in a southern Global Biodiversity Hotspot. From 2011 to 2013, we measured forest structural attributes as well as the presence of anthropogenic disturbances in 505 plots in the Andean zone of the La Araucanía Region, Chile. In each plot, understory density, coarse woody debris, number of snags, tree diameter at breast height, and litter depth were measured, along with signs of the presence of anthropogenic disturbances. Ninety-five percent of the plots showed signs of anthropogenic disturbance (N = 475), with the combined presence of fire, logging, and livestock being the most common disturbance (N = 222; 44% of plots). The lowest values for the index were measured in plots combining fire, logging, and livestock. Undisturbed plots and plots with the presence of relatively old fires (> 70 years) showed the highest values for the index of stand structural complexity. Our results suggest that secondary forests < 70-year post-fire event, with the presence of habitat legacies (e.g. snags and CWD), can reach a structural complexity as high as undisturbed plots. Temperate forests should be managed to retain structural attributes, including understory density (7.2 ± 2.5 # contacts), volume of CWD (22.4 ± 25.8 m3/ha), snag density (94.4 ± 71.0 stems/ha), stand basal area (61.2 ± 31.4 m2/ha), and litter depth (7.5 ± 2.7 cm). Achieving these values will increase forest structural complexity, likely benefiting a range of faunal species in South American temperate forests. PMID:28068349

  9. Tree species diversity and stand structure along major community types in lowland primary and secondary moist deciduous forests in Tripura,Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koushik Majumdar; Uma Shankar; Badal Kumar Datta

    2012-01-01

    Tree species diversity and population structure at different community types were described and analyzed for primary and secondary lowland moist deciduous forests in Tripura.Overall 10,957 individual trees belonging to 46 family,103 genera and 144 species were counted at ≥30 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) using 28 permanent belt transects with a size of 1 ha (10 m × 1000 m).Four different tree communities were identified.The primary forests was dominated by Shorea robusta (mean density 464.77 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Schima wallichii (336.25 trees·ha-1,82 species),while the secondary forests was dominated by Tectona grandis (333.88 trees·ha-1,105 species) and Hevea brasiliensis (299.67 trees·ha-1,82 species).Overall mean basal area in this study was 18.01 m2·ha-1; the maximum value was recorded in primary Shorea forest (26.21 m2·ha-1).Mean density and diversity indices were differed significantly within four different communities.No significant differences were observed in number of spccies,genera,family and tree basal cover area.Significant relationships were found between the species richness and different tree population groups across the communities.Results revealed that species diversity and density were increased in those forests due to past disturbances which resulted in slow accumulation of native oligarchic small tree species.Seventeen species were recorded with <2 individuals of which Saraca asoka (Roxb,) de Wilde and Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.etc.extensively used in local ethnomedicinal formulations.The present S.robusta Gaertn dominated forest was recorded richer (105 species) than other reported studies.Moraceae was found more speciose family instead of Papilionaceae and Euphorbiaceae than other Indian moist deciduous forests.Seasonal phenological gap in such moist deciduous forests influenced the population of Trachypithecus pileatus and capped langur.The analysis of FIV suggested a slow trend of shifting the population of

  10. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics a

  11. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  12. Movement patterns of three arboreal primates in a Neotropical moist forest explained by LiDAR-estimated canopy structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLean, Kevin A.; Trainor, Anne M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Hopkins, Mariah E.; Campbell, Christina J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many arboreal mammals in Neotropical forests are important seed dispersers that influence the spatial patterns of tree regeneration via their movement patterns, which in turn are determined by the canopy structure of the forest itself. However, the relationship between arboreal mammal mo

  13. Freezing temperatures as a limit to forest recruitment above tropical Andean treelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    The elevation of altitudinal treelines is generally believed to occur where low mean temperatures during the growing season limit growth and prevent trees from establishing at higher elevations. Accordingly, treelines should move upslope with increasing global temperatures. Contrary to this prediction, tropical treelines have remained stable over the past several decades despite increasing mean temperatures. The observed stability of tropical treelines, coupled with the drastically different temperature profiles between temperate and tropical treelines, suggests that using mean measures of temperature to predict tropical treeline movements during climate change may be overly simplistic. We hypothesize that frost events at tropical treelines may slow climate driven treeline movement by preventing tree recruitment beyond the established forest canopy. To assess this hypothesis, we measured freezing resistance of four canopy-forming treeline species (Weinmannia fagaroides, Polylepis pauta, Clethra cuneata, and Gynoxys nitida) at two life stages (juvenile and adult) and during two seasons (warm-wet and cold-dry). Freezing resistances were then compared to microclimatic data to determine if freezing events in the grassland matrix above treeline are too harsh for these forest species. Freezing resistance varied among species and life stages from -5.7 degrees C for juveniles of P. pauta to -11.1 degrees C for juveniles of W. fagaroides. Over a four-year period, the lowest temperatures recorded at 10 cm above ground level in the grasslands above treeline and at treeline itself were -8.9 degrees C and -6.8 degrees C, respectively. Juveniles maintained freezing resistances similar to adults during the coldest parts of the year and ontogenetic differences in freezing resistance were only present during the warm season when temperatures did not represent a significant threat to active plant tissue. These findings support the hypothesis that rare extreme freezing events at and

  14. Use of space, activity patterns, and foraging behavior of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in an Andean forest fragment in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Ana Cristina; Vélez, Adriana; Gómez-Posada, Carolina; López, Harrison; Zárate, Diego A; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2011-10-01

    Howler monkeys are among the most studied primates in the Neotropics, however, behavioral studies including estimation of food availability in Andean forests are scarce. During 12 months we studied habitat use, behavior, and feeding ecology of two groups of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in an isolated fragment in the Colombian Andes. We used a combination of focal animal and instantaneous sampling. We estimated fruit production (FP) using phenology transects, and calculated young leaf abundance by observing marked trees. The home range area used by each group was 10.5 and 16.7 ha and daily distances traveled were 431 ± 228 and 458 ± 259 m, respectively. We found that both groups spent most of their time resting (62-64%). Resting time did not increase with leaf consumption as expected using a strategy of energy minimization. We did not find a relationship between daily distances traveled and leaf consumption. However, howlers consumed fruits according to their availability, and the production of young leaves did not predict feeding time on this resource. Overall, our results are similar to those found on other forest types. We found that despite limited FP in Andean forests, this did not lead to a higher intake of leaves, longer resting periods, or shorter traveling distances for red howlers.

  15. Assessment of the Proximity of MODIS Active Fire Detections to Roads and Navigable Rivers in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.; Souza, C., Jr.; Cochrane, M. A.; Boschetti, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brazilian tropical moist forest biome supports the world's largest contiguous area of tropical forests and is experiencing high rates of deforestation. Fires are proxy indicators of human pressure and deforestation. Previous studies using satellite active fire detections and the official Brazilian road vector data (IBGE- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), including state, federal and some private roads, indicate that the majority of fires occur close to roads. In this quantitative study a new data set that also includes unofficial roads and navigable rivers acquired from Imazon (a non-profit research institution with a mission to promote sustainable development in the Amazon) are used to quantify annual distance distributions of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite active fire detections for 2003 to 2009. The majority (> 93%) of active fire detections are within 10 km of a road or a navigable river bank. Inter-state and inter-annual differences in the distance distributions, that may capture inter-annual rates of road expansion and fire variability, are also presented. These results may be useful for improvement of regional fire prediction models.

  16. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Joshua M; Silman, Miles R

    2014-01-01

    The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes.

  17. [Dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen in middle mountain moist evergreen broadleaf forest under different disturbance intensities in Ailao Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Wamg, Changyao

    2003-08-01

    The effects of three different intensities of disturbance on soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-).N contents were studied in three community types (primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest, secondary oak forest, and tea plantation, which represent three different intensities of disturbance). The results showed that the contents of inorganic nitrogen in soil (0-15 cm) of three community types had marked differences. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen decreased, while C/N ratio increased, with the increasing intensity of the disturbance. Simultaneously, the potential lose of NO3(-)-N increased. It suggested that the disturbance was not in favor of the retainment of soil fertility and the positive development of community succession. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen and C/N ratio were basically same at different spatial sites in same community, while the NO3(-)-N contents were obvious difference. This implied that soil NO3(-)-N content was less stable than NH4(+)-N. In addition, NH4(+)-N was the major component of the soil inorganic nitrogen, accounted for 95.5%-99.3% of the total content of soil inorganic nitrogen.

  18. Do variations in the composition and structure of vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest in southern Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in vegetation based on topographic location have become an interest of researchers. However, few studies have verified floristic associations related to the topographic position of a slope. In this work, we analyzed if variations in vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest. The vegetation was sampled in 25 plots of 400 m² distributed systematically, where individuals with a DBH ≥ 5.0 cm were measured. We sampled 1,727 individuals and 144 species. The NMDS ordination segregated three groups based on the topographic position of the slope (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0.05; ANOSIM, P < 0.001. Euterpe edulis and Sloanea guianensis were notable in the lower and middle sections of the slope, whereas Ocotea aciphylla and Alchornea triplinervia were notable in the upper section. Some species were indicators of the analyzed sectors, such as Actinostemon concolor and Alsophila setosa in the lower section, Cyathea corcovadensis and Rudgea recurva in the middle section, and Myrcia pulchra and Podocarpus sellowii in the upper section. Our results indicate that the floristic and structural variations observed by Veloso and Klein (1959 and Klein (1980; 1984 for Vale do Itajaí in Santa Catarina are statistically valid today, because we verified the formation of different groups according to the topographic position of the slope.

  19. Nitrogen fertilizer increases nitrous oxide, but not dinitrogen, emissions from moist tropical forest soils in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz, M.; Porder, S.; Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in tropical forests may increase substantially in coming decades, stimulating a concomitant increase of soil N gas emissions (dinitrogen (N2), nitrous (N2O) and nitric oxides). How N deposition might alter the relative emissions of these gases is unclear, and has ramifications for the global climate since N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. We used a small-scale fertilization study in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico to simulate the effects of N deposition on N gas emissions. Fertilizer was applied by placing mesh bags filled with ammonium saturated weak cation exchange resin directly on the mineral soil for two months. At that time, intact soil cores (0-10cm) were taken from below the bags. The cores were shipped to the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, where they were incubated in a helium headspace with either 0 or 20% oxygen (O2), and analyzed for N2 and N2O emissions. N fertilization increased N2O emissions fourfold (p=0.03). N2O production was positively correlated with field soil moisture (r=0.45, p=0.002), and was higher under 20% than 0% atmospheric O2 (p=0.003). With the exception of a handful of samples, we detected no measureable N2 production from these soils, and fertilization did not influence N2 production. This may have been because our experiment occurred during a drought that reduced soil moisture in the field by ˜20%. We have found that N2 emissions correlate with soil moisture elsewhere in the LEF. While we conclude that N deposition may not influence the N2O:N2 of soil emissions under such conditions, it is still unclear whether this result would hold under higher rainfall.

  20. Enrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata in a Central African Moist Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance, suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps.

  1. Dry and moist convection in the boundary layer over the Black Forest - a combined analysis of in situ and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kalthoff

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the COPS experiment performed in south-western Germany and eastern France in 2007, several insitu and remote sensing systems were operated at Hornisgrinde - the highest summit of the northern Black Forest mountains. For this case study, data from a surface flux station, radiosondes, cloud camera, cloud radar, wind lidar, water vapour differential absorption lidar, and microwave profiler were used to investigate turbulence characteristics in cloud-free and cloud-topped convective boundary layers (CBLs. Short time intervals were analysed, during which dry and moist convective cells occurred, in order to obtain insight of the processes that determine the turbulent characteristic in the CBL. The frequently-used aerosol concentration was used to calculate the CBL height, zi . It was found that active CBL clouds penetrated deeper into the free troposphere than dry convective cells. In the cloud-free CBL the normalised variance of the vertical velocity, ?w 2, decreased to zero approximately at zi , while ?w 2 was nearly constant between 0.5 and 1 z/zi in the cloud-topped CBL. The higher normalised ?w 2 values in the cloud layer could be attributed to the additional elevated heat source due to condensation. In the cloud-free CBL the latent heat flux showed a strong decrease between 0.7 and 1.1 z/zi , i.e., it considerably moistened the upper part of the CBL and entrainment zone. In the cloud-topped CBL the latent heat flux decreased significantly above the CBL top only and became zero at about 1.4 z/zi . CBL height calculations, which took measures of the turbulence into account, resulted in normalised ?w 2 and E profiles, which became zero at the CBL top and appeared more appropriate for CBL height scaling over complex terrain. The case studies demonstrated that only the combined use of different monitoring systems allowed for the recording of the entire structure of the convective cells and that synergetic measurements in cloud-topped CBLs were

  2. Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the last glacial maximum in the Southern Andean beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Escalona, Iván; D'Elía, Guillermo; Gouin, Nicolás; Fontanella, Frank M; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carla; Sites, Jack W; Victoriano, Pedro F

    2012-01-01

    Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes recovering two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades. The first group is distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region while the second group is distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades age and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an "intra-Andean multiple refuge" hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modelling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.

  3. Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae during the last glacial maximum in the Southern Andean beech forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Vera-Escalona

    Full Text Available Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes recovering two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades. The first group is distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region while the second group is distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades age and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an "intra-Andean multiple refuge" hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modelling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.

  4. Hydro-meteorological functioning of the Eastern Andean Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Insight from a paired catchment study in the Orinoco river basin highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Leemans, Rik

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests regulate large scale precipitation patterns and catchment-scale streamflow, while tropical mountains influence runoff by orographic effects and snowmelt. Along tropical elevation gradients, these climate/ecosystem/hydrological interactions are specific and heterogeneous. These interactions are poorly understood and represented in hydro-meteorological monitoring networks and regional or global earth system models. A typical case are the South American Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCF), whose water balance is strongly driven by fog persistence. This also depends on local and up wind temperature and moisture, and changes in this balance alter the impacts of changes in land use and climate on hydrology. These TMCFs were until 2010 only investigated up to 350km from the coast. Continental TMCFs are largely ignored. This gap is covered by our study area, which is part of the Orinoco river basin highlands and located on the northern Eastern Andes at an altitudinal range of 1550 to 2300m a.s.l. The upwind part of our study area is dominated by lowland savannahs that are flooded seasonally. Because meteorological stations are absent in our study area, we first describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability and analyse the corresponding catchment hydrology. Our hydro-meteorological data set is collected at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover from June 2013 to May 2014 and includes hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and runoff measurements. We compare our results with recent TCMF studies in the eastern Andean highlands in the Amazon basin. The studied elevational range always shows wetter conditions at higher elevations. This indicates a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. Lower elevations are more seasonally variable. Soil moisture data indicate that TMCFs do not use persistently more water than grasslands

  5. Andean waterways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    , social, and cultural concerns. Set in the highland town of Recuay in Ancash, the book traces the ways in which water affects political and ecological relations as glaciers recede. By looking at the shared waterways of four villages located in the foothills of Cordillera Blanca, it addresses pertinent......Andean Waterways explores the politics of natural resource use in the Peruvian Andes in the context of climate change and neoliberal expansion. It does so through careful ethnographic analysis of the constitution of waterways, illustrating how water becomes entangled in a variety of political...

  6. Temporal patterns of storage and flux of N and P in young Teak planta-tions of tropical moist deciduous forest, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2014-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) ranks among the top five tropical hardwood species and is being promoted for use in plantations in its non-native range due to its high economic value. However, there is a general lack of data on ecosystem functioning of teak plantations. We aimed at understanding storage and flux of nutrients related to young plantations of teak. Cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a chronosequence of plantations (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) was studied in the Moist Deciduous Forest Region of North India with the objective of investigating the nutrient cycling pattern at younger age since the current trend of harvesting age of the species in several tropical countries is being drastically reduced for quick return from this high value crop. Standing state, nutrient uptake, nutrient return and nutrient retransloca-tion in these plantations were estimated by tree harvesting and chemical analysis methods. The range of total standing nutrient across all these plantations was 20.3 to 586.6 kg⋅ha-1 for N and 5.3 to 208.8 kg⋅ha-1 for P. Net uptake of N ranged from 19.4 to 88.9 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and P from 3.8 to 18.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1. Retranslocation of N and P among all the stands ranged from 8.7 to 48.0 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 and 0.01 to 3.5 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1, respectively. Range of total nutrient return was 25.8 to 91.3 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for N and 2.7 to 10.1 kg⋅ha-1⋅a-1 for P. N and P use efficiency was between 107.4 and 192.5 g dry organic matter (OM) g-1N, and 551.9 and 841.1 g OM g-1P, respec-tively. The turnover time ranged from 2.04-13.17 years for N and be-tween 2.40-22.66 years for P. Quantity of N and P in the soil nutrient pool ranged from 2566.8 to 4426.8 kg⋅ha-1 and 372 to 520 kg⋅ha-1, re-spectively. Storage and flux of components in different plant parts of different aged plantations were assessed and depicted in compartment models. Percentage storage in soil, litter and vegetation ranged from 82% to 99%, 0.6% to 2.4% and 0.5% to

  7. Tardigrada from a sub-Andean forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with the description of Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Oscar; Londoño, Rosana; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-07-29

    Currently only 32 species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades have been reported in the literature for Colombia. Our study focused on both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades, which were extracted from eight samples of bryophytes and lichens collected in a sub-Andean forest transect in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fourteen species were found, six of which are new records for Colombia: Echiniscus madonnae Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006, Echiniscus virginicus Riggin, 1962, Milnesium krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007, Doryphoribius amazzonicus Lisi, 2011, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters, 1902) and Diphascon higginsi Binda, 1971; and one new to science. Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov., is characterized by having smooth cuticle, no eyes, buccal tube almost as long as the pharyngeal tube, well developed, obvious stylet furcae with long branches, slender claws, no lunules and no cuticular bars on the legs. The new species differs from I. umbellinae Barros, 1939, the most similar species, in having the stylet supports inserted precisely at the border between buccal and pharyngeal tube, more slender claws and more pronounced length differential between the external and internal claws of each leg. The total number of Colombian limno-terrestrial tardigrade species is raised to 37. 

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics of Andean frogs: Effects of forest disturbance and evidence for declines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M. Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss is a global phenomenon that can result in the collapse of food webs and critical ecosystem services. Amphibian population decline over the last century is a notable case of species loss because amphibians survived the last four major extinction events in global history, their current rate of extinction is unprecedented, and their rate of extinction is greater than that for most other taxonomic groups. Despite the severity of this conservation problem and its relevance to the study of global biodiversity loss, major knowledge gaps remain for many of the most threatened species and regions in the world. Rigorous estimates of population parameters are lacking for many amphibian species in the Neotropics. The goal of our study was to determine how the demography of seven species of the genus Pristimantis varied over time and space in two cloud forests in the Ecuadorian Andes. We completed a long term capture–mark–recapture study to estimate abundance, survival, and population growth rates in two cloud forests in the Ecuadorian Andes; from 2002 to 2009 at Yanayacu in the Eastern Cordillera and from 2002 to 2003 at Cashca Totoras in the Western Cordillera. Our results showed seasonal and annual variation in population parameters by species and sex. P. bicantus experienced significant reductions in abundance over the course of our study. Abundance, apparent survival, and population growth rates were lower in disturbed than in primary or mature secondary forest. The results of our study raise concerns for the population status of understudied amphibian groups and provide insights into the population dynamics of Neotropical amphibians.

  9. The southernmost Andean Mountain soils: a toposequence from Nothofagus Forest to Sub Antarctic Tundra at Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firme Sá, Mariana M.; Schaefer, Carlos E.; Loureiro, Diego C.; Simas, Felipe N.; Francelino, Marcio R.; Senra, Eduardo O.

    2015-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Fuegian Andes Cordilhera, the Martial glacier witnessed a rapid process of retreat in the last century. Up to now little is known about the development and genesis of soils of this region. A toposequence of six soils, ranging from 430-925 m a.s.l, was investigated, with emphasis on genesis, chemical and mineralogical properties. The highest, youngest soil is located just below the Martial Glacier Martial Sur sector, and the lowest soils occur on sloping moraines under Nothofagus pumilio forests. Based on chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics, the soils were classified according to the Soil taxonomy, being keyed out as Inceptisols and Entisols. Soil parent material of the soil is basically moraines, in which the predominant lithic components dominated by metamorphic rocks, with allochthonous contributions of wind-blown materials (very small fragments of volcanic glass) observed by hand lens in all horizons, except the highest profile under Tundra. In Nothofagus Deciduous Forests at the lowest part of the toposequence, poorly developed Inceptisols occur with Folistic horizons, with mixed "andic" and "spodic" characters, but with a predominance of andosolization (Andic Drystrocryepts). Under Tundra vegetation, Inceptisols are formed under hydromorphism and andosolization processes (Oxiaquic Dystrocrepts and Typic Dystrocrepts). On highland periglacial environments, soils without B horizon with strong evidence of cryoturbation and cryogenesis occur, without present-day permafrost down to 2 meters (Typic Cryorthents and Lithic Haploturbels). The mountain soils of Martial glacier generalize young, stony and rich in organic matter, with the exception of barely vegetated Tundra soils at higher altitudes. The forest soils are more acidic and have higher Al3+activity. All soils are dystrophic, except for the highest profile of the local periglacial environment. The organic carbon amounts are higher in forest soils and

  10. Atmospheric salt deposition in a tropical mountain rain forest at the eastern Andean slopes of South Ecuador – Pacific or Atlantic origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makowski Giannoni

    2015-10-01

    is below 10 %. This highlights the great importance of westerly winds from the Pacific for the sea-salt transport to the deposition into the tropical mountain forests at the eastern Andean slopes of southern Ecuador.

  11. Understanding mean transit times in Andean tropical montane cloud forest catchments: combining tracer data, lumped parameter models and uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbe, E.; Windhorst, D.; Crespo, P.; Frede, H.-G.; Feyen, J.; Breuer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Weekly samples from surface waters, springs, soil water and rainfall were collected in a 76.9 km2 mountain rain forest catchment and its tributaries in southern Ecuador. Time series of the stable water isotopes δ18O and δ2H were used to calculate mean transit times (MTTs) and the transit time distribution functions (TTDs) solving the convolution method for seven lumped parameter models. For each model setup, the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology was applied to find the best predictions, behavioral solutions and parameter identifiability. For the study basin, TTDs based on model types such as the Linear-Piston Flow for soil waters and the Exponential-Piston Flow for surface waters and springs performed better than more versatile equations such as the Gamma and the Two Parallel Linear Reservoirs. Notwithstanding both approaches yielded a better goodness of fit for most sites, but with considerable larger uncertainty shown by GLUE. Among the tested models, corresponding results were obtained for soil waters with short MTTs (ranging from 3 to 12 weeks). For waters with longer MTTs differences were found, suggesting that for those cases the MTT should be based at least on an intercomparison of several models. Under dominant baseflow conditions long MTTs for stream water ≥2 yr were detected, a phenomenon also observed for shallow springs. Short MTTs for water in the top soil layer indicate a rapid exchange of surface waters with deeper soil horizons. Differences in travel times between soils suggest that there is evidence of a land use effect on flow generation.

  12. Large-scale spatial variation in palm fruit abundance across a tropical moist forest estimated from high-resolution aerial photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Olff, Han; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wright, S. Joseph; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2008-01-01

    Fruit abundance is a critical factor in ecological studies of tropical forest animals and plants, but difficult to measure at large spatial scales. We tried to estimate spatial variation in fruit abundance on a relatively large spatial scale using low altitude, high-resolution aerial photography. We

  13. Tropical Andean Forests Are Highly Susceptible to Nutrient Inputs—Rapid Effects of Experimental N and P Addition to an Ecuadorian Montane Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeier, Jürgen; Hertel, Dietrich; Camenzind, Tessa; Cumbicus, Nixon L.; Maraun, Mark; Martinson, Guntars O.; Poma, L. Nohemy; Rillig, Matthias C.; Sandmann, Dorothee; Scheu, Stefan; Veldkamp, Edzo; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wullaert, Hans; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems. Here, we show that Neotropical montane rainforests respond rapidly to moderate additions of N (50 kg ha−1 yr−1) and P (10 kg ha−1 yr−1). Monitoring of nutrient fluxes demonstrated that the majority of added nutrients remained in the system, in either soil or vegetation. N and P additions led to not only an increase in foliar N and P concentrations, but also altered soil microbial biomass, standing fine root biomass, stem growth, and litterfall. The different effects suggest that trees are primarily limited by P, whereas some processes—notably aboveground productivity—are limited by both N and P. Highly variable and partly contrasting responses of different tree species suggest marked changes in species composition and diversity of these forests by nutrient inputs in the long term. The unexpectedly fast response of the ecosystem to moderate nutrient additions suggests high vulnerability of tropical montane forests to the expected increase in nutrient inputs. PMID:23071734

  14. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed

  15. DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL AGUA LLUVIA EN TRES BOSQUES ALTOANDINOS DE LA CORDILLERA CENTRAL DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION IN THREE HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS IN THE CENTRAL CORDILLERA OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego León Peláez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución del agua lluvia durante tres años en un bosque climácico de roble (Quercus humboldtii y dos plantaciones forestales, de pino (Pinus patula y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica ubicados en los Andes colombianos. Los principales ingresos de agua al bosque ocurrieron por la lluvia, cuyo valor medio anual fue 1.700 mm año-1. La precipitación interna tuvo la mayor participación de los flujos hídricos del bosque, siendo máxima en el cipresal (1.486 mm a-1, 90 % y mínima en el pinar (1.389 mm a-1, 81 %, mientras que el escurrimiento cortical fue muy bajo en los tres bosques (1-3 mm a-1, 0,1-0,2 %. La máxima intercepción se presentó en el pinar (329 mm a-1, equivalente al 19 % de la lluvia. A diferencia de estos flujos hídricos del dosel los flujos hídricos del suelo sí mostraron diferencias significativas entre coberturas (P Rainfall distribution was assessed for three years in a mature oak forest (Quercus humboldtii, pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in the northern part of the colombian Andean mountains. An annual average of 1700 mm was the main water input in the forests, which came from the bulk precipitation. The higher water flows were represented by throughfall, which showed a maximum value in the cypress (1486 mm y¹, 90% and a minimum one in the pine (1389 mm y¹, 81% plantations, respectively. Stemflow was very low in the three forest types (1-3 mm y¹, 0.1-0.2%. The maximum amount of water intercepted by forest crowns was found in the pine plantation (329 mm y¹, which accounted for 19% out of the total rainfall. In opposition to the patterns found for throughfall and stemflow, soil hydric flows did show significant differences among forest types (P<0.05. In the oak forest water infiltration inversely decreased with soil depth; this forest type showed the lowest water losses by deep drainage (2 mm y¹. Finally, throughfall and stemflow were significantly correlated with the

  16. Características de la avifauna en un fragmento de bosque húmedo premontano afectado por ruido vehicular (Features of the avifauna in a fragment of premontane moist forest affected by vehicular noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nathalia Sánchez-Guzmán

    2016-09-01

    fragment of premontane moist forest within the University of Tolima. The song birds were recorded for ten min/hour and the maximum value of noise (dB obtained in two minutes was recorded. The songs were analyzed using Audacity® and determination of species was conducted by consulting experts and confronting with databases. Were identified songs of 43 species mainly from the family Tyrannidae and Thraupidae. Significant differences were registered in the number of species (F3,47 = 4.38; p = 0.025 and the number of detections (F3,47 = 4.51; p = 0.02 between months, and the number of species (F3.1 = 3.14; p = 0.05 and the number of detections (F3.1 = 6.03; p = 0.004 between hours. There were no significant differences in the variables in relation to the intensity of vehicular noise, or noise values in the months and hours sampled. Finally, an increase in the number of detections as the transition from dry to rainy season was evident generated, so it is recommended that realize such studies to annual time scale.

  17. Qochas on Andean highlands

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    On the Andean highlands, the "qochas" are lakes or ponds of natural or artificial origin. An ancient agricultural technique is based on their use. Linked together by a network of canals, qochas form a system of water and soil management, alternately used for crops or pasture. The concave structure of qochas controls the strong evaporation produced by solar radiation and wind blowing. Qochas can be observed in the satellite imagery of Google Maps.

  18. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  19. Where and When did High Andean Relief Emerge?: Insights From Molecular Phylogenies of Andean Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, T.; Picard, D.; Plantard, O.

    2006-05-01

    Emergence of mountains along the Andean margin created new ecosystems and thus triggered a variety of adaptive biotic radiations, to the point that the Andes are to-day one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots. The rising Andes came to serve as a rain barrier: cloud forests developed along their eastern side due to orographic concentration of the westward-moving Amazonian moisture, and environments became drier in the west, with highland steppes extending above ~2-3 km. Relevant biologic data concerning Andean taxa adapted to these environments might therefore shed some light on the issue of Andean orogeny and surface uplift. Phylogeography (the analysis of phylogenetic trees in terms of biogeographic distributions) and phylochronology (the use of phylogenetic trees as molecular clocks) can be employed to reconstruct syn- orogenic radiations and estimate their timing, respectively. We use published molecular phylogenies that inform on the evolution of a variety of Andean animal and plant taxa, and therefore provide indirect means to assess and approximately date the acquisition of altitude. Phylogeographic analyses of 6 phylogenetic trees concerning unrelated Andean biota coincide in having their basal clades established in areas within the Central Andean Orocline (CAO), 5 of them clearly pointing to southern Peru and/or western Bolivia as the region of origin of the corresponding high-Andean taxa. A histogram of 9 phylochronologic estimates, based on trees concerning unrelated taxa (independently constructed and calibrated), suggests that the 2.0-2.5 km critical altitude was acquired during the 23-17 Ma or 26-16 Ma intervals (depending on the threshold used), confirming some geomorphic and geologic estimates (but conflicting with others). Although more data are needed, these results suggest that it was within the CAO and approximately during the early Miocene that the Andes acquired altitudes sufficient to trigger radiations of cold-adapted taxa, i.e. >~2 km

  20. CICLAJE Y PÉRDIDA DE NUTRIENTES DEL SUELO EN BOSQUES ALTOANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NUTRIENT CYCLING AND NUTRIENT LOSSES IN ANDEAN MONTANE FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Londoño Álvarez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El agua gravitacional y su composición química fueron medidos en bosques montanos de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, por un período de tiempo de dos años. Se utilizaron lisímetros sin tensión con el fin de estimar el agua gravitacional y los flujos de nutrientes a diferentes profundidades en el perfil del suelo. El mayor valor anual de agua gravitacional en el nivel más profundo (50- 80 cm, fue hallado en la cobertura de ciprés ( 492,7 mm, seguido por pino pátula ( 14,2 mm y roble ( 2,0 mm. De manera similar ocurrió con la pérdida de nutrientes, mostrando el mismo patrón hallado para el agua gravitacional. Así, para roble, pátula y ciprés, en su orden, se presentaron los siguientes valores de pérdida: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 y 2,270 kg ha-1 año-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 y 1,234 kg ha-1 año-1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 y 0,667 kg ha-1 año-1. De K se registraron 0,08 y 7,092 kg ha-1 año-1 para roble y ciprés respectivamente. Estos flujos siguieron el siguiente orden según cobertura, roble: K>P>Ca>Mg, pátula: Ca>Fe>P>Mg>Zn>Mn, y ciprés: K>Mn>Ca>P>Fe>Zn>Mg.Gravitational flow and its chemical composition were measured in montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii, in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia , over two years. Zero tension lysimeters were used at different depth soil levels. The highest gravitational flow value at highest depth (50- 80 cm was obtained in cypress plot ( 492,7 mm, followed by pine ( 14,2 mm and oak forest ( 2,0 mm. A similar behavior was encountered for nutrient losses, following the same pattern as gravitational flow. Thus, for oak, pine and cypress, nutrient losses were respectively: Ca: 0,004, 0,084 and 2,270 kg ha-1 y-1; P: 0,008, 0,052 and 1,234 kg ha-1 y -1; Mg: 0,004, 0,022 and 0,667 kg ha-1 y-1. K losses were 0,08 and 7,092 kg ha-1 y-1 for oak forest and

  1. Formulations of moist thermodynamics for atmospheric modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are the key quantities to study thermodynamic properties of the moist atmosphere, because they correspond to the First (internal energy and enthalpy) and Second (entropy) Laws of thermodynamics. The aim of this chapter is to search for analytical formulas for the specific values of enthalpy and entropy and for the moist-air mixture composing the atmosphere. The Third Law of thermodynamics leads to the definition of absolute reference values for thermal enthalpies and entropies of all atmospheric species. It is shown in this Chapter 22 that it is possible to define and compute a general moist-air entropy potential temperature, which is really an equivalent of the moist-air specific entropy in all circumstances (saturated, or not saturated). Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to define and compute the moist-air specific enthalpy, which is different from the thermal part of what is called Moist-Static-Energy in atmospheric studies.

  2. Andean region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    New opportunities for climate change mitigation arising from a higher energy integration among Andean Pact nations were analysed within the framework of the UNEP/GEF Project. Apart from the search for regional mitigation actions, the study was mainly aimed at detecting methodological problems which arise when passing from a strictly national view to the co-ordination of regional actions to deal with climate change. In accordance with the available resources and data, and in view of the mainly methodological nature of the project, it was decided to analyse the opportunities to delve into the energy integration of the Region as regards electricity and natural gas industries and their eventual impact on the emission of greenhouse gases. Although possibilities of setting up electricity and natural gas markets are real, their impacts on GHG emission from the energy system would not prove substantially higher than those which the nations could achieve through the use of their own energy resources, in view that the Andean systems are competitive rather than complementary. More in-depth studies and detail information will be required - unavailable for the present study - to be able to properly evaluate all benefits associated with higher energy integration. Nevertheless, the supply of natural gas to Ecuador seems to be the alternative with the highest impact on GHG emission. If we were to analyse the supply and final consumption of energy jointly, we would most certainly detect additional mitigation options resulting from higher co-operation and co-ordination in the energy field. (EHS)

  3. PRODUCCIÓN DE HOJARASCA FINA EN BOSQUES ALTO ANDINOS DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA FINE LITTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH ANDEAN FORESTS FROM ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Zapata Duque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de Quercus humboldtii y reforestados (Pinus patula y Cupressus lusitanica de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fue evaluada la producción de hojarasca por un periodo de 2 años. Se utilizaron trampas de hojarasca con el fin de recoger el material desprendido del dosel para su posterior separación en fracciones y pesado respectivo. El promedio de caída de hojarasca anual para Q. humboldtii, P. patula y C. lusitanica fue de 7877,20; 8362,47 y 3725,97 kg ha-1año-1 respectivamente; siendo la fracción foliar la que mayor participación tuvo en la producción total. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos de producción de hojarasca según fracciones por cobertura en función de diferentes variables hidrológicas, tales como la intensidad y la cantidad de lluvia del período simultáneo a la recolección de la hojarasca o inmediatamente anterior.Litter production was measured over two years in a montane oak forest (Quercus humboldtii and in pine (Pinus patula and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia ( Colombia . Litter traps were used in order to collect litterfall to be subsequently separated into fractions and weighed. Annual mean litterfall for Q. humboldtii, P. patula and C. lusitanica was of 7877,20; 8362,47 and 3725,97 kg ha-1year-1 respectively; being the leaf fraction of highest participation in total production. Multiple linear regression models were used to fit litter production for each fraction and forest cover as a function of different hydrological variables such as intensity and quantity of precipitation, both during the period when the leaf litter was collected and immediately preceding one.

  4. Understanding uncertainties when inferring mean transit times of water trough tracer-based lumped-parameter models in Andean tropical montane cloud forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbe, E.; Windhorst, D.; Crespo, P.; Frede, H.-G.; Feyen, J.; Breuer, L.

    2014-04-01

    Weekly samples from surface waters, springs, soil water and rainfall were collected in a 76.9 km2 mountain rain forest catchment and its tributaries in southern Ecuador. Time series of the stable water isotopes δ18O and δ2H were used to calculate mean transit times (MTTs) and the transit time distribution functions (TTDs) solving the convolution method for seven lumped-parameter models. For each model setup, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology was applied to find the best predictions, behavioral solutions and parameter identifiability. For the study basin, TTDs based on model types such as the linear-piston flow for soil waters and the exponential-piston flow for surface waters and springs performed better than more versatile equations such as the gamma and the two parallel linear reservoirs. Notwithstanding both approaches yielded a better goodness of fit for most sites, but with considerable larger uncertainty shown by GLUE. Among the tested models, corresponding results were obtained for soil waters with short MTTs (ranging from 2 to 9 weeks). For waters with longer MTTs differences were found, suggesting that for those cases the MTT should be based at least on an intercomparison of several models. Under dominant baseflow conditions long MTTs for stream water ≥ 2 yr were detected, a phenomenon also observed for shallow springs. Short MTTs for water in the top soil layer indicate a rapid exchange of surface waters with deeper soil horizons. Differences in travel times between soils suggest that there is evidence of a land use effect on flow generation.

  5. Epiphyte response to drought and experimental warming in an Andean cloud forest [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3le

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Rapp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes in tropical montane cloud forest is associated with frequent cloud immersion, which is thought to protect plants from drought stress. Increasing temperature and rising cloud bases associated with climate change may increase epiphyte drought stress, leading to species and biomass loss. We tested the hypothesis that warmer and drier conditions associated with a lifting cloud base will lead to increased mortality and/or decreased recruitment of epiphyte ramets, altering species composition in epiphyte mats. By using a reciprocal transplant design, where epiphyte mats were transplanted across an altitudinal gradient of increasing cloud immersion, we differentiated between the effects of warmer and drier conditions from the more general prediction of niche theory that transplanting epiphytes in any direction away from their home elevation should result in reduced performance. Effects differed among species, but effects were generally stronger and more negative for epiphytes in mats transplanted down slope from the highest elevation, into warmer and drier conditions, than for epiphyte mats transplanted from other elevations. In contrast, epiphytes from lower elevations showed greater resistance to drought in all treatments. Epiphyte community composition changed with elevation, but over the timescale of the experiment there were no consistent changes in species composition. Our results suggest some epiphytes may show resistance to climate change depending on the environmental and evolutionary context. In particular, sites where high rainfall makes cloud immersion less important for epiphyte water-balance, or where occasional drought has previously selected for drought-resistant taxa, may be less adversely affected by predicted climate changes.

