WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient imperial colony

  1. Contemporaneity of colonialism: Capitalist modernity, imperial racism and necropolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Šefik Tatlić

    2016-01-01

    This text articulates global capitalism as an imperial formation, it deems that modernity is a particular project and/or discursive rhetoric, as well as it articulates necropolitics as the dominant form of politics in capitalism in the post 9/11 era. Hence, global capitalism is being treated here as the imperial formation and a relation of dominance which fundamentally resides on colonial epistemologies and governing logic. Modernity is, therefore, being articulated as a particular discursive...

  2. Contemporaneity of colonialism: Capitalist modernity, imperial racism and necropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefik Tatlić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This text articulates global capitalism as an imperial formation, it deems that modernity is a particular project and/or discursive rhetoric, as well as it articulates necropolitics as the dominant form of politics in capitalism in the post 9/11 era. Hence, global capitalism is being treated here as the imperial formation and a relation of dominance which fundamentally resides on colonial epistemologies and governing logic. Modernity is, therefore, being articulated as a particular discursive rhetoric of the First World which universalizes modernity in order to conceal and/or repress other formats of organizing modernity and, in order to apply and normalize various premodern logics and ideologies, such as racism, as foundations on the basis of which social differentiation and capitalist hierarchies of exploitation are being organized. Finally, this text articulates the concept of necropolitics which is an obscene form of politics that has, in the post 9/11 era, been reduced to a form of management of death and to a machinistic form of governing that treats the world as if it is just a commodifiable category.

  3. Mutual Transformation of Colonial and Imperial Botanizing? The Intimate yet Remote Collaboration in Colonial Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung

    2016-06-01

    Argument Mutuality in "contact zones" has been emphasized in cross-cultural knowledge interaction in re-evaluating power dynamics between centers and peripheries and in showing the hybridity of modern science. This paper proposes an analytical pause on this attempt to better invalidate centers by paying serious attention to the limits of mutuality in transcultural knowledge interaction imposed by asymmetries of power. An unusually reciprocal interaction between a Japanese forester, Ishidoya Tsutomu (1891-1958), at the colonial forestry department, and his Korean subordinate Chung Tyaihyon (1883-1971) is chosen to highlight an inescapable asymmetry induced by the imperial power structure. Ishidoya, positioning himself as a settler expert, as opposed to a scientist in Tokyo, pursued localized knowledge in growing interaction with Chung, resulting in Ishidoya's career change as a herbalist focusing on traditional medicine and Chung's leadership in Korean-only botanizing. However, their mutual transformations, limited by asymmetric constraints on their choices, did not unsettle the imperial power structure or the centrality of centers. PMID:27171892

  4. Placing colonial ornithology: imperial ambiguities in Upper Canada, 1791-1841.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kirsten A

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada, 1791-1841, to determine the impact of empire and local contexts on the natural history activity. I argue that colonial ornithology emerged as a by-product of British imperialism that helped to reinforce British, upper- and middle-class, gender-specific white identities through practices of sportsman-hunting, taxidermy, natural theology, and the romantic-aesthetic. However, as this paper reveals, British imperial practices and ideas of ornithology relied on the participation of First Nations and Métis peoples, whose knowledge and skills were instrumental to British naturalists. The First Nations and Métis peoples therefore exerted a real presence in colonial ornithology in Upper Canada--albeit a subservient one in the British ornithological texts--as they positioned themselves as part of the ornithological trade with the collection and trading of specimens. Furthermore, British military officers, settlers, and tourists tapped into American scientific networks and knowledge systems rather than focusing solely on Britain as an imperial centre of accumulation. British imperial ideas and practices of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada therefore remained ambiguous during the early nineteenth century. PMID:19569389

  5. COLONIAL GARDENS AND THE VALIDATION OF EMPIRE IN IMPERIAL INDIA

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    Christopher V. Hill

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deccan gardens in South India during the Islamic period (1206-1756 frequently had an Edenic quality about them.  As noted by Flatt (2007, Hanaway (1976, and Inden (2007, among others, the design often represented aspects of the supernatural or paradise, with representations of the pleasures of this life and the forthcoming joys of the afterlife.  The garden often served a symbolic function, in that it represented the divine recognition of the temporal authority of the Sultan. British gardens in the Deccan in fact had a similar symbolic purpose.  The legitimacy of British rule, as represented by the garden, rested not in divine authority, however, but in the power drawn from the Enlightenment.  Reason, in the form of science and technology, increasingly became the proof that the British faced a divine mission as well: to civilize the savage.  No place represents this ideal better than the Victoria Gardens in Bombay. While the gardens focused on nature, it was a nature to be understood and classified, not to be enjoyed for pure aesthetics.  Under the leadership of Sir George Birdwood, the Victoria Gardens became a museum for British enlightenment and scientific justification for rule.  Included in the gardens were the Victoria and Albert Museum, a botanical garden, and a zoo.  Plants were imported from around Asia, Africa, and the Americas, not for their beauty, but for cataloguing.  The museum, which formed the central focus of the gardens, categorized types of South Asians through tiny models, along with catalogued examples of Indian craftsmanship. In short, in a Linnaean fashion, the gardens were there for colonial study and a superior representation.  As one colonial administrator noted, the gardens were “one of the greatest boons which England could have conferred on India” (Nicholson, 2007.

  6. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. PMID:23388491

  7. Imperial Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    concept, which is ‘tailored’ to analyse only one type of empire, the colonial empire, and to disregard the existence of another type of empire. To escape this trap, the article suggests the use of two concepts, ‘inwards imperial governance’ and ‘outwards imperial governance’. These concepts make it...

  8. Loan Documentation of the Ancient Rome Imperial Alimentary Fund (Tabula «Veleia»

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    Michael N. Saiko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mortgage contracts engraved on the bronze plaques found in the Italian region Veleia and called Tabula «Veleia» are in the focus of investigation of the present paper. These are the agreements between authorities of the Imperial alimentary fund in Gallia Cispadana and Liguria and land owners of Veleia, Placentia, Luca, Parma and Libarna about granting loans on land lending. Money got on interest payments were directed towards orphans and poor parents free-born children support till their adulthood. Tabula «Veleia» contains 52 loan contracts, 15 of which are translated into Russian in full, others are given in brief. The structure and content of these mortgages are determined and some mistakes in calculations are found in the documents and some publications. The land domain size the square of which ranges from some dozens jugerum till more than 1000 jugerum is analyzed. The attention is also paid to the owners’ estates consisted of separate manors the square of which ranged within considerable limits (from 2 till 490 jugerum and their names are studied. It is determined that the manors’ names which end with «anus» belonged to the Roman names, others – to the Celt-Ligurian. Tabula «Veleia» allows becoming more familiar with finance and credit documents and the conclusions made on the basis of its analysis promote the deep insight in the social-economic relations of Ancient Rome.

  9. Imperial Revisionism: US Historians of Latin America and the Spanish Colonial Empire (ca. 1915–1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo D. Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    During the period 1915–1945, United States historians contributed important revisions to the subfield of colonial Hispanic American History. Their histories argued for a reconsideration of inherited wisdom about the Spanish colonial empire, in issues of justice towards indigenous peoples, the interoceanic book trade, colonial universities, the Crown’s mercantilist policies, and the penetration of Enlightenment ideas in the Indies. This article reads these contributions in relation to the poli...

  10. Imperialism, race, and therapeutics: the legacy of medicalizing the "colonial body".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The era of high colonialism in South Asia coincided with the period when eugenics came to dominate much of the scientific discourse in Europe and America. Such attitudes were naturally transplanted into the colonial world where medical researchers helped to establish a pathological "difference" between Europeans in India and the colonial "Other," thus creating a medical discourse dominated by racial segregated treatment regimes. With the growth of trans-national transfer of scientific knowledge, this colonial "research" began to underpin racially constructed medical practices wherever they occurred. PMID:18840243

  11. Imperial Revisionism: US Historians of Latin America and the Spanish Colonial Empire (ca. 1915–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. Salvatore

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1915–1945, United States historians contributed important revisions to the subfield of colonial Hispanic American History. Their histories argued for a reconsideration of inherited wisdom about the Spanish colonial empire, in issues of justice towards indigenous peoples, the interoceanic book trade, colonial universities, the Crown’s mercantilist policies, and the penetration of Enlightenment ideas in the Indies. This article reads these contributions in relation to the politics of US Pan-Americanism and the Good Neighbor policy, arguing that different versions of historical revisionism served to envision a new form of US engagement with Latin America.