  6. GRUPOS FUNCIONALES DE PLANTAS CON POTENCIAL USO PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN EN BORDES DE AVANCE DE UN BOSQUE ALTOANDINO Plant Functional Groups of Potential Restoration Use in Advancing Edges of High Andean Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA CASTELLANOS-CASTRO

    Full Text Available El estudio de grupos funcionales de plantas es una herramienta útil en la identificación de características ecológicas de importancia en la regeneración de una comunidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue la identificación de grupos funcionales de plantas en bordes de avance de un bosque alto andino y la evaluación de su importancia en el curso de la sucesión secundaria en pastizales abandonados. Con base en levantamientos de vegetación de 10 x 10 m para el estrato arbóreo-arbustivo y de 1 x 1 m para el estrato herbáceo, y la revisión de atributos vitales de las especies registradas, se realizó una clasificación multivariante de las especies en grupos emergentes de plantas. Los atributos más importantes para la clasificación de los grupos emergentes fueron el método de dispersión y la ramificación basal de tallo; adicionalmente se presentaron diferencias entre los grupos del estrato arbustivo-arbóreo en la presencia de propagación vegetativa, el área foliar específica y el cociente altura/diámetro a la altura del pecho. Se definieron cuatros grupos para las especies de estrato herbáceo y cinco para las del estrato arbustivo-arbóreo, los cuales reúnen especies con estrategias de colonización similares. Dentro de los grupos definidos, las especies herbáceas dispersadas por diversos medios abióticos, las especies arbustivas con ramificación basal dispersadas por viento y las especies dispersadas por aves representan estrategias claves en la colonización del área de potrero adyacente dominada por Holcus lanatus y en la facilitación del establecimiento de especies del bosque secundario.The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant’s functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasturelands

  7. Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zakinyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.

  8. A Modified Moist Ageostrophic Q Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Caijun; SHOU Shaowen

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-geostrophic Q vector is an important diagnostic tool for studying development of surface rainfall associated with large-scale weather systems and is calculated using data at single vertical level. When ageostrophic Q vector was introduced, it required data at two vertical levels. In this study, moist ageostrophic Q vector is modified so that it can be calculated using data at a single vertical level. The comparison study between the original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors is conducted using the data from 5 to 6 July 1991 during the torrential rainfall event associated with the Changjiang-Huaihe mei-yu front in China. The results reveal that divergences of original and modified moist ageostrophic Q vectors have similar horizontal distributions and their centers are almost located in the precipitation centers. This indicates that modified moist ageostrophic Q vector can be used to diagnose convective development with reasonable accuracy.

  9. Caracterización Física, Química y Mineralógica de Suelos con Vocación Forestal Protectora Región Andina Central Colombiana / Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Soils with a Protective Forest Vocation, Central Andean Region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el dominio de clase textural areno francosa en la plantación de aliso y franco arenoso en el bosque secundario. Químicamente el suelo del perfil plantado con aliso, presentó valores de pH más bajos, mayor saturación de acidez intercambiable y menor saturación de bases en comparación con el perfil del bosque secundario. En ambos perfiles, el análisis óptico con microscopio petrográfico, permitió observar que los feldespatos, del grupo de las plagioclasas y el vidrio volcánico, se destacan como minerales abundantes en la fracción arena; mientras que en la fracción arcilla, el material no cristalino, seconsidera mineral predominante, seguido de la cristobalita y los feldespatos, según la metodología de difracción de rayos X. Se concluye que la vocación de uso forestal protector, bajo el cual se encuentran sometidos ambos suelos, es el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta que las limitaciones químicas, dificultan el establecimiento de sistemas de producción agropecuaria. / Abstract. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of two soil profiles on two slopes, with a management currently corresponding to an Andean alder plantation (Alnus acuminata and a secondary forest, was carried out at the Protective Forest Reserve of the CHEC. This reserve is located on the western slope of the Central Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes, in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria, Caldas Department. The results

  10. Land cover change in Colombia: surprising forest recovery trends between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Cuervo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km(2 while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km(2, which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km(2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions should be considered for new protected areas.

  11. Millimeter-Wave Studies of Moist Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    m3) DRY WATER HAZE, FOG AIR + VAPOR + CLOUD + RAIN TOTAL --------------------------------------------------------------------- FREQUENCY Nt-IMAGINARY...100.000 (GHz) OUTPUT: Case Number: 1 (Refractive delay = 1171.5 pe/km) MOIST AIR (v= 12.81 g/m3) DRY WATER HAZE, FOG AIR + VAPOR + CLOUD + RAIN TOTAL

  12. Multiscale Simulation of Moist Global Atmospheric Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Wojciech W. [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The overarching goal of this award was to include phase changes of the water substance and accompanying latent heating and precipitation processes into the all-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamics EUlerian/LAGrangian (EULAG) model. The model includes fluid flow solver that is based on either an unabbreviated set of the governing equations (i.e., compressible dynamics) or a simplified set of equations without sound waves (i.e., sound-proof, either anelastic or pseudo-incompressible). The latter set has been used in small-scale dynamics for decades, but its application to the all-scale dynamics (from small-scale to planetary) has never been studied in practical implementations. The highlight of the project is the development of the moist implicit compressible model that can be run by applying time steps, as long as the anelastic model is limited only by the computational stability of the fluid flow and not by the speed of sound waves that limit the stability of explicit compressible models. Applying various versions of the EULAG model within the same numerical framework allows for an unprecedented comparison of solutions obtained with various sets of the governing equations and straightforward evaluation of the impact of various physical parameterizations on the model solutions. The main outcomes of this study are reported in three papers, two published and one currently under review. These papers include comparisons between model solutions for idealized moist problems across the range of scales from small to planetary. These tests include: moist thermals rising in the stable-stratified environment (following Grabowski and Clark, J. Atmos. Sci. 1991) and in the moist-neutral environment (after Bryan and Fritsch, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), moist flows over a mesoscale topography (as in Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), deep convection in a sheared environment (following Weisman and Klemp, Mon. Wea. Rev. 1982), moist extension of the baroclinic wave on

  13. 热带云雾林植物物种多样性与环境关系研究%Relationship between Plant Species Diversity and Habitat in A Tropical Moist Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊梦辉; 龙文兴; 杨小波; 黄瑾; 李时兴; 林明基; 王茜茜; 林灯; 康勇

    2015-01-01

    以海南霸王岭国家级自然保护区热带云雾林为研究对象,调查群落物种组成,测定环境因子,分析种——面积和种——多度之间的关系及起测胸径与物种丰富度、多度、Simpson指数、Shannon-wiener指数的关系,探究物种多样性与环境因子之间的关系。结果表明:热带云雾林共调查到木本植物9323株,分属40科、70属、109种。其中优势科为金缕梅科、桃金娘科、山矾科和壳斗科等;优势种为蚊母树(Distylium racemosum)、赤楠(Syzygium buxifolium)、九节(Psychotria rubra)和黄杞(Engelhardtia roxburghiana)等。热带云雾林种——面积及种——多度之间的关系均呈对数曲线,最小取样面积及最小多度分别为1000 m2和1000;物种丰富度、多度、Simpson指数及Shannon-wiener指数随起测胸径变化呈“倒J”型曲线;当群落包含95%物种多样性时,最大起测胸径约为3 cm。多度、物种丰富度观测值、bootstrap指数与土壤有效氮及有效磷密切相关。%Two sample plots of 8 400 m2 were established in Bawanglin National Nature Reserve, Hainan province for investigating species composition of plant communities and habitat factors of the tropical mist forest. The results showed that there are total of 9323 vascular plants, belonging to 109 species of 40 families and 70 genera. The dominant families are Hamamelidaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae and Fagaceae, and the dominant species areDistylium racemosum,Syzygium buxifolium,Psychotria rubraandEngelhardtia roxburghiana. Relationship of species richness with area and species richness with abundance were logarithmic curves, with the minimum sampling area of 1000 m2 and the minimum abundance of 1000. Species richness, abundance, Simpson index and Shannon-wiener index changed with minimum measure diameter, like inverted J-shaped curves. The maximum measured diameter was 3 cm, the surveyed community had 95% species richness

  14. Chagas disease in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guhl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Countries' Initiative (ACI for controlling Chagas disease was officially created in 1997 within the framework of the Hipolito Unanue Agreement (UNANUE between the Ministries of Health of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its objective was to interrupt transmission via vector and transfusion in the region, taking into account that there are 12.5 million people at risk in the four Andean countries forming the initiative in the area and around 3 million people are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The progress of control activities for the vector species present in the Andean sub-region, for different reasons, has been slow and control interventions have still not been installed in all geographical areas occupied by the target species. This has been partly due to lack of knowledge about these vector populations' biological characteristics, and consequent uncertainty about which are the appropriate control measures and strategies to be implemented in the region. The main vector species present important similarities in Venezuela and Colombia and in Ecuador and Northern Peru and they can be approached in a similar way throughout the whole regions, basing approaches on and adapting them to the current strategies being developed in Venezuela during the 1960s which have been progressively adopted in the Southern Cone and Central-American region. Additional measures are needed for keeping endemic areas free from Rhodnius prolixus silvatic populations, widely spread in the Orinoco region in Colombia and Venezuela. Regarding aetiological treatment, it is worth mentioning that (with the exception of Colombia none of the other countries forming the ACI have registered medicaments available for treating infected young people. There are no suitable follow-up programmes in the sub-region or for treating cases of congenital Chagas disease. An integral and integrated programme encompassing all the aspects including transmission by transfusion which

  15. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique

    2013-01-01

    One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrat...

  16. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2011-08-15

    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  17. Tracking Surface Cyclones with Moist Potential Vorticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohao CAO; Da-Lin ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Surface cyclone tracks are investigated in the context of moist potential vorticity (MPV). A prognostic equation of surface absolute vorticity is derived which provides a basis for using negative MPV (NMPV) in the troposphere as an alternative approach to track surface cyclones. An observed case study of explosive lee cyclogenesis is performed to test the effectiveness of the MPV approach. It is shown that when a surface cyclone signal is absent due to the blocking of the Rocky Mountains, the surface cyclone can be well identified by tracing the peak NMPV.

  18. Phylogenetic insights into Andean plant diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLuebert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Andean orogeny is considered as one of the most important events for the developmentof current plant diversity in South America. We compare available phylogenetic studies anddivergence time estimates for plant lineages that may have diversified in response to Andeanorogeny. The influence of the Andes on plant diversification is separated into four major groups:The Andes as source of new high-elevation habitats, as a vicariant barrier, as a North-Southcorridor and as generator of new environmental conditions outside the Andes. Biogeographicalrelationships between the Andes and other regions are also considered. Divergence timeestimates indicate that high-elevation lineages originated and diversified during or after the majorphases of Andean uplift (Mid-Miocene to Pliocene, although there are some exceptions. Asexpected, Andean mid-elevation lineages tend to be older than high-elevation groups. Mostclades with disjunct distribution on both sides of the Andes diverged during Andean uplift.Inner-Andean clades also tend to have divergence time during or after Andean uplift. This isinterpreted as evidence of vicariance. Dispersal along the Andes has been shown to occur ineither direction, mostly dated after the Andean uplift. Divergence time estimates of plant groupsoutside the Andes encompass a wider range of ages, indicating that the Andes may not benecessarily the cause of these diversifications. The Andes are biogeographically related to allneighbouring areas, especially Central America, with floristic interchanges in both directionssince Early Miocene times. Direct biogeographical relationships between the Andes and otherdisjunct regions have also been shown in phylogenetic studies, especially with the easternBrazilian highlands and North America. The history of the Andean flora is complex and plantdiversification has been driven by a variety of processes, including environmental change,adaptation, and biotic interactions

  19. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Nordmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape...

  20. Diagnostic Analyses and Application of the Moist Ageostrophic Vector Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚秀萍; 于玉斌; 寿绍文

    2004-01-01

    Considering the main thermal forcing factor,which is critical for the development of synoptic systems,the concept of the moist ageostrophic vector Q is introduced.A formula of the moist ageostrophic Q and the ageostrophic diabatic equation,in which the divergence of the moist ageostrophic Q is taken as a single forcing term,is derived.Meanwhile,the moist ageostrophic Q is applied to diagnose a torrential rain process in North China.The results suggest that the moist ageostrophic Q can clearly reveal the system development during the torrential rain process; the corresponding relationship between the divergence of the moist ageostrophic Q and the rainfall area is better than that of the vertical velocity (ω) and the divergence of the dry Q; the 6-h rainfall region can be correctly drawn according to the negative area of the divergence of the moist ageostrophic Q,and its precipitation is positively correlated to the magnitude of the divergence of the moist ageostrophic Q.The research provides valuable information for improving short-term weather forecast.

  1. The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Condamine, Fabien L; Antonelli, Alexandre; Mulch, Andreas; Davis, Charles C

    2016-06-01

    The tropical Andes of South America, the world's richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for its direct incorporation of geological data on Andean uplift into a macroevolutionary model. We show that speciation and extinction are differentially influenced by abiotic factors: speciation rates rose concurrently with Andean elevation, while extinction rates decreased during global cooling. Pollination syndrome and fruit type, both biotic traits known to facilitate mutualisms, played an additional role in driving diversification. These abiotic and biotic factors resulted in one of the fastest radiations reported to date: the centropogonids, whose 550 species arose in the last 5 million yr. Our study represents a significant advance in our understanding of plant evolution in Andean cloud forests. It further highlights the power of combining phylogenetic and Earth science models to explore the interplay of geology, climate, and ecology in generating the world's biodiversity.

  2. Two new Cystoderma species from high Andean Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saar, I.; Læssøe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador.......ABSTRACT: Two new agaric species, Cystoderma andinum and C. papallactae are described from high Andean Ecuador....

  3. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pawson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between moist transport, satellite CO2 retrievals, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. Here we examine the effect of moist processes on (1 synoptic CO2 transport by Version-4 and Version-5 NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (NASA-DAS meteorological analyses, and (2 source/sink inversion. We find that synoptic transport processes, such as fronts and dry/moist conveyors, feed off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to continental scale source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.25 PgC yr−1 in northern mid-latitudes. Second, moist processes are represented differently in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5, leading to differences in vertical CO2 gradients, moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport, and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified, causing source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.55 PgC yr−1 in northern mid-latitudes. These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  4. Estimating the gross moist stability in shallow and deep convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. A.; Jong, B. T.; Chou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Gross moist stability has been used to study the link between tropical deep convection and large scale circulation in a moist static energy (MSE) budget. Here we aim to calculate the gross moist stability from more realistic profiles of vertical velocity and extend it beyond deep convection, adding shallow convection. Based on a principal component analysis, we were able to decompose the vertical velocity into two leading modes, which are dominated by deep and shallow convection, respectively. According to the deep and shallow modes, we calculate the gross moist stability for these two modes and discuss the roles of deep and shallow convection in the MSE budget. The gross moist stability of deep convection tends to be positive in the tropics, while that of shallow convection is negative over most areas of the tropics. This implies that deep convection exports MSE to stabilize the atmosphere and shallow convection imports MSE to enhance deep convection and destabilize the atmosphere. Based on the spatial distribution, moisture tends to reduce the gross moist stability of deep convection, while dry static energy has little impact. Deeper deep convection tends to have greater gross moist stability. For shallow convection, on the other hand, the gross moist stability is affected not only by low-level moisture but also mid-level moisture. Both moister low-level and drier mid-level moisture reduce the gross moist stability of shallow convection. Greater low-level dry static energy, which is associated with warmer sea surface temperature, also tends to reduce gross moist stability.

  5. Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majda, Andrew J. [New York University; Xing, Yulong [ORNL; Mohammadian, Majid [University of Ottawa, Canada

    2010-01-01

    Determining the finite-amplitude preconditioned states in the hurricane embryo, which lead to tropical cyclogenesis, is a central issue in contemporary meteorology. In the embryo there is competition between different preconditioning mechanisms involving hydrodynamics and moist thermodynamics, which can lead to cyclogenesis. Here systematic asymptotic methods from applied mathematics are utilized to develop new simplified moist multi-scale models starting from the moist anelastic equations. Three interesting multi-scale models emerge in the analysis. The balanced mesoscale vortex (BMV) dynamics and the microscale balanced hot tower (BHT) dynamics involve simplified balanced equations without gravity waves for vertical vorticity amplification due to moist heat sources and incorporate nonlinear advective fluxes across scales. The BMV model is the central one for tropical cyclogenesis in the embryo. The moist mesoscale wave (MMW) dynamics involves simplified equations for mesoscale moisture fluctuations, as well as linear hydrostatic waves driven by heat sources from moisture and eddy flux divergences. A simplified cloud physics model for deep convection is introduced here and used to study moist axisymmetric plumes in the BHT model. A simple application in periodic geometry involving the effects of mesoscale vertical shear and moist microscale hot towers on vortex amplification is developed here to illustrate features of the coupled multi-scale models. These results illustrate the use of these models in isolating key mechanisms in the embryo in a simplified content.

  6. Administrative Law in the Andean Community of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Santos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the contemporary tendencies of Administrative Law is the recognition of its existence beyond the borders of a State. Under such premise, this paper aims to demonstrate that in the Andean Community of Nations sufficient elements to consider the existence of an Andean administrative Law. In the Andean statutes and rules, it is possible to identify an administrative function, as well as an administrative organization inside the Andean Integration System; and a system of Andean administrative rules and an administrative justice system.

  7. Moist Soil Management Plan : Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This moist soil management plan for Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge covers the 1982 management and manipulation of seasonally flooded wetlands to produce a mudflat...

  8. Moist Soil Management of Wetland Impoundments for Plants and Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In year’s past an impoundment was drained (a drawdown) when floating-leaved plants covered more than 50% of the water area. Drawdowns encourage beneficial moist soil...

  9. Evolving Regional Security in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    security forces or judicial systems reduces the effectiveness of regional cooperation. Past efforts to achieve consensus among the Andean states have...Trimestre 2001. Nuñez, Joseph. Una Arquitectura para la Seguridad del Siglo XXI par alas Américas: Cooperación Multilateral, Paz y Poder Flexible

  10. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  11. Diversidad de coleópteros en un bosque alto andino del municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá (Diversity of coleoptera in a high forest Andean in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bohórquez Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio desarrollado en el municipio de Santa Rosa de Viterbo, ubicado a 2750 msnm, en un relicto de bosque húmedo montano bajo (bh-M. Dicho estudio tuvo como finalidad identificar la diversidad y riqueza de entomofauna referida al orden Coleóptera, en los predios de la Escuela de Policía Rafael Reyes (ESREY. Es importante señalar que este es el primer estudio de este tipo realizado en la zona. Se reportan un total de 270 individuos capturados pertenecientes a 17 familias, 25 subfamilias, 30 tribus y 44 géneros; siendo Coccinellidae la familia más representativa (19,3% y Dryophthoridae la familia menos representativa (0,4%. Vale la pena mencionar que, según lo reportado por Martínez (2005, no se encuentran registros de ningún género de Carabidae en el municipio, por lo que se puede destacar que los resultados publicados en este artículo son los primeros registros para Santa Rosa de Viterbo. Así mismo, la revisión de Medina, Lopera-Toro, Vitolo & Gill, (2001 sobre escarabajos coprófagos de Colombia indica que los géneros encontrados en este estudio no se registran a una altitud mayor a 2600 msnm por lo que se puede reportar un registro altitudinal para Canthon y Dichotomius Finalmente, en el artículo se presentan los resultados de un proceso de educación desarrollado con niños de grado quinto de primaria de una institución educativa del municipio y con los semilleros de investigación de la ESREY, proceso que fue diseñado como estrategia para promover la apropiación social de conocimiento y divulgación de los resultados del trabajo. (Abstract. This article presents the results of a study conducted in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Viterbo, located at 2750 meters above sea level, in a relict humid montane forest under (bh-M. This study aimed to identify the diversity and richness of Coleoptera order entomofauna referred to in the grounds of the School of Police Rafael Reyes

  12. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  13. On the computation of moist-air specific thermal enthalpy

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The specific thermal enthalpy of a moist-air parcel is defined analytically following a method in which specific moist entropy is derived from the Third Law of thermodynamics. Specific thermal enthalpy is computed by integrating specific heat content with respect to absolute temperature and including the impacts of various latent heats (i.e., solid condensation, sublimation, melting, and evaporation). It is assumed that thermal enthalpies can be set to zero at $0$ K for the solid form of the main chemically inactive components of the atmosphere (solid-$\\alpha$ oxygen and nitrogen, hexagonal ice). The moist thermal enthalpy is compared to already existing formulations of moist static energy (MSE). It is shown that the differences between thermal enthalpy and the thermal part of MSE may be quite large. This prevents the use of MSE to evaluate the enthalpy budget of a moist atmosphere accurately, a situation that is particularly true when dry-air and cloud parcels mix because of entrainment/detrainment processes...

  14. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  15. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L.; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ˜1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001-2006 and 2007-2013. Approximately 1680 km2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007-2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós-Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena-Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ˜32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems, spread well

  16. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to satisf

  17. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  18. Volcanism and associated hazards: The Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant improvements in reducing volcano risk in the Andean region. But much remains to be done.

  19. Climate Change Impacts in a Colombian Andean Tropical Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N

  20. Andean uplift promotes lowland speciation through vicariance and dispersal in Dendrocincla woodcreepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jason T; Price, Momoko

    2011-11-01

    Andean uplift contributed importantly to the build-up of high Neotropical diversity. Final uplift of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia separated once-contiguous lowland faunas east and west of the Andes between 5 and 3.5 million years ago (Ma hereafter). We used DNA sequences from several moderate- to fast-evolving mitochondrial and two slow-evolving nuclear genes to generate a well-supported phylogeny of Dendrocincla woodcreepers, a genus with multiple species endemic to lowland regions both east and west of the Andes. A time-calibrated phylogeny and dispersal-vicariance analysis indicated that uplift of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia resulted in the initial vicariant separation of a widespread lowland form east and west of the Andes at c. 3.6 Ma. This was followed by two separate east-to-west dispersal events over or around the completed Andes, each producing a genetically distinct lineage. Our analysis suggests that Andean uplift promoted the build-up of biodiversity in lowland Neotropical faunas both through vicariance-based speciation during uplift and through dispersal-based speciation following uplift. In contrast to the multiple colonizations of the trans-Andean region by Dendrocincla, the Atlantic Forest was colonized from the Amazon only once, followed by in situ diversification.

  1. Study on conglutination model for fine moist material during screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惜明; 邓凡政; 赵跃民; 朱红; 高庆宇

    2002-01-01

    All coal preparation in which fine coal is handled depends to some extent on the wettability of coal surface by water. The content of external water in fine moist material plays significant role on screening. This article probed into the causations why fine moist materials adhere to the screen deck on common vibrator in the process of screening. Although the wetting that results from interactions between the coal surface and water molecules that are determined by the composition of coal matrix (interrelated with coal rank) and heterogeneous constituents such as oxygen function groups, mineral impurities and pores have something to do with adhering, we found that the effect of wettability is not the key causation to agglomeration, in other words, water bridges among particles are the key causation to the fine moist materials adhesion. This paper also shows how the capillary adhesive forces forms and how to calculate and measure these forces.

  2. On the definition of a moist-air potential vorticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A new potential vorticity is derived by using a specific entropy formulation expressed in terms of a moist-air entropy potential temperature. The new formulation is compared with Ertel's version and with others based on virtual and equivalent potential temperatures. The new potential vorticity is subject to conservative properties ensured by the Second Law applied to the moist-air material derivatives. It is shown that the upper tropospheric and stratospheric (dry) structures are nearly the same as those obtained with Ertel's component. Moreover, new structures are observed in the low troposphere, with negative values associated with moist frontal regions. The negative values are observed in the frontal regions where slantwise convection instabilities may take place, but they are smaller than those observed with the equivalent potential vorticity. The main purpose of the article is to diagnose the behaviour of the new potential vorticity from numerical output generated by the ARPEGE NWP model, with the help o...

  3. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  4. Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting

    2006-01-01

    @@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.

  5. Interaction of Moist Convection With Jupiter's Zonal Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Huang, X.

    2004-12-01

    Since Voyager times, observations have suggested that Jupiter's zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion (BSTC) (Ingersoll et al., 1981; Limaye, 1986; Li et al., in press). Recently, images from the Cassini Imaging Science System (ISS) (Porco et al., 2003; Li et al., in press) and from the Galileo imaging system (Little et al., 1999; Gierasch et al., 2000) have revealed important features of moist convection on Jupiter and suggest that moist convection may be driving the zonal jets. Here we investigate the interaction of moist convection with the zonal jets in a reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic model using a moist convection parameterization that is based on the new observations. Our study shows that moist convection can excite multiple jets when the velocity of the flow in the deep underlying layer is zero, but these jets never violate the BSTC. However, based on a model of the interaction between the magnetic field and the zonal flow, Liu and Stevenson (2003, DPS 35th meeting) predict that there are easterly flows in the deep underlying layer at middle latitudes. With easterly flows in the deep underlying layer we can get stable multiple jets that violate the BSTC. Furthermore, the modeled jets have almost same width and amplitude as the observed jets. An easterly flow in the lower layer provides a simple explanation for why the upper layer jets are stable even though they violate the BSTC. The model reproduces the tilted, chevron-shaped cloud features provided we assume that the clouds persist longer than the moist convective storms that produce them.

  6. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA, which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions" recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene.

    The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru. The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (<0.05 km3 in 1985 of Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia killed about 25 000 people – the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent

  7. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MOIST EXPOSED BURN THERAPY/MOIST EXPOSED BURN OINTMENT ON MAINTAINING A PHYSIOLOGICAL MOIST ENVIRONMENT IN BURN WOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To verify the moisture maintaining effect of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) in treating burn wound. Methods: Rabbit model with II degree burn wound was used in this study. Observations were conducted at 0 (before burn), 0.5, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours postburn. The data of wound water evaporation, wound appearance and pathological changes of the wounds were compared with that of the burn wounds treated with Vaseline or conventional dry exposed therapy. Results: It was found that wounds treated with MEBO had water evaporation close to that of normal skin and was significantly less than that of the wounds treated with dry exposed therapy (P<0.01) MEBO did not obstruct water evaporation from wound as Vaseline did(P<0.01).Wounds treated with MEBO had good permeability and adequate drainage. Conclusion: MEBO provided the wounds with a physiological moist environment

  9. Andean uplift and Neogene climate change in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J. A.; Currie, B. S.; Jordan, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Today the Andean Cordillera and Altiplano provide a major obstacle to atmospheric circulation over South America. The Altiplano Plateau prevents moist air masses from the Amazon Basin from reaching the Atacama Desert, causing the Atacama to be one of the driest places on Earth. Although Neogene sedimentary records from the western flank of the Andes should record the dramatic shift to hyperaridity that resulted from the growth of the Altiplano Plateau, the climatic implications of many sedimentary sequences have been difficult to decipher. The causes of the difficulties are complex, such as the relative influences of tectonics and active volcanism versus climate, and the roles of local as well as regional precipitation on groundwater and on the deposition of paludal sediments in basin centers. Over the last few years our research group has focused on using paleosols and the isotopic composition of palustrine carbonates in the Calama Basin (22°S) to try to identify a local precipitation signal and determine the onset of extreme hyperaridity as a consequence of the growth of the Altiplano. We have determined the soil morphological characteristics, salt chemistry, and mass independent fractionation anomalies (Δ17O values) in dated paleosols to reconstruct a Middle Miocene climatic transition from semi-aridity to extreme hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert. Paleosols along the southeastern margin of the Calama Basin change from calcic Vertisols with root traces, slickensides, and gleyed horizons to an extremely mature salic Gypsisol with pedogenic nitrate. We interpret this transition, which occurred between 19 and 13 Ma, to represent a change in precipitation from >200 mm/yr to Calama Basin also show a marked change during this time period. δ13C values of palustrine carbonates increase from -7 to +7? VPDB and δ18O values increases from -7 to +1? VPDB over the late to Middle Miocene time. This major trend towards more positive values is likely the result of several

  10. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  11. Clay dispersability in moist earthworm casts of different soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Nijhuis, E.; Breemen, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Earthworms were fed soil from two polders, differing in soil age and land use (grass and arable). Sterilised and non-sterilised moist earthworm casts were, directly or after ageing (for 2, 4, 8 and 20 weeks), analysed for clay dispersability and polysaccharide content, either as such, or after treat

  12. The Red de Monitoreo de BosquesAndinos: A communication platform for science and policy in the Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, S.; Cuesta, F. X.; Malizia, A.; Carilla, J.; Bustamante, M.; Yepes, A.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop held in October 2012 in Lima, Peru, brought together more than 40 scientists and policy makers working in Andean forest ecosystems, one of the richer and most threatened ecosystems of the world. Among the various results of the workshop, there is the formation of the network "Red de Bosques Andinos". The goals of the network include to stimulate scientific research in Andean forest ecosystems by promoting collaboration among scientists, and to serve as a platform to facilitate applied research and communication between scientists and policy makers. Current members of the network include scientists of Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Peru, USA, and representatives of Ministries of Environment and the National Climate Change Adaptation Programs of Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. The network has started to work in two critical documents for the region. The first one is an extended protocol to monitor diversity and carbon in Andean forests. This protocol, partly based on unpublished efforts, has been developed by the Instituto de Ecología Regional, Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and has been revised and improved by experts working in the Andes. The document describe methods to document ecological changes that take place over mid- and long periods of time. It focuses on monitoring changes on the diversity and growth of trees, shrubs and lianas, cover of herbaceous species, and carbon content in forests. This extended protocol will be a useful tool for students and researchers interested in conducting long-term ecological research. Moreover, the use of this tool will produce standardized data needed to understand ecological processes that take place at large spatial scales. The document will be freely available at www.condesan.org. The second document consists of an analysis of the dynamics of trees and carbon in the Andean region. The members of the network have contributed with data of more than 70 permanent forest plots located from

  13. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  14. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  15. Landscape genetics, historical isolation and cross-Andean gene flow in the wax palm, Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trénel, Philipp; Hansen, Michael M; Normand, Signe; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the role of landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and divergence is essential for understanding patterns of biogeography and diversity. This is particularly relevant for the Andes region, a major biodiversity hotspot of relatively recent origin. We examined the phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon echinulatum (Arecaceae) that occurs in two narrow bands of montane forests on each side of the Andes in Ecuador and northeastern Peru. First, we tested the hypothesis of C. echinulatum being a geographic cline species crossing the Andes in the Amotape-Huancabamba zone (AHZ) of southern Ecuador/northern Peru, as indicated by observations on fruit morphology. Second, we assessed the timeframe of cross-Andean divergence, and third, we investigated the impact of contemporary and historical landscape features on observed spatio-genetic patterns. Individual-based Bayesian clustering (BC) identified a northeastern, southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern cluster, with areas of genetic discontinuity coinciding with the Andes and the Giron-Paute deflection. F-statistics derived from BC suggested an east-to-west dispersal history. Population-based analyses revealed strong genetic structuring at both small and large geographic scales. Interpopulation relationships and Mantel tests strongly supported the cline model with cross-Andean dispersal in the AHZ. Along the cline, gene flow measured as F(ST) was mainly limited by distance, with less but significant impact of climatic friction. Coalescent analysis revealed that cross-Andean divergence took place during the Quaternary. Significant historical isolation (R(ST) > F(ST)) was found in the southwestern population. The current study illustrates a joint effect of founder dynamics, divergence by distance and historical isolation on patterns of Andean diversity and distribution.

  16. Regeneration dynamics of dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate valley slopes of the Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumeet Gairola; C.M.Sharma; S.K.Ghildiyal; Sarvesh Suyal

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in moist temperate forest of Mandal-Chopta area in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand,India.The aim of the present study was to understand the regeneration dynamics of the dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in naturally regenerating,restricted access forest.The overall regeneration status was fairly high in the study area.Most of the native canopy and undercanopy dominants had frequent reproduction and expanding populations,which suggests the stability of forest structure/composition and further expansion of dominant species.The overall regeneration of trees in the forest had a greater contribution of middle and understorey species.Because of infrequent reproduction and declining populations of some of the dominant native species viz.,Abies pindrow,Alnus nepalensis and Betula alnoides,structural/compositional changes in the future are expected in respective forests dominated by them.Abies pindrow and Taxus baccata need immediate attention by forest managers for their survival in the area.Seedlings were found to be more prone to competition from herb and shrubs than saplings.

  17. Análise de danos de colheita de madeira em floresta tropical úmida sob regime de manejo florestal sustentado na Amazônia ocidental Analysis of logging damage in a moist tropical forest under sustained management in western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Martins Pinto

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar, qualificar e quantificar a intensidade de danos causados pela colheita florestal em uma área com floresta primária explorada (FPE, tendo com testemunha uma área com floresta primária não-explorada (FPNE, com 202 e 204 ha, respectivamente. Na FPNE, foram avaliados os danos decorrentes de causas naturais. As áreas de FPE e de FPNE localizam-se no município de Manicoré, Estado do Amazonas. Realizou-se o inventário utilizando o método de amostragem aleatória, em ambas as áreas. As amostragens foram executadas em dois níveis de inclusão de DAP. No nível I foram instaladas cinco parcelas de 100 x 100 m (1 ha, onde foram inventariadas todas as árvores com DAP > ou = 15 cm. No nível II, as parcelas do nível I foram divididas sistematicamente em subparcelas de 10 x 10 m (100 m², tendo sido amostradas aleatoriamente cinco subparcelas por parcela do nível I, totalizando 2.500 m², onde foram inventariados todos os indivíduos (varejões com 5,0 The objective of this work was to identify, qualify and quantify the intensity of damage from natural causes and forest harvest in a non-exploited old growth forest (FPNE and in a harvested old growth forest (FPE. The studied area is located in the counties of Manicoré, Amazon, Brazil, with an area of 204 ha of FPNE and 202 ha of FPE, respectively. The inventory was carried out applying the randomized sampling method, in both areas. Sampling collection was carried out in two levels of approach. In level I, five plots of 100 x 100 m (1 ha were established, and the individuals with DBH > or = 15 cm were evaluated. In level II, the plots of level I were systematically subdivided in subplots of 10 x 10 m (100 m², being randomly sampled only five of these per plot of level I, with an area of 2,500 m², where all the individuals between 5.0 <= DBH < 15 cm (large samplings were evaluated. The assessment of damage caused to the remaining trees indicate that only 10% of the

  18. The Andean Geotrail (2): An educational project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, O.; Sassier, C.; Vial, M.; Thiberge, P.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In the framework of the UNESCO International Year of Planet Earth, we performed an educational project in collaboration with primary, secondary and high schools in France and Norway. Geosciences are not usually studied in schools, but this project allowed more than 600 pupils (from 17 schools) aged 8 to 18 years old to share the geological discoveries of our popular science adventure The Andean Geotrail (see Sassier et al., this session). The main educational goal was to promote Geosciences by illustrating in the field what geology is. Our natural laboratory was the spectacular Andean Cordillera. The secondary goal was to promote careers in geology and highlight their variety by allowing the pupils to meet geologists through portraits of geologists. The teachers of the partner schools used our project as a dynamic complement to their theoretical lessons. To set up this partnership, we obtained the support of the pedagogic supervisors of the French Ministry of National Education. The pedagogical project consisted of three steps: (1) Before the expedition (Oct.-Nov. 2008), we visited the pupils of each partner school to present the project, establish personal contact and engage the pupils in our adventure. (2) During The Andean Geotrail itself (Nov. 2008-Aug. 2009), we continuously documented our

  19. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  20. The new Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Farid; Forero-Romero, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD) is a new effort in South America to serve several goals in astronomical development. Six countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela) will work together, representing a common language block in the Andean region and focusing on develop strategies to strengthen the professional research, education and popularization of astronomy. Our current Working Structure comprises a ROAD Coordinator and Coordinators per Task Force, as well as Organizing Committees, Collaborators and Volunteers.The participating institutions of this new ROAD have been involved in many projects involving each of the current OAD’s Task Forces: research, schools and children and public, exploring educational activities/material to be shared among the Andean countries, standardizing the knowledge and creating inspirational experiences. We expect to generate many efforts in order to bring a more homogeneous activity in each Andean country, taking into account the special role of Chile in global astronomy, due to its great conditions for astronomy and the involvement of many professional observatories, universities and astronomy institutions.Our current (and upcoming) most relevant activities includes: Andean Schools on Astronomy, Andean Graduate Program and Massive Open Online Courses (TF1); Virtual Training Sessions and Teaching material for the visually impaired students; Annual TF2 meeting to gather all the collaborators (TF2); Development for planetariums and Communicating Astronomy with the Public (TF3). The Andean region, in the other hand, will also be involved in at least two important events: the CAP Meeting in May 2016 and the XV LARIM in October 2016 (both in Colombia); and Chile will bid to host the XXXI IAU GA in 2021, with the aim of show the great advances in astronomical development from the Andean region and South America.

  1. The South Asian Monsoon Circulation in Moist Isentropic coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thazhe Purayil, Sabin; Pauluis, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric circulation and thermodynamic structure during the South Asian Summer Monsoon season is analyzed in isentropic coordinates through the mass transport represented in terms of the potential temperature and equivalent potential temperature. This approach, originally developed to analyze the global meridional circulation, makes it possible to identify the thermodynamic properties of the inflow and outflow of different air mass. To understand the thermodynamic properties of air mass in south Asian monsoon region, we have used three diagnostics; a) the joint distribution of the mass transport as a function of dry and moist entropy, b) the vertical mass flux over the monsoon domain and c) the mass transport and isentropic thickness for different moist ventilation range of tropical atmosphere. The thermodynamic properties of the various air masses, such as the inflow of warm moist air in the boundary layer, upper tropospheric outflow, and midlatitude dry air intrusion are being systematically identified. The isentropic distribution of the vertical mass flux transport in terms of equivalent potential temperature is used to explain the characteristics of ascending and descending air parcels over the Indian subcontinent. Diagnosis based on the isentropic thickness reveals that the regional monsoon circulation and associated precipitation features can be systematically explained by this method. This technique is used to study the evolution of the monsoon flow in the seasonal scale. We used the data from AMIP-type simulations carried out with prescribed Sea Surface Temperature and sea ice for a 25 year period (1981-2005) from the GFDL High-resolution atmospheric model (HiRAM) with an average grid spacing of ~25km over the globe.

  2. Moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2003-05-01

    Moist convective storms might be a key aspect in the global energy budget of the atmospheres of the Giant Planets. In spite of its dull appearance, Saturn is known to develop the largest scale convective storms in the Solar System, the Great White Spots, the last of them arising in 1990 triggered a planetary scale disturbance that encircled the whole Equatorial region. However, Saturn seems to be very much less convective than Jupiter, being convective storms rare and small for the most part of the cases. Here we present simulations of moist convective storms in the atmosphere of Saturn at different latitudes, the Equator and 42 deg S, the regions where most of the convective activity of the planet has been observed. We use a 3D anelastic model of the atmosphere with parameterized microphysics (Hueso and Sánchez-Lavega, 2001) and we study the onset and evolution of moist convective storms. Ammonia storms are able to develop only if the static stability of the upper atmosphere is slightly decreased. Water storms are difficult to develop requiring very specific atmospheric conditions. However, when they develop they can be very energetic arriving at least to the 150 mbar level. The Coriolis forces play a mayor role in the characteristics of water based storms in the atmosphere of Saturn. The 3-D Coriolis forces at the Equator transfer upward momentum to westward motions acting to diminish the strength of the equatorial jet. The GWS of 1990 could have been a mayor force in reducing the intensity of the equatorial jet stream as revealed recently (Sánchez-Lavega et al. Nature, 2003). The Cassini spacecraft will arrive to Saturn in a year. Its observations of the atmosphere will allow to measure the amount of convective activity on the planet, its characteristics and it will clarify the role of moist convection in the atmospheric dynamics of the Giant Planets. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. RH acknowledges a Post

  3. Moist Potential Vorticity and Up-Sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Xiao-Peng; GAO Shou-Ting; WU Guo-Xiong

    2003-01-01

    By using the moist potential vorticity equation derived from complete atmospheric equations including the effect of mass forcing, the theory of up-sliding slantwise vorticity development (USVD) is proposed based on the theory of slantwise vorticity development. When an air parcel slides up along a slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical component of relative vorticity is developed. Based on the theory of USVD, a complete vertical vorticity equation is expected with mass forcing, which explicitly includes the effect of both internal forcings and external forcings.

  4. An Andean radiation: polyploidy in the tree genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N; Fuchs, J; Hertel, D; Hirsch, H; Toivonen, J; Kessler, M

    2010-11-01

    The Andean tree genus Polylepis (Rosaceae) is notorious for the high morphological plasticity of its species and the difficulty in their circumscription. The evolutionary mechanisms that have driven diversification of the genus are still poorly understood, with factors as diverse as ecological specialisation, reticulate evolution, polyploidisation and apomixis being proposed to contribute. In the present study, chromosome counts, flow cytometry and stomata guard cell size measurements were employed to document for the first time the presence of polyploidy in the genus and to infer ploidy levels for most species. Inferred ploidy levels show a clear progression from diploidy in cloud forest species to polyploidy (tetra- to octoploidy) in the morphologically and ecologically specialised incana group, indicating that polyploidisation may have played a major role in speciation processes and the colonisation of novel habitats during the Andean uplift. At least two species of Polylepis comprise populations with varying degrees of ploidy. More extensive studies are needed to obtain a better understanding of the prevalence and effects of intraspecific polyploidy in the genus.

  5. Role of carbon and climate in forming the Páramo, an Andean evolutionary hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    of the highest altitude Andean regions reduces the available area for grassland biomes, the effect is significantly smaller than the impact of Plio-Pleistocene climate change. By individually introducing the Pliocene changes (atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, mean temperature, minimum temperatures, precipitation and direct sunlight) to the BIOME4 simulations, it is shown that the primary driver of these changes is atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The higher Pliocene levels favour the expansion of the forest biomes, increasing the altitude of the treeline and replacing grassland biomes. This suggests that in such areas prediction of future changes and plans to preserve these important ecosystems must consider the impact of both climate change and CO2 fertilization.

  6. The Andean Geotrail (1): A scientific adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.

    2009-12-01

    The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway

  7. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae, from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL, at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23'7.42" S – 64º38'7.88" W, 2015 m, Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of the snake probably killed by a settler, there was an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae, a native rodent species widely distributed in the region.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian; Doucet, Jean Louis; Finegan, Bryan; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Healey, John R.; Livoreil, Barbara; Nasi, Robert; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Putz, Francis E.; Zhou, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests

  9. The dynamic history of the upper forest line ecotone in the northern Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Groot, M.H.M.; Bogotá-A, R.G.; Moscol Olivera, M.; González-Carranza, Z.; Myster, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the Andean cordilleras very conspicuous ecotones can be found. The transition from continuous upper montane forest to treeless herbaceous vegetation, regionally known as "páramo" (Cleef 1981; Luteyn 1999) is known as the "upper forest line" (UFL) or "timber line" (Holtmeier 2009). Above the UFL t

  10. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-09-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  11. Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Andean region of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flórez, Mauricio; Ocampo, Clara Beatriz; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Alexander, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify environmental risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Colombia and map high-risk municipalities. The study area was the Colombian Andean region, comprising 715 rural and urban municipalities. We used 10 years of CL surveillance: 2000-2009. We used spatial-temporal analysis - conditional autoregressive Poisson random effects modelling - in a Bayesian framework to model the dependence of municipality-level incidence on land use, climate, elevation and population density. Bivariable spatial analysis identified rainforests, forests and secondary vegetation, temperature, and annual precipitation as positively associated with CL incidence. By contrast, livestock agroecosystems and temperature seasonality were negatively associated. Multivariable analysis identified land use - rainforests and agro-livestock - and climate - temperature, rainfall and temperature seasonality - as best predictors of CL. We conclude that climate and land use can be used to identify areas at high risk of CL and that this approach is potentially applicable elsewhere in Latin America. PMID:27355214

  12. Monitoring the Diversity of Hunting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Fragmented and Restored Andean Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I

    2015-10-01

    Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals.

  13. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  14. Comments on the proposed intensive forest management in the temperate coniferous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Intensive forest management is being introduced in the moist temperate forests of the Kaghan Valley, N. Pakistan, based on a combination of a shelterwood system with clear felling of trees down to an advanced growth of up to 12 inches, with artificial regeneration, mainly by planting of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Possible adverse effects of the proposed system (e.g. leaching of soil nutrients following clear felling) are briefly discussed. A more cautious approach, employing natural regeneration, is recommended.

  15. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  16. A new mix design concept for earth-moist concrete: A theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses experiments on earth-moist concrete (EMC) based on the ideas of a new mix design concept. First, a brief introduction into particle packing and relevant packing theories is given. Based on packing theories for geometric packing, a new concept for the mix design of earth-moist co

  17. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  18. Strike-through of moist contamination by woven and nonwoven surgical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufman, H; Eudy, W W; Vandernoot, A M; Harris, C A; Liu, D

    1975-06-01

    A test is described which correlates the stress of stretching surgical gown and drape material with moist bacterial strike-through. By application of this test to a number of woven and nonwoven surgical gown and drape materials, it was found that not all of these materials, either woven or nonwoven, are impermeable to moist contamination for equal periods of time. Nonwoven disposable materials now in use range from those which remain impermeable to moist bacterial permeation through all tests while some remain impermeable for limited periods of time, and others almost immediately permeable to moist bacterial penetration. The same situation holds for woven materials. Under conditions of our test, Quarpel treated Pima tight-woven cotton cloth was impermeable to moist bacterial strike-through, through up to 75 washing and sterilizing cyclings, while ordinary linen and untreated Pima cloth permitted bacterial permeation almost immediately. These results have significance in lengthy wet surgical operations.

  19. Semi-forest coffee cultivation and the conservation of Ethiopian Afromontane rainforest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Hundera, K; Berecha, G; Gijbels, Pieter; Baeten, Marieke; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Hermy, Martin; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Coffea arabica shrubs are indigenous to the understorey of the moist evergreen montane rainforest of Ethiopia. Semi-forest coffee is harvested from semi-wild plants in forest fragments where farmers thin the upper canopy and annually slash the undergrowth. This traditional method of coffee cultivation is a driver for preservation of indigenous forest cover, differing from other forms of agriculture and land use which tend to reduce forest cover. Because coffee farmers are primarily interes...

  20. Postmodern Anthropology: Reflections from Andean Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The postmodern perspective, which began its influence on studies of Prehispanic Peru in the 1980s, has resulted —as chief positive effect— in reflection and debate concerning the written sources for apprehending such cultural otherness, the so-called “Chronicles of the West Indies”: a perspective accompanied by new editions of these texts. The author of the present article expresses his own reflection on such change in theory and method. He argues that, with regard to self-reflectivity on its epistemological foundations, the new perspective is not entirely original in the long history of Andean ethnohistory; in effect, this approach is almost as old as the field itself. What is indeed original is the cognitive relativism that surfaced in some extreme forms of the discussion. It was an unfortunate development, however: when not denying, as a matter of principle, the very possibility of understanding that cultural otherness, arguments masked actual interpretations or explanations of its features that were protected, ipso facto, from a rigorous process of validation.

    La perspectiva posmoderna, que empezó a ser influyente en los estudios del Perú prehispánico en la década de 1980, ha tenido como principal efecto positivo la reflexión y el debate sobre las fuentes originales de conocimiento de esa alteridad cultural, las llamadas genéricamente “Crónicas de Indias”: una perspectiva acompañada de nuevas ediciones de tales textos. El autor del presente artículo hace aquí su propia reflexión sobre este cambio teórico y metodológico. Plantea que, en lo que tiene de discusión sobre sus bases epistemológicas, no es del todo original en la larga historia de la etnohistoria peruanista. Es, de hecho, casi tan antiguo como ella. Lo que sí ha sido original es el relativismo cognitivo que ha acompañado a algunas expresiones extremas de la discusión. Pero fue ésta una novedad desafortunada: cuando no negaba por principio la

  1. A topography-based model of forest cover at the alpine tree line in the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.; Ruijten, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To present a method that assesses the influence of environmental variables, including climate, substrate, topography, and anthropogenic disturbances, on the distribution of Andean forest at the tree line, and to compare this forest distribution between areas. Location Sangay National Park, on th

  2. Andean shrublands of Moquegua, South Peru: Prepuna plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Sykora, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    A syntaxonomic overview of shrubland vegetation in the southern Andean regions of Peru is presented. For each plant community, information is given on physiognomy, floristic diversity, ecology and geographical distribution. The shrub vegetation on the slopes of the upper Tambo river valley includes

  3. The astronomy of Andean myth: The history of a cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William F.

    It is shown that Andean myth, on one level, represents a technical language recording astronomical observations of precession and, at the same time, an historical record of simultaneous social and celestial transformations. Topographic and architectural terms of Andean myth are interpreted as a metaphor for the organization of and locations on the celestial sphere. Via ethoastronomical date, mythical animals are identified as stars and placed on the celestial sphere according to their topographical location. Tested in the planetarium, these arrays generate cluster of dates - 200 B.C. and 650 A.D. Analysis of the names of Wiraqocha and Manco Capac indicates they represent Saturn and Jupiter and that their mythical meeting represents their conjunction in 650 A.D. The astronomy of Andean myth is then used as an historical tool to examine how the Andean priest-astronomers recorded the simultaneous creation of the avllu and of this distinctive astronomical system about 200 B.C. The idea that the agricultural avllu, with its double descent system stressing the importance of paternity, represents a transformation of society from an earlier matrilineal/horticultural era is examined in light of the sexual imagery employed in myth. Wiraqocha's androgyny and the division of the celestial sphere into male (ecliptic) and female (celestial equator = earth) are interpreted as cosmological validations of the new social structure.

  4. Andean Uplift in the Context of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Louise; Poulsen, Chris; Ehlers, Todd; Insel, Nadja

    2010-05-01

    The two primary causes of South American climate change over the last 40 million years are global climate change and the uplift of the Andes Mountains. Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in climate over the duration of Andean surface uplift is necessary for interpreting palaeoclimate, erosion and palaeoelevation records from the region. This study utilises an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to investigate the magnitude and relative importance of 1) global climate and 2) Andean surface uplift to South American climate during the last 40Ma. Combined with knowledge from the geologic record, the results constrain the controls on, and timing of, landscape development. Three different atmospheric CO2 levels (1, 2 and 4x pre-industrial levels - 280ppm) are used to simulate the range of global climate since the early Cenozoic. Surface uplift of the Andes is examined with simulations at three different Andean elevations (100%, 50% and 5% of modern heights). The importance of feedbacks associated with global climate change is assessed with additional simulations incorporating 1) no Antarctic Ice Sheet and 2) an equilibrium vegetation model coupled to the climate model. Initial results show that the elevation of the Andes exerts a much stronger control on South American precipitation than does the atmospheric CO2 level. The presence of the Andes leads to an increase in annual average precipitation rates of up to 8 mm/day at 20⁰S on the eastern flanks of the mountain range. An increase in CO2 levels from 1x to 4x pre-industrial levels increases the intensity of the global hydrological cycle with annual average precipitation rates increasing by up to 5mm/day. At 50% and 5% Andean elevation, precipitation patterns over South America are independent of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, at 100% Andean elevation South American precipitation is sensitive to high (4x) CO2 levels. Most large-scale circulation patterns over South America are consistent

  5. Vibrated fluidized bed air classification of moist raw coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国华; 赵跃民; 陈清如

    2002-01-01

    Vibrated fluidized bed air classification is completely different from traditional screening in principle. It extracts fine coal from moist raw coal by entrainment of an ascending airflow in a vibrated fluidized bed. Pilot tests showed that air classification efficiencies varied from 74.85% to 93.84% at cut-size 6, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0.5 mm when free moisture of coal is in the range of 1.7% to 9.5%, and ash contents of fine coal products were 2%~3% lower than those of the same size fractions in feed, and 4%~10% lower than those of feeds for most cases because of the density differences between coal and waste, which is beneficial to producing lower ash fine coal from raw coal as fuel of blast furnaces or pulverized coal firing boilers. A commercial unit of 100 t/h has been in smooth operation, and several 300~400 t/h units are in plan or construction.

  6. DNA Barcoding of an Assembly of Montane Andean Butterflies (Satyrinae): Geographical Scale and Identification Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, M A; Cadavid, I C; Valdés, L; Álvarez, C F; Uribe, S I; Vila, R; Pyrcz, T W

    2017-01-23

    DNA barcoding is a technique used primarily for the documentation and identification of biological diversity based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Butterflies have received particular attention in DNA barcoding studies, although varied performance may be obtained due to different scales of geographic sampling and speciation processes in various groups. The montane Andean Satyrinae constitutes a challenging study group for taxonomy. The group displays high richness, with more of 550 species, and remarkable morphological similarity among taxa, which renders their identification difficult. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DNA barcodes in the identification of montane Andean satyrines and the effect of increased geographical scale of sampling on identification performance. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained from 104 specimens of 39 species and 16 genera, collected in a forest remnant in the northwest Andes. DNA barcoding has proved to be a useful tool for the identification of the specimens, with a well-defined gap and producing clusters with unambiguous identifications for all the morphospecies in the study area. The expansion of the geographical scale with published data increased genetic distances within species and reduced those among species, but did not generally reduce the success of specimen identification. Only in Forsterinaria rustica (Butler, 1868), a taxon with high intraspecific variation, the barcode gap was lost and low support for monophyly was obtained. Likewise, expanded sampling resulted in a substantial increase in the intraspecific distance in Morpho sulkowskyi (Kollar, 1850); Panyapedaliodes drymaea (Hewitson, 1858); Lymanopoda obsoleta (Westwood, 1851); and Lymanopoda labda Hewitson, 1861; but for these species, the barcode gap was maintained. These divergent lineages are nonetheless worth a detailed study of external and genitalic morphology variation, as well as ecological features, in order to determine the potential

  7. Dendrochronological growth characterization of timber species from moist to dry tropical forests in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Villanueva, Kathelyn

    2015-01-01

    En la búsqueda de mayor información y entendimiento de las especies Machaerium scleroxylon, Amburana cearensis, Cedrela fissilis y Cedrela angustifolia, muy valiosas y comerciales en nuestro país pero cuyas poblaciones han estado considerablemente, hemos aplicado la dendrocronología como factor común en cada uno de los análisis, además de la relación del crecimiento y el clima. Las aplicaciones y casos variaron según la novedad del estudio, avances y vacíos de conocimiento. ...

  8. Regeneration of commercial tree species following silvicultural treatments in a moist tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Claros, M.; Peters, E.M.; Justiniano, J.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Blate, G.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments are generally performed to improve yields of commercially valuable tree species by increasing their recruitment and growth rates. In this study we analyze the effects of three different sets of silvicultural treatments on the densities and growth rates of seedlings, saplings

  9. Carbohydrate storage and light requirements of tropical moist and dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.

    2007-01-01

    In many plant communities, there is a negative interspecific correlation between relative growth rates and survival of juveniles. This negative correlation is most likely caused by a trade-off between carbon allocation to growth vs. allocation to defense and storage. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC

  10. A moist "available enthalpy" norm: definition and comparison with existing "energy" norms

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Moist-air norms and inner-products are currently used in atmospheric science for computing dry or moist singular vectors and for determining forecast errors or sensitivity to observations based on tangent linear and adjoint models. A new moist-air norm is defined starting from old results published in Marquet (QJRMS 1993) and based on the "Available Enthalpy" approach, namely one of the Exergy function defined in general thermodynamics. Some interesting and promising impacts of this new "Available Enthalpy" norm are described in this brief version of a paper to be submitted to the QJRMS.

  11. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices.

  12. Distribution and occurrence of myxomycetes on agricultural ground litter and forest floor litter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh T M; Stephenson, Steven L; Hyde, Kevin D; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2008-01-01

    The ecological distribution and seasonal patterns of occurrence of myxomycetes associated with the microhabitats represented by agricultural ground litter and forest floor litter were investigated in six study sites in northern Thailand during Oct 2004-Oct 2005. Both specimens that developed under natural conditions in the field and specimens obtained in moist chamber cultures were considered. Agricultural study sites were a banana plantation, a mango orchard and a sweet corn farm, whereas forest study sites consisted of a lowland forest, a midelevation forest and a highland forest. Seventy species of myxomycetes representing 20 genera were collected, with 34 species recorded during the dry season and 58 species recorded during the rainy season. Distinct differences were apparent for numbers of positive moist chambers, numbers of species recorded from moist chambers, numbers of species recorded as field collections and numbers of field collections when data obtained for the two seasons were compared. In the dry season only three species were collected in the field, but the percentage of positive moist chamber cultures (129/180 or 72%) and number of species recorded (33) from these cultures were high. In contrast, during the rainy season, 52 species of myxomycetes were collected in the field but only 15 species were recorded from the much lower percentage (75/180 or 42%) of positive moist chambers cultures.

  13. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  14. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  15. Interaction of moist convection with zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liming; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Huang, Xianglei

    2006-01-01

    Observations suggest that moist convection plays an important role in the large-scale dynamics of Jupiter's and Saturn's atmospheres. Here we use a reduced-gravity quasigeostrophic model, with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on observations, to study the interaction between moist convection and zonal jets on Jupiter and Saturn. Stable jets with approximately the same width and strength as observations are generated in the model. The observed zonal jets violate the barotropic stability criterion but the modeled jets do so only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. The model results suggest that a length scale and a velocity scale associated with moist convection control the width and strength of the jets. The length scale and velocity scale offer a possible explanation of why the jets of Saturn are stronger and wider than those of Jupiter.

  16. Review and assist with moist-soil and shorebird management - North MS Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Review of current moist-soil conditions at Dahomey, Coldwater, and Tallahatchie Refuges and provide iniput regarding water level management and other treatments to...

  17. Environmental Assessment : Funk Waterfowl Production Area, Phelps County, Ne. : Moist soil management/wetland enhancement proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment for the proposed moist soil managment and wetland enhancement on the Funk Waterfowl Production Area (WPA) in the Rainwater Basin Wetland...

  18. A NEW INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LOCAL MOISTURE CONTENTS IN MOIST POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-tian; WANG Ji-hao; GUI Ke-ting; SHI Ming-heng

    2005-01-01

    A new instrument was developed for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media based on the needle-type capacitance sensor and single-chip microprocessor technique. The working principle, the structure and characteristics of the hardware and software of the instrument were presented. The dynamic response characteristics and reliability of the instrument were experimentally determined. As an example, the instrument was employed to measure the heat and mass transport properties of a moist porous material. The experimental results show that the instrument can be used for measuring the local moisture content in moist porous media and would be an effective tool for determining the heat and mass transport properties in moist porous media.

  19. The effects of moist entropy and moisture budgets on tropical cyclone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juračić, Ana; Raymond, David J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines the moist entropy and moisture budgets in tropical cyclones, as well as their relation to tropical cyclone's development. This analysis focuses on the dropsonde data collected during Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel project and the accompanying satellite data. Two tropical cyclones of interest are Tropical Storm Gabrielle (2013) and Hurricane Edouard (2014). There were three research flights into Gabrielle (2013), during its nondeveloping and decaying stages. Edouard (2014) was visited four times in different stages of its life cycle, twice during the intensification and twice during the decay. Also, we extended our analysis on the larger data set, consisting of 11 nonintensifying and 12 intensifying systems. Our study shows that the moist entropy tends to increase during intensification and decrease during nonintensifying stages. On the other hand, the moisture budget relates better to the tropical cyclone's current intensity than its development. The sign of the moist entropy tendency depends on the ability of surface fluxes and irreversible moist entropy generation to overcome lateral export of moist entropy and loss due to radiative cooling. Edouard's decay during the last research flight was likely the result of increasing wind shear and low sea surface temperatures. During its decay, Gabrielle had strong column-integrated lateral export of moist entropy and drying between 1 and 4 km height. This is probably the consequence of a dry environment at multiple levels, amplified by a warm and dry anomaly left behind by previous convective activity.

  20. Definition of a moist entropic potential temperature. Application to FIRE-I data flights

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A moist entropy potential temperature -- denoted by ${\\theta}_{s}$ -- is defined analytically in terms of the specific entropy for moist air. The expression for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is valid for a general mixing of dry air, water vapour and possible condensed water species. It verifies the same conservative properties as the moist entropy, even for varying dry air or total water content. The moist formulation for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is equal to the dry formulation $\\theta$ if dry air is considered and it verifies new properties valid for the moist air cases, both saturated or under-saturated ones. Exact and approximate versions of ${\\theta}_{s}$ are evaluated for several Stratocumulus cases, in particular by using the aircraft observations FIRE-I experiment data sets. It appears that there is no (or small) jump in ${\\theta}_{s}$ at the top of the PBL. The mixing in moist entropy is almost complete in the PBL, with the same values observed in the clear air and the cloudy regions, including the very top of the entrainment...

  1. Technical analysis of four archaeological andean painted textiles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the materials and manufacturing techniques used to create four archaeological Andean painted textiles in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. The textiles are attributed to Peru but have minimal provenience. Building on previous work by other scholars on similar archaeological textiles, the materials and manufacturing techniques are identified and characterized by observation, documentation, and scientific analysis. S...

  2. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Zutta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects of climate change through reforestation and conservation. The objective of this study was to develop and analyze the distribution models of two species that form extensive woodlands along the Andes, namely Polylepis sericea and P. weberbaueri. This study utilized the program Maxent, climate and remotely sensed environmental layers at 1 km resolution. The predicted distribution model for P. sericea indicated that the species could be located in a variety of habitats along the Andean Cordillera, while P. weberbaueri was restricted to the high elevations of southern Peru and Bolivia. For both species, elevation and temperature metrics were the most significant factors for predicted distribution. Further model refinement of Polylepis and other Andean species using increasingly available satellite data demonstrate the potential to help define areas of diversity and improve conservation strategies for the Andes.

  3. State dilemmas in applying the Previous Consultation Law in the Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrio de Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian government enacted a new law granting consultation rights to indigenous peoples as a mechanism to enhance social inclusion in the country. The law generated debates about the criteria to identify indigenous population in the Andean region. Why does this law have problems granting consultation rights to Andean people? This paper aims to answer the question by reviewing historically the different Andean identities and analyzing the current international debate on indigenity. Our main argument is that the government intrying to apply the law is structuring a restrictive model that is hardlyable to grasp the complexity and dynamism of Andean identities.

  4. Subglacial Silicic Eruptions: Wet Cavities and Moist Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J. A.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.; Smellie, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    ice produces water, however in the Kerlingarfjöll eruption (which is thought to have been relatively brief and the vesicular magma is likely to have contained less heat per unit volume) the volumes were small and the subglacial cavity could be appropriately described as 'moist'. The Prestahnúkur eruption occurred in a 'wet' cavity but 'lacustrine' conditions were never developed and the ice was always close to the edifice. Poor sorting and structure in the subglacial deposits are due to a lack of time and space for sorting to occur. In contrast to more mafic eruptions, which are characterised by very strong meltwater-ice interactions, the main influence of the ice during subglacial rhyolite eruptions is reflected in the confinement of eruptive products.

  5. Lithospheric evolution of the Andean fold thrust belt, Bolivia, and the origin of the central Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Horton, Brian K.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan; DeCelles, Peter G.

    2005-04-01

    We combine geological and geophysical data to develop a generalized model for the lithospheric evolution of the central Andean plateau between 18° and 20° S from Late Cretaceous to present. By integrating geophysical results of upper mantle structure, crustal thickness, and composition with recently published structural, stratigraphic, and thermochronologic data, we emphasize the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of the central Andean plateau. Four key steps in the evolution of the Andean plateau are as follows. 1) Initiation of mountain building by ˜70 Ma suggested by the associated foreland basin depositional history. 2) Eastward jump of a narrow, early fold-thrust belt at 40 Ma through the eastward propagation of a 200-400-km-long basement thrust sheet. 3) Continued shortening within the Eastern Cordillera from 40 to 15 Ma, which thickened the crust and mantle and established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau. Removal of excess mantle through lithospheric delamination at the Eastern Cordillera-Altiplano boundary during the early Miocene appears necessary to accommodate underthrusting of the Brazilian shield. Replacement of mantle lithosphere by hot asthenosphere may have provided the heat source for a pulse of mafic volcanism in the Eastern Cordillera and Altiplano at 24-23 Ma, and further volcanism recorded by 12-7 Ma crustal ignimbrites. 4) After ˜20 Ma, deformation waned in the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone and began to be transferred into the Subandean zone. Long-term rates of shortening in the fold-thrust belt indicate that the average shortening rate has remained fairly constant (˜8-10 mm/year) through time with possible slowing (˜5-7 mm/year) in the last 15-20 myr. We suggest that Cenozoic deformation within the mantle lithosphere has been focused at the Eastern Cordillera-Altiplano boundary where the mantle most likely continues to be removed through piecemeal delamination.

  6. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  7. IMPORTANCE OF MOIST AMBIENT AND ITS HELICAL ENHANCEMENT EFFECT TO STORM INTENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-FALAHI Fadha Sh.; WANG Yuan; TANG Jie

    2004-01-01

    A crucial issue in evolution of severe storm, such as typhoon and even single supercell, is to diagnose and predict the sudden intensifying in storm. This paper describes an attempt to investigate the influence and effect of ambient moisture in the development of storm. It was mainly through a dynamic way to detect the helical enhancement by ambient moisture. It was found that the correlation between the ambient moistness and the intensity of rotating convective cells can be well analyzed by helicity dynamics. The correlation between environmental streamwise vorticity (i.e. helicity) and vertical velocity (storm updraft or downdraft) is a powerful indicator to catch favorable or unfavorable conditions for storm evolution. For this purpose, a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic storm-scale model, Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) was employed in order to numerically simulate a well-documented case of Del City supercell storm in different kinds of environmental moistness. Moreover, such different kinds of ambient moist environment and the resultant different morphologies and evolutions in the storm clearly demonstrated that the abundant moistness in the environment that the storm embedded significantly strengthens the storm intensity. In fact, the storm is embedded in much moist environment and therefore larger instability propagates faster than the one in the drier air. It further produces stronger low-level mesocyclone with a much longer lifetime. The stronger convection and twist in the updraft indicates that helical enhancement effect by moisture lead to stronger tornadic activity in severe storm.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation and moist heat for sterilization on sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; Yang, Yongwei; Tan, Lili; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Guixue

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides, such as alginates, are already being used as carriers for drug delivery. The physicochemical and biological properties of alginates may be affected via irradiation and thermal treatments. To explore and compare effects of two kinds of sterilization methods, gamma irradiation and moist heat, on sodium alginate (SA), physicochemical and biological properties of SA powder and solutions were investigated after sterilization. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the SA after sterilization. The research showed that 25 kGy gamma ray can effectively sterilize microorganism. Both gamma irradiation and moist heat hardly affect the native pH of SA. Compared to irradiation sterilization, moist heat sterilization showed smaller changes in intrinsic viscosity for all SA samples and lead to less glycosidic bond breaking of SA powders. The moist heat sterilization can cause the main chain scission and double bonds formation of the SA solutions. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that sterilized SA powers and SA solutions treated by gamma ray sterilization can increase the viability of HUVEC. However, SA solutions treated by moist heat sterilization were found to present severe cytotoxicity. The research results may provide interesting future advancements toward the development of SA-based products for biomedical applications.

  9. Definition of Total Energy budget equation in terms of moist-air Enthalpy surface flux

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists concerning the proper formulation of surface heat fluxes, namely the sum of "sensible" and "latent" heat fluxes, and in fact concerning these two fluxes if they are considered as separate fluxes. In fact, eddy flux of moist-air energy must be defined as the eddy transfer of moist-air specific enthalpy ($\\overline{w' h'}$), where the specific enthalpy ($h$) is equal to the internal energy of moist air plus the pressure divided by the density (namely $h = e_{\\rm int} + p/\\rho$). The fundamental issue is to compute this local (specific) moist-air enthalpy ($h$), and in particular to determine absolute reference value of enthalpies for dry air and water vapour $(h_d)_{\\rm ref}$ and $(h_v)_{\\rm ref}$. New results shown in Marquet (QJRMS 2015, arXiv:1401.3125) are based on the Third-law of Thermodynamics and can allow these computations. In this note, this approach is taken to show that Third-law based values of moist-air enthalpy fluxes is the sum of two terms. These two terms are similar to wha...

  10. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Márquez, Roberto; Medina, Ricardo; Mejía-Vargas, Daniel; Kahn, Ted R; Suárez, Gustavo; Mazariegos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The poison frogs of the Colombian Andes, Pacific lowlands and Panama have been recently recognized as a new, monophyletic and well-supported genus: Andinobates. The species richness and distribution within Andinobates remain poorly understood due to the paucity of geographic, genetic and phenotypic data. Here we use a combination of molecular, bioacoustic and morphometric evidence to describe a new species of Andean poison frog: Andinobates cassidyhornae sp. nov. from the high elevation cloud forests of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the northwestern Andes. The new species is associated to the bombetes group and characterized by a unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Data on 1119 bp from two mitochondrial markers allowed us to reject the null hypotheses that A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. is part of the phenotypically similar and geographically less distant species: A. opisthomelas, A. virolinensis or A. bombetes. The best available phylogenetic trees and the genetic distance to other Andinobates species further support this decision. Altogether, the advertisement call parameters unambiguously separated A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. calls from the calls of the three closest species. The new species adds to a poorly known and highly endangered genus of poison frogs that requires further studies and urgent conservation measures.

  11. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  12. Metals and altitude drive genetic diversity of chironomids in Andean streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza-Muro, R.A.; de Baat, M.; Palomino, E.J.; Kuperus, P.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Breeuwer, H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Andean streams cover steep altitude gradients and locally leach metal-rich bedrock, creating highly selective habitat conditions. Chironomids are among the few dominant insect taxa present under the harshest conditions in Andean high altitude streams, but it remains unclear whether their dominanc

  13. Integration, migration and sustainable development in the Andean group of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R; Kratochwil, H

    1993-04-01

    This paper, which was presented at the 1993 meeting of the International Organization for Migration, summarizes past and recent progress in Andean integration and migration arrangements. Changes in the strategy of the Andean group of nations (GAN) have occurred in the adjustment to prevailing conditions at the subregional and international level. GAN includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The Andean Pact originated with the signing of the Cartegena Agreement in 1969. Members approved the Andean Strategic Design in 1989, which loosened up trade integration and the movement of capital, services, and persons across shared borders. The Strategic Design also addressed issues resulting from economic and social integration. A statement of migratory patterns among GAN, Andean integration during 1969-89, and the goals and operation of the Andean Strategic Design and integration are discussed in some detail. The Galapagos Declaration and the La Paz Statement of 1990 are also described. The present situation with Andean integration is based on the following meetings of Andean nations: the First Meeting of Migration Officials of the Andean Group of Nations in March 1991, the Second Meeting of Migration Officials in September 1991, and bilateral agreements between Andean nations. Seven basic conclusions are drawn: 1) the strategy is an institutional, deliberate, programmed process; 2) integration within GAN is the culmination of a joint, coordinated directive of achievement of sustainable development in the subregion which aims to reduce the economic gaps between the North and the South, to lessen the impact of protected markets of the North and their migration barriers, and to improve the possibility of development of technologically sophisticated human capital; 3) subregional policies are more sensitive to short-term change in domestic politics; 4) integration and migration can be sustained better with deliberate planning; 5) implementation is dependent on

  14. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  15. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  16. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held-Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Diana R.; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held-Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on "a flat Earth" and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the nonlinear dynamics-physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full-physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary-layer mixing, and the exchange of latent and sensible heat between the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics-dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.

  17. Chemical and toxicological characteristics of conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ae; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Reisinger, Sarah; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Shields, Peter G

    2016-03-14

    Use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) is associated with oral cavity cancer and other health risks. Comprehensive analysis for chemical composition and toxicity is needed to compare conventional and newer STPs with lower tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) yields. Seven conventional and 12 low-TSNA moist snuff products purchased in the U.S., Sweden, and South Africa were analyzed for 18 chemical constituents (International Agency for Research on Cancer classified carcinogens), pH, nicotine, and free nicotine. Chemicals were compared in each product using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and principle component analysis (PCA). Conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products had higher ammonia, benzo[a]pyrene, cadmium, nickel, nicotine, nitrate, and TSNAs and had lower arsenic in dry weight content and per mg nicotine. Lead and chromium were significantly higher in low-TSNA moist snuff products. PCA showed a clear difference for constituents between conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products. Differences among products were reduced when considered on a per mg nicotine basis. As one way to contextualize differences in constituent levels, probabilistic lifetime cancer risk was estimated for chemicals included in The University of California's carcinogenic potency database (CPDB). Estimated probabilistic cancer risks were 3.77-fold or 3-fold higher in conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products under dry weight or under per mg nicotine content, respectively. In vitro testing for the STPs indicated low level toxicity and no substantial differences. The comprehensive chemical characterization of both conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products from this study provides a broader assessment of understanding differences in carcinogenic potential of the products. In addition, the high levels and probabilistic cancer risk estimates for certain chemical constituents of smokeless tobacco products will further inform regulatory decision makers and aid them in

  18. Moist-entropic vertical adiabatic lapse rates: the standard cases and some lead towards inhomogeneous conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Geleyn, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic lapse rates $\\Gamma_{ns}$ and $\\Gamma_{sw}$ are derived in Marquet and Geleyn (2013) for non-saturated ($\\Gamma_{ns}$) or saturated ($\\Gamma_{sw}$) parcel of moist-air. They are computed in terms of the vertical derivative of the moist-air entropy potential temperature $\\theta_s$ defined in Marquet (2011). The saturated value $\\Gamma_{sw}$ is rewritten in this note so that a more compact formulation is obtained. The new formulation for $\\Gamma_{sw}$ is expressed in term of a weighting factor $C$. This factor may represent the proportion of an air parcel being in saturated conditions.

  19. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders.

  20. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁS A EASDALE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Argentina. Through intensive tree coring and age reconstruction we identified similar-aged tree cohorts with maximum age ranges of eight years. Tree mapping and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that tree cohorts were spatially clumped, and provided further evidence that coetaneous patches of A. acuminata arise from massive regeneration following catastrophic flooding events. We tested the association between cohort initiation dates and regional maximum river discharge records by means of a randomization procedure and found weak evidence that establishment occurs after devastating floods, which eliminate previous vegetation and create bare sites suitable for A. acuminata regeneration. Dates of tree floodscars sampled along Potrero river precede by one year the most recent cohort initiation date and provide further support of this association. Although previous studies found a positive correlation between El Niño events and mean annual precipitation in northwestern Argentina, we did not detect an association between El Niño and annual maximum stream flow for rivers in Tucumán Province. Therefore, factors driving devastating floods and A. acuminata stand initiation require further studyEl aliso (Alnus acuminata, Betulaceae es un árbol pionero que domina bosques riparios de montaña en los Andes orientales. Estudios iniciales atribuyeron la presencia de estos bosques a las típicas condiciones microclimáticas de cauces de ríos, pero luego

  1. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Sharma; Sumeet Gairola; N P Baduni; S K Ghildiyal; Sarvesh Suyal

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken in seven major forest types of temperate zone (1500 m a.s.l. to 3100 m a.s.l.) of Garhwal Himalaya to understand the effect of slope aspects on carbon (C) density and make recommendations for forest management based on priorities for C conservation/sequestration. We assessed soil organic carbon (SOC) density, tree density, biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) on four aspects, viz. north-east (NE), north-west (NW), south-east (SE) and south-west (SW), in forest stands dominated by Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Cupressus torulosa, Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia and Quercus leucotrichophora. TCD ranged between 77.3 CMg ha−1 on SE aspect (Quercus leucotrichophora forest) and 291.6 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC varied between 40.3 CMg ha−1 on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 177.5 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). Total C density (SOC+TCD) ranged between 118.1 CMg ha−1 on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 469.1 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC and TCD were significantly higher on northern aspects as compared with southern aspects. It is recommended that for C sequestration, the plantation silviculture be exercised on northern aspects, and for C conservation purposes, mature forest stands growing on northern aspects be given priority.

  2. CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25°S to 52°N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought

  3. Climate change forces new ecological states in tropical Andean lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Michelutti

    Full Text Available Air temperatures in the tropical Andes have risen at an accelerated rate relative to the global average over recent decades. However, the effects of climate change on Andean lakes, which are vital to sustaining regional biodiversity and serve as an important water resource to local populations, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that recent climate changes have forced alpine lakes of the equatorial Andes towards new ecological and physical states, in close synchrony to the rapid shrinkage of glaciers regionally. Using dated sediment cores from three lakes in the southern Sierra of Ecuador, we record abrupt increases in the planktonic thalassiosiroid diatom Discostella stelligera from trace abundances to dominance within the phytoplankton. This unprecedented shift occurs against the backdrop of rising temperatures, changing atmospheric pressure fields, and declining wind speeds. Ecological restructuring in these lakes is linked to warming and/or enhanced water column stratification. In contrast to seasonally ice-covered Arctic and temperate alpine counterparts, aquatic production has not increased universally with warming, and has even declined in some lakes, possibly because enhanced thermal stability impedes the re-circulation of hypolimnetic nutrients to surface waters. Our results demonstrate that these lakes have already passed important ecological thresholds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for Andean water resources.