  12. The genetic impact of Aztec imperialism: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence from Xaltocan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Overholtzer, Lisa; Rodríguez-Alegría, Enrique; Kemp, Brian M; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2012-12-01

    In AD 1428, the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan formed the Triple Alliance, laying the foundations of the Aztec empire. Although it is well documented that the Aztecs annexed numerous polities in the Basin of Mexico over the following years, the demographic consequences of this expansion remain unclear. At the city-state capital of Xaltocan, 16th century documents suggest that the site's conquest and subsequent incorporation into the Aztec empire led to a replacement of the original Otomí population, whereas archaeological evidence suggests that some of the original population may have remained at the town under Aztec rule. To help address questions about Xaltocan's demographic history during this period, we analyzed ancient DNA from 25 individuals recovered from three houses rebuilt over time and occupied between AD 1240 and 1521. These individuals were divided into two temporal groups that predate and postdate the site's conquest. We determined the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup of each individual and identified haplotypes based on 372 base pair sequences of first hypervariable region. Our results indicate that the residents of these houses before and after the Aztec conquest have distinct haplotypes that are not closely related, and the mitochondrial compositions of the temporal groups are statistically different. Altogether, these results suggest that the matrilines present in the households were replaced following the Aztec conquest. This study therefore indicates that the Aztec expansion may have been associated with significant demographic and genetic changes within Xaltocan. PMID:23076995

  13. Causes and Pomp of the Ancient Imperial Examination in Guangxi Quanzhou%广西全州古代科举盛况及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明光

    2015-01-01

    The number of Jinshi in Quanzhou in Song was more than that in Lingui; the number of Jinshi in Quanzhou in Yuan dynasty was the top in Guangxi. This formed a literary genre, represented by the Jiangs. The pomp of the Ancient Imperial Examination in Guangxi Quanzhou is the rise of Jinshi in Chang Township, Sheng Township, and Wan Township. The main causes of this pomp are the influence of Central Plain culture and official literati on Quanzhou, flourishing academy, local property and prosperous economy, convenient transportation and other advantages.%宋代全州进士数量一度超过临桂县;元朝全州进士数量独占广西鳌头;形成了以蒋氏科举家族为代表的文学流派;元明清三代全州集中在长乡、升乡、万乡等几个乡镇涌现进士系广西全州科举盛况之表现。中原文化及官吏文人对全州之影响、书院兴旺、地方物产及经济发达、交通运输便捷等优势,是全州宋元明清科举事业兴旺主要原因。

  14. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  15. Imperialism and the English Language in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Considers whether the charge of linguistic imperialism can be appropriately leveled against the British government during its colonial rule of Hong Kong. The article analyzes the concept of linguistic imperialism, considers landmarks in the history of the English language in Hong Kong, and applies the concept of linguistic imperialism to the…

  16. 论大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构%On Da Yu’s Influence on the Construction of Chinese Ancient Imperial Edict’s Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁太勰

    2016-01-01

    Imperial edict, which is used to deliver king's order in ancient China, was firstly found in Xia Dynasty. As the source of Chinese ancient imperial edict, Yu’s Vow which is recorded in The Book of History, and Yu’s Prohibition which is recorded in The Book of Zhou, have a significant influence on the system, structure and style of“The Edict about Punitive Expedition”and“The Edict about Agriculture”. Particular political function in Da Yu’s edict is not only a significant part of Chinese political civilization, but also had a profound influence on edict's culture meaning of system, law and civilization for later generations. Without doubt, Da Yu had a significant influence on the construction of Chinese ancient edict’s form.%诏令,指中国古代社会以帝王命令形式颁布的下行公文。最早的诏令产生于夏朝,《尚书·大禹谟》记载的《禹誓》,以及《周书》所载的《禹禁》,是中国古代诏令的源头,对后世之“征讨诏”、“劝农诏”等在体制、结构、风格方面都产生了深远的影响;而大禹诏令所承载的特殊政治功能,不仅是中国政治文明的一个组成部分,也深刻影响了后代诏令的制度、法律、文化的人文内涵。所以说,大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构具有重要意义。

  17. 从汉高祖诏令看中国古代政治传统%On the Political Tradition of Ancient China from the Perspective of Emperor Gaozu’s Imperial Edicts in Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦潇

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study the form, thought and content of the imperial edicts represented by Emperor Gaozu, Liu Bang in Han Dynasty. Combined with the historical background, it also studies the correlation between Emperor Gaozu’s imperial edicts and the political tradition of ancient China. First, Emperor Gaozu’s imperial edicts reflect the formation of open political environment represented by election system. Second, they lay political foundation for the replacement from traditional“law-rule oriented”ruling to“rite-rule oriented”ruling. Third, they provide political practice for the strengthening of centralization. Finally, they provide system premise for reinforcing feudal bureaucratic thoughts.%以汉高祖刘邦诏令为代表,研究高祖诏令的形式、思想、内容,并结合历史背景,探究其诏令和中国古代政治传统的相关性。高祖诏令首先体现了以选举制为代表的开放式的政治环境的形成;其次,为“礼治为主”代替“法治为主”的治国传统奠定政治基础;再次,为中央集权的强化提供政治实践;最后,为强化封建官僚思想提供制度保障。

  18. COLONIALISM, HAN & ECO-THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nations exhibit imperial behaviour but not like the ancient agriculture driven landed empires or the 18-19th century mercantile empires. The land and trade divisions are not as clearly segregated as in the earlier ones, but Imperial nations do exist and do control other nations. Imperialism and colonialism has devastating effects on our world. It has nurtured self-worth through the accumulation of worldly goods for the purposes of serving their own interests and exploiting others for the sole purpose of self-gain. This is devastating not only to human beings but to the whole ecology of the planet. Consumerism drives trade, but consumer buying is now like an unchained beast with tooth and claw causing han for the exploited as well as the resources of the planet. Eco-theologians and feminist theologians examine the devastating effects to help ensure that we are seriously determined to preserve the planet. We will examine ways of rethinking and reimagining our errors and how we can work towards the right direction for a safer, sustainable planet. doi: 10.7833/111-1-15

  19. Towards Social Progress and Post-Imperial Modernity? Colonial Politics of Literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946-1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri-Hersch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the politics of literacy in late colonial Sudan. Drawing upon hitherto untapped archival sources in English and Arabic, it focuses on two key questions: What were the purposes and uses of literacy in the eyes of colonial authorities? What means were used to spread literacy skills among Sudanese people? Positioning these…

  20. Industriousness in an imperial economy: Delineating new research on colonial connections and household labour relations in the Netherlands and the Netherlands Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van, E.J.V.

    2013-01-01

    This article delineates new research on the entangled histories of householdlabour, particularly women’s and children’s work, in the Netherlands and its colonies on Java. It offers suggestions for future empirical studies and howwe may disentangle the workings of colonial connections on labour relations. A first analysis of the debates on Dutch and Javanese women’sand children’s work shows many ambivalences and tensions, for instance, between ideology and practice. Despite the ideal of the ma...

  1. China's Sole Remaining. Imperial Exam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoTiexin

    2004-01-01

    For more than a millennium, civic officials in ancient China were selected based on their success on the imperial examination, or Keju, Initiated In the Sol Dynasty (581-618 AD) and Dynasty (1644-1911), this nationwide examination system existed for some 1,300 years, producing more than 700

  2. Linnean Botany and Spanish Imperial Biopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Antonio; Valverde, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Our aim is to show how the discussion about the most suitable scale for imperial scientific policies conditioned the type of botany that was to spread throughout the colonies. Thus we want to explore the shift between two conflicting types of biopolitics: the botanical policy of the Metropolis and the political botany in the colonies. This is a distinction that refers to the shift from an organizational model based on the production of data towards one that assigns and redistributes ...

  3. The Five Score and Percentage of Group Test Scores of Measurement Standard in Ancient Imperial Examination%中国科举“五级百分”计量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄裕泉; 干有成; 刘立云; 赵霖

    2016-01-01

    群体考试成绩如何计量,时至今日仍属研究领域。美国大学入学考试、托福、GRE、雅思英语考试、中国国际汉语等级考试、中国大学招生考试、各级学校学生的学期考试等,其计量标准和方法都不相同!中国国家计量法要求计量应建立国家统一标准,计量要有统一的计量单位和统一的计量基准、计量还必须有统一的监管。我国古代科举考试“五级百分”计量标准是古今中外最科学简便精准的计量标准。%How to measure the group test scores, which are still in the research category. For example, the entrance examin-ation of American University GRE TOEFL IELTS exam China international Chinese language Test, the measurement stan-dards and methods are not the same. China national measurement law requires measurement should establish a national unified standard, measurement must also have a unified supervision. Chinese ancient imperial examination“Five score and percentage scoring method”is the most scientific the most simple and convenient and the most accurate measurement standard at all times and in all over the world.