  4. Andean rural children's views of the environment: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurial, Mahia

    Andean rural children's drawings and narratives about their crops and the immediate biological environment are rich tools to understand local views of the environment. Children's drawings and narratives were collected and linked to interviews as well as participant observation gathered from parents, leaders and teachers. The research sites are the community of Willca and the school of Mayu. Fieldwork was completed in 1998. In the conceptual framework I distinguish between two dissimilar knowledges, school knowledge and local knowledge. These knowledges produce two dissimilar views of the environment. I further analyze relationships of knowledge and power and argue that school knowledge overpowers local knowledge. Concomitantly, I studied set of ideas associated with two knowledges aforementioned: superacion (surpass) and regeneration (Apffel-Marglin 1995). Although these ideas coexist in peoples' minds they are not linked or effectively connected. In order to link local knowledge and school knowledge together, I propose the integration of environmental studies and art education to enhance a local sense of place (Blandy et. al 1993) in Andean and other schools. This will contribute to grassroots educational policy.

  5. A moist Boussinesq shallow water equations set for testing atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerroukat, M.; Allen, T.

    2015-06-01

    The shallow water equations have long been used as an initial test for numerical methods applied to atmospheric models with the test suite of Williamson et al. [1] being used extensively for validating new schemes and assessing their accuracy. However the lack of physics forcing within this simplified framework often requires numerical techniques to be reworked when applied to fully three dimensional models. In this paper a novel two-dimensional shallow water equations system that retains moist processes is derived. This system is derived from three-dimensional Boussinesq approximation of the hydrostatic Euler equations where, unlike the classical shallow water set, we allow the density to vary slightly with temperature. This results in extra (or buoyancy) terms for the momentum equations, through which a two-way moist-physics dynamics feedback is achieved. The temperature and moisture variables are advected as separate tracers with sources that interact with the mean-flow through a simplified yet realistic bulk moist-thermodynamic phase-change model. This moist shallow water system provides a unique tool to assess the usually complex and highly non-linear dynamics-physics interactions in atmospheric models in a simple yet realistic way. The full non-linear shallow water equations are solved numerically on several case studies and the results suggest quite realistic interaction between the dynamics and physics and in particular the generation of cloud and rain.

  6. Dry and moist heat sterilisation cannot inactivate pyrogenicity of Gram positive microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D;

    2005-01-01

    inducing capacity of S. aureus. On the contrary moist heat sterilisation at 134 degrees C for 10, 20 and 40 min significantly increases the interleukin-6 inducing capacity compared to untreated S. aureus. This is confirmed in the rabbit pyrogen test. Dry heat sterilisation of B. subtilis endospores at 220...

  7. Forward modeling of δ18O in Andean ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M.; Hardy, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    Tropical ice core archives are among the best dated and highest resolution from the tropics, but a thorough understanding of processes that shape their isotope signature as well as the simulation of observed variability remain incomplete. To address this, we develop a tropical Andean ice core isotope forward model from in situ hydrologic observations and satellite water vapor isotope measurements. A control simulation of snow δ18O captures the mean and seasonal trend but underestimates the observed intraseasonal variability. The simulation of observed variability is improved by including amount effects associated with South American cold air incursions, linking synoptic-scale disturbances and monsoon dynamics to tropical ice core δ18O. The forward model was calibrated with and run under present-day conditions but can also be driven with past climate forcings to reconstruct paleomonsoon variability. The model is transferable and may be used to render a (paleo)climatic context at other ice core locations.

  8. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  9. An Outbreak of Bartonella bacilliformis in an Endemic Andean Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Sanchez Clemente

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited.Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003.The majority of cases (65% were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths.Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control.

  10. Spatial random downscaling of rainfall signals in Andean heterogeneous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas, A.; Duffaut Espinosa, L. A.; Yarlequé, C.; Carbajal, M.; Heidinger, H.; Carvalho, L.; Jones, C.; Quiroz, R.

    2015-07-01

    Remotely sensed data are often used as proxies for indirect precipitation measures over data-scarce and complex-terrain areas such as the Peruvian Andes. Although this information might be appropriate for some research requirements, the extent at which local sites could be related to such information is very limited because of the resolution of the available satellite data. Downscaling techniques are used to bridge the gap between what climate modelers (global and regional) are able to provide and what decision-makers require (local). Precipitation downscaling improves the poor local representation of satellite data and helps end-users acquire more accurate estimates of water availability. Thus, a multifractal downscaling technique complemented by a heterogeneity filter was applied to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 gridded data (spatial resolution ~ 28 km) from the Peruvian Andean high plateau or Altiplano to generate downscaled rainfall fields that are relevant at an agricultural scale (spatial resolution ~ 1 km).

  11. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Hussam; Arredondo, Juan C; Valencia, Jorge H; Arbeláez, Ernesto; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Altamirano-Benavides, Marco

    2014-04-04

    We describe a new species of Philodryas from the highlands of southern Ecuador. The new species is distinguished from all known species of Philodryas by a unique combination of coloration, scalation, and hemipenial characters. The new species resembles Philodryas simonsii in color pattern. However, they differ notoriously by their hemipenial morphology. The three other trans-Andean members of the genus (Philodryas simonsii, Philodryas chamissonis, and Philodryas tachymenoides), along with the new species, compose a probably monophyletic group that may be characterized by the presence of ungrooved postdiastemal teeth in the maxilla. Unlike most species of the genus Philodryas, the new species shows a restricted distribution, being apparently endemic to a small region of high-altitude (3150-4450m) grasslands in the southern Andes of Ecuador.

  12. Leaf traits are good predictors of plant performance across 53 rain forest species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We compared the leaf traits and plant performance of 53 co-occurring tree species in a semi-evergreen tropical moist forest community. The species differed in all leaf traits analyzed: leaf life span varied 11-fold among species, specific leaf area 5-fold, mass-based nitrogen 3-fold, mass-based assi

  13. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  14. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  15. [Elaboration and evaluation of infant food based on Andean crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Carrasco, R; Hoyos, N L

    1993-06-01

    The Andes mountain range of South America is one of the most important centres for crop domestication, potato, corn, and lesser known grains such as quinua, cañihua, kiwicha and tarwi are indigenous of these highlands. These Andean grains have adapted perfectly to the climatic and geographical conditions present, whereas other grains have not been able to survive. In addition to their hardiness, they also have a high nutritional value. Bearing in mind on one hand, the high nutritional value of these indegenous products, and on the other hand the high rate of child malnutrition prevalent in the population, it was considered important to look for new variations in their processing which would facilitate their consumption by the poor working classes, especially the children. Accordingly three different flour mixtures were developed based on these Andean grains, the mixtures were then subjected to bromatological and biological analysis. The three new flour mixtures were: Quinua-Cañihua-Broad Bean (Q-C-B), Quinua-Kiwicha-Bean (Q-K-B) and Kiwicha-Rice (K-R). The protein content of these mixtures varied between 11.35-15.46 g/100g, the mixture K-R having the lowest protein level and the Q-C-B having the highest. The Q-K-B mixture had the highest chemical score, PER and NPU value. This PER value of 2.59 was higher than the value of casein which was 2.50. In addition this mixture had a chemical score of 0.94 and a NPU value of 59.38. The Q-C-B mixture had a chemical score of 0.88 and its PER, NPU and Digestibility values were 2.36, 47.24 and 79.2 respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 78 FR 21002 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Andean.... The original ATPA allowed Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru to be considered as beneficiary... November 25, 2008, the President determined that Bolivia no longer satisfied the eligibility...

  17. Moist-soil seed abundance in managed wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Penny, E.J.; Pearse, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Managed moist-soil units support early succession herbaceous vegetation that produces seeds, tubers, and other plant parts used by waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), USA. We conducted a stratified multi-stage sample survey on state and federal lands in the MAV of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri during autumns 2002?2004 to generate a contemporary estimate of combined dry mass of seeds and tubers (herein seed abundance) in managed moist-soil units for use by the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture (LMVJV) of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. We also examined variation in mean seed abundance among moist-soil units in 2003 and 2004 in relation to management intensity (active or passive), soil pH and nutrient levels, proportional occurrence of plant life-forms (e.g., grass, flatsedge, and forb; vine; woody plants), and unit area. Estimates of mean seed abundance were similar in 2002 (X over bar = 537.1 kg/ha, SE = 100.1) and 2004 (X over bar = 555.2 kg/ha, SE = 105.2) but 35?40% less in 2003 (X over bar = 396.8 kg/ha, SE = 116.1). Averaged over years, seed abundance was 496.3 kg/ha (SE = 62.0; CV = 12.5%). Multiple regression analysis indicated seed abundance varied among moist-soil units inversely with proportional occurrence of woody vegetation and unit area and was greater in actively than passively managed units (R2adj = 0.37). Species of early succession grasses occurred more frequently in actively than passively managed units (P < 0.09), whereas mid- and late-succession plants occurred more often in passively managed units (P < 0.02). We recommend the LMVJV consider 556 kg/ha as a measure of seed abundance for use in estimating carrying capacity in managed moist-soil units on public lands in the MAV. We recommend active management of moist-soil units to achieve maximum potential seed production and further research to determine recovery rates of seeds of various sizes from core samples and the relationship between

  18. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Oliver Adams

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area, followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE. Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp. was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5% where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%. Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  19. Low Herbivory among Targeted Reforestation Sites in the Andean Highlands of Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Insect herbivory constitutes an important constraint in the viability and management of targeted reforestation sites. Focusing on young experimental stands at about 2000 m elevation in southern Ecuador, we examined foliar damage over one season as a function of tree species and habitat. Native tree species (Successional hardwood: Cedrela montana and Tabebuia chrysantha; fast-growing pioneer: Heliocarpus americanus) have been planted among prevailing local landcover types (abandoned pasture, secondary shrub vegetation, and a Pinus patula plantation) in 2003/4. Plantation trees were compared to conspecifics in the spontaneous undergrowth of adjacent undisturbed rainforest matched for height and foliar volume. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that H. americanus as a pioneer species suffers more herbivory compared to the two successional tree species, and that damage is inversely related to habitat complexity. Overall leaf damage caused by folivorous insects (excluding leafcutter ants) was low. Average leaf loss was highest among T. chrysantha (7.50% ± 0.19 SE of leaf area), followed by H. americanus (4.67% ± 0.18 SE) and C. montana (3.18% ± 0.15 SE). Contrary to expectations, leaf area loss was highest among trees in closed-canopy natural rainforest, followed by pine plantation, pasture, and secondary shrub sites. Harvesting activity of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex sp.) was strongly biased towards T. chrysantha growing in open habitat (mean pasture: 2.5%; shrub: 10.5%) where it could result in considerable damage (> 90.0%). Insect folivory is unlikely to pose a barrier for reforestation in the tropical Andean mountain forest zone at present, but leafcutter ants may become problematic if local temperatures increase in the wake of global warming.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  1. ASAMgpu V1.0 - a moist fully compressible atmospheric model using graphics processing units (GPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, S.

    2012-03-01

    In this work the three dimensional compressible moist atmospheric model ASAMgpu is presented. The calculations are done using graphics processing units (GPUs). To ensure platform independence OpenGL and GLSL are used, with that the model runs on any hardware supporting fragment shaders. The MPICH2 library enables interprocess communication allowing the usage of more than one GPU through domain decomposition. Time integration is done with an explicit three step Runge-Kutta scheme with a time-splitting algorithm for the acoustic waves. The results for four test cases are shown in this paper. A rising dry heat bubble, a cold bubble induced density flow, a rising moist heat bubble in a saturated environment, and a DYCOMS-II case.

  2. Assessment of Curing Efficiency and Effect of Moist Curing on Performance of Fly Ash Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meili; QIAN Jueshi; WANG Lixia; XU Shanshan; JIA Xingwen; FAN Yunyan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of compressive strength,water permeability and electrical resistance of near-surface layer concrete with different fly ash contents to curing conditions. It is shown that the sensitivity to curing condition and fly ash content descends in the following order: difference between internal and surface resistivity (ρ)at 28 days, water permeability and compressive strength; both of longer duration of moist curing and use of fly ash in concrete enhanced the water penetration resistance. It is indicated that the resistivity difference p at 28 days can reflect accurately the curing history of fly ash concrete regardless of mix proportions; and use of fly ash in concrete requires longer moist curing duration.

  3. Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The universal instability mechanism in an ascending moist air flow is theoretically proposed and analyzed. Its origin comes to the conflict between two processes: the increasing of pressure forcing applied to the boundary layer and the decelerating of the updraft flow due to air heating. It is shown that the intensification of tropical storm with the redistribution of wind velocities, pressure and temperature can result from the reorganization of the dissipative structure which key parameters are the moist air lifting velocity and the temperature of surrounding atmosphere. This reorganization can lead to formation of hurricane eye and inner ring of convection. A transition of the dissipative structure in a new state can occur when the temperature lapse rate in a zone of air lifting reaches certain critical value. The accordance of observational data with the proposed theoretical description is shown.

  4. 什么是湿润烧伤膏%What is Moist Exposed Burn Ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒叶

    2012-01-01

      目的通过美宝湿润烧伤膏的基本组成部分及国内外基础研究结果对湿润烧伤膏的几大作用机理做详细解读。方法对国内外近20年已发表的关于美宝湿润烧伤膏机理研究的论文做回顾性总结,对美宝湿润烧伤膏在烧伤创面的作用:建立和保持生理性湿润环境、止痛作用、无损伤液化排出创面坏死组织、抗炎作用、防瘢作用、抑菌作用、皮肤再生(角蛋白19型干细胞激活及烧伤创面皮肤生理性愈合)进行系统论证及数据分析。结果美宝湿润烧伤膏在烧伤创面上能切实有效地发挥上述作用。结论美宝湿润烧伤膏作为烧伤再生医学与疗法的配套药膏在创面治疗及全身系统治疗中发挥了重要作用,是当今烧伤治疗中的黄金疗法。%  Objective To illustrate the properties of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment through the analysis of its com-positions and the presentation of basic studies at home and abroad on Moist Exposed Burn Ointment. Methods A retro-spective summary was given on the published papers in domestic and oversea journals in the recent 20 years regarding mech-anisms of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment. The systemic demonstration and data support were provided to testify the following properties of Moist Exposed Burn Ointment: creation and maintenance of physiologically moist environment, analgesic effect, liquefaction and discharge of necrotic tissues without secondary damage to potential viable tissues, anti-inflammatory effect, anti-scarring effect, bacteriostatic effect, skin regeneration (activation of keratin-19 stem cell and physiological heal-ing of burn wound). Results Moist Exposed Burn Ointment exerts the above effects in a solid and effective way. Conclu-sion Moist Exposed Burn Ointment, as the topical agent attached with Burns Regenerative Medicine and Therapy has the significant effects in wound care and systemic care of burn patients. Moist Exposed Burn Ointment

  5. Modeling the Interaction of Moist Convection with the Zonal Jets of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    We use a reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic model with a parameterization of moist convection that is based on Galileo and Cassini observations of lightning and convective storms (Little et al., 1999; Gierasch et al., 2000; Porco et al., 2003). The features of the jets we want to reproduce in the model include: (1) the curvature of the zonal jet profile, which violates the barotropic stability criterion near many of the westward jets (Ingersoll et al., 1981; Li et al., 2004), (2) the speed of the zonal jets, which is related to their width, given that the jets marginally violate the barotropic stability criterion, and (3) the sign of the eddy momentum flux, which is into the jets and tends to sustain them (Beebe et al., 1979; Ingersoll et al., 1981; Salyk et al., 2004). The features of moist convective storms that are taken from observation include: (1) the tendency of the storms to occur in the cyclonic belts, (2) the rapid divergence of horizontal velocity near the cloud tops, and (3) the lifetime of the storms, which is on average 4-5 days (Li et al., 2004). We find that moist convection leads to zonal jets in the upper layer, but the jets violate the barotropic stability criterion only if the flow in the deep underlying layer is westward. We can reproduce the chevron shape on the sides of the jets if we postulate that the clouds persist longer than the storms that produce them. We can reproduce the number and frequency of moist convection storms by assuming that they carry most of the planet's vertical heat flux (Gierasch et al., 2000). The NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program supported this research.

  6. Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; MORAN, EMILIO; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms – maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based clas...

  7. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  8. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  9. Numerical simulation of Meiyu front and the diagnosis of moist vorticity vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Moist vorticity vector is introduced to study the development and evolution of mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) in the Meiyu front precipitation with the Advanced Regional Predication System (ARPS). In this study, the heavy rainfall is simulated to investigate the genesis, development and dissipation of middle scale convective vortex, which occurred from 0000 UTC 3 July to 1200 UTC 5 July over the Jianghuai River valley. Moist vorticity vector (MVV) has zonal, radial and vertical components in its 3D spatial distribution. The simulation shows that the vertical component of moist vorticity vector well demonstrates the spatial distribution characteristics of middle scale convective vortex, especially in the process of Meiyu front precipitation. Diagnosis upon zonal, radial averaged and mass-integrated quantities of MVV shows that its vertical component and the surface precipitating ratio are in phase with a correlation coefficient of 0.68, indicating that the vertical component of MVV is closely associated with the Meiyu front precipitation. In addition, the tendency of the vertical component of MVV is mainly determined by the interaction between the vorticity and the zonal and radial gradient of condensational or depositional heating.

  10. Generalized moist potential vorticity and its application in the analysis of atmospheric flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linus A.Mofor; Chungu Lu

    2009-01-01

    Potential vorticity(PV)serves as an important dynamic tracer for large-scale motions in the atmosphere and oceans.Significant pro-gress has been made on the understanding and application of PV since the work of Hoskins et al,who introduced an"IPV thinking"of a dynamical system in a purely dry atmosphere.In particular,there has been a substantial amount of work done on the PV in a general moist atmosphere.In this paper,the generalized moist potential vorticity(GMPV)and its application in the mesoscale meteorological fields are reviewed.The GMPV is derived for a real atmosphere(neither completely dry nor saturated)by introducing a generalized potential temperature instead of the potential temperature or equivalent potential temperature.Such a generalization can depict the moist effect on PV anomaly in the non-uniformly saturated atmosphere.The effect of mass forcing induced by rainfall on the anomaly of GMPV is also reviewed and a new dynamic variable,the convective vorticity vector(CVV),is introduced in connection with GMPV.2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of Microwave Disinfection on Moist and Dry Dental Stone Casts with Different Irradiation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Robati Anaraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental practice contains the use of instruments and multiuse items that should be sterilized or disinfected properly. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on dental stone cast disinfection in moist and dry condition. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 76 stone casts were prepared by a sterile method. The casts were contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 as well as Candida albicans (ATCC 10231. Half the samples were dried for two hours and the other half was studied while still moist. The samples were irradiated by a household microwave at 600 W for 3, 5 and 7 minutes. The microorganisms on the samples were extracted by immersion in tryptic soy broth and .001 ml of that was cultured in nutrient agar media, incubated overnight and counted and recorded as colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL. Results: The findings showed that microorganisms reduced to 4.87 logarithm of CFU/mL value on dental cast within seven minutes in comparison with positive control. Although microbial count reduction was observed as a result of exposure time increase, comparison between moist and dried samples showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Seven-minute microwave irradiation at 600 W can effectively reduce the microbial load of dental stone casts. Wetting the casts does not seem to alter the efficacy of irradiation.   Keywords: Microwave Disinfection; Dental Stone Casts; Irradiation Times

  12. MOIST VAGINAL PACKING FOR UTERO-VAGINAL PROLAPSE-A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidip

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Utero-vaginal prolapse is a common condition in ag ed women and often they come to us with decubitus ulcer. Prolong ed vaginal packing not only will heal the decubitus ulcer but also it may help in returning th e normal rugosity of the vaginal skin. AIMS: To assess the role of prolonged moist vaginal packing in utero-vaginal prolpase. SETTINGS & DESIGN: It was an OPD based prospective study conducted at t he gynecology OPD of College of Medicine & JNM Hospital, WBUHS, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal and Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences, Porompat, Imphal, Manipur. METHODS & MATERIAL: Hundred (100 patients of utero-vaginal prolapse with decubitus ulce r were studied. After initial staging (POP- Q staging, daily moist (5% povidone-iodine solution soaked gauze vaginal packing at home was advised. After 2 weeks, re-examination done for decubitus ulcer healing. Packing continued till operation (interval 1- 1½ month. Preoperative s taging and modification of operation were noted. On follow up complication (mainly recurrence was noted. RESULTS: Initial staging was stage 3 - 39%, stage 4 - 61%. Preoperative scoring r evealed stage 3 became stage 2 in 54% cases and stage 4 became stage 3 in 49% cases. This improv ement helped us to avoid excessive excision of vaginal mucosa. CONCLUSION: Prolonged pre-operative moist gauze vaginal packing may improve the outcome of the disease.

  13. A technique for estimating seed production of common moist-soil plants - Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.4.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contains methods to estimate seed production of moist-soil plants inlcuding survey design - Leaflet is part of the Wetland Management Book series.

  14. Evaluation for the conversion of cropland to moist soil food plant production on four national wildlife refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes this year's vegetation survey on the moist soil units of Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. The history of farming on refuges is long...

  15. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR) : Marsh, Water, Moist Soil Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Marsh, Water, and Moist Soil Management Plan for the Ottawa NWR Complex provides an introduction to the Complex and provides background information on Annual...

  16. Physics-based Stabilization of Spectral Elements for the 3D Euler Equations of Moist Atmospheric Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    3D Euler Equations of Moist Atmospheric Convection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...STABILIZATION OF SPECTRAL ELEMENTS FOR THE 3D EULER EQUATIONS OF MOIST ATMOSPHERIC CONVECTION SIMONE MARRAS, ANDREAS MÜLLER, FRANCIS X. GIRALDO Dept. Appl...spectral elements, we introduce a dissipative scheme based on the solution of the compressible Euler equations that are regularized through the addi

  17. Effect of dentin primer on shear bond strength of composite resin to moist and dry enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Stewart, G P

    2000-01-01

    The etched enamel-composite resin bond is the most reliable bond known to us. Moisture and dentin primers are the two most important variables that can interfere with this bond. This study investigated the effect of dentin primer on bond strengths of composite resin to moist and dry enamel. One hundred freshly extracted molar teeth were used for shear bond strength testing. The teeth were mounted in phenolic rings with an approximal enamel surface exposed. The exposed enamel surface on each tooth was flattened using 320- 400- and 600-grit silicon carbide papers and etched using 34-38% phosphoric acid gel. The teeth were then divided into 10 groups (n = 10). Four groups were assigned to each of the two dentin bonding systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and OptiBond FL. Two groups were assigned to the single-bottle bonding agent (Single Bond). Each bonding system was tested on moist and dry enamel. OptiBond FL and Scotchbond MP were tested with and without the use of primer. All samples were thermocycled and tested in shear. Fracture analysis was performed using a binocular microscope. For scanning electron microscopy, approximal samples of enamel (1 mm thick) were flattened, etched, and bonded with and without primer on moist and dry enamel. A 1 mm-thick layer of Z100 was bonded to the specimens, which were then immersed in 10% HCl for 24 hours to dissolve the enamel. The specimens were viewed under a scanning electron microscope. Results indicated that the use of primer on dry enamel did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) shear bond strengths for the two bonding systems, Scotchbond MP (primed 24.10 +/- 4.83 MPa, unprimed 29.57 +/- 7.49 MPa) and OptiBond FL (primed 26.82 +/- 4.44, unprimed 25.66 +/- 2.95). However, the use of primer was found to be essential on moist enamel to obtain acceptable bond strengths with both Scotchbond MP (primed 25.61 +/- 10.29 MPa, unprimed 3.26 +/- 0.95 MPa) and OptiBond FL (primed 30.28 +/- 3.49 MPa, unprimed 8.37 +/- 3.31 MPa

  18. A comparative analysis of ALOS PALSAR L-band and RADARSAT-2 C-band data for land-cover classification in a tropical moist region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Dutra, Luciano; Batistella, Mateus

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the use of ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSARL-band (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and RADARSAT-2 C-band data for land-cover classification in a tropical moist region. Transformed divergence was used to identify potential textural images which were calculated with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix method. The standard deviation of selected textural images and correlation coefficients between them were then used to determine the best combination of texture images for land-cover classification. Classification results based on different scenarios with maximum likelihood classifier were compared. Based on the identified best scenarios, different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classifier, classification tree analysis, Fuzzy ARTMAP (a neural-network method), k-nearest neighbor, object-based classification, and support vector machine were compared for examining which algorithm was suitable for land-cover classification in the tropical moist region. This research indicates that the combination of radiometric images and their textures provided considerably better classification accuracies than individual datasets. The L-band data provided much better land-cover classification than C-band data but neither L-band nor C-band was suitable for fine land-cover classification system, no matter which classification algorithm was used. L-band data provided reasonably good classification accuracies for coarse land-cover classification system such as forest, succession, agropasture, water, wetland, and urban with an overall classification accuracy of 72.2%, but C-band data provided only 54.7%. Compared to the maximum likelihood classifier, both classification tree analysis and Fuzzy ARTMAP provided better performances, object-based classification and support vector machine had similar performances, and k-nearest neighbor performed poorly. More research should address the use of multitemporal radar data and the

  19. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  20. Mechanisms of O2 transport in Andean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, N; Cruz, J; Bustinza, J

    1975-04-01

    Using previously inserted catheters, 11 dogs native to high altitude (7.5-23 kg bwt) were studied standing and unsedated in Cerro de Pasco, Peru at 4350 meters. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), O2 and CO2 contents, PO2, PCO2 and pH were measured in simultaneously obtained arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Blood pressures were measured in the pulmonary artery and the left ventricle and cardiac output (Q) was determined by dye dilution. Moderately higher values for Hb and Hct were found in these dogs. Hb-O2 affinity was no different than that found in sea level dogs: the P50 in the Andean dogs was 31.6 mm Hg at 38 degrees C and pH of 7.4. Because of the low barometric pressure at 4350 m (458 mmHg) the partial pressures of oxygen in inspired and in alveolar air were lower than at sea level: 84.3 and 56.4 mm Hg, respectively. PAO2 and PVO2, were 55.5 and 32.9 mm Hg while the SAO2 and SVO2 were 79.5 and 50.7%, respectively. Marked hyperventilation was observed (PACO2, 25.6 mm Hg) however, pH was normal. Cardiac output was normal (average 162 plus or minus 39 ml/min/kg). Moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension was observed in the presence of normal left ventricular end diastolic pressure suggesting increased pulmonary vascular resistance.

  1. Cerebral vasoreactivity in Andeans and headache at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, O; Passino, C; Roach, R; Gamboa, J; Gamboa, A; Bernardi, L; Bonfichi, M; Malcovati, L

    2004-04-15

    Headache is common in Cerro de Pasco (CP), Peru (altitude 4338 m) and was present in all patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in CP reported here. Forty-seven percent of inhabitants report headache. Twenty-four percent of men have migraine with aura, with an average of 65 attacks a year. We assessed vasoreactivity of the cerebral vessels to CO2 by rebreathing and to NO by the administration of isosorbite dinitrate (IDN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in natives of CP, some of whom suffered from CMS. We repeated the measurements in Lima (altitude 150 m) in the same subjects within 24 h of arrival. Vasodilatation in the middle cerebral artery supply territory in response to CO2 and NO, both physiologic vasodilators, is defective in Andean natives at altitude and in the same subjects at sea level. Incapacitating migraine can occur with impaired cerebral vasoreactivity to physiologic vasodilators. We propose that susceptibility to migraine might depend in part on gene expression with consequent alterations of endothelial function.

  2. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  3. Andean subduction orogeny: feedbacks between tectonics, relief evolution and global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando; Coudurier-Curveur, Aurélie; Carrizo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Andean subduction margin, largest tectonic relief on the Earth (13 km vertically from the trench to the Altiplano) has a stepped morphology, which results of the evolution over the past 50 Myr of two parallel flat-ramp thrust systems, at the - previously unidentified - West Andean Thrust (WAT), and at the subduction interface. The evolution of those thrusts appears concomitant with increasing aridity in the Atacama Desert, which keeps a large-scale record of interplaying tectonics and Cenozoic climate change. The coastal morphology is dominated by the Atacama Bench, a giant uplifted terrace at 1-2km asl. Geomorphic and climatic data, numerical experiments of drainage formation are consistent with the development of a flat Atacama morphology close to sea level, interrupted at ≤10 Ma by tectonic uplift prevailing to the present. This suggests recent trench-ward relief growth by incorporation of the coastal Atacama Bench to the Andes reliefs. Thrust splay structures and other complexities above the subduction interface may explain this relief growth, as well as the distribution of asperities under the oceanward forearc, and the down-dip segmentation of coupling and seismicity on the megathrust. Combining those results with geological knowledge at the scale of the whole Central Andes, we show that the Andean orogeny results from protracted processes of bivergent crustal shortening in a wide region squeezed between the rigid Marginal Block and the S America Plate. The overall growth curve of Andean orogeny over the past 50 Myr appears synchronous with the onset of the "ramp-shaped" temperature decrease since the Early Eocene climatic optimum. Andean growth and global cooling may have operated under the same forcing mechanism at plate-scale, involving viscous flow in the mantle. But Andean growth appears modulated by climatic feedbacks causative of stepwise reductions of erosive power over the Andean margin. The first of such events is coeval with Late Eocene

  4. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  5. Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Juan; Gardner, Beth; Lucherini, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita) is one of the most endangered, yet least known, felids. Although the Andean cat is considered at risk of extinction, rigorous quantitative population studies are lacking. Because physical observations of the Andean cat are difficult to make in the wild, we used a camera-trapping array to photo-capture individuals. The survey was conducted in northwestern Argentina at an elevation of approximately 4,200 m during October–December 2006 and April–June 2007. In each year we deployed 22 pairs of camera traps, which were strategically placed. To estimate detection probability and density we applied models for spatial capture–recapture using a Bayesian framework. Estimated densities were 0.07 and 0.12 individual/km2 for 2006 and 2007, respectively. Mean baseline detection probability was estimated at 0.07. By comparison, densities of the Pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), another poorly known felid that shares its habitat with the Andean cat, were estimated at 0.74–0.79 individual/km2 in the same study area for 2006 and 2007, and its detection probability was estimated at 0.02. Despite having greater detectability, the Andean cat is rarer in the study region than the Pampas cat. Properly accounting for the detection probability is important in making reliable estimates of density, a key parameter in conservation and management decisions for any species.

  6. Development of spatial database on intact forest landscapes of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Singh, Jyoti; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased interest in identifying the status of biodiversity in different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of the current research is to prepare a consistent spatial database of intact forest landscapes of India. The intact forest landscapes are located in the Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats and Sunderbans. At national level 237 forest landscapes and 5.4% of the total natural forest remained as intact in India. Current intact forest landscapes of India consists of blocks larger than 10 km2 covering an area of 34,061 km2. Of the total area under intact forest landscapes, Eastern Himalayas represent 76.7% of the area, followed by Western Himalayas (8.8%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (6.2%) and Western Ghats (5.7%). The largest intact forest landscape block occupies an area of 3342.9 km2 (9.8%) is found in western Arunachal Pradesh. Temperate forest zone represents the highest intactness (56.6%), followed by subtropical zone (19.2%), tropical zone (18.6%) and alpine zone (5.6%). Himalayan moist temperate forests represent the highest area (39.1%) of intact forest landscapes followed by subtropical broad-leaved hill forests, wet evergreen forests, and montane wet temperate forests. It is estimated that 4.4% of the area of intact forest landscapes fall inside the existing 47 protected areas. The results of the analysis best suited as input for the process of identification of new protected areas. The study recommends fine-scale mapping of biodiversity within the intact forest landscapes and to prepare efficient conservation plans.

  7. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  8. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uusitalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm was measured using specimens that were (1 moist and (2 air-dried (n=5. Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm2, and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm2 for enamel and 398 mW/cm2 for dentin (p<0.05. The increase of the specimen thickness decreased light transmission in all groups (p<0.005, and moist specimens attenuated light less than air-dried specimens in all thicknesses (p<0.05. EDTA treatment increased light transmission from 398 mW/cm2 to 439 mW/cm2 (1 mm dentin specimen thickness (p<0.05. Light transmission through intact premolar was 6.2 mW/cm2 (average thickness 8.2 mm and through incisor was 37.6 mW/cm2 (average thickness 5.6 mm. Conclusion. Light transmission through enamel is greater than that through dentin, probably reflecting differences in refractive indices and extinction coefficients. Light transmission through enamel, dentin, and extracted teeth seemed to follow Beer-Lambert’s law.

  9. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  10. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit: an interdisciplinary study on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and governa

  11. Brain blood flow in Andean and Himalayan high-altitude populations: evidence of different traits for the same environmental constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F.A. Jansen; B. Basnyat

    2011-01-01

    Humans have populated the Tibetan plateau much longer than the Andean Altiplano. It is thought that the difference in length of occupation of these altitudes has led to different responses to the stress of hypoxia. As such, Andean populations have higher hematocrit levels than Himalayans. In contras

  12. Corrosion of copper-based materials in irradiated moist air systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-06-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of oxygen-free copper (CDA-102), 70/30 copper-nickel (CDA-715), and 7% aluminum bronze (CDA-613) in an irradiated moist air environment was investigated. Experiments were performed in both dry and 40% RH (@90{degree}C) air at temperatures of 90 and 150{degree}C. Initial corrosion rates were determined based on a combination of weight gain and weight loss measurements. Corrosion products observed were identified. These experiments support efforts by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to evaluate possible metallic barrier materials for nuclear waste containers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Moist formulations of the EP flux and their connection to surface westerlies in current and warmer climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. G.; O'Gorman, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux is an important diagnostic for wave propagation and wave-mean flow interaction in the atmosphere. Here we compare two moist formulations of the EP flux with the traditional dry EP flux and analyze their link to the position and strength of the surface westerlies using reanalysis data and both fully-coupled and idealized climate models. The first moist formulation of the EP flux modifies only the static stability to account for latent heat release by eddies, while the second moist formulation simply replaces all potential temperatures with equivalent potential temperatures. When moisture is taken into account, the latitude of maximum upward EP flux and maximum EP flux convergence shift equatorward and the strengths of both the flux and convergence increase, with larger changes for the second moist formulation. In simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model, both the peak surface winds and peak upward EP flux in the lower troposphere tend to be co-located throughout the seasonal cycle (especially in the moist formulations) and shift poleward by similar amounts in response to greenhouse warming. In simulations over a wider range of climates with an idealized atmospheric climate model we find that in cold climates the position of the surface westerlies coincides with the position of the maximum vertical EP flux and shifts poleward with warming, while in warm climates the surface westerlies coincide with an anomalous region of EP flux divergence near the subtropical jet. An isentropic potential enstrophy budget analysis reveals that in this model the anomalous EP flux divergence is balanced by vertical eddy PV fluxes associated with diabatic heating from large-scale condensation and radiation. The anomalous divergence is weaker when using moist EP fluxes, indicating that the moist formulations are partly capturing this effect.

  14. Transference of some microsatellite molecular markers from Fabaceae family to Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze transferibility of 15 microsatellite primers from Fabaceae family to Lupinus mutabilis Sweet "andean lupine" chosen to present transferability between species and genera, by its high rate of polymorphic content (PIC and high degree of observed and expected heterozygosity. DNA was extracted of 300 andean lupines plants, PCR conditions were standardized by gradients of master mix components. Primers for screening were run on 3% agarose gel with some samples. Finally population was amplified and run on 6% polyacrylamide gel for its highest resolution. Only 6.67% of primers were amplified, but they were monomorphic, so they cannot be used for molecular characterization. We proposed eight microsatellite primers for andean lupin wich should be probed in laboratory conditions.

  15. How widely is the Andean type of continental margin represented in the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Application of the principle of uniformitarianism to the Archean was discussed in a search for evidence of Archean-type continental margins in Archean rocks. The author cautioned that Archean rocks represent only 2 percent of the current exposure of the continents, half of which is in the North American Superior Province. Care must be taken in interpreting the global tectonic significance of relatively small exposures of Archean rocks, such as South India. Andean margins were characterized by their elongate shape, magmatic associations, and isotopic signatures. Although the compositional evidence alone will always be ambiguous, it was suggested that supporting structural evidence may aid in the identification of Archean Andean margins. Andean margin remains have been recognized in the Superior Province of Canada by these criteria, and the author suggested that the Closepet granite of South India may represent another example.

  16. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  17. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  18. Diverging Responses of Tropical Andean Biomes under Future Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%–17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for

  19. How do light and water acquisition strategies affect species selection during secondary succession in moist tropical forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Lohbeck, Madelon; Bongers, Frans; Ramos, Miguel Martínez; Sterck, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pioneer tree species have acquisitive leaf characteristics associated with high demand of light and water, and are expected to be shade and drought intolerant. Using leaf functional traits (specific leaf area, photosynthetic rate, relative water content and stomatal conductance) and tree performa

  20. Colombian dry moist forest transitions in the Llanos Orientales - A comparison of model and pollen-based biome reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Marchant; J.C. Berrio; H. Behling; A. Boom; H. Hooghiemstra

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Colombian vegetation, at the ecological level of the biome, is reconstructed at six sites using pollen data assigned a priori to plant functional types and biomes. The chosen sites incorporate four savanna sites (Laguna Sardinas, Laguna Angel, El Piñal and Laguna Carimagua), a site on the t

  1. Chromosome identification in the Andean common bean accession G19833 (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Altrock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of all chromosomes of the Andean G19833 bean genotype was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eleven single-copy genomic sequences, one for each chromosome, two BACs containing subtelomeric and pericentromeric repeats and the 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA were used as probes. Comparison to the Mesoamerican accession BAT93 showed little divergence, except for additional 45S rDNA sites in four chromosome pairs. Altogether, the results indicated a relative karyotypic stability during the evolution of the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools of P. vulgaris.

  2. Diversity and ecological ranges of plant species from dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina

    of Ecuadorian dry inter-Andean valleys vegetation, including information related to the physical settings as well as to the vegetation and flora of the valleys. 2) This chapter unveils the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature in shaping species composition and occurrence. We found...... found on steep slopes and in ravines. These areas of original dry valley vegetation preserve many wild relatives of cultivated plants on the one hand and old lineages of other wild plant groups. Dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) in Ecuador therefore makeup a biodiversity hot spot for both plants...

  3. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  4. Transonic flow of moist air around an NACA 0012 airfoil with non-equilibrium condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang; SUN Xiuling; FENG Zhenping; LI Guojun

    2005-01-01

    The classical condensation model of water vapor is coupled with the Euler equations to calculate transonic flows of moist air with non-equilibrium condensation. By means of this model, numerical computations are implemented to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 0012 airfoil in transonic flows of moist air at various angles of attack and relative humidities, and the results are compared with those in dry air flows. For different angles of attack considered at 50 % relative humidity, the lift decreases 30 % -40 %.The pressure drag increases when the angle of attack is smaller than 1.4° and decreases when higher than 1.4°. At zero angle of attack,with the relative humidity rising from zero to 90 %, the pressure drag increases exponentially. At 90 % relative humidity, the pressure drag increases 160 %, and self-oscillation takes place periodically and alternately over the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The oscillation is caused by the interactions of local supersonic flow and heat release in the condensation process.