  4. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Juan; LI Jiazhi; DENG Zequn; WANG Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  5. Imperial Nationalism: Nationalism and the Empire in late nineteenth century Scotland and British Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Colclough, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between imperialism and nationalism has often been portrayed by theorists of nationalism and post colonial discourse theorists as antagonistic. Anti-democratic, aggressive empires impose their will on subject peoples who, in response, form nationalist movements in opposition to this imperialism. These movements, it is claimed, assert the nation’s right to self-determination and independence. Whilst this was undoubtedly the case in a number of anti-colonial movements, examples...

  6. Imperial Limes - Projections in Medieval Imperial Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Z. Zhekov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman imperial limes from I - V BC was the first state border in world history, which in some sense corresponds to the modern concept of political boundary. It represents sustainable political, military and economic barrier between the Romans and the rest of the world. With minor modifications it retains their basic strategic concept during the period as expressed from the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Limes become powerful barrier that separates cultural Roman Hellenistic world of the wild barbarian but at the same time limits the constructed infrastructure of roads, forts and towns became a natural cultural, commercial and political mediator between these two initially hostile worlds. In border towns developed a lively trade between Romans and barbarians. Roman traders penetrate inside the barbarian lands getting to know their culture and history. Studying foreign peoples and countries they convey information gathered imperial legate of the Roman population. The same process was developed and of course in the opposite direction. Exchange of information on the other promotes mutual understanding and open living on both sides of the Roman Limes.

  7. Culture and Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  8. Consumer culture imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    De Carvalho, Marcelo Gon̨calves

    2010-01-01

    The thesis examines the interplay between political, military, economic, social and cultural influences in the context of the United States' control over Brazil. The main argument is that the ways used by the United States to control Brazil were, and are, a form of imperialism even though there was never any use of direct American military invasion or occupation. The role of the US during World War II, but most importantly their role in the 1964 military coup, demonstrated the American involv...

  9. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....... interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...

  10. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

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    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  11. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  12. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

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    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  13. Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Cervini

    2016-01-01

    Antony Anghie’s book Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law ambitiously seeks to retell the history of international law from the standpoint of the developing world. This book covers five centuries of international law, through three different but related approaches: an historical approach which documents modern international law from colonial times to the present; a jurisprudential- philosophical approach which attempts to tease out the important concepts and theories b...

  14. Gnomons in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  15. CSR as Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Khan, Farzad Rafi

    2011-01-01

    The voices of local manufacturers have largely been overlooked in academic and policy debates on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the developing world. This article makes a contribution towards filling this gap in the literature by explicitly taking a phenomenological approach that maps the...... interpretations given to Western-based CSR initiatives by local manufacturers. Data from two qualitative research projects on CSR initiatives in the soccer ball industry of Sialkot, Pakistan, are utilized to explore this issue in an inductive and exploratory manner. The article suggests that many soccer ball...... manufacturers in Sialkot perceive CSR as part of the wider historic project of Western imperialism in the developing world through which economic resources are extracted from local manufacturers while their perceptions of what constitutes socially responsible behaviour are delegitimized. This counter...

  16. Imperial boyhood: piracy and the play ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Representations of perpetual boyhood came to fascinate the late Victorians, partly because such images could naturalize a new spirit of imperial aggression and new policies of preserving power. This article traces the emergence of this fantasy through a series of stories about the relationship of the boy and the pirate, figures whose opposition in mid-Victorian literature was used to articulate the moral legitimacy of colonialism, but who became doubles rather than antitheses in later novels, such as R.L. Stevenson's "Treasure Island" and Joseph Conrad's "Lord Jim." Masculine worth needed no longer to be measured by reference to transcendent, universal laws, but by a morally flexible ethic of competitive play, one that bound together boyishness and piracy in a satisfying game of international adventure. PMID:22355829

  17. A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Piri

    1975-01-01

    The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

  18. Spiritual and religious aspects of torture and scalping among the Indian cultures in Eastern North America, from ancient to colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiltunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago a common perception prevailed that the historic­al Native Americans were very prone to violence and warfare. Scalping and torture were seen as a specific custom attached into their ideology and sociocultural ethos. However in the 1960s a completely reversed picture started to emerge, following the course of other worldwide movements, such as ethnic rights, pan-Indianism, ecological conscience, revisionist historiography and so on. Immediately the Native American people came to be seen as the victims of the European colonialism and the Whites were the bad guys who massacred innocent women and children, either at Sand Creek or in Vietnam. Books were written in which the historians pointed out that the practice of scalping was actually not present in the Americas before the whites came. This theory drew sustenance from some early colonial accounts, especially from the Dutch and New England colonies, where it was documented that a special bounty was offered for Indian scalps. According to this idea, the practice of scalping among the Indians escalated only after this. On the other hand, the blame fell on the Iroquois tribesmen, whose cruel fighting spread terror throughout the seventeenth century, when they expanded an empire in the north eastern wilderness. This accords with those theorists who wanted to maintain a more balanced view of the diffusion of scalping and torture, agreeing that these traits were indeed present in Pre-Columbian America, but limited only to the Iroquoians of the east. Colonial American history has been rewritten every now and then. In the 1980s, and in the field of archaeology especially, a completely new set of insights have arisen. There has been a secondary burial of the myth of Noble Savage and a return of the old Wild Indian idea, but this time stripped of its cartoon stereo­typical attachments. The Indians are now seen as being like any other human beings, with their usual mixture of vices

  19. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  20. Mäki on economics imperialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews Uskali Mäki’s epistemic analysis of economics imperialism formulated in terms of the science unification ideal and the three constraints on imperialism he develops. It then examines the phenomenon of 'reverse imperialism' associated with the influence of other fields on economics

  1. Absolute Cultural Imperialism is Impossible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2014-01-01

    As globalization develops quickly no matter in its depth and its scope, the worry about whether globalization equals cultural imperialism is also increasing. This article proposes to see this problem from a dialectical view. It first notices the complexity of globalization itself so that proves the inequality between globalization and cultural imperialism. And then that the confused identity globalization causes should not be neglected is pointed out. The essential part of this article lies in encouraging developing countries to seize the opportunity to prosper their national cultures.

  2. THE PALESTINIAN LABOUR IN ISRAEL: INDICATIONS OF INTERNAL COLONIALISM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYIN, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The property and production structure in the occupied territories of the West Bank and Gaza, and employment of Palestinians in the Israeli labour market is changing. The concept of internal colonialism offers a better understanding about the economic concerns of Israel on the occupied territories than imperialism or sub-imperialism. This is because the relationship between Israel and the occupied territories has an ethnic characteristic, and additionally, Israel cannot be easily explained as ...

  3. Antony Anghie, Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cervini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antony Anghie’s book Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law ambitiously seeks to retell the history of international law from the standpoint of the developing world. This book covers five centuries of international law, through three different but related approaches: an historical approach which documents modern international law from colonial times to the present; a jurisprudential- philosophical approach which attempts to tease out the important concepts and theories behind international law; and a political approach which seeks to understand international law from the perspective of great-power politics, economic development, globalization and nation building.

  4. Arte colonial español. Crisol imperial

    OpenAIRE

    Mínguez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    La conquista de América produjo una fusión cultural a una escala sin precedentes en la que las formas e iconografía del Renacimiento y Barroco europeos se mestizaron con los valores, la imaginería y las técnicas de las grandes civilizaciones inca y azteca. El artículo explica la riqueza de este encuentro y el arte que generó.

  5. Colonial today

    OpenAIRE

    Agarez, Ricardo; Beeckmans, Luce; Herbelin, Caroline; Lagae, Johan; Lee, Rachel; Matos, Madalena Cunha; Murray, Noëleen; van Roosmalen, Pauline K.M.; Volait, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Across the world, colonialism produced a substantial built legacy that in many cases continues to mark post-colonial urban landscapes. This theme issue addresses the ambivalences surrounding the position of colonial architecture as heritage in the present day, questioning the common assumption that architecture produced under colonial rule constitutes, by definition, a “dissonant heritage”. Presenting cases that highlight the myriad ways in which colonial architecture is re-used, re-appropria...

  6. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Chonghwa Chung

    2012-01-01

    This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業) in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film histori...

  7. Mäki on economics imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews Uskali Mäki’s epistemic analysis of economics imperialism formulated in terms of the science unification ideal and the three constraints on imperialism he develops. It then examines the phenomenon of "reverse imperialism" associated with the influence of other fields on economics especially since 1980, and advances a core-periphery model of the identity of economics as a field made up of a collection of different research programs. The discussion returns to Mäki’s constrain...

  8. Lead in ancient Rome’s city waters

    OpenAIRE

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-01-01

    International audience It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early M...

  9. From Colonial Administration to Development Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about the field of development management (previously development administration) and its continuities with the processes of imperial rule known as colonial administration. Development administration/ management represents itself as a subset of public administration/ public sector management. However, this conceals its status as First World discourse about how the Third World should be managed. Moreover, while development management recognizes the continuity between itself and p...