  5. Cloud patterns and mixing properties in shallow moist Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Thomas; Schumacher, Joerg [Institut fuer Thermo- und Fluiddynamik, Postfach 100565, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Pauluis, Olivier, E-mail: thomas.weidauer@tu-ilmenau.d, E-mail: pauluis@cims.nyu.ed, E-mail: joerg.schumacher@tu-ilmenau.d [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012-1185 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of idealized moist turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented. The thermodynamics of moist air is linearized close to the phase boundary between water vapor and liquid water. This formulation allows for a simplified saturation condition for the cloud formation, but omits supersaturation and rain. The sensitivity of this problem to changes of the Rayleigh number, the aspect ratio of the convection layer and the water vapor concentration is studied. The Rayleigh number is found to impact the behavior of the system in multiple ways. First, the relaxation time toward a well-mixed turbulent state increases with the Rayleigh number. Similarly, the flow exhibits a higher spatial and temporal intermittency at higher Rayleigh number. This is in line with an enhanced intermittency of the upward buoyancy flux, which we quantify by a multifractal analysis. In addition, phase transition introduces an asymmetry in the distribution of the thermodynamic properties of the well-mixed state. This asymmetry is most pronounced in layers where clouds are partially present. Furthermore, the geometrical properties of the cloud formations averaged with respect to the height of the layer are studied. Similar to isocontours in scalar mixing, the boundaries of isolated clouds show no strict (mono-)fractal behavior. The results of the perimeter-area analysis of the largest isolated clouds agree well with those of large eddy simulations of cumulus convection. This perimeter-area scaling is also similar to that of percolation processes in a plane.

  6. A Study of Under-expanded Moist Air Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko OTOBE; Shigeru MATSUO; Masanori TANAKA; Hideo KASHIMURA; Heuy-Dong KIM; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    When a gas expands through a convergent nozzle in which the ratio of the ambient to the stagnation pressures is higher than that of the critical one, the issuing jet from the nozzle is under-expanded. If a flat plate is placed normal to the jet at a certain distance from the nozzle, a detached shock wave is formed at a region between the nozzle exit and the plate. In general, supersonic moist air jet technologies with non-equilibrium condensation are very often applied to industrial manufacturing processes. In spite of the importance in major characteristics of the supersonic moist air jets impinging to a solid body, its qualitative characteristics are not known satisfactorily. In the present study, the effect of the non-equilibrium condensation on the under-expanded air jet impinging on a vertical flat plate is investigated numerically in the case with non-equilibrium condensation, frequency of oscillation for the flow field becomes larger than that without the non-equilibrium condensation, and amplitudes of static pressure become small compared with those of dry air. Furthermore, the numerical results are compared with experimental ones.

  7. Numerical Simulation and Moist Potential Vorticity Analysis of Torrential Rain in Jiangxi Province during June 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zugang; ZHOU; Yongqiang; JIANG; Gaoying; ZHANG; Wenjun; ZHANG; Chaohui; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the conventional ground observational data,a numerical simulation and moist potential vorticity( MPV) analysis has been carried on heavy rainfall event over Jiangxi province from 19 June to 20 June 2010,with a meso-scale rainstorm model. The results show that this rare rainstorm is a typical heavy rainfall over Meiyu front. The cold air flow behind North China vortex joined up the southwestern flow located in the northwest part of the strong and stable subtropical high,thus the cold air and warm air converged and maintained over the northern part of Hunan and Jiangxi province. The simulated precipitation of the high resolution model is very similar to the observational rainfall. The model has a good predictive skill for the location,intensity and center of heavy rainfall. By moist potential vorticity analysis,it is found that the distribution characteristic of MPV which heavy rainfall happens ahead has an obvious indication for precipitation forecast. The vertical overlapping of the positive and negative MPV1 areas is favorable to the generation and development of rainstorm. This zone is also the conjoint area of convective instability and baroclinic instability.

  8. Sensitivity of Cyclone Tracks to the Initial Moisture Distribution: A Moist Potential Vorticity Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of moist potential vorticity (MPV) in the vicinity of a surface cyclone center and their physical processes are investigated. A prognostic equation of surface absolute vorticity is then used to examine the relationship between the cyclone tracks and negative MPV (NMPV) using numerical simulations of the life cycle of an extratropical cyclone. It is shown that the MPV approach developed herein, i.e., by tracing the peak NMPV, can be used to help trace surface cyclones during their development and mature stages. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to investigate the impact of different initial moisture fields on the effectiveness of the MPV approach. It is found that the lifetime of NMPV depends mainly on the initial moisture field, the magnitude of condensational heating, and the advection of NMPV. When NMPV moves into a saturated environment at or near a cyclone center, it can trace better the evolution of the surface cyclone due to the conservative property of MPV. It is also shown that the NMPV generation is closely associated with the coupling of large potential temperature and moisture gradients as a result of frontogenesis processes. Analyses indicate that condensation, confluence and tilting play important but different roles in determining the NMPV generation. NMPV is generated mainly through the changes in the strength of baroclinicity and in the direction of the moisture gradient due to moist and/or dry air mass intrusion into the baroclinic zone.

  9. Nationwide classification of forest types of India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-12-01

    India, a mega-diverse country, possesses a wide range of climate and vegetation types along with a varied topography. The present study has classified forest types of India based on multi-season IRS Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data. The study has characterized 29 land use/land cover classes including 14 forest types and seven scrub types. Hybrid classification approach has been used for the classification of forest types. The classification of vegetation has been carried out based on the ecological rule bases followed by Champion and Seth's (1968) scheme of forest types in India. The present classification scheme has been compared with the available global and national level land cover products. The natural vegetation cover was estimated to be 29.36% of total geographical area of India. The predominant forest types of India are tropical dry deciduous and tropical moist deciduous. Of the total forest cover, tropical dry deciduous forests occupy an area of 2,17,713 km(2) (34.80%) followed by 2,07,649 km(2) (33.19%) under tropical moist deciduous forests, 48,295 km(2) (7.72%) under tropical semi-evergreen forests and 47,192 km(2) (7.54%) under tropical wet evergreen forests. The study has brought out a comprehensive vegetation cover and forest type maps based on inputs critical in defining the various categories of vegetation and forest types. This spatially explicit database will be highly useful for the studies related to changes in various forest types, carbon stocks, climate-vegetation modeling and biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Analysis and Prediction of West African Moist Events during the Boreal Spring of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roberto Javier

    Weather and climate in Sahelian West Africa are dominated by two major wind systems, the southwesterly West African Monsoon (WAM) and the northeasterly (Harmattan) trade winds. In addition to the agricultural benefit of the WAM, the public health sector is affected given the relationship between the onset of moisture and end of meningitis outbreaks. Knowledge and prediction of moisture distribution during the boreal spring is vital to the mitigation of meningitis by providing guidance for vaccine dissemination. The goal of the present study is to (a) develop a climatology and conceptual model of the moisture regime during the boreal spring, (b) investigate the role of extra-tropical and Convectively-coupled Equatorial Waves (CCEWs) on the modulation of westward moving synoptic waves and (c) determine the efficacy of a regional model as a tool for predicting moisture variability. Medical reports during 2009, along with continuous meteorological observations at Kano, Nigeria, showed that the advent of high humidity correlated with cessation of the disease. Further analysis of the 2009 boreal spring elucidated the presence of short-term moist events that modulated surface moisture on temporal scales relevant to the health sector. The May moist event (MME) provided insight into interplays among climate anomalies, extra-tropical systems, equatorially trapped waves and westward-propagating synoptic disturbances. The synoptic disturbance initiated 7 May and traveled westward to the coast by 12 May. There was a marked, semi-stationary moist anomaly in the precipitable water field (kg m-2) east of 10°E through late April and early May, that moved westward at the time of the MME. Further inspection revealed a mid-latitude system may have played a role in increasing the latitudinal amplitude of the MME. CCEWs were also found to have an impact on the MME. A coherent Kelvin wave propagated through the region, providing increased monsoonal flow and heightened convection. A

  11. Sequence-modified primers for the differential RT-PCR detection of Andean potato latent and Andean potato mild mosaic viruses in quarantine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Renate; Ziebell, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    To enable the differential PCR detection of Andean potato latent virus (APLV) and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV) strains, sense primers were designed that correspond to regions directly upstream of the coat protein genes. Their differentiating power was increased by A->C or T->C replacements in their 3'-terminal parts. Together with the broad-specificity antisense primer EM3, primer AL-a-mod3C detected all APLV strains tested, but none of the APMMV strains. Primer AM-a-mod4C yielded PCR products with all APMMV preparations, but also with some APLV preparations. Sequence analysis revealed that this was not due to a lack of primer specificity, but to the sensitive detection of contaminating APMMV in some of our APLV preparations.

  12. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  13. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  14. Allantoplacental ultrastructure of an Andean population of Mabuya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; De Pérez, Gloria; Carreño-Escobar, J Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Mabuya species are highly matrotrophic viviparous lizards with Type IV epitheliochorial allantoplacenta. The allantoplacenta of an Andean population of this genus, currently assigned to Mabuya sp., possesses specializations related to histotrophic nutrition at the embryonic hemisphere (placentome, paraplacentome, and chorionic areolas), while at the abembryonic hemisphere it has a mixed function: histotrophic transfer (absorptive plaques) and hemotrophic nutrition (gas exchange in respiratory segments). These placental specializations were studied using high-resolution light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and were compared with those found in other squamate reptiles and eutherian mammals. Cytological features of the placentome suggest that this is an important region for nutritional provision; the paraplacentome also shows characteristics for nutrient transfer, especially lipids. Chorionic areolas allow the absorption of glandular products, as well as uterine and chorionic cellular debris produced by lysis of some cells of both epithelia during areola formation. In the absorptive plaques both uterine and chorionic epithelia are firmly attached and their cellular apices exhibit electron-dense granules that could be related to autocrine and paracrine functions. The short interhemal distance found in the respiratory segments confirms their role in gas exchange. A common feature of all regional specializations in the Mabuya sp. allantoplacenta is the presence of lipids in the interacting chorionic and uterine epithelia, suggesting that lipids are transferred throughout the entire embryonic chamber; placental transfer of lipids may be the principal fetal energy and lipid source in this species. In spite of this feature, each one of the specialized areas of the allantoplacenta has different features suggesting particular functions in the transfer of nutrients (as ions, lipids, proteins, amino acids, sugar, water, and gases), and in the possible

  15. Assessment of satellite rainfall products over the Andean plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satgé, Frédéric; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Gosset, Marielle; Molina, Jorge; Hernan Yuque Lima, Wilson; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Timouk, Franck; Garnier, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Nine satellite rainfall estimations (SREs) were evaluated for the first time over the South American Andean plateau watershed by comparison with rain gauge data acquired between 2005 and 2007. The comparisons were carried out at the annual, monthly and daily time steps. All SREs reproduce the salient pattern of the annual rain field, with a marked north-south gradient and a lighter east-west gradient. However, the intensity of the gradient differs among SREs: it is well marked in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 (TMPA-3B42), Precipitation Estimation from remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) products, and it is smoothed out in the Climate prediction center MORPHing (CMORPH) products. Another interesting difference among products is the contrast in rainfall amounts between the water surfaces (Lake Titicaca) and the surrounding land. Some products (TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and GSMaP) show a contradictory rainfall deficit over Lake Titicaca, which may be due to the emissivity contrast between the lake and the surrounding lands and warm rain cloud processes. An analysis differentiating coastal Lake Titicaca from inland pixels confirmed this trend. The raw or Real Time (RT) products have strong biases over the study region. These biases are strongly positive for PERSIANN (above 90%), moderately positive for TMPA-3B42 (28%), strongly negative for CMORPH (- 42%) and moderately negative for GSMaP (- 18%). The biases are associated with a deformation of the rain rate frequency distribution: GSMaP underestimates the proportion of rainfall events for all rain rates; CMORPH overestimates the proportion of rain rates below 2 mm day- 1; and the other products tend to overestimate the proportion of moderate to high rain rates. These biases are greatly reduced by the gauge adjustment in the TMPA-3B42, PERSIANN and CMORPH products, whereas a

  16. Marcos Zapata's "Last Supper": a feast of European religion and Andean culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendt, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In Marcos Zapata's 1753 painting of the Last Supper in Cuzco, Peru, Christian symbolism is filtered through Andean cultural tradition. Zapata was a late member of the Cuzco School of Painting, a group comprised of few European immigrants and handfuls of mestizo and Indian artists. The painters in Cuzco learned mostly from prints of European paintings, and their style tends to blend local culture into the traditional painting of their conquistadors. Imagery was the most successful tool used by the Spaniards in their quest to Christianize the Andean population. By teaching locals to paint Christian subjects, they were able to infuse Christianity into Andean traditions. Zapata's rendering of the Last Supper utilizes this cultural blending while staying true to the Christian symbolism within the subject. Instead of the traditional lamb, Zapata's Last Supper features a platter of cuy, or guinea pig, an Andean delicacy stocked with protein as well as cultural significance. Cuy was traditionally a sacrificial animal at Inca agricultural festivals and in this way it offers poignant parallel to the lamb, as a traditional Christian sacrificial animal.

  17. The electronic procurement in the framework of the Andean Community. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William David Hernández Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is structured as a brief survey of the academic and policy approach on the unification or harmonization of regulations about electronic commerce, specifically relating the electronic contracts, in Latin America, with special emphasis on the Andean Community of Nations as a proposed work on the development of modern trends of international trade law.

  18. Persistence of chironomids in metal polluted Andean high altitude streams: does melanin play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loayza Muro, R.A.; Marticorena-Ruíz, J.K.; Palomino, E.J.; Merritt, C.; de Baat, M.L.; van Gemert, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    In high altitude Andean streams an intense solar radiation and coinciding metal pollution allow the persistence of only a few specialized taxa, including chironomids. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the mechanisms underlying the persistence of chironomids under these multiple

  19. 77 FR 24555 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...., provides trade benefits for eligible Andean countries. The original Act allowed only Bolivia, Ecuador... Bolivia no longer satisfies the eligibility criteria related to counternarcotics and suspended...

  20. 75 FR 19669 - Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), as Amended: Request for Public Comments Regarding Beneficiary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... eligible Andean countries. In Proclamation 7616 of October 31, 2002, the President designated Bolivia... President determined that Bolivia no longer satisfies the eligibility criteria related to...

  1. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights a

  2. Institutional reform in the Andean irrigation sector: enabling policies for strengthening local rights and water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, L.; Ooijevaar, M.; Boelens, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, local and indigenous water rights and rules in the Andean region have been largely neglected and discriminated against. The process of undermining local communities' water access and control rights continues up to today and not only is it headed by powerful local, national and interna

  3. The Rise and Fall of Andean Empires: El Nino History Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on El Nino and the methods for investigating ancient climate record. Traces the rise and fall of the Andean empires focusing on the climatic forces that each empire (Tiwanaku, Wari, Moche, and Inca) endured. States that modern societies should learn from the experiences of these ancient civilizations. (CMK)

  4. Assessing impact of climate change on forest cover type shifts in Western Himalayan Eco-region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.Joshi; Asha Rawat; Sheena Narula; Vinay Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Climate is a critical factor affecting forest ecosystems and their capacity to produce goods and services.Effects of climate change on forests depend on ecosystem-specific factors including dimensions of climate (texture,precipitation,drought,wind etc.).Available information is not sufficient to support a quantitative assessment of the ecological,social and economic consequences.The present study assessed shifts in forest cover types of Western Himalayan Eco-region (700-4500 m).100 randomly selected samples (75 for training and 25 for testing the model),genetic algorithm of rule set parameters and climatic envelopes were used to assess the distribution of five prominent forest cover types (Temperate evergreen,Tropical semi-evergreen,Temperate conifer,Subtropical conifer,and Tropical moist deciduous forests).Modelling was conducted for four different scenarios,current scenario,changed precipitation (8% increase),changed temperature (1.07℃ increase),and both changed temperature and precipitation.On increasing precipitation a downward shift in the temperate evergreen and tropical semi-evergreen was observed,while sub-tropical conifer and tropical moist-deciduous forests showed a slight upward shift and temperate conifer showed no shift.On increasing temperature,an upward shift in all forest types was observed except sub-tropical conifer forests without significant changes.When both temperature and precipitation were changed,the actual distribution was maintained and slight upward shift was observed in all the forest types except sub-tropical conifer.It is important to understand the likely impacts of the projected climate change on the forest ecosystems,so that better management and conservation strategies can be adopted for the bindiversity and forest dependent community.Knowledge of impact mechanisms also enables identification and mitigation of some of the conditions that increase vulnerability to climate change in the forest sector.

  5. Land and Forest Degradation inside Protected Areas in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Reymondin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using six years of remote sensing data, we estimated land and forest degradation inside 1788 protected areas across 19 countries in Latin America. From 2004–2009, the rate of land and forest degradation increased by 250% inside the protected areas, and the land and forest degradation totaled 1,097,618 hectares. Of the protected areas in our dataset, 45% had land and forest degradation. There were relatively large variations by major habitat type, with flooded grasslands/savannas and moist broadleaf forest protected areas having the highest rates of degradation. We found no association between a country’s rate of land and forest degradation inside protected areas and Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita, GDP growth, or rural population density. We found significant, but weak, associations between the rate of land and forest degradation inside protected areas and a country’s protected area system funding, the size of the protected area, and one International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN management category. Our results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity in the variables impacting land and forest degradation inside protected areas in Latin America, but that the targeting of protected area investments on a continental scale is plausible.

  6. 10Be surface exposure dating reveals strong active deformation in the central Andean backarc interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Morabito, Ezequiel; Terrizzano, Carla; Zech, Roland; Willett, Sean; Yamin, Marcela; Haghipour, Negar; Wuethrich, Lorenz; Christl, Marcus; María Cortes, José; Ramos, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the deformation associated with active thrust wedges is essential to evaluate seismic hazard. How is active faulting distributed throughout the wedge, and how much deformation is taken up by individual structures? We address these questions for our study region, the central Andean backarc of Argentina. We combined a structural and geomorphological approach with surface exposure dating (10Be) of alluvial fans and strath terraces in two key localities at ~32° S: the Cerro Salinas, located in the active orogenic front of the Precordillera, and the Barreal block in the interior of the Andean mountain range. We analysed 22 surface samples and 6 depth profiles. At the thrust front, the oldest terrace (T1) yields an age of 100-130 ka, the intermediate terrace (T2) between 40-95 ka, and the youngest terrace (T3) an age of ~20 ka. In the Andean interior, T1´ dates to 117-146 ka, T2´ to ~70 ka, and T3´ to ~20 ka, all calculations assuming negligible erosion and using the scaling scheme for spallation based on Lal 1991, Stone 2000. Vertical slip rates of fault offsets are 0.3-0.5 mm/yr and of 0.6-1.2 mm/yr at the thrust front and in the Andean interior, respectively. Our results highlight: i) fault activity related to the growth of the Andean orogenic wedge is not only limited to a narrow thrust front zone. Internal structures have been active during the last 150 ka, ii) deformation rates in the Andean interior are comparable or even higher that those estimated and reported along the emerging thrust front, iii) distribution of active faulting seems to account for unsteady state conditions, and iv) seismic hazards may be more relevant in the internal parts of the Andean orogen than assumed so far. References Lal, D., 1991: Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: In situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104: 424-439. Stone, J.O., 2000: Air pressure and cosmogenic isotope production. Journal of Geophysical

  7. Use of forest inventories and geographic information systems to estimate biomass density of tropical forests: Application to tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Gaston, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important databases needed for estimating emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from changes in the cover, use, and management of tropical forests is the total quantity of biomass per unit area, referred to as biomass density. Forest inventories have been shown to be valuable sources of data for estimating biomass density, but inventories for the tropics are few in number and their quality is poor. This lack of reliable data has been overcome by use of a promising approach that produces geographically referenced estimates by modeling in a geographic information system (GIS). This approach has been used to produce geographically referenced, spatial distributions of potential and actual (circa 1980) aboveground biomass density of all forests types in tropical Africa. Potential and actual biomass density estimates ranged from 33 to 412 Mg ha(-1) (10(6)g ha(-1)) and 20 to 299 Mg ha(-1), respectively, for very dry lowland to moist lowland forests and from 78 to 197 Mg ha(-1) and 37 to 105 Mg ha(-1), respectively, for montane-seasonal to montane-moist forests. Of the 37 countries included in this study, more than half (51%) contained forests that had less than 60% of their potential biomass. Actual biomass density for forest vegetation was lowest in Botswana, Niger, Somalia, and Zimbabwe (about 10 to 15 Mg ha(-1)). Highest estimates for actual biomass density were found in Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Liberia (305 to 344 Mg ha(-1)). Results from this research effort can contribute to reducing uncertainty in the inventory of country-level emission by providing consistent estimates of biomass density at subnational scales that can be used with other similarly scaled databases on change in land cover and use.

  8. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  9. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  10. Reconciling Local and Global Agendas in Sustainable Development: Participatory Research with Indigenous Andean Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E. Rhoades; Virginia Nazarea

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses participatory research in the Andes and presents a case study in Cotacachi, Ecuador, where sustainability scientists and indigenous people seek common ground in their respective but drastically different research and social agendas. Participatory research based on Andean experiences pre-dated and inspired much of the later international movement in agriculture, health, and conservation. Andean communities have a long history in demanding that outsiders address the needs of the community as a condition for carrying out scientific or applied activities. What an Andean community, however, sees as relevant may or may not practiced throughout much of the world. In fact,overzealous participatory researchers are just as bothersome as their predecessors bearing long questionnaires. More important to Andean people is an equitable relationship with researchers and developers in which exchanges of value are made. A research is drawn. In the case of the SANREM project in Cotacachi, Ecuador, scientists carried out enriching research activities of interest to local people as a way to generate social capital for conducting basic research which does not have an obvious, immediate local benefit. The requested research did not have a conventional participatory methodology but provided valuable products (educational opportunity,germplasm, community visualization tools, and information) to the indigenous community in exchange for time and resources to conduct research on more basic natural resource questions. We argue that in the Andean context the key to reconciling the needs of scientists and of local needs is seeking new forms of equitable collaboration which reach beyond the present and now somewhat tired discourse of ‘participation'.

  11. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Naveda-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  12. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  13. Chronic hypoxia in Andeans; are there lessons for neurology at sea level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, Otto; Minko, Tamara; Qualls, Clifford; Pozharov, Vitaly; Gamboa, Jorge; Gamboa, Alfredo; Pakunlu, Rafica I

    2006-08-15

    Hypoxia is implicated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We posited that changes in gene expression induced by ambient hypoxia at altitude may be neuroprotective to natives of these regions. We studied 30 men. Twenty natives of Cerro de Pasco (CP), altitude 4,338 m were examined in CP; then transported within 6 h to Lima (150 m-sea level) and examined 1 h after arrival. They were assessed by a Chronic Mountain Sickness-score (CMS-sc) in CP, 10 were normal Andeans and 10 had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a sudden inexplicable loss of adaptation to their native environment. RNA was extracted from venous blood white cells. The Andeans were compared to 10 normal US men living at 1500 m using RT-PCR. We focused on the cyto-neuro-protective genes, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX 1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), heat shock protein-90 (HSP-90), and the neuroprotective enzyme, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nnmat 1). CMS patients had significantly higher levels of gene expression (HMOX-1, HSP-70, ATM) than Andean controls in CP. HSP-90 and Nmnat 1, however, were higher in Andean controls in all locations. Significant reductions of all gene products, within an hour of arriving in normoxia in Lima, were found. In Andean controls, the gene products in Lima fell to levels approaching US controls. Correlation and regression methods showed men with high expression of all gene products had an average CMS-sc=19.8; those with low expression a normal score (9.4, P=0.02). ATM expression was related to age (P<0.001). The natural experiment that unfolds in the mountainous regions of the world provides opportunities to study neuroprotection in intact humans.

  14. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  15. Analysis of cadmium, nickel, and lead in commercial moist and dry snuff used in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2013-06-01

    The extent to which smokeless tobacco endangers human health is an ongoing subject of debate. In this study, concentrations of toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), were measured in different snuff products (dry brown and black and moist green and brown), available and consumed in Pakistan. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined in 23 samples of various brands of snuff by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The reliability of methodology was assured by analyzing certified reference material. The resulted data of toxic metals in different snuff products are comparable to the existing information with limited exceptions. It was estimated that 10 g intake of different types of snuff could contribute 14-68, 17-47, and 20-73 % of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for Cd, Ni, and Pb, respectively.

  16. Effect of Nonequilibrium Condensation of Moist Air on Transonic Flow Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsumiShimamoto

    2000-01-01

    When condensation occurs in a supersonic flow field,the flow in affected by the latent heat released.In the present study,a condensing flow was produced by an expansion of moist air in nozzle with circular bump odels and shock waves occurred in the supersonic parts of the flow fields.The expereimental investigations were carried out to show the effects of initial conditions in the reservoir and nozzle geometries on the shock wave characteristics and the turbulences in the flow fields.Furthermore,in order to clarify the effect of condensation on the flow fields with shock waves,navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically using a 3rd-order MUSCL type TVD finite-difference scheme with a second order fractional step for time integraton,As a result,the effect of condensation on the aspect of flow field has been clarified.

  17. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  18. Effect of Moist Air on Transonic Internal Flow around a Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    The unsteady phenomena in the transonic flow around airfoils are observed in the flow field of fan, compressor blades and butterfly valves, and this causes often serious problems such as the aeroacoustic noise and the vibration. In the transonic or supersonic flow where vapor is contained in the main flow, the rapid expansion of the flow may give rise to a non-equilibrium condensation. In the present study, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation of moist air on the shock induced flow field oscillation around a plate was investigated numerically. The results showed that in the case with non-equilibrium condensation, the flow field aerodynamic unsteadiness is reduced significantly compared with those without the non-equilibrium condensation.

  19. Cross-Saharan transport of water vapor via recycled cold pool outflows from moist convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools. The results highlight the importance of cold pools for moisture transport, dust and clouds, and demonstrate the need to include these processes in models in order to improve the representation of Saharan atmosphere.

  20. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...

  1. Asymptotic solutions of the axisymmetric moist Hadley circulation in a model with two vertical modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Samuel P. [Columbia University, Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, New York, NY (United States); New York University, Courant Institute, New York, NY (United States); Sobel, Adam H.; Polvani, Lorenzo M. [Columbia University, Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-11-15

    A simplified model of the moist axisymmetric Hadley circulation is examined in the asymptotic limit in which surface drag is strong and the meridional wind is weak compared to the zonal wind. Our model consists of the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM) equations on an axisymmetric aquaplanet equatorial beta-plane. This model includes two vertical momentum modes, one baroclinic and one barotropic. Prior studies use either continuous stratification, or a shallow water system best viewed as representing the upper troposphere. The analysis here focuses on the interaction of the baroclinic and barotropic modes, and the way in which this interaction allows the constraints on the circulation known from the fully stratified case to be satisfied in an approximate way. The dry equations, with temperature forced by Newtonian relaxation towards a prescribed radiative equilibrium, are solved first. To leading order, the resulting circulation has a zonal wind profile corresponding to uniform angular momentum at a level near the tropopause, and zero zonal surface wind, owing to the cancelation of the barotropic and baroclinic modes there. The weak surface winds are calculated from the first-order corrections. The broad features of these solutions are similar to those obtained in previous studies of the dry Hadley circulation. The moist equations are solved next, with a fixed sea surface temperature at the lower boundary and simple parameterizations of surface fluxes, deep convection, and radiative transfer. The solutions yield the structure of the barotropic and baroclinic winds, as well as the temperature and moisture fields. In addition, we derive expressions for the width and strength of the equatorial precipitating region (ITCZ) and the width of the entire Hadley circulation. The ITCZ width is on the order of a few degrees in the absence of any horizontal diffusion and is relatively insensitive to parameter variations. (orig.)

  2. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression o...

  3. Use of Contour Maps of Water Depths to Predict Flora and Fauna Abundance in Moist Soil Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project was to develop a technique to quantitatively predict the area of moist soil that would be exposed as a result of a water drawdown of any...

  4. Interpretation of simple and cloud-resolving simulations of moist convection radiation interaction with a mock-Walker circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Peters, Matthew E.

    2006-11-01

    An idealized two-dimensional mock-Walker circulation in the tropical atmosphere forced by prescribed horizontal gradients in sea-surface temperature (SST) is discussed. This model problem includes feedbacks between cumulus convection and tropical large-scale circulations that have proved challenging for global climate models to predict accurately. Three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations that explicitly simulate turbulent circulations within individual cloud systems across 4,096 and 1,024 km-wide Walker circulations are compared with a simple theoretical model, the Simplified Quasiequilibrium Tropical Circulation Model (SQTCM). This theoretical model combines the weak-temperature-gradient approximation with a unimodal truncation of tropospheric vertical structure coupled to highly simplified formulations of moist precipitating cumulus convection and its cloud-radiative feedbacks. The rainfall, cloud and humidity distribution, circulation strength, energy fluxes and scaling properties are compared between the models. The CRM-simulated horizontal distribution of rainfall and energy fluxes are adequately predicted by the SQTCM. However, the humidity distribution (drier subsidence regions and high-humidity boundary layers in the CRM), vertical structure and domain-size scaling of the circulation differ significantly between the models. For the SQTCM, the concept of gross moist stability related to advection of moist static energy (MSE) out of tropospheric columns by the mean divergent circulation is used to explain the width and intensity of the rainy region. Column MSE budgets averaged across the ascent branch of the simulated Walker circulation provide similar insight into the cloud-resolving simulations after consideration of the more complex horizontal and vertical circulation structure and the role of transient eddies. A nondimensional ascent-region moist stability ratio α, analogous to the SQTCM gross moist stability, is developed. One term of

  5. A review of forest economics research in Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country.......Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass...

  6. Moist processes during MJO events as diagnosed from water isotopic measurements from the IASI satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinenburg, O. A.; Risi, C.; Lacour, J. L.; Schneider, M.; Wiegele, A.; Worden, J.; Kurita, N.; Duvel, J. P.; Deutscher, N.; Bony, S.; Coheur, P. F.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate some characteristics of the moist processes of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), by making use of joint HDO (or δD) and H2O vapor measurements. The MJO is the main intraseasonal mode of the tropical climate but is hard to properly simulate in global atmospheric models. The joint use of δD-H2O diagnostics yields additional information compared to sole humidity measurements. We use midtropospheric Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite δD and H2O measurements to determine the mean MJO humidity and δD evolution. Moreover, by making use of high temporal resolution data, we determine the variability in this evolution during about eight MJO events from 2010 to 2012 (including those monitored during the DYNAMO (the Dynamics of the MJO), CINDY (Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment in Y2011) campaign). These data have a higher spatiotemporal coverage than previous δD measurements, enabling the sampling of individual MJO events. IASI measurements over the Indian Ocean confirm earlier findings that the moistening before the precipitation peak of an MJO event is due to water vapor slightly enriched in HDO. There is then a HDO depletion around the precipitation peak that also corresponds to the moister environment. Most interevent variability determined in the current study occurs 5 to 10 days after the MJO event. In 75% of the events, humidity decreases while the atmosphere remains depleted. In a quarter of the events, humidity increases simultaneously with an increase in δD. After this, the advection of relatively dry and enriched air brings back the state to the mean. Over the maritime continent, δD-H2O cycles are more variable on time scales shorter than the MJO and the interevent variability is larger than over the Indian Ocean. The sequence of moistening and drying processes as revealed by the q-δD cycles can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the representation of moist processes in models. This is done here

  7. FS National Forest Dataset (US Forest Service Proclaimed Forests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundaries encompassing the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the original proclaimed National Forests, along with...

  8. Effects of Light Intensity and Fertilization on the Growth of Andean Oak Seedlings at Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Lucia Sepúlveda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus humboldtii is a native plant species of great importance in Colombia for use in reforestation and restoration of degraded Andean highlands. The species is highly threatened and it is necessary to establish programs of propagation and planting. However, little is known about their nutritional and light requirements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of single and combined relative illumination (IR and fertilization on the growth of seedlings of  Q. humboldtii at nursery. For this purpose three contrasting IR regimes (high, medium, and low IR and nine fertilization treatments were established: complete (TC, a missing nutrient (-N,-P,-K,-Ca,-Mg, -S,-B and a control without fertilization (T0. The best development of seedlings was showed in the medium IR condition. All treatments with a lacking nutrient showed decreases in seedling development regarding TC, except in the –B treatment. Nitrogen was the most limiting nutrient yielding biomass similar to that of T0. The impact of nutrient limitation on seedling performance was in the following order:-N>-Ca,-K,-P>-Mg,-S>-B. No significant interaction IR x Fertilization was detected on seedling development.EFECTOS DE LA ILUMINACIÓN RELATIVA Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE ROBLE ANDINO EN VIVEROQuercus humboldtii es una especie vegetal nativa de mucha importancia en Colombia por su uso en repoblamiento forestal y restauración de tierras altoandinas degradadas. La especie se encuentra fuertemente amenazada y es necesario establecer programas de propagación de la misma. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre sus exigencias nutricionales y lumínicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos simples y combinados de la iluminación relativa (IR y la fertilización sobre el crecimiento de plántulas de  Q. humboldtii en vivero. Para esto se establecieron en combinación tres condiciones contrastantes de iluminación relativa (alta, media y baja

  9. Varying mechanical coupling along the Andean margin: Implications for trench curvature, shortening and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, G.; Di Giuseppe, E.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2012-03-01

    Convergent margins often exhibit spatial and temporal correlations between trench curvature, overriding plate shortening and topography uplift that provide insights into the dynamics of subduction. The Andean system, where the Nazca plate plunges beneath continental South America, is commonly regarded as the archetype of this class of tectonics systems. There is distinctive evidence that the degree of mechanical coupling between converging plates, i.e. the amount of resistive force mutually transmitted in the direction opposite to their motions, may be at the present-day significantly higher along the central Andean margin compared to the northern and southern limbs. However quantitative estimates of such resistance are still missing and would be desirable. Here we present laboratory models of subduction performed to investigate quantitatively how strong lateral coupling variations need to be to result in trench curvature, tectonic shortening and distribution of topography comparable to estimates from the Andean margin. The analogue of a two-layers Newtonian lithosphere/upper mantle system is established in a silicone putty/glucose syrup tank-model where lateral coupling variations along the interface between subducting and overriding plates are pre-imposed. Despite the simplicity of our setup, we estimate that coupling in the central margin as large as 20% of the driving force is sufficient to significantly inhibit the ability of the experimental overriding plate to slide above the subducting one. As a consequence, the central margin deforms and shortens more than elsewhere while the trench remains stationary, as opposed to the advancing lateral limbs. This causes the margin to evolve into a peculiar shape similar to the present-day trench of the Andean system.

  10. Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sue Biondich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.

  11. Antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of atomized andean purple corn (Zea mayz L) hydroalcoholic extract in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico farmaceútico.; Raez, Ernesto; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo.; Rodríguez, Miguel; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Chumpitaz, Víctor; Facultad Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; Burga, Jonny; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Odontólogo.; De la Cruz, Walter; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Valencia, José; Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Químico Farmacéutico.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the antihypertensive and antioxidant activity of the atomized hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn) in rats with induced hypertension. Material and methods. We used five groups of six Holtzmann rats each, one without hypertension (negative control) and four with hypertension induced by L-NAME: positive control and three groups for the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was carried out orally once a day for 25 days. Th...

  12. Three-dimensional density model of the Nazca plate and the Andean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassara, AndréS.; GöTze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Hackney, Ron

    2006-09-01

    We forward modeled the Bouguer anomaly in a region encompassing the Pacific Ocean (85°W) and the Andean margin (60°W) between northern Peru (5°S) and Patagonia (45°S). The three-dimensional density model that reproduces the gravity field is a continental-scale representation of density structure to 410 km depth that characterizes the mantle and crust of the oceanic Nazca plate, subducted slab and continental margin with a minimum number of bodies. We predefined the density of each body after studying the dependency of density on composition of crustal and mantle materials and pressure-temperature conditions appropriate for the Andean setting. A database of independent geophysical information constrains the geometry of the top of the subducted slab, locally the Moho of the oceanic and continental crusts and, indirectly, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary underneath the continental plate. Other boundaries, notably the intracrustal density discontinuity separating upper from lower crust below the continent, were not constrained and their geometry is the result of fitting the observed and calculated Bouguer anomaly during forward modeling. This contribution presents the model to the Andean geoscientific community and contains some tools, like a sensitivity analysis, that helps potential users of the model to interpret its results. We describe and discuss some of these results in order to illustrate the application of the model to the study of a wide range of phenomena (e.g., modification of oceanic plate structure by hot spots, shape of the subducted slab, thermal structure of the continental lithosphere, compensation mechanism and formation of orogenic relieve, causes of Andean segmentation).

  13. Large Differences in Bacterial Community Composition among Three Nearby Extreme Waterbodies of the High Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Pablo; Acosta, Eduardo; Dorador, Cristina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (Altiplano peatland ponds represent a hitherto unknown source of microbial diversity.

  14. Invertebrate metacommunity structure and dynamics in an andean glacial stream network facing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, Sophie; Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    theory as a conceptual framework to better understand how river network structure influences the spatial organization of aquatic communities in glacierized catchments. At 51 stream sites in an Andean glacierized catchment (Ecuador), we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, measured physico...... community variation. Overland spatial variables based on geographical and altitudinal distances significantly affected community variation. Watercourse spatial variables based on glaciality distances had a unique significant effect on community variation. Within alpine catchment, glacial meltwater affects...

  15. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pedraza-Penalosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae (Ericaceae is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to advance our understanding of the relationships within neotropical Vaccinieae and advice the taxonomy of the new blueberry relatives, here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for the Andean clade. Anthopterus, Demosthenesia, and Pellegrinia are among the putative Andean genera recovered as monophyletic, while other eight Andean genera were not. The analyses also showed that genera that have been traditionally widely defined are non-monophyletic and could be further split into more discrete groups. Four newly discovered Colombian Vaccinieae are placed in the monophyletic Satyria s.s. and the Psammisia I clade. Although these new species are endemic to the Colombian Western Cordillera and Chocó biogeographic region and three are not known outside of Las Orquídeas National Park, they do not form sister pairs.