  10. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael;

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. The...

  11. Economics as an Imperial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Èihák

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the main points discussed at the seminar ?Economics as an Imperial Science,? held by the Czech Economic Association in November 1999. The seminar was devoted to the theory of preferences and its extensions to ?non-economic? topics, a research agenda coined by Prof. Gary Becker, the 1992 Nobel Memorial Prize Winner. There were two main speakers. Dr. Dušan Toíska (CD-F, a.s.) presented the standard textbook neoclassical axiomatic approach to preferences. He argued that t...

  12. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the concept of empire or rige in the context of a small nation-state with no immediate claim to imperial greatness and with a rooted self-understanding as anything but an empire. It does this by exploring the concept of empire in the far right movement The Young Denmark on the...... right into a concept of empire. In the process it dramatically changed its emphasis, reorienting itself towards a "horizon of expectation." It became a politically loaded battle concept which then entailed a critique against the dominant liberal conceptualization of the polity and nation. Rige came to...

  13. Deconstructing Neo-Colonialism and Liberalism: Kenya and the NGOs--A Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang'at, Kiprono

    2008-01-01

    Neo-colonialism theories bring back to life memories of colonial imperialism especially to the locals in countries such as Kenya where, 43 years after the proclamation of self-governance, most rural communities appear to be still awaiting the "true" independence. The locals may have seen the political "peace" and sovereign recognition of their…

  14. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  15. Imperialism and Financialism: A Story of a Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimshon Bichler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the nexus of imperialism and financialism has become a major axis of Marxist theory and praxis. Many Marxists consider this nexus to be a cause of worldly ills, but the historical role they ascribe to it has changed dramatically over time. The key change concerns the nature and direction of surplus and liquidity flows. The first incarnation of the nexus, articulated at the turn of the twentieth century, explained the imperialist scramble for colonies to which finance capital could export its ‘excessive’ surplus. The next version posited a neo-imperial world of monopoly capitalism where the core’s surplus is absorbed domestically, sucked into a ‘black hole’ of military spending and financial intermediation. The third script postulated a World System where surplus is imported from the dependent periphery into the financial core. And the most recent edition explains the hollowing out of the U.S. core, a ‘red giant’ that has already burned much of its own productive fuel and is now trying to ‘financialize’ the rest of the world in order to use the system’s external liquidity. This paper outlines this chameleon-like transformation, assesses what is left of the nexus and asks whether it is worth keeping.

  16. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  17. Imperial College Alumni Association in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Are you a graduate of Imperial College London? If so, you might be interested in its new Swiss alumni association for graduate engineers and scientists. The aim of the founder members is to create a network of the several hundred graduates of Imperial College working at CERN, in Geneva, Lausanne and Zurich with a view to organising social and scientific events, informing members of the studies and research done by Imperial College, setting up a link between the College and Swiss academic institutes and, of course, building up an alumni directory. Membership applications and requests for further information should be sent to: Imperial College Alumni (ICA) - Swiss chapter Case Postale CH-1015 Lausanne Tel. : + 41 22 794 57 94 Fax : + 41 22 794 28 14 Email : imperialcollegeswissalumni@epfl.ch

  18. Social Implications of Neo - Imperialism in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation process, which aimed at integration of economies and global development, is basically a reflection of neo-imperialism ideas. The question addressed in this paper is: what are the social implications of the neo-imperialism (globalisation) process in India, particularly on the social security aspects of the working population? Accordingly, an attempt is made in this paper to examine changes in the social security status of the working population that have been brought ab...

  19. The Rural Market in Late Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ren

    2010-01-01

    The rural market was an important constituent of marketing system, and formed an un-vertical congruent relationship with urban market in late imperial China. There were different types of rural fair in the imperial China. Xu, Chang, Ji, Dian, Shi, Hui, all of them were the regular fairs. Their number was huge. They distributed widely, played a distinct role, and became the base of rural market development. During Tang and Song dynasties, county seat, town or village had some regular fairs. Th...

  20. Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of t...

  1. Neo-colonialism and Its Actors in the Global Order (Neo-colonialismul şi actorii săi în ordinea global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are trying to analyze the relation between state sovereignty , the Westphalian state and, on the other hand, the non-state actors (especially, the transnational companies, that are capable to shape and control forms of economic dominance over new peripheries, in a world based on general, universal and imperative prohibition (inscribed in major documents of international law regarding imperialism and colonialism, as well as all forms of neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism.