  16. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Peruvian Andean hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Morey-Vargas, Oscar L; Bolaños-Salazar, Juan F; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Postigo-MacDowall, Mauricio; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Valdivia-Ascuña, Zoila; Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina; Paredes-Díaz, Sheyla; Villalobos-Tapia, Paola; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Goldberg, Ronald B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2007-11-01

    Data regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MTS) in Andean populations are limited. We evaluated the prevalence of MTS according to American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria among 1878 subjects in the PREVENCION study in Peru. In women, the most common component was low HDL cholesterol (60.9%) followed by abdominal obesity (36.9%). In men, the most common component was elevated triglycerides (52.0%) followed by low HDL cholesterol (32.5%), whereas the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 14%. Abnormal fasting glucose was the least common component in men (5.4%) and women (5.0%). The prevalence of MTS was significantly higher in women compared to men (23.2% versus 14.3%) and increased steeply with age, particularly in women (por=30kg/m2) instead of waist circumference as a component of the MTS lead to equivalent prevalence estimates of MTS in men but significantly underestimated the prevalence in women. The MTS is highly prevalent among Peruvian Andeans, particularly in older women. The pattern of MTS components in this Andean population is characterized by a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and a relatively low prevalence of elevated fasting glucose. Further studies are required to characterize genetic and environmental determinants of these patterns.

  17. Introduction and Establishment of Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, V A; Gomez, C A; La Manna, L; Roux, G; Lanteri, A A; Vallejos, N C; Marvaldi, A E

    2016-02-01

    The pine weevils that occur in plantations of Pinus spp. in Andean Patagonia of Argentina belong to the species Pissodes castaneus (De Geer), a Eurasian endemic species, according to the identification based on molecular and morphological characters. Sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear genes (28 S rDNA and ITS2) were obtained for individuals of 13 afforestations, covering the entire distribution area of the established populations in the Andean Patagonia of Argentina. Sequence comparison with representative species of the genus (European, North American, and Chinese species) shows that Patagonian specimens are conspecific to those of P. castaneus sequenced from Europe. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that all terminals from Patagonia form a monophyletic unit without evident subclades, eliminating the possibility of existence of more than one species of Pissodes Germar in this area, including cryptic ones. Moreover, the very low genetic divergence between the Patagonian populations suggests that it is plausible that P. castaneus was introduced into Patagonia from just one location. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that Patagonian terminals group together with a French haplotype and are clearly separated from other P. castaneus individuals represented in our sample, and reveal that established populations in Andean Patagonia originated via a limited introduction.

  18. Agronomic performance and stability of andean common bean lines with white grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of genotype by environment interaction in Andean common bean lines with white grains, in Central Southern Brazil, to identify lines with high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability, aiming to meet domestic demand and to increase the Brazilian participation in the foreign market of common bean. Nineteen trials with twelve Andean lines were conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in Central Southern Brazil. Grain yield and other agronomic traits were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and of adaptability/stability using Annicchiarico and modified AMMI methods. Significant differences were found between lines for all traits evaluated. Genotype by environment interaction was important for lines with Andean origin and white seed. The utilization of weighted mean of absolute scores and yield with the AMMI results enabled the identification of the most stable and adapted lines. Lines Poroto Alubia, CNFB 16211, Ouro Branco and WAF 160 were stable and adapted, using both methods. CNFB 16211 line presented high agronomic performance, stability and adaptability and therefore this line may be a new cultivar. USWA 70 and WAF 75 lines presented grain size similar to that required by the foreign market and superior to the Brazilian cultivars, besides favorable agronomic traits, and thus these lines may be indicated as new cultivars.

  19. A regional perspective on the diversity and conservation of tropical Andean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2011-02-01

    The tropical Andes harbor an extraordinarily varied concentration of species in a landscape under increasing pressure from human activities. Conservation of the region's native plants and animals has received considerable international attention, but the focus has been on terrestrial biota. The conservation of freshwater fauna, particularly the conservation of fishes, has not been emphasized. Tropical Andean fishes are among the most understudied vertebrates in the world. We estimate that between 400 and 600 fish species inhabit the diverse aquatic environments in the region. Nearly 40% of these species are endemic. Tropical Andean fishes are vulnerable to ongoing environmental changes related to deforestation, water withdrawals, water pollution, species introductions, and hydropower development. Additionally, their distributions and population dynamics may be affected by hydrologic alterations and warmer water temperatures associated with projected climate change. Presently, at least three species are considered extinct, some populations are endangered, and some species are likely to decline or disappear. The long-term persistence of tropical Andean fishes will depend on greater consideration of freshwater systems in regional conservation initiatives.

  20. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.

  1. Impact of a drier Early-Mid-Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Power, Mitchell J

    2008-05-27

    This paper uses a palaeoecological approach to examine the impact of drier climatic conditions of the Early-Mid-Holocene (ca 8000-4000 years ago) upon Amazonia's forests and their fire regimes. Palaeovegetation (pollen data) and palaeofire (charcoal) records are synthesized from 20 sites within the present tropical forest biome, and the underlying causes of any emergent patterns or changes are explored by reference to independent palaeoclimate data and present-day patterns of precipitation, forest cover and fire activity across Amazonia. During the Early-Mid-Holocene, Andean cloud forest taxa were replaced by lowland tree taxa as the cloud base rose while lowland ecotonal areas, which are presently covered by evergreen rainforest, were instead dominated by savannahs and/or semi-deciduous dry forests. Elsewhere in the Amazon Basin there is considerable spatial and temporal variation in patterns of vegetation disturbance and fire, which probably reflects the complex heterogeneous patterns in precipitation and seasonality across the basin, and the interactions between climate change, drought- and fire susceptibility of the forests, and Palaeo-Indian land use. Our analysis shows that the forest biome in most parts of Amazonia appears to have been remarkably resilient to climatic conditions significantly drier than those of today, despite widespread evidence of forest burning. Only in ecotonal areas is there evidence of biome replacement in the Holocene. From this palaeoecological perspective, we argue against the Amazon forest 'dieback' scenario simulated for the future.

  2. Morphology of the triggering and evolution of a deep moist convective system in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Elisabetta; Ferraris, Luca; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco; Kranzlmueller, Dieter; Parodi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Gaining a deeper physical understanding of the high impact weather events (HIWE) which affected the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) in the last years (Cinqueterre 2011, Southern France 2011, Genoa 2011, Southern Spain 2012, and Genoa 2014) is strongly motivated by the social request to reduce the casualties and the economical impacts due to these highly-localized and hardly-predictable phenomena. One of the most recent HIWE observed in the WMB hit the Genoa city center, on October 2014 less than 3 years after the very similar one which already affected the city on November 2011. Taking advantage of the availability of both observational data and modelling results (WRF-ARW runs) at the micro-α meteorological scale (2 km - 0.2 km and 1 hour or less, Orlanski, 1975), this paper provides new insights about the triggering mechanism and the subsequent spatio-temporal evolution of 2014 HIWE. The major feature that emerged from the very fine grid spacing simulations is the effect of a kind of virtual topography created on the Ligurian sea by the convergence of the cold current outflowing from the Po valley and the warm and moist south-easterly flow.

  3. On the evening onset of deep moist convection in complex orography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    The evening onset of deep moist convection (hereafter DMC) in areas characterized by complex orography is quite well documented, being evidenced both by human observations and by automatic sensors (e.g., peaks of lightning frequency around 20 local time) . In these areas, evening events play a relevant role in the climate of DMC because, in some months, they represent the main DMC activity peak, even larger than the afternoon peak. Moreover, they often affect human activities which are erroneously planned during evening time, in a moment of the day when DMC is considered unfavored. In this work, the onset of evening DMC in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) is analyzed by way of cloud-to-ground (hereafter CG) lightning frequency and through rain gauge measurements. It is evidenced that evening DMC occurrence is favored in relatively narrow alpine valleys and in steep orographyc relieves bordered by sea. The hypothesis advanced to explain these events is the interplay between day-time and night-time breezes which, during the switch between their modes, produce a local convergence, then the needed initial lifting to parcels for the onset of DMC. This hypothesis is tested by way of observations and numerical models. the reason why this modes switch is only effective in evening and in complex orography is that morning temperatures are too low to assure buoyancy and because orography can supply more potential energy (related to the slanted borders) to enhance an otherwise too week convergence.

  4. Breeze transients as triggers for the initiation of deep moist convection on mountains slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaiotti, D.; Stel, F.; Gladich, I.; Giacomini, A.

    2010-09-01

    Deep moist convection frequency is characterized by seasonal and diurnal cycles, related to the interplay between the different elements which force and sustain it: onset, instability, wind pattern. Besides the instability diurnal cycles, the low level triggers initiating the convective motions are considered responsible for the modulations of the cycle. In some areas, like in the southern side of the Alpine ridge, the onset and the reversal of breezes produce microscale areas of flow convergence, at the lower levels, due breezes transients and breezes interaction with the orography. This work presents a numerical analysis of the convection initiation generated by breezes transients. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been used to make simplified case studies and real cases simulations in which orography, solar radiation exposure and sea surface temperature variations are considered. General results support the thesis that the daily modulation of thunderstorm development is significantly accounted by the trigger effect of breezes transients, when synoptic winds are negligible of course. The results produced by the large set of simulations are compared with the climatological data of convective cells development in the Northeastern Italian region.

  5. Hand eczema and use of snus (moist snuff) - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangsjö, Karin; Alderling, Magnus; Lindahl, Gunborg; Meding, Birgitta

    2015-03-01

    A possible association between use of snus (Swedish moist snuff) and hand eczema was studied. 27,466 individuals responded to questions regarding hand eczema, tobacco use and other life style factors in a Swedish Public Health Survey in 2006, response rate 58%. Of these persons, 12.2% reported daily snus use (men 22.0%, women 4.3%), 15.5% daily smoking (men 14.4%, women 16.5%). Of snus users 7.5 % reported hand eczema (men 6.5%, women 11.8%), of smokers 11.7% (men 8.6%, women 13.6%) and of non-tobacco-users 9.7% (men 7.9%, women 11.0%). In multivariate analysis hand eczema was significantly less common in snus users, in total prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) =  0.813, in men PPR =  0.820, but significantly more common in smoking women, PPR = 1.238. Physical exercise was a confounder; gender an effect modifier. No positive association was demonstrated between snus use and hand eczema in contrast to the positive association found between smoking and hand eczema in women.

  6. Replacement of moist ingredients in the feed training of carnivorous fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the replacement of bovine heart by gelatin in the feed training of carnivorous fish, using giant trahira (Hoplias lacerdae as an experimental model. A completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions was employed. The treatments were composed of wet ingredients beef heart (control, gelatin diluted in water, gelatin diluted in beef heart broth, and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The fish (3.22±0.03 cm and 0.57±0.01 g were conditioned to accept industrialized diets by the technique of gradual feed ingredients transition in the diet. Gains in weight and length, efficiency of feed training, specific growth rate, cannibalism, mortality and survival rates were evaluated. There was significant difference in weight and length gains and specific growth rate, whereby the use of bovine heart gave the best results. Greater efficiency of feed training was observed for fish fed diets containing beef heart and gelatin diluted in water mixed with fish meal. The high survival rates and the absence of significant differences among treatments for rates of cannibalism, mortality and survival indicate the feasibility of using gelatin as a moist ingredient in the feed training of carnivorous fish.

  7. Experimental comparison of adsorption characteristics of silica gel and zeolite in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Wang, W. C.; Du, C. X.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the macro adsorption characteristic of water vapor by the allochroic silica gel and the zeolite 5A and ZSM-5 were investigated experimentally. BET analysis method presented the difference of the porosity, the micro pore volume, and the specific surface area of the material. The dynamic and the equilibrium characteristics of the sample were measured thermo-gravimetrically in the moist air. In general, the ZSM-5 zeolite showed an inferior feature of the adsorption speed and the equilibrium concentration to the others. By comparison to the result of SAPO-34 zeolite in the open literature, the 5A zeolite showed some superiorities of the adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of the ZSM-5 zeolite was higher than that of the SAPO-34 calcined in the nitrogen, whereas it was lower than that calcined in the air. The adsorption isotherm was correlated and the relation of the isotherm to the microstructure of the material was discussed. With more mesopore volume involved, the zeolite presented an S-shaped isotherm in contrast to the exponential isotherm of the silica gel. In addition, the significance of the S-shaped isotherm for the application in adsorption heat pump has also been addressed.

  8. Experimental comparison of adsorption characteristics of silica gel and zeolite in moist air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Wang, W. C.; Du, C. X.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the macro adsorption characteristic of water vapor by the allochroic silica gel and the zeolite 5A and ZSM-5 were investigated experimentally. BET analysis method presented the difference of the porosity, the micro pore volume, and the specific surface area of the material. The dynamic and the equilibrium characteristics of the sample were measured thermo-gravimetrically in the moist air. In general, the ZSM-5 zeolite showed an inferior feature of the adsorption speed and the equilibrium concentration to the others. By comparison to the result of SAPO-34 zeolite in the open literature, the 5A zeolite showed some superiorities of the adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of the ZSM-5 zeolite was higher than that of the SAPO-34 calcined in the nitrogen, whereas it was lower than that calcined in the air. The adsorption isotherm was correlated and the relation of the isotherm to the microstructure of the material was discussed. With more mesopore volume involved, the zeolite presented an S-shaped isotherm in contrast to the exponential isotherm of the silica gel. In addition, the significance of the S-shaped isotherm for the application in adsorption heat pump has also been addressed.

  9. Inactivation of Mold Spores from Moist Carpet Using Steam Vapor: Contact Time and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Emo, Brett; Lewis, Roger D; Kennedy, Jason; Thummalakunta, Laxmi N A; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Steam vapor has been shown to reduce viable mold spores in carpet, but the minimal effective temperature and contact time has not been established. This study evaluated the effectiveness of steam vapor in reducing the number of viable mold spores in carpet as a function of temperature and contact time. Seventy carpet samples were inoculated with a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and incubated over a water-saturated foam carpet pad for 24 hr. Steam was applied to the samples as the temperature was measured from the carpet backing. Contact time was closely monitored over seven time intervals: 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 sec. Following steam vapor treatment, mold spores were extracted from the carpet samples and the extract was plated on DG-18 plates at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 dilutions followed by one week of incubation. Raw colony forming units were determined using an automated colony counter and adjusted based on dilution factor, extraction volume, and plated volume. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test for statistically significant relationships. Steam contact time exhibited a linear relationship to observed temperature of carpet backing (F = 90.176, R(2) = 0.609). Observed temperature of carpet backing had a positive relationship to percent reduction of mold (F = 76.605, R(2) = 0.569). Twelve seconds of steam vapor contact time was needed to achieve over 90% mold reduction on moist carpet.

  10. Sound-tube measurements of the relaxation frequency of moist nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D.; Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    At audible frequencies, the vibrational relaxation of nitrogen contributes significantly to the absorption of sound in still air. The accurate measurement of the humidity dependence of the relaxation frequency of nitrogen, as yet, has eluded careful measurement due to the difficulty in measuring small absorption at low frequencies. Recently, equipment has been constructed for measuring sound absorption in air as a function of humidity over the frequency range from 4 to 100 kHz. In the experiment described here, the temperature and humidity range of this equipment has been extended so that it can be used to study the relaxation absorption in nitrogen at temperatures from 311 K to 418 K. The results indicate that, over this temperature range, the frequency of maximum absorption in moist nitrogen, f, can be given by f/P = 260 x h, Hz/atm, where h is the percent mole fraction of water, and P is the pressure in atm. To the accuracy of the measurements reported here, f is independent of temperature over the range of temperatures at which the measurements were made.

  11. Exergy Assessment of Recovery Solutions from Dry and Moist Gas Available at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Ayachi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-EESI ENERGY ReCOvery from Low Temperature heat sources (ENERCO_LT project is a waste heat recovery project that aims to reduce energy consumption in industrial gas production sites, by producing electrical power from exothermic processes discharges at low and medium temperature. Two promising thermal sources, consisting of: (i almost dry gas flow at 165 °C and (ii moist gas flow at 150 °C with a dew point at 60 °C, were then investigated. In this paper, the challenge was to discern suitable recovery solutions facing resource specificities and their thermodynamic constraints, in order to minimize the overall exergy destruction, i.e., to move up the exergy efficiency of the entire system. In this spirit, different designs, including Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs and CO2 transcritical cycles, operating as simple and cascade cycles, were investigated. Combined exergy analysis and pinch optimization was performed to identify the potential of various working fluids, by their properties, to overcome the global irreversibility according to the studied resource. Supercritical parameters of various working fluids are investigated too, and seem to bring promising results regarding system performances.

  12. Numerical Study of Water Production from Compressible Moist-Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sabah hamidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research a numerical study of water production from compressible moist-air flow by condensing of the vapor component of the atmospheric air through a converging-diverging nozzle is performed. The atmospheric air can be sucked by a vacuum compressor. The geographical conditions represent a hot and humid region, for example Bandar Abbas, Iran, with coordinates, 270 11 ’ N and 560 16’ E and summer climate conditions of about 40℃and relative humidity above 80%. Parametric studies are performed for the atmospheric-air temperature between, 40℃ to 50℃, and relative humidity between49.6% to 100.%. For these ranges of operating conditions and a nozzle with the area ratio of 1.17, the liquid mass flow rates falls in the range 0.272 to 0.376 kg/s. The results show that, the energy consumed by the compressor for production 1 kg of water will be 1.279 kWh. The price of 1 kWh is 372 Rials, therefore the price for the production of 1 kg liquid water will be 475.8 Rials, therefore, the scheme is economically suitable.

  13. Correlation of Cloud Droplet Growth with the Scalar Fluctuations in a Turbulent Moist Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; Cantrell, Will; Chang, Kelken; Ciochetto, David; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond; Yang, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Cloud droplet growth in a turbulent environment is studied by creating turbulent moist Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the Michigan Tech Pi Chamber. Cloud formation is achieved by injecting aerosols into the water-supersaturated environment created by the isobaric mixing of saturated air at different temperatures. A range of steady-state cloud droplet number concentration is achieved by supplying aerosols at different rates. As steady-state droplet number concentration is decreased the mean droplet size increases as expected, but also the width of the size distribution increases. This increase in the width is associated with larger supersaturation fluctuations due to the slow droplet microphysical response (sink of the water vapor) compared to the fast turbulent mixing (source of the water vapor). The observed standard deviation of the squared droplet radius is a linear function of the combined time scale of the system τs- 1 =τc- 1 +τt- 1 ; here, τc is the phase relaxation time and τt is the turbulence correlation time. A stochastic differential equation approach for supersaturation also predicts the same linear response. This finding has significance for cloud-radiation budgets and precipitation formation. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant AGS-1623429.

  14. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities.

  15. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  16. Distribution of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis, the vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis, at different altitudes on the Andean slope of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Distribution of the vector species is a major risk factor for the endemicity of leishmaniasis. In the present study, the vertical distribution of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Ecuadorian Andes, was surveyed at different altitudes (300-2500m above sea level) of the Andean slope. The vector species Lu. ayacuchensis was identified at an altitude of 650m and a higher areas, and higher distribution ratio of the species was observed at higher altitudes. In addition, high ratios of L. (L.) mexicana infection were detected in higher areas, but none in lower populations of sand flies. Since an association between sand fly populations and vector competence is suggested in Lu. ayacuchensis, haplotype analysis was performed on the species from different altitudes of the study areas; however, no apparent difference was observed among populations. These results suggested that Lu. ayacuchensis in Andean slope areas of Ecuador has the potential to transmit L. (L.) mexicana and spread leishmaniasis in these areas.

  17. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...... to a compact and moist litter layer lead to N2O production and NO consumption in the soil. The two factors soil moisture and soil temperature are often explaining most of the temporal variation within a site. When comparing annual emissions on a regional scale, however, factors such as nitrogen deposition...

  18. Mitigation benefits of forestation greatly varies on short spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Dan; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatin, Shani; Ramati, Efrat; Asaf, David; Dicken, Uri

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of global warming by forestation is controversial because of its linkage to increasing surface energy load and associated surface warming. Such tradeoffs between cooling associated with carbon sequestration and warming associated with radiative effects have been considered predominantly on large spatial scales, indicating benefits of forestation mainly in the tropics but not in the boreal regions. Using mobile laboratory for measuring CO2, water and energy flux in forest and non-forest ecosystem along the climatic gradient in Israel over three years, we show that the balance between cooling and warming effects of forestation can be transformed across small spatial scale. While converting shrubland to pine forest in a semi-arid site (280 mm annual precipitations) requires several decades of carbon sequestration to balance the radiative warming effects, similar land use change under moist Mediterranean conditions (780 mm annual precipitation) just ~200 km away showed reversal of this balance. Specifically, the results indicated that in the study region (semi-arid to humid Mediterranean), net absorb radiation in pine forests is always larger than in open space ecosystems, resulting in surface warming effects (the so-called albedo effect). Similarly, depression of thermal radiation emission, mainly due canopy skin surface cooling associated with the 'convector effect' in forests compared with shrubland ecosystems also appears in all sites. But both effects decrease by about 1/2 in going from the semi-arid to the humid Mediterranean sites, while enhanced productivity of forest compared to grassland increase about fourfold. The results indicate a greater potential for forestation as climate change mitigation strategy than previously assumed.

  19. ASAMgpu V1.0 – a moist fully compressible atmospheric model using graphics processing units (GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Horn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the three dimensional compressible moist atmospheric model ASAMgpu is presented. The calculations are done using graphics processing units (GPUs. To ensure platform independence OpenGL and GLSL is used, with that the model runs on any hardware supporting fragment shaders. The MPICH2 library enables interprocess communication allowing the usage of more than one GPU through domain decomposition. Time integration is done with an explicit three step Runge-Kutta scheme with a timesplitting algorithm for the acoustic waves. The results for four test cases are shown in this paper. A rising dry heat bubble, a cold bubble induced density flow, a rising moist heat bubble in a saturated environment and a DYCOMS-II case.

  20. ASAMgpu V1.0 – a moist fully compressible atmospheric model using graphics processing units (GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Horn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the three dimensional compressible moist atmospheric model ASAMgpu is presented. The calculations are done using graphics processing units (GPUs. To ensure platform independence OpenGL and GLSL are used, with that the model runs on any hardware supporting fragment shaders. The MPICH2 library enables interprocess communication allowing the usage of more than one GPU through domain decomposition. Time integration is done with an explicit three step Runge-Kutta scheme with a time-splitting algorithm for the acoustic waves. The results for four test cases are shown in this paper. A rising dry heat bubble, a cold bubble induced density flow, a rising moist heat bubble in a saturated environment, and a DYCOMS-II case.

  1. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents a...

  2. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  3. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  4. Soil organic matter dynamics at the paramo and puna highlands in the Andean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Mermut, Ahmet R.; Zornoza, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Mountains and uplands represent the most diverse and fragile ecosystems in the world, cover about 20% of the terrestrial surface and are distributed across all continents and major ecoregions. The Andean Plateau is the main mountain range of the American continent and one of the largest in the world with more than 7,500 km. The soil organic matter is a corner stone in the fertility management of the Andean agriculture as well as in the erosion control. However, its role is still much unknown in these ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of current global climatic change on soil organic C reservoirs and dynamics is still not clearly understood. The aim of this work was to review the soil C dynamics and the implication of the soil organic matter in the fertility management, erosion control, conservation of biodiversity and global climate change to improve the knowledge on the mountain Andean highlands. Climate, landscape, soil C pools, biomass and management were studied. In general, the Andean climate is affected by three main factors: ocean currents, winds and orography characterized by an abrupt topography. The entire Andean belt is segmented into the Northern, Central and Southern Andes. Northern Andes are called paramo and are characterized by humid climate while Central and Southern Andes dryer zones are called puna. Most of the region is tectonically and volcanically active. Sedimentary rocks predominated in the paramo while sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic ones prevailed in the puna. The most common soils were Andosols, Regosols, Umbrisols and Histosols. The cold and wet climate and the low atmospheric pressure favored organic matter accumulation in the soil. The accumulation of organic matter is further enhanced by the formation of organomineral complexes strongly resistant to the microbial breakdown mainly in the paramo. High organic C contents were observed in the paramo (10%) oppositely to the low contents found in the dryer puna (1%). The C/N ratio

  5. The Influence of Slight Protuberances in a Micro-Tube Reactor on Methane/Moist Air Catalytic Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of methane/moist air in micro-tube reactors with different numbers and shapes of inner wall protuberances are investigated in this paper. The micro-reactor with one rectangular protuberance (six different sizes was studied firstly, and it is shown that reactions near the protuberance are mainly controlled by diffusion, which has little effect on the outlet temperature and methane conversion rate. The formation of cavities and recirculation zones in the vicinity of protuberances leads to a significant increase of the Arrhenius reaction rate of CH4 and gas velocity. Next, among the six different simulated conditions (0–5 rectangular protuberances, the micro-tube reactor with five rectangular protuberances shows the highest methane conversion rate. Finally, the effect of protuberance shape on methane/moist air catalytic combustion is confirmed, and it is found that the protuberance shape has a greater influence on methane conversion rate than the number of protuberances. The methane conversion rate in the micro-tube decreases progressively in the following order: five triangular slight protuberances > five rectangular protuberances > five trapezoidal protuberances > smooth tube. In all tests of methane/moist air combustion conditions, the micro-tube with five triangular protuberances has the peak efficiency and is therefore recommended for high efficiency reactors.

  6. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W

    2004-09-01

    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  7. Surveillance of moist snuff: total nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Hodge, Knachelle; Stanfill, Stephen; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford

    2008-11-01

    In 2005, approximately 2.3% of U.S. adults used smokeless tobacco. Moist snuff leads all types of smokeless tobacco in revenues and marketing expenditures. The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has classified smokeless tobacco as a human carcinogen. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products, and the pH of the product influences the content of un-ionized nicotine which is the form of nicotine most rapidly absorbed in the mouth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed 40 top-selling brands of moist snuff to measure nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and TSNAs, including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). The study findings indicate that moist snuff brands varied widely in content of rapidly absorbed, addictive un-ionized nicotine (500-fold range) and of carcinogenic TSNAs (18-fold range). Product characteristics such as packaging and moisture content appeared to be correlated with concentrations of un-ionized nicotine, and flavor characteristics of low-priced brands may correlate with TSNA concentrations. These findings warrant further study in light of (a) the marketing of smokeless tobacco for use in places where smoking is prohibited, (b) the promotion of smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction product, and (c) the ever-expanding number of highly flavored smokeless varieties brought to the market.

  8. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevett, Carol A S; Sumpter, Kenneth B; Nickol, Robert G

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using (13)C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 degrees C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 degrees C ranged from 75 to 350h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 degrees C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 degrees C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  9. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  10. Perbandingan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar Derajat Dua antara Rebusan Daun Sirih dan Moist Exposed Burn Ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical agent is one of the main strategies in management of burn injury. At Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO is the first line topical agent for treating burn injury, not all places in Indonesia able to use it. Piper betle is one of the traditional agent to treat wound including that caused burn injury. Our experimental study was to compare the second grade burn injury healing process by using Wistar sp. for boiled piper betle leaves, MEBO and as control physiologic sodium chloride for fourteen days (August 25th–September 8th 2009 at Animal Pharmacology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Padjadjaran University. The variables which measured were diameter of injury, pus development, evidence of serous and erythematous skin, at 4th, 7th and 14th day of studied. Histopathologic examination was conducted at day 14 to determine the amount of fibroblast, collagen and epithelial. The results according to the measurement of diameter (piper betle leaves group 17.4 mm was smaller than other groups (p<0.001. In pus development control group was higher than other groups (p=0.043. In pathological findings, the control group was at inflammation phase, while in boiled piper betle leaves group was at proliferation phase and in MEBO group at remodeling phase (with epithel score 1.9 which higher than other groups (p<0.001. In conclusions, application of boiled piper betle leaves in treating second degree burn injury gives a better result than physiologic sodium chloride, although MEBO is better for second degree burn injury healing process.

  11. The lightning activity associated with the dry and moist convections in the Himalayan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penki, R. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2013-06-01

    Lightning activity in the dry environment of northwest India and Pakistan (NW) and in the moist environment of northeast India (NE) has been examined from the Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor data obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite during 1995-2010. In the NW region, seasonal variation of flash rate is annual with a maximum in July but is semi-annual with a primary maximum in April and a secondary maximum in September, in the NE region. On diurnal scale, flash rate is the maximum in the afternoons, in both the NE and NW regions. The correlation of flash rate with convective parameters, viz. surface temperature, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and outgoing long-wave radiation is better with convective activity in the NW than in the NE region. Mean value of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm is ~ 26% higher and is highly correlated with flash rate in NW as compared to that in NE. Results indicate that CAPE is ~ 120 times more efficient in NW than in the NE region for production of lightning. The empirical orthogonal function analysis of flash rate, surface temperature, and CAPE shows that variance of lightning activity in these regions cannot be fully explained by the variance in the surface temperature and CAPE alone, and that some other factors, such as orographic lifting, precipitation, topography, etc., may also contribute to this variance in these mountainous regions. Further, the increase in CAPE due to orographic lifting in the Himalayan foothills in the NE region may contribute to ~ 7.5% increase in lightning activity. Relative roles of the thermally induced and moisture-induced changes in CAPE are examined in these regions. This study merely raises the questions, and that additional research is required for explaining the fundamental reasons for the reported observations here.

  12. Regional Bowen ratio controls on afternoon moist convection: A large eddy simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song-Lak

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the effect of the regional Bowen ratio β, the ratio of the domain-averaged surface sensible heat flux (SHF) to latent heat flux (LHF), on afternoon moist convection. With a temporally evolving but spatially uniform surface available energy over a mesoscale domain under a weak capping inversion, we run large eddy simulation of the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). We first prescribe a small β of 0.56 (a wet surface) and then the reversed large β of 1.80 (a dry surface) by switching the SHF and LHF fields. The perturbation fields of the fluxes are prescribed with the Fourier spectra of κ- 3 (κ is horizontal wave number; strong mesoscale heterogeneity) and κ0 (homogeneity). The large β cases have strong vertical buoyancy fluxes and produce more vigorous updrafts. In the heterogeneous, large β surface case, with the removal of convective inhibition over a mesoscale subdomain of large SHF, deep convection develops. In the heterogeneous, small β surface case, convective clouds develop but do not progress into precipitating convection. In the homogeneous surface cases, randomly distributed shallow clouds develop with significantly more and thicker clouds in the large β case. (Co)spectral analyses confirm the more vigorous turbulent thermals in the large β cases and reveal that the moisture advection by the surface heterogeneity-induced mesoscale flows makes the correlation between mesoscale temperature and moisture perturbations change from negative to positive, which facilitates the mesoscale pool of high relative humidity air just above the CBL top, a necessary condition for deep convection.

  13. Activities relating to understanding the initiation, organization and structure of moist convection in the Southeast environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 1986, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) will sponsor the Satellite Precipitation And Cloud Experiment (SPACE) to be conducted in the Central Tennessee, Northern Alabama, and Northeastern Mississippi area. The field program will incorporate high altitude flight experiments associated with meteorological remote sensor development for future space flight, and an investigation of precipitation processes associated with mesoscale and small convective systems. In addition to SPACE, the MIcroburst and Severe Thunderstorm (MIST) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the FAA-Lincoln Laboratory Operational Weather Study (FLOWS), sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), will take place concurrently within the SPACE experiment area. All three programs (under the joint acronym COHMEX (COoperative Huntsville Meteorological EXperiment)) will provide a data base for detailed analysis of mesoscale convective systems while providing ground truth comparisons for remote sensor evaluation. The purpose of this document is to outline the experiment design criteria for SPACE, and describe the special observing facilities and data sets that will be available under the COHMEX joint program. In addition to the planning of SPACE-COHMEX, this document covers three other parts of the program. The field program observations' main activity was the operation of an upper air rawinsonde network to provide ground truth for aircraft and spacecraft observations. Another part of the COHMEX program involved using boundary layer mesoscale models to study and simulate the initiation and organization of moist convection due to mesoscale thermal and mechanical circulations. The last part of the program was the collection, archival and distribution of the resulting COHMEX-SPACE data sets.

  14. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  15. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  16. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, M.C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  17. Diversity of Andean amphibians of the Tamá National Natural Park in Colombia: a survey for the presence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in diversity and possible decreases in populations of amphibians have not yet been determined in many areas in the Andes. This study aimed to develop an inventory of the biodiversity of amphibians in the Andean areas of the Tamá National Natural Park (Tamá NNP and to evaluate the patterns of infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in preserved and degraded areas. We performed samplings focused on three habitats (forest, open areas and streams in four localities from 2,000 to 3,200 m in altitude. Fourteen species were recorded, 12 of which were positive for Bd. A total of 541 individuals were diagnosed and 100 were positive. Our analyses showed that preserved areas play an important role in keeping many individuals Bd–free as compared to those in degraded areas. This was the first study to evaluate diversity and infection by Bd in the northeast region of Colombia. Our findings may help improve our knowledge of the diversity of amphibian species in the area and facilitate the implementation of action plans to mitigate the causes associated with the decrease in amphibian populations.

  18. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean Back-arc of Western Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando, I.R.; Aragón, E.; Frei, R.; González, P.D.; Spakman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit cald

  19. 'Andean-centred' genera in the short-branch clade of Annonaceae: testing biogeographical hypotheses using phylogeny reconstruction and molecular dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mols, J.B.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Oosterhof, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim We test biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin of Andean-centred plant groups by reconstructing phylogeny in the short-branch clade (SBC) of Annonaceae, and estimating the timing of diversifications in four apparently Andean-centred genera: Cremastosperma R.E.Fr., Klarobelia Chatrou, Ma

  20. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  1. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigham Abigail W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-altitude environments (>2,500 m provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.

  2. Prevalence and patterns of hypertension in Peruvian Andean Hispanics: the PREVENCION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Zea-Diaz, Humberto; Morey-Vargas, Oscar L; Bolaños-Salazar, Juan F; Postigo-Macdowall, Mauricio; Paredes-Díaz, Sheyla; Corrales-Medina, Fernando; Valdivia-Ascuña, Zoila; Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina; Villalobos-Tapia, Paola; Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio; Raij, Leopoldo; Chirinos, Julio A

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Population-based data regarding the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in Andean Hispanic populations are scarce. The authors performed a population-based study that included 1878 Peruvian Andean adults to determine: (1) the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension and (2) the relative frequency of hypertension subtypes (systolic vs. diastolic). The prevalence of hypertension was 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0%-17.4%), did not differ by gender, and increased steeply with age, particularly in women. Awareness, treatment, and control rates were 47.9%, 39.5%, and 14%, respectively. Diastolic blood pressure increased until age 50 years and reached a plateau thereafter, whereas mean arterial pressure continued to increase with age even after age 50 years. Furthermore, in sharp contrast with the United States population, the predominant type of hypertension was systodiastolic (41.7%; 95% CI, 35.1%-48.5%). Isolated systolic hypertension accounted for only 29.3% of cases (95% CI, 23.9%-35.4%) and was responsible for a minority of cases in all age groups before age 70 years. Hypertension subtypes in this Andean population seem to differ significantly from those present in the United States population, with a much larger proportion of systodiastolic and diastolic hypertension even with advanced age. These differences result from interactions between hemodynamic and structural factors, and further studies aimed at characterizing their genetic and environmental determinants and implications in end-organ damage and prognosis in this population may contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension.

  3. Analysis of the drought resilience of Andosols on southern Ecuadorian Andean páramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iñiguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical Andean grasslands above 3500 m a.s.l. known as "páramo" offer remarkable ecological services for the Andean region. Most important is the water supply – of excellent quality – to many cities and villages established in the lowlands of the inter-Andean valleys and to the coast. However, the páramo ecosystem is under constant and increased threat by human activities and climate change. In this paper we study the resilience of its soils for drought periods during the period 2007–2013. In addition, field measurements and hydrological conceptual modelling at the catchment-scale are comparing two contrasting catchments in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Both were intensively monitored during two and a half years (2010–2012 in order to analyse the temporal variability of the soil moisture storage. A typical catchment on the páramo at 3500 m a.s.l. was compared to a lower grassland one at 2600 m a.s.l. The main aim was to estimate the resilience capacity of the soils during a drought period and the recovery during a subsequent wet period. Local soil water content measurements in the top soil (first 30 cm through TDR were used as a proxy for the catchment's average soil moisture storage. The local measurements were compared to the average soil water storage as estimated by the probabilistic soil moisture (PDM model. This conceptual hydrological model with 5 parameters was calibrated and validated for both catchments. The study reveals the extraordinary resilience capacity of this type of shallow organic soils during the droughts in 2009 and 2010. During these droughts, the soil water content dropped from a normal value of about 0.80 to ~ 0.60 cm3 cm−3, while the recovery time was only two to three months.

  4. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  5. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS pa...

  6. Physics in the Andean Countries: A Perspective from Condensed Matter, Novel Materials and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P.

    2009-05-01

    We will discuss the current state of R&D in the fields of condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology in the Andean nations. We will initially consider Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to then visualize individual developments, as well as those for the region as a whole in these fields of knowledge in each of the nations constituting the Andean Region (Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Venezuela, Peru, and Colombia). Based on Science & Technology watch exercises in the countries involved, along with the Iberian American and Inter-American Science & Technology Network of Indicators (Red de indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (RICYT) iberoamericana e interamericana)1, we will reveal statistical data that will shed light on the development in the fields mentioned. As will be noted, total R&D investment in Latin American and Caribbean countries remained constant since 1997. In spite of having reached a general increase in publications without international collaboration in LAC nations, the countries with greatest research productivity in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, and Chile) have strengthened their international collaboration with the United States, France, Germany, and Italy through close links associated with the formation processes of their researchers. Academic and research integration is evaluated through joint authorship of scientific articles, evidencing close collaboration in fields of research. This principle has been used in the creation of cooperation networks among participating nations. As far as networks of research on condensed matter, novel materials, and nanotechnology, the Andean nations have not consolidated a regional network allowing permanent and effective cooperation in research and technological development; as would be expected, given their idiomatic and cultural similarities, their historical background, and geographical proximity, which have been integrating factors in other research areas or socio-economic aspects. This

  7. [Decriminalizing traditional Andean medicine: an interview with Walter Álvarez Quispe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Walter Álvarez; Loza, Carmen Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.

  8. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  9. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  10. Moist synoptic transport of carbon dioxide along midlatitude storm tracks, transport uncertainty, and implications for carbon dioxide flux estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.

    Mass transport along moist isentropic surfaces on baroclinic waves represents an important component of the atmospheric heat engine that operates between the equator and poles. This is also an important vehicle for tracer transport, and is correlated with ecosystem metabolism because large-scale baroclinicity and photosynthesis are both driven seasonally by variations in solar radiation. In this research, I pursue a dynamical framework for explaining atmospheric transport of CO2 by synoptic weather systems at middle and high latitudes. A global model of atmospheric tracer transport, driven by meteorological analysis in combination with a detailed description of surface fluxes, is used to create time varying CO2 distributions in the atmosphere. Simulated mass fluxes of CO2 are then decomposed into a zonal monthly mean component and deviations from the monthly mean in space and time. Mass fluxes of CO2 are described on moist isentropic surfaces to represent frontal transport along storm tracks. Forward simulations suggest that synoptic weather systems transport large amounts of CO2 north and south in northern mid-latitudes, up to 1 PgC month-1 during winter when baroclinic wave activity peaks. During boreal winter when northern plants respire, warm moist air, high in CO2, is swept upward and poleward along the east side of baroclinic waves and injected into the polar vortex, while cold dry air, low in CO 2, that had been transported into the polar vortex earlier in the year is advected equatorward. These synoptic eddies act to strongly reduce seasonality of CO2 in the biologically active mid-latitudes by 50% of that implied by local net ecosystem exchange while correspondingly amplifying seasonality in the Arctic. Transport along stormtracks is correlated with rising, moist, cloudy air, which systematically hides this CO2 transport from satellite observing systems. Meridional fluxes of CO2 are of comparable magnitude as surface exchange of CO2 in mid-latitudes, and

  11. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  12. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  13. Forests and Forest Cover - Ozark National Forest Service Compartments (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Ozark - St. Francis National Forests stand inventory data for vegetation, maintained in polygon format. Compartment is defined as a division of forest for purposes...

  14. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  15. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  16. Experimental Studies on COndensation Heat Transfer of the Moist Air outside the Horizontal Circular Pipe with a Porous Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuQiang; ZhangJiaxuntffu

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the structure design of four kinds of circular pipes with porous layer and the experimental results of condensation heat transfer of the moist air outside the horizontal circular pipes,By comparison with the experiments on bare piper,it is concluded that,the designed pipes not only have good condensation heat transfer performance,but also have the ability to collect and remove condensed liquid under zero gravity.They can be applied to the thermal control system for future large spacecraft.

  17. Numerical analysis of convective drying of a moist object with combined internal and external heat and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun; Son, Gihun [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungil [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A numerical approach is developed for computing convective drying of a moist object. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and moisture in the internal and external regions of an object are solved with the coupled heat and mass transfer conditions on the object surface, including the effect of evaporation. A numerical approach is applied to predict the internal and external temperature and moisture distributions during the convective drying with variations in the initial moisture content and the water activity. The numerical results show that the water activity is an important parameter for determining the drying rate pattern and the analogy between the heat and mass transfer on the object surface.

  18. Moist wound healing compared with standard care of treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: a prospective randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V

    2007-01-01

    This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications....... No difference in the infection rate (13% vs. 11%, p=0.73), length of hospital stay, or wound complications was noted between the two groups. We conclude that although the Aquacel dressing needed significantly fewer changes than the conventional dressing, this did not influence the patient comfort. Moreover...

  19. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  20. Miocene tectonism and the separation of cis- and trans-Andean river basins: Evidence from Neotropical fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Lovejoy, Nathan R.; Crampton, William G. R.

    2006-03-01

    The fish fauna of trans-Andean river basins in northwestern South America is ancient and diverse, including 14% (558 of 4,085) of all Neotropical teleost species and representing 88% of the orders and 79% of the families. The evolutionary histories of these lineages provide many examples to test models of the tectonic uplift that isolated the trans-Andean basins. We report the results of two newly compiled data sets of phylogenetic and biogeographic information on the freshwater fishes of the region: (1) species-level phylogenies for 26 Neotropical freshwater teleost taxa, with a minimum of 37 cis-/trans-Andean clades and (2) species distributions for 641 genera of Neotropical freshwater teleosts, with a minimum of 140 cis-/trans-Andean clades. Although it provides only about one-quarter the total number of cis-/trans-Andean clades, species phylogeny preserves a more accurate record of the temporal sequence of basin isolation. Phylogenies using gene sequences also may provide estimates on the timing of lineage divergences. However, the great majority (70%) of available species phylogenies for Neotropical freshwater teleosts employ comparative morphology alone, partly because species-level sampling for most taxa requires collections over large spatial (10 3-10 4 km) scales, and collections of whole specimens for morphological study are readily available for many taxa from natural history museums. Fish species phylogenies are partially concordant with patterns of drainage basin isolation generated from geological data on the Miocene of northwestern South America, which associate the initial rise of the Eastern Cordillera (˜1 2 Ma) with the hydrological isolation of the Magdalena and Pacific Slope regions and the rise of the Merida Andes (˜8 Ma) with the isolation of the modern Maracaibo and Orinoco basins. Although some phylogenies unite taxa from the Maracaibo and cis-Andean Orinoco, a more common set of area relationships occurs between clades exclusive to the

  1. Additions of angiosperms to the Flora of Peru from the Andean-Amazonian forests of southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 25 new records of angiosperms for the Peruvian flora, as a result of different botanical explorations conducted in southern Peru, mainly in the areas of the departments of Cusco, Apurimac and Madre de Dios.

  2. Two new trans-Andean species of Imparfinis Eigenmann & Norris, 1900 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ortega-Lara

    Full Text Available Two new species of Imparfinis are described from the trans-Andean region of Colombia. Imparfinis timana is diagnosed by having longer anal fin base (12.4-15.5% in SL, in combination with long adipose fin (24.6-31.3% in SL, 5-6 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 42-43 vertebrae and additional measurements. Imparfinis usmai is distinguished by the combination of first ray of dorsal fin longest, but not projected as a long filament, long adipose fin (21.1-27.0% in SL, maxillary barbel exceeding pelvic-fin base, 39-40 vertebrae, upper caudal-fin lobe pointed and longer than lower lobe, lower lobe rounded, 7-8 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, as well as additional measurements. Imparfinis timana is only known from río Guarapas, a small tributary of the upper course of the río Magdalena. Imparfinis usmai is broadly distributed in the upper basin of ríos Cauca and Magdalena, and in the lower Patía river basin. The restricted distribution of I. nemacheir to trans-Andean drainages (Atrato, Magdalena, and Lago de Maracaibo is also discussed.

  3. Composition and diversity of High Andean in the Fauna Production Reserve Chimborazo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study inquire the floristic diversity of 9 sampling in four plots of 1 m² of high andean in several locations in the “Reserva de Producción de Fauna Chimborazo”. For the development of this study, we used an adaptation of the method of plots “Gloria”. With coverage (% in each of the plots, Further the diversity indices and similarity with respective analysis were obtained. The data obtained reflect a diversity that can range from medium to low, believe that this is due to anthropogenic activities that have taken place in these ecosistems. With the presence mostly Calamagrostis intermedia, it could establish that the type of vegetation is herbaceous in high andean is higher percentage; is the species that is almost always present in most types of vegetation of the RPF Chimborazo and high dominance that influences the results of low floristic diversity indices was found in the analysis. As a result the most abundant family Asteraceae is well Poaceae.

  4. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  5. Seasonal variation in soil nitrogen availability across a fertilization chronosequence in moist acidic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, J. R.; Gough, L.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in global climate may result in altered timing of seasonal events including the timing of the spring-thaw and fall freeze-up. In addition to this changing seasonality, arctic environments are experiencing overall increases in nutrient availability caused by climate warming resulting in alterations of plant species composition, such as the observed increases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs. Changing species composition may have large effects on nutrient dynamics in the surrounding ecosystem because of documented differences in how particular plant species influence soil nutrient availability. Although we have some idea of how plant identity influences soil nutrients, soil biogeochemical processes are strongly seasonal, and we have a poor understanding of how plant identity, or nutrient levels, may influence these seasonal patterns. We examined the responses of moist acidic tundra to experimentally increased soil nutrient availability and the accompanying increase in shrub abundance at the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. We examined a chrono-sequence of long-term fertilization experiments, composed of experiments fertilized for 5, 15 and 22 years, which has resulted in increasing shrub density with time since fertilization. The fertilized plots receive both nitrogen (N, 10 g/m2/yr) and phosphorus (5 g/m2/yr) annually following snowmelt. In the 2011 growing season we measured variation in soil available N weekly, including measures of ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) and total free amino acids (TFAA). We found that differences between fertilized and control plots depended strongly on both the seasonal timing of measurements, as well as the duration of the fertilization treatment. Early in the growing season fertilization resulted in large increases in available soil N (both NH4 and NO3) across the entire chronosequence. As the season progressed, however, older fertilized plots show evidence of N saturation, where

  6. Remote Sensing and GIS Based Risk Index Map For Predicting Forest Fire Danger - Evaluation From Forestry Datasets, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V. K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    Forest fires constitute one of the most serious ecological as well as environmental problems affecting most vegetation zones across the world, including India. In this study, we evaluated forest fire risk for sixteen different forest and vegetation types of India. Data from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR data has been integrated with bioclimatic data and fuel value index to quantify the forest fire risk. Biomass data for different forest types in different pools has been used as ancillary data. In using the fuel value index, calorific value of wood content for 60 species has been collected and aggregated, for specific species. Results from NDVI and precipitation correlations were found to be highly significant for tropical dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests. Spatial patterns in NDVI closely followed seasonal trends in precipitation for most of the forests. An integrated GIS framework with biophysical, biomass, thermo chemical and bioclimatic parameters allowed the calculation of risk indices for the different forest types. The methodology followed in the study and the maps produced are found to be useful for evaluating forest fire risk and for predicting forest fire danger in different vegetation zones in India.

  7. Comparison of Free-Living Amoebae in Hot Water Systems of Hospitals with Isolates from Moist Sanitary Areas by Identifying Genera and Determining Temperature Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Ute; Weber, Susanne; Michel, Rolf; Selenka, Fidelis; Wilhelm, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Legionella-contaminated hot water systems and moist sanitary areas in six hospitals were sampled for amoebae by following a standardized collection protocol. Genus identifications and temperature tolerance determinations were made. Amoebae identified as Hartmannella vermiformis (65%), Echinamoebae spp. (15%), Saccamoebae spp. (12%), and Vahlkampfia spp. (9%) were detected in 29 of 56 (52%) hot water samples. Twenty-three of 49 (47%) swabs obtained from moist areas were amoeba positive. The following genera were identified: Acanthamoeba (22%), Naegleria (22%), Vahlkampfia (20%), Hartmannella (15%), and Vanella (7%). The temperature tolerance of amoebae from hot water systems was strikingly different from that of amoebae from moist areas. At 44°C on agar, 59% of amoebic isolates sampled from hot water systems showed growth. The corresponding value for isolates from moist areas was only 17%. Six Acanthamoeba isolates from the moist areas were considered potential pathogens. Four Hartmannella and two Saccamoeba isolates from hot water could be cultured at 53°C. PMID:9572957

  8. Phenolic compound contents and antioxidant activity in plants with nutritional and/or medicinal properties form the Peruvian Andean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Rogez, H.

    2013-01-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activities using different assays (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC) in fruits, grains, leaves, seeds, roots and tubers from 27 different Peruvian Andean plants used in folk medicine or/and as food by the native population were evaluated in order to use these as nat

  9. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  10. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  11. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  12. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  13. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  14. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  15. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  16. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields......Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...

  17. Two new cis-Andean species of the South American catfish genus Megalonema allied to trans-Andean Megalonema xanthum, with description of a new subgenus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available A revised diagnosis of the pimelodid catfish genus Megalonema is given based on synapomorphic features of the Weberian complex and gas bladder. Megalonema xanthum from the Magdalena River is redescribed. Two new cis-Andean species of Megalonema are described, M. amaxanthum n. sp. from the Amazon River basin, and M. orixanthum n. sp. from the Orinoco River basin. These three species are differentially diagnosed by shape and size of the supraoccipital posterior process, adipose-fin shape, vertebral counts, eye size, premaxillary bone shape and dentition, length of the anal-fin base, width between the posterior nostrils and presence/absence of dentations on the pectoral spine. Eretmomegalonema new subgenus is established for M. xanthum, M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum and supported by the uniquely synapomorphic paddle-like structure of its pelvic fin and hypertrophied basipterygium. Unambiguous synapomorphies indicate a sister-group relationship between M. amaxanthum and M. orixanthum, with M. xanthum basal to this pair. This topology is congruent with the Neogene origins of separate Magdalena, Amazon and Orinoco basins suggesting vicariant control of diversification of Eretmomegalonema.

  18. Imaging variations in the central Andean mantle and the subducting Nazca slab with teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scire, Alissa

    The Nazca-South America convergent margin is marked by the presence of the Andean mountain belt, which stretches along the 8000-km long western margin of the South American plate. The subduction zone is characterized by significant along-strike changes in both upper plate structure and slab geometry that make it an ideal region to study the relationship between the subducting slab, the surrounding mantle, and the overriding plate. This dissertation summarizes the results of three finite frequency teleseismic tomography studies of the central Nazca-South America subduction zone which improve our understanding of how along-strike variations in the Andean mountain belt and the subducting Nazca plate interact with each other and with the surrounding mantle. This is accomplished by first focusing on two smaller adjacent regions of the central Andes to explore upper mantle variations and then by using a combined dataset, which covers a larger region, to image the deeply subducted Nazca slab to investigate the fate of the slab. The first study focuses on the central Andean upper mantle under the Altiplano-Puna Plateau where normally dipping subduction of the Nazca plate is occurring (18° to 28°S). The shallow mantle under the Eastern Cordillera is generally fast, consistent with either underthrusting of the Brazilian cratonic lithosphere from the east or a localized "curtain" of delaminating material. Additional evidence for delamination is seen in the form of high amplitude low velocities under the Puna Plateau, consistent with proposed asthenospheric influx following lithospheric removal. In the second study, we explore the transition between normal and flat subduction along the north edge of the Altiplano Plateau (8° to 21°S). We find that the Peruvian flat slab extends further inland along the projection of the Nazca Ridge than was previously proposed and that when re-steepening of the slab occurs, the slab dips very steeply (˜70°) down through the mantle

  19. Peculiar seismotectonic characteristics of Nazca's subducted slab, in the Andean region: Why do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, J.; Fernandes, C.

    2007-05-01

    The peculiar morphology of Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) beneath Andean region presents controversial seismotectonic characteristics of the subducting Nazca plate beneath South American plate: WBZ with an almost flat behaviour under Central-Northern Peru region, and beneath Central Chile region, intercalated with steeply portion of the slab; the almost completely aseismic portion between 300 and 500 km of depth; the existence of deep earthquakes in South American and their controversial focal mechanism. There are several hypotheses trying to explain a suitable origin for those deep earthquakes that occur in depths between 500 and almost 700 km, where the occurrence of brittle failure is improbable to exist due to the presence of high temperature and pressure conditions at those depths. We propose in this work - based mainly in the spatial distribution of relocated hypocentres, and in the joint interpretation with recent published results related to seismotectonic aspects of Andean region - a top-to- northwest shear of the portion of Nazca subducting plate between 24°S and 01°S, in such an amount that its deepest corresponding extremes, at around 600 km of depth, seem to be presently, under latitudes between 29°S and 06°S, respectively. The proposed northwestern displacement of South American plate may be provoking that shear process of Nazca slab, which should be larger at shallower depths of the slab, and limited to those latitudes below the Andean region. The NW displacement of Nazca slab could explain the existence of flat subduction beneath Central-Northern Peru region as a consequence of a probable northwards migration of the buoyant Nazca ridge after subduction under South American plate in around 15°S. Similar explanation could be used for the flat WBZ beneath Central Chile and the Juan Fernandez ridge. This hypothesis permits to infer for some very deep South American earthquakes shear, planar mechanisms at high pressure, some times as almost horizontal

  20. Integración regional andina en salud Health in Andean regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Agudelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar su historia compartida, los países de la Región Andina presentan una diversidad social y política que genera realidades sanitarias heterogéneas y procesos de integración complejos. Se han dado por décadas procesos generales, como la Asociación Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración, o de alcance regional como la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, la Comunidad del Caribe y el Mercado Común Centroamericano. En el campo específico de la salud se cuenta con un instrumento en la Región Andina, el Convenio Hipólito Unánue, creado en 1971. Estos procesos de integración se han concentrado en los aspectos económicos, con base en acuerdos de preferencias arancelarias, los cuales han generado, en el largo plazo, un intercambio comercial apreciable. En el campo de la salud se ha avanzado menos, en términos de procesos que ponen en común experiencias nacionales, conocimientos y capacidades. El análisis de las experiencias de integración en salud muestra que esta depende de las fortalezas de cada país y, en gran parte, de los procesos políticos nacionales.Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of

  1. Comparison of shear bond strength between unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The use of dentine bondings on enamel and dentin in total etch protocols has recently become popular. Unfilled resin is hydrophobic and dentin bonding is hydrophilic in nature. This chemical difference could be effective in enamel bonding process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to dry and moist enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 incisor teeth were used. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups of 10. 37% phosphoric acid etchant was applied to the enamel surfaces in each group for 15 seconds, rinsed with water for 20 seconds and dried for 20 seconds with compressed air in groups one and two. After conditioning, group 1 received unfilled resin (Margin Bond, Colten and group 2 received dentin bonding (Single Bond, 3M and in group 3 after conditioning and rinsing with water, a layer of dentin bonding (Single Bond was applied on wet enamel. The enamel and dentin bonding were light cured for 20 seconds. A ring mold 3.5 mm in diameter and 2 mm height was placed over the specimens to receive the composite filling material (Z100, 3M. The composite was cured for 40 seconds. The specimens were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The findings were analyzed by ANOVA One-Way and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Shear bond strength of dentin bonding to dry enamel was significantly less than unfilled resin to dry enamel (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the bond strength of dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel. In addition bond strength of dentin bonding to wet enamel was not significantly different from unfilled resin to dry enamel. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that enamel surface should remain slightly moist after etching before bonding with single bond but when using unfilled resin, the

  2. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  3. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  4. [Possibilities of Lupinus mutabolis and Lupinus albus in the Andean countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; von Baer, E

    1977-12-01

    Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis may achieve importance among the andean countries in which soy bean can not grow due to ecological reasons. Both lupin varieties are outstanding because of their high protein and oil content. Its alkaloid content limits the lupins usage; however the bitter substances can be eliminated by means of genetic selection or technological processing. Beside the intoxication caused by alkaloids exists the lupinosis, which is caused by a micotoxin. This disease can be observed when animals pasture forages which suffered under a secundary attack of fungus. According to the results obtained up to date other antimetabolic substances present in the legums have no significant importance. The lupin seed flour is adequate for animal consumption, being used for this effect in different countries. Starting next year there exist the prospects of employing Lupinus mutabilis as an oil source in Peru and Lupinus albus as proteic flour in Chile.

  5. Temporal patterns of diversification in Andean Eois, a species-rich clade of moths (Lepidoptera, Geometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzenberger, P; Fiedler, K

    2011-04-01

    The timing of the origin of present day Neotropical animal diversity is still a matter of debate. For a long time, a preponderance of glacial (i.e. Pleistocene) radiations has been proposed. However, recent data from molecular clock studies indicate a preglacial origin for most of the examined taxa. We performed a fossil-calibrated molecular dating analysis of the genus Eois, which is a major component of one of the world's most diverse assemblages of herbivorous insects. We found that diversification of Eois took place in the Miocene following a pattern best explained by density-dependent diversification. A strong slowdown of diversification towards the present was detected. Diversification of Eois does overlap with increased Andean uplift and diversification of the most commonly used host plant genus Piper. These findings match the patterns found for the majority of Neotropical tetrapods and for three other unrelated, ecologically different lepidopteran genera.

  6. Invertebrate metacommunity structure and dynamics in an andean glacial stream network facing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, Sophie; Espinosa, Rodrigo; Andino, Patricio;

    2015-01-01

    theory as a conceptual framework to better understand how river network structure influences the spatial organization of aquatic communities in glacierized catchments. At 51 stream sites in an Andean glacierized catchment (Ecuador), we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates, measured physico......-chemical and food resource conditions, and calculated geographical, altitudinal and glaciality distances among all sites. Using partial redundancy analysis, we partitioned community variation to evaluate the relative strength of environmental conditions (e.g., glaciality, food resource) vs. spatial processes (e.......g., overland, watercourse, and downstream directional dispersal) in organizing the aquatic metacommunity. Results revealed that both environmental and spatial variables significantly explained community variation among sites. Among all environmental variables, the glacial influence component best explained...

  7. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  8. ANDEAN COSMOLOGY AND RELIGION: A HISTORICAL DYNAMICS OF ENCOUNTERS, MISSED CONNECTIONS AND REUNIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelar Araujo Santos Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.

  9. How do subduction processes contribute to forearc Andean uplift? Insights from numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinod, J.; Regard, V.; Letourmy, Y.; Henry, H.; Hassani, R.; Baratchart, S.; Carretier, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present numerical models to study how changes in the process of subduction may explain the observed Quaternary uplift of the Andean forearc region. Indeed, most segments of the South American Pacific coasts between 16 and 32° S have been uplifting since the Lower Pleistocene, following a period of stability of the forearc region. Models confirm that local uplift is expected to occur above ridges, this phenomenon being predominant in central Peru where the Nazca Ridge is subducting. We investigate the effects of slab pull, interplate friction and convergence velocity on the vertical displacements of the overriding plate. We propose that the global tendency to coastal uplift is accompanying the deceleration of the Nazca-South America convergence that occurred in the Pleistocene. In contrast, forearc subsidence may accompany increasing convergence velocities, as suggested by the subsidence history of the South America active margin.

  10. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Tim; Graham, Eric A.; Stenzel, William; Rundel, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae) forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant. PMID:25802811

  11. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  12. An Environmental Watch System for the Andean countries: El Observatorio Andino

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Ángel G; Velasquez, Ramon; Monterrey, Luis; Leon, Gloria; Ruiz, Franklyn; Recalde, Cristina; Cadena, Jaime; Mejia, Raul; Paredes, Marcos; Bazo, Juan; Reyes, Carmen; Carrasco, Gualberto; Castellon, Yaruska; Villarroel, Claudia; Quintana, Juan; Urdaneta, Avel

    2010-01-01

    An experimental Environmental Watch System, the so-called Observatorio Andino-OA (Observatorio Andino), has been implemented in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile over the past two years. The OA is a collaborative and regional network that aims to monitor several environmental variables and develop accurate forecasts based on different scientific tools. Its overall goal is to improve risk assessments, set up Early Warning Systems, support decision-making processes, and provide easily- and intuitively-understandable spatial maps to end-users. The initiative works under the scientific and logistic coordination of the Centro de Modelado Cient\\'ifico (CMC) at Zulia University, Venezuela, and the Centro Internacional para la Investigaci\\'on del Fen\\'omeno 'El Ni\\~no' (CIIFEN), and is operated at a local level by the National Weather Services (NWSs) of the aforementioned six Andean nations. The OA provides several freely-available model outputs including meteorological and hydrological forecasts...

  13. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Federico A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae), Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae) and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae) in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha). However the smaller fragment (20 ha), had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia) was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia) and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla) recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators.

  14. Dynamic Paleogeography of the Jurassic Andean Basin: pattern of regression and general considerations on main features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Vicente

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Following examination of the evolution of the Jurassic Andean retroarc basin at a global scale for the Central Andes, this paper analyses the pattern of the regressive process, and discusses some general features concerning Andean Jurassic Paleogeography. The early Upper Jurassic regression obeys to an exactly reverse pattern as the one evidenced for the Lower Jurassic transgressive process. Sectors with late transgressions become those with early regressions while those with early transgressions show later regressions. This fact may indicate that the Norte Chico Isthmus (29°S to 30°30'S was a precociously emerged zone from the Bajocian. This carries again a split up between the Tarapacá and Aconcagua-Neuquén basins until their complete drying up in the Late Oxfordian following their restricted circulation. This evaporitic late stage presents great analogy with the Mediterranean «Messinian crisis» and gives evidence of a general tectonic and magmatic control on the straits. The local transgressions observed on the cratonic margin of the central part of these shrinking basins were due to shifting of water masses resulting from the regressive process on the northern and southern margins. Comparison between the main stages of transgression and regression allows some quantification concerning velocities of displacement of coastlines, specifically lengthwise. The permanence of paleogeographic and structural features over the time argues for an indisputable tectonic heritage. In the dynamic framework of this typical barred retroarc basin where arc magmatic activity has contributed considerably to variation on sediment supply and changing bathymetry of the seaways connecting with the Pacific Ocean, evidence for an assumed global eustatic cycle remains questionable or very subordinated.

  15. Uptake of Hg2+ by picocyanobacteria in natural water from four Andean lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In lake food webs, planktonic bacteria and algae represent the greatest bioconcentration step for Hg2+ and monomethyl-Hg (MeHg. As they are the most abundant organisms in planktonic trophic webs and also the main food resource for herbivorous plankton, they can mobilize large amounts of Hg to higher trophic levels. In Andean Patagonian lakes (Argentina, dissolved organic matter (DOM concentration and character, coupled with photo-reactions, play a central role in the complexation of Hg2+ in the water column and can even regulate the uptake of Hg2+ by planktonic algae. In this investigation we evaluated the DOM character of natural waters (NW from four Andean lakes and studied its influence on the uptake of 197Hg2+ in a strain of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus by using Hg2+ labeled with 197Hg2+. The uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ by Synechococcus showed different magnitude in NW of lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Morenito and Escondido. Increasing lake DOM concentration reduced the bioavailability of Hg2+ as indicated by the lower uptakes rates found in NW with higher complexity and concentration of the DOM pool. Uptakes of Hg2+ by this picocyanobacteria contrasted among NW from pelagic (surface and bottom and littoral compartments of Lake Escondido which suggest that the entry of this metal may be highly variable even in the same environment. The study of the uptake of radiolabeled Hg2+ in a set of dilutions of NW from Lake Escondido demonstrated that the bioavailability of Hg2+ decrease with increasing DOM concentration.

  16. Hydrological connectivity of alluvial Andean valleys: a groundwater/surface-water interaction case study in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Anibas, Christian; Batelaan, Okke; Huysmans, Marijke; Wyseure, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The Andean region is characterized by important intramontane alluvial and glacial valleys; a typical example is the Tarqui alluvial plain, Ecuador. Such valley plains are densely populated and/or very attractive for urban and infrastructural development. Their aquifers offer opportunities for the required water resources. Groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction generally entails recharge to or discharge from the aquifer, dependent on the hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater. Since GW-SW interaction in Andean catchments has hardly been addressed, the objectives of this study are to investigate GW-SW interaction in the Tarqui alluvial plain and to understand the role of the morphology of the alluvial valley in the hydrological response and in the hydrological connection between hillslopes and the aquifers in the valley floor. This study is based on extensive field measurements, groundwater-flow modelling and the application of temperature as a groundwater tracer. Results show that the morphological conditions of a valley influence GW-SW interaction. Gaining and losing river sections are observed in narrow and wide alluvial valley sections, respectively. Modelling shows a strong hydrological connectivity between the hillslopes and the alluvial valley; up to 92 % of recharge of the alluvial deposits originates from lateral flow from the hillslopes. The alluvial plain forms a buffer or transition zone for the river as it sustains a gradual flow from the hills to the river. Future land-use planning and development should include concepts discussed in this study, such as hydrological connectivity, in order to better evaluate impact assessments on water resources and aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  19. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  20. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  1. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  2. Effect of Non-Equilibrium Condensation of Moist Air on Unsteady Behaviour of Shock Waves around a Circular Arc Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru MATSUO; Kenbu TERAMOTO; Ashraful ALAM; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI; Heuy Dong KIM; Shen YU

    2007-01-01

    The unsteady phenomena in the transonic flow around airfoils are observed in the flow field of fan, compressor blades and butterfly valves, and this often causes serious problems such as the aeroacoustic noise, the vibration. In the transonic or supersonic flow where vapour is contained in the main flow, the rapid expansion of the flow may give rise to a non-equilibrium condensation. However, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation on the transonic internal flows around the airfoil has not yet been clarified satisfactorily. In the present study, the effect of non-equilibrium condensation of moist air on the self-excited shock wave oscillation on a circular arc blade was investigated numerically. The results showed that in the case with non-equilibrium condensation, frequencies of the flow oscillation became smaller than those without the non-equilibrium condensation.

  3. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  4. Experimental Analysis and Simultaneous Heat and Moisture Transfer with Coupled CFD Model for Convective Drying of Moist Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    Convective drying of rectangular-shaped moist object has been analyzed both experimentally and numerically. Transient mass of the potato sample is measured experimentally. Moisture content, diffusivity, and density of the object are calculated at different drying air temperatures from 40°C to 70°C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. A three-dimensional (3D) finite volume method (FVM) based numerical model is developed to predict the temperature and moisture distribution. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used for predicting heat and mass transfer coefficients required in the boundary conditions of the heat and mass transfer model. The experimental and numerical data are compared and good agreement is observed.

  5. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  6. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  7. Linking hydrological, infinite slope stability and land-use change models through GIS for assessing the impact of deforestation on slope stability in high Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderschaeghe, Michiel; Govers, Gerard; Willems, Edith; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef; De Bievre, Bert

    2003-06-01

    In the Ecuadorian Andes, episodic slope movements comprising shallow rotational and translational slides and rapid flows of debris and soil material are common. Consequently, not only considerable financial costs are experienced, but also major ecological and environmental problems arise in a larger geographical area. Sediment production by slope movement on hillslopes directly affects sediment transport and deposition in downstream rivers and dams and morphological changes in the stream channels. In developing countries world-wide, slope movement hazards are growing: increasing population pressure and economic development force more people to move to potentially hazardous areas, which are less suitable for agriculture and rangelands. This paper describes the methods used to determine the controlling factors of slope failure and to build upon the results of the statistical analysis a process-based slope stability model, which includes a dynamic soil wetness index using a simple subsurface flow model. The model provides a time-varying estimate of slope movement susceptibility, by linking land-use data with spatially varying hydrologic (soil conductivity, evapotranspiration, soil wetness) and soil strength properties. The slope stability model was applied to a high Andean watershed (Gordeleg Catchment, 250 ha, southern Ecuadorian Andes) and was validated by calculating the association coefficients between the slope movement susceptibility map of 2000 and the spatial pattern of active slope movements, as measured in the field with GPS. The proposed methodology allows assessment of the effects of past and future land-use change on slope stability. A realistic deforestation scenario was presented: past land-use change includes a gradual fragmentation and clear cut of the secondary forests, as observed over the last four decades (1963-2000), future land-use change is simulated based on a binary logistic deforestation model, whereby it was assumed that future land

  8. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  9. Analysis of Genetic Variability among thirty accessions of Andean Lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet using ISSR molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the genetic variability analysis among thirty accessions of andean lupine (L. mutabilis Sweet belonging to Agrarian Innovation National Institute (INIA Seed Bank. DNA was extracted from 300 plants and we made bulks. We standardized amplification protocol of Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR primers, we chose the most polymorphic primers to run in acrylamide gel. We found 255 ISSR loci with 8 primers. It was found high genetic variability of the samples under study by ISSR markers. Also observed relatively high polymorphism for autogamous species such as andean lupine. Finally phenograms showed a relationship with the geographical location, possibly due to in situ gene flow due to the exchange or sale of seeds in markets near the collection area.

  10. Three new species of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 from Araucaria forests with a key to species of the genus (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ilana; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Areas of Araucaria moist forest have been considered to constitute hotspots of land flatworm diversity, harbouring a high number of undescribed species. Herein we describe three new species of land flatworms of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 occurring in such type of forest in south Brazil. The three species are differentiated from their congeners mainly by their colour pattern, anatomy of the pharynx and prostatic vesicle, and details of the penis papilla and male atrium. An identification key to species of the genus in the Neotropical region is provided. PMID:28144173

  11. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  12. Three new species of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 from Araucaria forests with a key to species of the genus (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Areas of Araucaria moist forest have been considered to constitute hotspots of land flatworm diversity, harbouring a high number of undescribed species. Herein we describe three new species of land flatworms of Cratera Carbayo et al., 2013 occurring in such type of forest in south Brazil. The three species are differentiated from their congeners mainly by their colour pattern, anatomy of the pharynx and prostatic vesicle, and details of the penis papilla and male atrium. An identification key to species of the genus in the Neotropical region is provided.

  13. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest Service,...

  14. Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Genovese, Maria Ines; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-08-01

    The health-relevant functionality of 10 thermally processed Peruvian Andean grains (five cereals, three pseudocereals, and two legumes) was evaluated for potential type 2 diabetes-relevant antihyperglycemia and antihypertension activity using in vitro enzyme assays. Inhibition of enzymes relevant for managing early stages of type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia-relevant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase and hypertension-relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were assayed along with the total phenolic content, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) (cereal) exhibited high free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity (77%) and had the highest total phenolic content (8 +/- 1 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample weight) and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (51% at 5 mg of sample weight). The major phenolic compound in this cereal was protocatechuic acid (287 +/- 15 microg/g of sample weight). Pseudocereals such as Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) were rich in quercetin derivatives (1,131 +/- 56 and 943 +/- 35 microg [expressed as quercetin aglycone]/g of sample weight, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity (86% and 75%, respectively). Andean legumes (Lupinus mutabilis cultivars SLP-1 and H-6) inhibited significantly the hypertension-relevant ACE (52% at 5 mg of sample weight). No alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was found in any of the evaluated Andean grains. This in vitro study indicates the potential of combination of Andean whole grain cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes to develop effective dietary strategies for managing type 2 diabetes and associated hypertension and provides the rationale for animal and clinical studies.

  15. Stable isotope variations (δ18O and δD) in modern waters across the Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershaw, John; Saylor, Joel E.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Leier, Andrew; Sundell, Kurt E.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental parameters that influence the isotopic composition of meteoric water (δ18O and δD) are well characterized up the windward side of mountains, where orographic precipitation results in a predictable relationship between the isotopic composition of precipitation and elevation. The topographic and climatic evolution of the Andean Plateau and surrounding regions has been studied extensively by exploiting this relationship through the use of paleowater proxies. However, interpretation on the plateau itself is challenged by a poor understanding of processes that fractionate isotopes during vapor transport and rainout, and by the relative contribution of unique moisture sources. Here, we present an extensive dataset of modern surface water samples for the northern Andean Plateau and surrounding regions to elucidate patterns and causes of isotope fractionation in this continental environment. These data show a progressive increase in δ18O of stream water west of the Eastern Cordillera (∼1‰/70 km), almost identical to the rate observed across the Tibetan Plateau, attributed to a larger fraction of recycled water in precipitation and/or increased evaporative enrichment downwind. This may lead to underestimates of paleoelevation, particularly for sites deep into the rainshadow of the Eastern Cordilleran crest. That said, elevation is a primary control on the isotopic composition of surface waters across the entire Andean Plateau and its flanks when considering the most negative δ18O values, highlighting the need for sufficiently large datasets to distinguish minimally evaporated samples. There is a general increase in δ18O on the plateau from north to south, concomitant with an increase in aridity and decrease in convective moistening (amount effect). Lastly, stable isotope and seasonal precipitation patterns suggest easterlies provide the vast majority of moisture that falls as precipitation across the Andean Plateau and Western Cordillera, from Peru to

  16. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  17. Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2014-08-01

    Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa.

  18. Improving glacier volume-area scaling to better quantify tropical Andean glacial water resources from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A. G.; Kincaid, J. L.; Dobreva, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an important component of the water budget for high-altitude catchments in much of the central Andes. The majority of tropical Andean glaciers are small, but it has been suggested that because of their numbers the volume of water they contain is significant. Unfortunately, the ice volume measurements needed to inform decision makers have been made for only a handful of tropical glaciers. In August 2012, with the assistance of the Instituto Geográfico Militar in Bolivia, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) measurements were collected along transects totaling 3,189 m in length on the Charquini SE cirque glacier. This small cirque glacier which is located in the southern portion of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia had an approximate surface area in 2012 of 02.42 square kilometers. Our initial observations indicate that the GPR survey was able to adequately capture the ice bedrock interface. Ordinary Kriging was used to develop maps of surface and subsurface topography from the dGPS and GPR observations. In 2012, the Charquini SE glacier contained a minimum of 3,900,000 cubic meters of ice. This information, along with other recent volume measurements for tropical and sub-tropical Andean glaciers, was used to update earlier volume-area scaling relationships established for these glaciers. This relationship will then be applied to determine the volume of water currently stored in tropical Andean glaciers based on previous research on glaciers areas using remote sensing.

  19. Deforestation, land conversion and illegal logging in Bangladesh: the case of the Sal (Shorea robusta forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, with a forest cover estimated at 17.08% of all land surface area, has experienced massive degradation of its natural resources and a conside­rable change in its land cover. While deforestation in Bangladesh is obviously a complex issue, one important aspect emerges from previous research findings in explaining deforestation: industrialization. This study focuses on the causes of deforestation in Bangladesh, particularly in tropical moist deciduous Sal forests, using multi levels factor analysis framework. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, formal and informal discussions with local people, expert interviews and literature reviews. The main findings of defore­station framework show that illegal logging and forest land conversion were the ultimate causes of Sal forests deforestation in Bangladesh. Illegal logging is a complex phenomenon and is being patronized by a local syndicate, functio­ning from behind the scenes. On the other hand, land conversion into different commercial activities has direct influence on national policy and the predispo­sing conditions of this country. Therefore, the immediate task of the nation would be to stop illegal logging and land conversion of Sal forests. This can be done by involving all relevant stakeholders in the form of effective forest policy formulation and execution of strict environmental protection law.

  20. Spruce forest bryophytes in central Norway and their relationship to environmental factors including modern forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisvoll, A.A. [Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prestoe, T. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Dept. of Botany, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    In this study of bryophyte diversity in 110 patches of spruce forests of bilberry, small fern, low herb, tall fern and tall herb type in Soer-Troendelag, central Norway, each patch (from 0.24 to 9.33 ha) was classified as one main vegetation type and one successional stage or cutting class. The bryophytes in each patch were censured in randomly established squares of 10 x 10 m, supplemented by complete sampling in the rest of the patch. A number of environmental variables was sampled, and the data sets treated with DCA and CCA. Altogether 210 bryophytes (71 liverworts and 139 mosses) were found in the squares, and 285 (96 liverworts and 189 mosses) in the forest patches. The average number of liverworts, mosses and bryophytes in forest patches increased gradually from the dry and poor to the moist and rich forest types. Several red listed and other interesting spruce forest species had their only or main occurrence in the rich and humid forest, and in old cutting classes. (au) 45 refs.

  1. Spatial variability of soils in a seasonally dry tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, Hebbalalu; Dattaraja, Handanakere; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Soil structures communities of plants and soil organisms in tropical forests. Understanding the controls of soil spatial variability can therefore potentially inform efforts towards forest restoration. We studied the relationship between soils and lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southern India. We extensively sampled soil (available nutrients, Al, pH, and moisture), rocks, relief, woody vegetation, and spatial variation in fire burn frequency in a permanent 50-ha plot. Lower elevation soils tended to be less moist and were depleted in several nutrients and clay. The availability of several nutrients was, in turn, linked to whole-rock chemical composition differences since some lithologies were associated with higher elevations, while the others tended to dominate lower elevations. We suggest that local-scale topography in this region has been shaped by the spatial distribution of lithologies, which differ in their susceptibility to weathering. Nitrogen availability was uncorrelated with the presence of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species. No effect of burning on soil parameters could be discerned at this scale.

  2. Dark Adaptation at High Altitude: An Unexpected Pupillary Response to Chronic Hypoxia in Andean Highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Katherine; Labrique, Alain B; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Danz, David; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-09-01

    Healy, Katherine, Alain B. Labrique, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, David Danz, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Luis Huicho, Fabiola León-Velarde, and William Checkley. Dark adaptation at high altitude: an unexpected pupillary response to chronic hypoxia in Andean highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 17:208-213, 2016.-Chronic mountain sickness is a maladaptive response to high altitude (>2500 m above sea level) and is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis and hypoxemia resulting from long-term hypobaric hypoxia. There is no known early predictor of chronic mountain sickness and the diagnosis is based on the presence of excessive erythrocytosis and clinical features. Impaired dark adaptation, or an inability to visually adjust from high- to low-light settings, occurs in response to mild hypoxia and may serve as an early predictor of hypoxemia and chronic mountain sickness. We aimed to evaluate the association between pupillary response assessed by dark adaptometry and daytime hypoxemia in resident Andean highlanders aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru. Oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was recorded using a handheld pulse oximeter. Dark adaptation was quantitatively assessed as the magnitude of pupillary contraction to light stimuli of varying intensities (-2.9 to 0.1 log-cd/m(2)) using a portable dark adaptometer. Individual- and stimulus-specific multilevel analyses were conducted using mixed-effect models to elicit the relationship between SpO2 and pupillary responsiveness. Among 93 participants, mean age was 54.9 ± 11.0 years, 48% were male, 44% were night blind, and mean SpO2 was 89.3% ± 3.4%. The magnitude of pupillary contraction was greater with lower SpO2 (p dark-adapted conditions was exaggerated with hypoxemia and may serve as an early predictor of chronic mountain sickness. This unexpected association is potentially explained as an excessive and unregulated sympathetic response to hypoxemia at altitude.

  3. Geochemical variations in the Quaternary Andean back-arc volcanism, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.; Dosseto, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) is located 450 km east of the Chile-Peru trench in central west Argentina, behind the Andean arc front, constituting the back-arc. In order to evaluate the influence of the subducting slab as well as the magmatic source of this region, two volcanic fields located at comparable distance to the trench, having abundant basaltic products and similar eruptive timeframes were chosen. The Llancanelo (LLVF) and the Payún Matrú (PMVF) volcanic fields are part of the PBP and exhibit abundant basaltic activity during the Pleistocene. The geochemical data suggest that the LLVF has some arc signatures which have been described as weak as they are not as pronounced as in the Andean arc. The weak arc signature is not derived from slab dehydration as high Th enrichment relative to U cannot be explained by this process. We relate the Th enrichment as well as the lack of large residual garnet signatures, to slab sediments in the source. In the case of the PMVF, no arc signature has been inferred despite being only 30 km south of the LLVF. However the PMVF has a composition similar to that of the local intraplate end member, represented by the Rio Colorado volcanic field. The two volcanic fields, LLVF and PMVF, show indications of lower crustal assimilation as they trend towards the lower continental crust end member in Nb/U vs Ce/Pb and Nb/Yb vs Th/Yb diagrams. The geochemical differences between the LLVF and the PMVF as well as between several volcanic fields are illustrated using spatial distribution maps of geochemical ratios. Using this new approach, the decrease in arc signature can be traced in the back-arc and the higher enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to large ion lithophile elements (LILE) in the PMVF compared to the LLVF is explicitly shown. These geospatial maps provide a graphical manner to illustrate the presence of two distinct types of volcanism (OIB-like and arc-like) occurring in the same Quaternary

  4. Climatic and lacustrine morphometric controls of diatom paleoproductivity in a tropical Andean lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, R.; Hernández, A.; Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Prego, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of lake dynamics with catchment biogeochemistry is considered the key element controlling primary production in mountain lakes at time scales of a few decades to millennia, yet little is known on the impacts of the morphometry of lakes throughout their ontogeny. As Lake Chungará (Central Andean Altiplano, northern Chile) experienced long-term lake-level fluctuations that strongly modified its area:volume ratio, it is an ideal system for exploring the relative roles that long-term climatic shifts and lake morphometry play on biosiliceous lacustrine productivity. In this paper, we review previous data on the percent contents of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, total biogenic silica, isotopic composition of organic matter, carbonates, and diatom frustules, as well as data on the abundance of the chlorophycean Botryococcus braunii in this lake for the period 12,400-1300 cal yr BP. We also include new data on organic carbon and biogenic silica mass accumulation rates and the diatom assemblage composition of an offshore core dated using 14C and U/Th. Biosiliceous productivity in Lake Chungará was influenced by shifts in allochthonous nutrient inputs related to variability in precipitation. Humid phases dated at approx. 12,400 to 10,000 and 9600 to 7400 cal yr BP coincide with periods of elevated productivity, whereas decreases in productivity were recorded during arid phases dated at approx. 10,000 to 9600 and 7400 to 3550 cal yr BP (Andean mid-Holocene Aridity Period). However, morphometry-related in-lake controls led to a lack of a linear response of productivity to precipitation variability. During the late Glacial to early Holocene, lowstands facilitated complete water column mixing, prompting episodic massive blooms of a large centric diatom, Cyclostephanos cf. andinus. Thus, moderate productivity could be maintained, regardless of aridity, by this phenomenon of morphometric eutrophy during the early history of the lake

  5. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  6. Forest Stand Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  7. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  8. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  9. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in p

  10. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  11. Human impact on the hydrology of the Andean páramos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Célleri, Rolando; De Bièvre, Bert; Cisneros, Felipe; Wyseure, Guido; Deckers, Jozef; Hofstede, Robert

    2006-11-01

    This paper analyses the problems involved in the conservation and management of the hydrological system of the South American páramo. The páramo consists of a collection of neotropical alpine grassland ecosystems covering the upper region of the northern Andes. They play a key role in the hydrology of the continent. Many of the largest tributaries of the Amazon basin have their headwaters in the páramo. It is also the major water source for the Andean highlands and a vast area of arid and semi-arid lowlands, where páramo water is used for domestic, agricultural and industrial consumption, and the generation of hydropower. Recently, the páramo is increasingly used for intensive cattle grazing, cultivation, and pine planting, among others. These activities, as well as global phenomena such as climate change, severely alter the hydrological regime. A review on the state of knowledge of its hydrology is given in a first part. In a second part, the impact of human activities and climate change on the hydrology of the páramo is discussed.

  12. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R.; Tapia, Elicio E.; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R. Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W. Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450–1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis. PMID:28329011

  13. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  14. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  16. The Corregidores of the Colca Valley, Peru: Imperial Administration in an Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook, Noble David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The corregidor de los indios was introduced into the Viceroyalty of Peru by Governor García de Castro in 1565. The institution was designed to limit the power of the encomendero elite and to improve administration and justice in the Andean countryside. Here we examine the impact of the reforms at the local level, the corregimiento of Los Collaguas in the Colca Valley, located between Cuzco and Arequipa. Althought the Crown was largely successful in weakening the encomienda, possibility of graft corrupted all but a handful of corregidores. The residencia did check some of those abuses.

    El gobernador García de Castro fue quien introdujo (1565 el corregidor de los indios en el virreinato del Perú. El corregimiento fue establecido para limitar el poder de los encomenderos y mejorar la administración y la justicia en los sitios rurales, y al mismo tiempo incrementar la colección del tributo. En este trabajo examinamos el impacto de las reformas en el corregimiento de los Collaguas situado en el hermoso valle del río Colca entre Arequipa y Cuzco. Aunque la corona fue más exitosa en debilitar la encomienda, la posibilidad de soborno corrompió a la mayoría de los corregidores.

  17. Phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Andean Ajı′ (Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the importance of Andean Ajı′/Chilli (Capsicum baccatum L. mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, which favors for green chemistry and escape us from the use of hazardous chemicals. UV–visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of AuNPs. Further, as synthesized AuNPs were characterized using Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and X-ray diffraction. It produced spherical AuNPs at λmax = 540 nm of average size 23.9 ± 9.7 nm without any aggregation. Ajı′ extract (aq was the good reducing and capping agent in terms of conversion to Au3+ to AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs, also enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (>50%, k = 1.9585 × 10−3 min−1 under direct solar light irradiation. In addition, the experimental approach is benign, ecofriendly, and inexpensive for industrial-scale production of nanoparticles using Aji extract as natural bioreductant.

  18. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  19. Karyotypic variation in the Andean rodent Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Novillo, Agustina; Ojeda, Agustina; Rodriguez, Daniela; Cuello, Pablo; Ojeda, Ricardo; Dardo Martí; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) is an Andean rodent endemic to South America. Despite its wide geographical distribution in Argentina, few individuals have been studied on the cytogenetic level and only through conventional staining. In this work, chromosome characterization of Argentine samples of this species was performed using solid staining, C-banding and base-specific fluorochromes. Twenty two specimens were analyzed, collected in the provinces of Jujuy, Catamarca, and the north and south of Mendoza. All studied specimens showed 2n=38, having mostly the bi-armed autosomes, metacentric or submetacentric. Fundamental Number varied between 70 and 72. These changes were due to the presence of chromosome heteromorphisms in individuals from southern Mendoza and Jujuy. C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in most chromosomes. Acrocentric chromosomes involved in heteromorphisms showed high variation in the amount of heterochromatin within and among populations. Additionally, banding with fluorochromes (DAPI and chromomycin A3) revealed homologous localization of AT and GC rich regions among chromosomes of the different populations analyzed. Comparisons among heteromorphic pairs suggested, however, that the variation might be the result of complex chromosome rearrangements, involving possibly amplifications and/or deletions of heterochromatic segments. These results are in accordance with molecular studies that indicate genetic variability within and among the populations of this taxon.

  20. Transplacental nutrient transfer during gestation in the Andean lizard Mabuya sp. (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Rueda, Elkin Darío; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Mabuya skinks have the most specialized allantoplacenta and the greatest degree of placentotrophy known among the Reptilia. Their recently ovulated eggs are microlecithal (1-2 mm) and lack fatty yolk platelets; thus, virtually all of the nutrients for embryonic development must pass across the placenta. We quantified the net uptake of nutrients during gestation in an Andean population of Mabuya and compared these results with other matrotrophic skinks and eutherian mammals. Total dry and wet masses, ash and organic content, ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron), lipids (cholesterol, vitamin E and fatty acids in the major lipid classes-triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesteryl ester, free fatty acids), nitrogen (an index of protein) were measured during the different developmental stages throughout gestation, and in neonates. A significant net uptake of inorganic and organic matter was found. This uptake begins slowly during early gestation but accelerates during the last third of gestation when the growth of the embryo is maximal and the allantoplacenta has developed its greatest complexity. The drastic reduction of egg size in this clade is related to the great reduction in the contribution of lecithotrophic nutrients to the embryo, an obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages, and the highest placental complexity known in the Reptilia. All of these features converge with features found in eutherian mammals.

  1. Receiver functions and crustal structure of the northwestern Andean region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Esteban; Monsalve, Gaspar; Vargas, Carlos Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We used the receiver function technique to deduce crustal thickness beneath the northwestern Andean system, using data from the permanent seismic network of Colombia, combined with some of the IRIS and CTBTO stations in Colombia and Ecuador. The estimation of crustal thickness was made using the primary P to s conversion and crustal reverberations. The bulk crustal VP/VS ratio was constrained using a crustal thickness versus VP/VS stacking method, in addition to estimations using a time to depth conversion technique based on results of a modified Wadati diagram analysis. We observed a wide range of crustal thicknesses, including values around 17 km beneath the Malpelo Island on the Pacific Ocean, 20 to 30 km at the coastal Pacific and Caribbean plains of Colombia, 25 to 40 km beneath the eastern plains and foothills, 35 km beneath the Western Cordillera, 45 km at the Magdalena River intermountain valley, 52 to 58 km under the northern Central Cordillera, and reaching almost 60 km beneath some of the volcanoes of the Southern Cordilleran system of Colombia; crustal thickness can be slightly greater than 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. The values of VP/VS are particularly high for some of the stations on the volcanic centers, reaching values above 1.79, probably related to the addition of mafic materials to the lower crust, and in the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota, where we speculate about the possibility of crustal seismic anisotropy associated with shear zones.

  2. Probabilistic estimation of glacier volume and glacier bed topography: the Andean glacier Huayna West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moya Quiroga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat will increase sea level and decrease fresh water availability. Glacier retreat will also induce morphologic and hydrologic changes due to the formation of glacial lakes. Hence, it is important not only to estimate glacier volume, but also to understand the spatial distribution of ice thickness. There are several approaches for estimating glacier volume and glacier thickness. However, it is not possible to select an optimal approach that works for all locations. It is important to analyse the relation between the different glacier volume estimations and to provide confidence intervals of a given solution. The present study presents a probabilistic approach for estimating glacier volume and its confidence interval. Glacier volume of the Andean glacier Huayna West was estimated according to different scaling relations. Besides, glacier volume and glacier thickness were estimated assuming plastic behaviour. The present study also analysed the influence of considering a variable glacier density due to ice firn densification. It was found that the different estimations are described by a lognormal probability distribution. Considering a confidence level of 90%, the estimated glacier volume is 0.0275 km3 ± 0.0052 km3. Considering a confidence level of 90%, the estimated glacier thickness is 24.98 m with a confidence of ±4.67 m. The mean basal shear stress considering plastic behaviour is 82.5 kPa. The reconstruction of glacier bed topography showed the future formation of a glacier lake with a maximum depth of 32 m.

  3. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs. Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses.

  4. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  5. Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: one or several species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Blandin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov.  In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.

  6. Diversification of the rainfrog Pristimantis ornatissimus in the lowlands and Andean foothills of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Hutter, Carl R; Tapia, Elicio E; Culebras, Jaime; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Pyron, R Alexander; Morochz, Carlos; Funk, W Chris; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Geographic barriers and elevational gradients have long been recognized as important in species diversification. Here, we illustrate an example where both mechanisms have shaped the genetic structure of the Neotropical rainfrog, Pristimantis ornatissimus, which has also resulted in speciation. This species was thought to be a single evolutionary lineage distributed throughout the Ecuadorian Chocó and the adjacent foothills of the Andes. Based on recent sampling of P. ornatissimus sensu lato, we provide molecular and morphological evidence that support the validity of a new species, which we name Pristimantis ecuadorensis sp. nov. The sister species are elevational replacements of each other; the distribution of Pristimantis ornatissimus sensu stricto is limited to the Ecuadorian Chocó ecoregion (< 1100 m), whereas the new species has only been found at Andean localities between 1450-1480 m. Given the results of the Multiple Matrix Regression with Randomization analysis, the genetic difference between P. ecuadorensis and P. ornatissimus is not explained by geographic distance nor environment, although environmental variables at a finer scale need to be tested. Therefore this speciation event might be the byproduct of stochastic historic extinction of connected populations or biogeographic events caused by barriers to dispersal such as rivers. Within P. ornatissimus sensu stricto, morphological patterns and genetic structure seem to be related to geographic isolation (e.g., rivers). Finally, we provide an updated phylogeny for the genus, including the new species, as well as other Ecuadorian Pristimantis.

  7. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  8. Utilizing Moist or Dry Swabs for the Sampling of Nasal MRSA Carriers? An In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Philipp; Devide, Annette; Weise, Mirjam; Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Schäffler, Holger; Ottl, Peter; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the quantitative bacterial recovery of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal screenings by utilizing dry or moistened swabs within an in vivo and an in vitro experimental setting. 135 nasal MRSA carriers were each swabbed in one nostril with a dry and in the other one with a moistened rayon swab. Quantitative bacterial recovery was measured by standard viable count techniques. Furthermore, an anatomically correct artificial nose model was inoculated with a numerically defined suspension of MRSA and swabbed with dry and moistened rayon, polyurethane-foam and nylon-flocked swabs to test these different settings and swab-materials under identical laboratory conditions. In vivo, quantities of MRSA per nostril in carriers varied between 107 colony forming units, with a median of 2.15x104 CFU. However, no statistically significant differences could be detected for the recovery of MRSA quantities when swabbing nasal carriers with moist or dry rayon swabs. In vitro testing confirmed the in vivo data for swabs with rayon, polyurethane and nylon-flocked tips, since pre-moistening of swabs did not significantly affect the quantities of retrieved bacteria. Therefore, pre-moistening of swabs prior to nasal MRSA sampling provides no advantage in terms of recovering greater bacterial quantities and therefore can be omitted. In addition, this situation can be mimicked in an in vitro model, thereby providing a useful basis for future in vitro testings of new swab types or target organisms for screening approaches. PMID:27626801

  9. An open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shaobo [Guangdong Ocean University, College of Engineering, East Jiefang Rd. No. 40, Xiashan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524006 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Zhang, Hefei [Northwestern Polytechnical University, School of Aeroengine and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an open reversed Brayton cycle with regeneration using moist air for deep freeze cooled by circulating water, and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used to analyze the cooling of the wet air after compressor and the water used for cooling wet air after compressor. Its refrigeration depends mainly on the sensible heat of air and the latent heat of water vapor, its performance is more efficient than a conventional air-cycle, and the utilization of turbo-machinery makes it possible. The adoption of this cycle will make deep freeze easily and reduce initial cost because very low temperature, about -55 C, air is obtained. The sensitivity analysis of coefficient of performance to the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and the results of the cycle are also given. The simulation results show that the COP of this system depends on the temperature before turbine, the efficiency of compressor and the efficiency of compressor, and varies with the wet bulb temperature of the outdoor air. Humid air is a perfect working fluid for deep freeze with no cost to the user. (author)

  10. How Do the Parameter Changes in the Moist Processes Affect the Temperature and Circulation Simulations in the Lower-Troposphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the grid-point atmospheric model developed at IAP LASG (GAMIL2) is used to investigate how the altering parameters in the moist processes influence the simulations of the lower-tropospheric temperature and circulation. Two experiments were performed: the control experiment (CNTL) with the default parameter values and the sensitivity experiment (EXP) with the values obtained from a "two-step" parameter optimization method, which applied a full factor sampling scheme and the simplex downhill algorithm. Results show that parameter changes lead to variation of diabatic heating and affect the lower tropospheric temperature and circulation through the interaction and mutual responses between dynamical and physical processes. Furthermore, the interactions of dynamical and physical processes are different in the tropics and high latitudes. In the tropics, dynamical processes mainly resulted from vertical motion balance the variation of latent heating, both of which are negatively correlated to offset each other and play significant roles in the simulation of temperature. However, in the high latitudes, dynamical processes mainly due to horizontal advection dominate the total temperature tendency compared to physical processes. The variation of dynamical effects can overcompensate the diabatic heating from physical processes, thus affecting the geopetential height and wind fields. Moreover, there exists a positive feedback among the temperature, geopotential height, and meridional wind in the mid and high latitudes.

  11. Application of the moist vorticity vector in the analysis of a heavy rainfall event in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The moist vorticity vector(MVV),defined as(5a×Vqv)/ρ introduced by Gao et al.is used to study a heavy rainfall event in North China.The MVV has zonal,meridional and vertical components in a three-dimensional framework.Analysis of domainmean and mass-integrated quantities shows that the variation of the vertical component of the MVV closely follows the wariation of the cloud hydrometeors,with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.95.indicating that the vertical component of the MVV is strongly associated with midlatitude convection.Further analysis shows that the vertical component of the MVV reflects the interaction between the horizontal vorticity and the horizontal specific humidity gradient,which can associate dynamic and thermodynamic processes with cloud microphysical processes.Thus,this study can help to understand how the interaction between circulations and clouds aids the development of convection,and the MVV can be used to trace the development and evolution of heavy rainfall.

  12. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met) using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG) process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64), polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC) were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water) and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  13. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  14. Adhesion and debonding kinetics of photovoltaic encapsulation in moist environments: Adhesion and debonding kinetics of photovoltaic encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novoa, Fernando D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305-2205 USA; Miller, David C. [National Center for Photovoltaics, NREL, Golden CO USA; Dauskardt, Reinhold H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305-2205 USA

    2015-07-27

    Debonding of photovoltaic (PV) encapsulation in moist environments is frequently reported but presently not well understood or quantified. Temperature cycling, moisture, and mechanical loads often cause loss of encapsulation adhesion and interfacial debonding, initially facilitating back-reflectance and reduced electrical current, but ultimately leading to internal corrosion and loss of module functionality. To investigate the effects of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on the kinetics of encapsulation debonding, we developed a mechanics-based technique to measure encapsulation debond energy and debond growth rates in a chamber of controlled environment. The debond energy decreased from 2.15 to 1.75 kJ m-2 in poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and from 0.67 to 0.52 kJ m-2 in polyvinyl butyral when T increased from 25 to 50 degrees C and 20 to 40 degrees C, respectively. The debond growth rates of EVA increased up to 1000-fold with small increases of T (10 degrees C) and RH (15%). To elucidate the mechanisms of environmental debonding, we developed a fracture-kinetics model, where the viscoelastic relaxation processes at the debonding-tip are used to predict debond growth. The model and techniques constitute the fundamental basis for developing accelerated aging tests and long-term reliability predictions for PV encapsulation.

  15. High performance of treated and washed MSWI bottom ash granulates as natural aggregate replacement within earth-moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, A; van Zomeren, A; Harpe, P; Aarnink, W; Simons, H A E; Brouwers, H J H

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was treated with specially designed dry and wet treatment processes, obtaining high quality bottom ash granulate fractions (BGF) suitable for up to 100% replacement of natural gravel in concrete. The wet treatment (using only water for separating and washing) significantly lowers the leaching of e.g. chloride and sulfate, heavy metals (antimony, molybdenum and copper) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Two potential bottom ash granulate fractions, both in compliance with the standard EN 12620 (aggregates for concrete), were added into earth-moist concrete mixtures. The fresh and hardened concrete physical performances (e.g. workability, strength and freeze-thaw) of high strength concrete mixtures were maintained or improved compared with the reference mixtures, even after replacing up to 100% of the initial natural gravel. Final element leaching of monolithic and crushed granular state BGF containing concretes, showed no differences with the gravel references. Leaching of all mixtures did not exceed the limit values set by the Dutch Soil Quality Degree. In addition, multiple-life-phase emission (pH static test) for the critical elements of input bottom ash, bottom ash granulate (BGF) and crushed BGF containing concrete were assessed. Simulation pH lowering or potential carbonation processes indicated that metal (antimony, barium, chrome and copper) and sulfate element leaching behavior are mainly pH dominated and controlled, although differ in mechanism and related mineral abundance.

  16. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.;

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  17. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Abstract The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368. Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1. The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m. Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  18. Microhabitats occupied by Myxomycetes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Heliconiaceae inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, L H; Ferreira, I N; Bezerra, A C C; Costa, A A A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of Myxomycetes in Heliconia psittacorum L.f. inflorescences was researched within four conservation units located in Northeast Brazil, aiming at evaluating the occupation of this microhabitat in fragments of Atlantic Forest along an altitude between 30-750 m. Inflorescences attached to the plant were examined; dead flowers and bracts were collected to assemble moist chambers (368). Four families, four genera and 10 species were recorded. A preference was evidenced for a basic pH substrate and a predominance of calcareous species (5:1). The composition of the myxobiota in fragments pertaining to altitudes above 400 m was similar and differed significantly from the one found in fragments of lowland forests (<100 m). Physarum compressum and Arcyria cinerea are the most characteristic species of the studied myxobiota.

  19. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non-productive...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...

  20. The empty forest revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now.

  1. U/Pb ages on detrital zircons in the southern central Andes Neogene foreland (36°-37°S): Constraints on Andean exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, Lucía; Bottesi, Germán; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.

    2011-12-01

    U/Pb dating on detrital zircons was performed in the Pampa de Carrizalito depocenter of the Late Miocene foreland basin associated with the Southern Central Andes orogenic front. This reveals Andean and pre-Andean components in magmatic derived zircons inhomogeneously distributed through the sequence. Andean, Grenville, Pampean, Famatinian and Gondwanic components reveal a complex source distribution from either the Main Andes, Coastal Cordillera and basement foreland areas. These are discussed showing different patterns in the context of the Andean orogenic cycle. Cretaceous and Jurassic components that are partly related to Mesozoic batholiths, developed at the western slope of the Andes at these latitudes, have a very contrasting behavior through the sequence: While Jurassic grains are represented from base to top, Cretaceous ones dilute upwardly. This is explained through the progressive uplift of the Southern Central Andes that could have created a barrier to Cretaceous and Jurassic detritus, while the older ones could have had either an alternative source area represented by the inverted rift system of the Huincul Ridge in the foreland area and the Cordillera del Viento in the hinterland area or the reworking of Jurassic sedimentary sequences of the Neuquén basin. Finally, a progressive enrichment in pre-Andean components to the top of the sequence is interpreted as related to the development of a broken foreland and the consequent rapid expansion of the orogenic front at the time of development of a slab shallowing setting in the region as shown by previous works.

  2. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes (1920–2013) in Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; C S Jha; V K Dadhwal

    2016-02-01

    Western Ghats are considered as one of the global biodiversity hotspots. There is an information gap on conservation status of the biodiversity hotspots. This study has quantified estimates of deforestation in the Western Ghats over a period of past nine decades. The classified forest cover maps for 1920, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 indicates 95,446 (73.1%), 63,123 (48.4%), 62,286 (47.7%), 61,551 (47.2%), 61,511 (47.1%) and 61,511 km2 (47.1%) of the forest area, respectively. The rates of deforestation have been analyzed in different time phases, i.e., 1920–1975, 1975–1985, 1985–1995, 1995–2005 and 2005–2013. The grid cells of 1 km2 have been generated for time series analysis and describing spatial changes in forests. The net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.75 during 1920–1975, 0.13 during 1975–1985, 0.12 during 1985–1995 and 0.01 during 1995–2005. Overall forest loss in Western Ghats was estimated as 33,579 km2 (35.3% of the total forest) from 1920's to 2013. Land use change analysis indicates highest transformation of forest to plantations, followed by agriculture and degradation to scrub. The dominant forest type is tropical semi-evergreen which comprises 21,678 km2 (35.2%) of the total forest area of Western Ghats, followed by wet evergreen forest (30.6%), moist deciduous forest (24.8%) and dry deciduous forest (8.1%) in 2013. Even though it has the highest population density among the hotspots, there is no quantifiable net rate of deforestation from 2005 to 2013 which indicates increased measures of conservation.

  3. 湿性疗法在压疮护理研究中的新进展%New progress of the moist therapy in pressure ulcer care research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永霞; 沙莎; 刘薇群

    2013-01-01

      压疮护理一直是临床工作的难题,国内大量研究表明,将湿性疗法应用于各期压疮伤护理能取得良好效果。本文对湿性疗法在压疮护理研究中的新进展、不足和展望进行综述。%Pressure ulcer care is always the difficult problem in the clinical work. A large number of domestic researchs have shown that moist therapy can achieve good results in different phases of pressure ulcer care. This article summarizes the new progress, shortcoming and prospect of the moist therapy in pressure ulcer care research.

  4. The Application of Moist Mask Development in Comfortable Nursing%湿化面罩的研制及在舒适护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄女玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the preventive effects of moist mask for patients with through mouth breathing , mouth and upper respiratory tract dryness, so as to achieve the purpose of comfortable nursing.Method: 206 cases with all causes nasal passage clogged and need to mouth breathing were divided into observation group and control group in random. Those in observation group were treated with moist mask for 2 hours besides regular nursing; others in control group were nursed regularly without moist mask. The nursing effects were evaluated. Saturation blood oxygen in two group.s was monitored, observing whether the moist mask produced obstacles for patients breathe. Result: 103 patients in observation group were treated with moist mask, 8 cases (7.77%) had mouth and upper respiratory tract symptoms of dryness, 95 cases (92. 23% ) asymptomatic. 103 cases patients in control group didn't use moist mask, 98 cases (95.15%) had mouth and upper respiratory tract symptoms of dryness, 5 patients (4.85%) asymptomatic. Conclusion:Moist mask can effectively prevent and alleviate mouth breathing for patients with mouth and upper respiratory tract dryness, relieve the discomfort, achieve comfortable nursing effect. Moist mask will not reduce blood oxygen saturation and bring breathing obstacles.%目的:探讨应用研制的湿化面罩对预防经口呼吸患者的口腔及上呼吸道粘膜干燥的效果,从而达到舒适护理的目的.方法:对206例因各种原因导致鼻腔通道阻塞,经鼻道呼吸受阻,需经口呼吸的患者随机分成观察组和对照组,观察组的除常规治疗护理外,予使用湿化面罩2h;对照组的常规治疗护理,不予使用湿化面罩,时间2h,然后评价湿化面罩的应用效果;同时通过对血氧饱和度的监测,观察湿化面罩是否对患者呼吸产生阻碍.结果:观察组103例患者使用湿化面罩后,有口腔及上呼吸道粘膜干燥症状的8例(7.77%),无症状95例(92.23%).没有

  5. Fitossociologia do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo em campo limpo úmido no Brasil Central Phytosociology of the herb-subshrub layer of a moist grassland community in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo limpo úmido é uma das fisionomias de Cerrado onde o lençol freático é superficial durante o ano todo. Em geral ocorrem bordeando as matas de galeria, sendo um local de ligação entre estas e as fitofisionomias bem drenadas de Cerrado. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a estrutura fitossociológica do estrato herbáceo-subarbustivo de uma comunidade de campo limpo úmido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília, e avaliar possíveis alterações na composição e cobertura de espécies, em diferentes ocasiões no período de 13 meses, após incêndio. Uma área de 400×400 m foi subdividida em quatro porções de 200×200 m onde foram sorteadas as linhas de amostragem. No levantamento fitossociológico, adotou-se o método de interseção na linha, onde cada linha foi dividida em seções de 1 m. Foram amostradas 84 espécies incluídas em 54 gêneros e 24 famílias. A similaridade de Sørensen entre as quatro transeções amostradas foi baixa, entre 0,26 e 0,55%. As linhas sobre solos com lençol freático superficial o ano todo apresentaram composição de espécies diferenciada das linhas sobre solos com flutuação sazonal do lençol freático. A similaridade entre os cinco períodos de inventário foi elevada, pois as espécies mais importantes mostraram pouca variação nas suas taxas de cobertura ao longo do ano.The moist grassland community vegetation of the Cerrado is one of the physiognomies where the water table is superficial throughout the year. It generally occurs bordering the gallery forests, located between these forests and the well-drained Cerrado physiognomies. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytosociological structure of the herb-subshrub layer in a moist grassland at Água Limpa farm, Brasília, DF, and assess possible changes in species composition and cover, at different times throughout a 13-month period, after a fire. An area of 400×400 m was subdivided into four sections of 200×200 m and the

  6. Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar - Physical model and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Paris, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-band radar (4.75 GHz) to discriminate features of forest structure, including biomass, is tested using a truck-mounted scatterometer for field tests on a 1.5-3.0 m pygmy forest of cypress (Cupressus pygmaea) and pine (Pinus contorta ssp, Bolanderi) near Mendocino, CA. In all, 31 structural variables of the forest are quantified at seven sites. Also measured was the backscatter from a life-sized physical model of the pygmy forest, composed of nine wooden trees with 'leafy branches' of sponge-wrapped dowels. This model enabled independent testing of the effects of stem, branch, and leafy branch biomass, branch angle, and moisture content on radar backscatter. Field results suggested that surface area of leaves played a greater role in leaf scattering properties than leaf biomass per se. Tree leaf area index was strongly correlated with vertically polarized power backscatter (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01). Field results suggested that the scattering role of leaf water is enhanced as leaf surface area per unit leaf mass increases; i.e., as the moist scattering surfaces become more dispersed. Fog condensate caused a measurable rise in forest backscatter, both from surface and internal rises in water content. Tree branch mass per unit area was highly correlated with cross-polarized backscatter in the field (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01), a result also seen in the physical model.

  7. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....

  8. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  9. Aerosol transport of biomass burning to the Bolivian Andean region from remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ramirez, Daniel; Whiteman, David; Andrade, Marcos; Gasso, Santiago; Stein, Ariel; Torres, Omar; Eck, Tom; Velarde, Fernando; Aliaga, Diego

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the analysis of columnar aerosol optical and microphysical properties obtained by the AERONET network in the region of Bolivia and its border with Brazil. Through the long record AERONET measurements we focus in the transport of biomass-burning aerosol from the Amazon basin (stations at Rio Branco, Cuiba, Ji Parana and Santa Cruz) to the Andean Altiplano (altitude above 3000 m a.s.l. at the station in the city of La Paz). Also, measurements from the space-sensors MODIS and OMI are used to understand spatial distribution. The main results is the high impact in the aerosol load during the months of August, September and August with mean values of aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD) at the low lands of ≈ 0.60 ± 0.60 and Angstrom exponent (α(440-870)) of ≈ 1.52 ± 0.38. Satellite measurements also follow very similar patterns. Also, that season is characterized by some extreme events that can reach AOD of up to 6.0. Those events are cloud-screened by MODIS but not by OMI sensor, which is attributed to different pixel resolutions. The biomass-burning is clearly transport to the Andean region where higher values of AOD (~ 0.12 ± 0.06 versus 0.09 ± 0.04 in the no biomass-burning season) and α(440-870) (~ 0.95 ± 0.30 versus 0.84 ± 0.3 in the no biomass-burning season). However, the intensity of the biomass-burning season varies between different years. Analysis of precipitation anomalies using TRNM satellites indicates a strong correlation with AOD, which suggest that on dry years there is less vegetation to burn and so less aerosol load. The opposite is found for positive anomalies of precipitation. In the transport of biomass burning larger values of the effective radius (reff) are observed in La Paz (reff = 0.26 ± 0.10 μm) than in the low lands (reff = 0.63 ± 0.24 μm), which has been explained by aerosol aging processes. Moreover, although the spectral dependence is similar, single scattering albedo (SSA) is larger in the low lands

  10. Geometric, Kinematic, and Erosional history of the Central Andean Plateau, northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Barnes, J. B.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2006-12-01

    Latitudinal changes in topography, climate, and thrust-belt geometry in the Central Andes have lead to conflicting hypotheses that climate or tectonics exert a first-order control on the orogens' evolution. Models of climate/tectonic interactions are limited by a lack of detailed observations for both the long-term deformation and erosion history of the Andean fold-thrust belt. We contribute to this problem by combining a sequentially restored, balanced cross section across the northern Bolivia portion of the thrust belt (15-16°S) with 10 new and 51 previously published mineral cooling ages, documenting the timing and magnitude of exhumation across the cross section. The cross section was balanced and restored using the sinuous bed method. The restored section was also sequentially forward modeled using stratigraphic and cooling age constraints. Results indicate the Eastern Cordillera (EC) records the highest magnitudes of shortening (123 km or 55%). The Interandean zone (IAZ) has shortened 48 km or 30%. In both the EC and IAZ individual thrust sheets are tightly folded and have minor offsets of 1-5 km. The fold-thrust belt of the SAZ has multiple levels of detachments allowing for thrust sheets with large 6-17 km of offset. Total shortening in the SAZ is 66 km or 40%. Total shortening for the entire fold-thrust belt in this region is 276 km (39%). New cooling ages support previously published ages that indicate rapid exhumation of the EC from ~40-25 Ma and distributed exhumation of the entire fold-thrust belt from ~15-0 Ma. Cooling ages in the EC and IAZ do not appear affected by individual thrusts. Integrating the sequential reconstructions with a compilation of mineral cooling ages and onlapping sedimentary basins provides a means of comparing independently derived exhumation estimates and determining long term shortening rates. Combined exhumation estimates suggest ~9 km of exhumation in the EC ~5-9 km in the IAZ and 3-4 km in the SAZ. Long term shortening

  11. Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Velivelli, Siva L S; Heylen, Kim; O'Herlihy, Eileen; Franco, Javier; Rojas, Mercy; De Vos, Paul; Prestwich, Barbara Doyle

    2013-03-01

    The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined and antagonistic isolates were further tested for phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, and production of NH3- and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). PGP was studied in healthy and R. solani diseased plantlets under growth room conditions. Performance was compared to the commercial strain B. subtilis FZB24(®) WG. Isolates were dereplicated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA). A total of 10% of the isolates were effective antagonists, of which many were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce IAA, ACC deaminase, NH3 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). During growth room experiments, 23 antagonistic isolates were associated with plant growth-promotion and/or disease suppression. Ten isolates had a statistically significant impact on test parameters compared to the uninoculated control. Three isolates significantly promoted plant growth in healthy plantlets compared to the commercial strain, and seven isolates outperformed the commercial strain in in vitro R. solani diseased plantlets.

  12. Latitudinal variations (18°-23°S) in denudation rates of western Andean Syntaxis, Chile, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.; Schaller, Mirjam

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Cosmogenic nuclides, denudation rates, channel steepness, Chi, syntax, North Chile, South Peru Syntaxial regions of orogens (e.g. the western and eastern Himalayan Syntaxes, St. Elias Mountains Alaska) are regions where curved segments of subducting plates meet and the subducting plate is bent forms a rigid indentor. Previous studies of syntaxial regions in the Himalaya and Alaska document localized and rapid deformation and denudation due to vigorous fluvial or glacial erosional processes. In this study we investigate denudation around an arid end-member syntaxial orogen in South America to understand the interactions between climate and tectonic processes in localizing denudation. We present 35 new cosmogenic 10Be analyses of river sediments to quantify spatial variations in erosion along the Andean Coastal Cordillera and Western Cordillera. The sizes of the drainage basin vary from 5 - 5000 square kilometers. These measurements are linked to analysis of digital topography, variations in fluvial steepness indices and Chi- plots. Cosmogenic derived denudation rates range from 2.5 - 130 mm/kyr. Denudation rates decrease generally from the syntaxis (near Arica, Chile) towards the south (near Antofagasta, Chile) and from the Western Cordillera to the Coastal