  2. Neo-colonialism and Its Actors in the Global Order (Neo-colonialismul şi actorii săi în ordinea global)

    OpenAIRE

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we are trying to analyze the relation between state sovereignty , the Westphalian state and, on the other hand, the non-state actors (especially, the transnational companies), that are capable to shape and control forms of economic dominance over new peripheries, in a world based on general, universal and imperative prohibition (inscribed in major documents of international law) regarding imperialism and colonialism, as well as all forms of neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism.

  3. Colonial connections and consulting engineers 1850-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses colonial connections and networks of British consulting engineers. It unravels how consulting engineers operated within different imperial contexts, including settler colonies, Egypt and Crown colonies in West Africa in particular. The paper also examines the close and at times...... strained connections that existed between London's consulting engineers and British engineers stationed overseas in colonial public works departments. By examining the colonial connections of metropolitan engineers, the paper sheds light on a hitherto ignored factor that tied Britain and the colonies...... together during the diaspora of British engineering. It argues that personal connections and relations remained of paramount importance during this period, which has traditionally been described as characterised by growing professionalisation and a subsequent loss of the personal element in British...

  4. Appropriating Territories For Imperial Interests

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmad Parray

    2012-01-01

    By the middle of the nineteenth century, the British Empire in India was at its pinnacle. Only few portions of the north India,formally constituting the domains of Ranjeet Singh, were yet to be brought under British paramountancy.Very soon these alluring regions acquired a greater importance for being a natural border land, and created necessary pushes and pulls to implant colonial rule there as well. Through a number of travelogues, maintained by the European travellers, who visited these re...

  5. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence...... increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  6. NERO’S ANCESTRY AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY IN THE EARLY EMPIRE. A METHODOLOGICAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Hekster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the discipline of ancient history, diverse types of sources, such as coins, inscriptions, portraits and texts, are often combined to create a coherent image of a particular ruler. A good example of how such a process works is the way in which reconstructions by modern scholars of the emperor Nero tend to look for a clearly defined ‘Neronian image’, by bringing together various types of primary evidence without paying sufficient attention to these sources’ medial contexts. This article argues that such a reconstruction does not do justice to the complex and multi-layered image of the last Julio-Claudian. By focusing on one particular aspect of Neronian imagery, the propagation of this emperor’s ancestry, we will argue that different types of sources, stemming from varying contexts and addressing different groups, cannot unproblematically be combined. Through an investigation of the ancestral messages spread by imperial and provincial coins, epigraphic evidence and portraiture, it becomes clear that systematic analysis of ancient media, their various contexts and inconsistencies is needed before combining them. Such an analysis reveals patterns within the different sources and shows that, in creating imperial images, rulers were constrained by both medial and local traditions. Modern studies of ancient images should therefore consider this medial and geographical variety in order to do justice to the multi-faceted phenomenon of imperial representation.

  7. Imperial Wilderness study area : Imperial National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness study report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an in-depth report containing the results of a wilderness study done of the Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. It covers the objectives of the...

  8. Por vozes nunca dantes ouvidas : a viragem pós-colonial nas ciências humanas

    OpenAIRE

    Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on Post-Colonialism. We start with an analysis of important changes in anthropology in consequence of the colonial era and the so called "the others speak back"-movement. We then switch to Edward Said and his revolutionary work Orientalism (1978), the real beginning of Post-Colonialism as an academic topic. The importance of postcolonial studies is illustrated by two major works: Said’s Culture and Imperialism (1993) and Homi Bhabha's The location of culture (1994).

  9. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  10. Imperial College London mascot visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Hills, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Boanerges (‘Son of Thunder’) is one of the mascots of Imperial College and is looked after by volunteer students of the City and Guilds College Motor Club. Team Bo visited CERN as part of a wider tour of France and Switzerland.

  11. Experimental Particle Physics at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Last friday Imperial's rector Sir Richard Sykes visited CERN, in particular CMS and LHCb; the visit was supervised by CERN's VIP service, a guaranteee that nothing can go wrong. A quite impressive organization that has not much in common with the usual "pivate" visits of LHCb or CMS.

  12. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  13. The environmental impact of colonial activity in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pemberton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available From the activities of buccaneers, pirates, baymen, logwood, mahogany and agricultural companies, this study traces the factors which have shaped the unique culture of Belize and discusses the ways in which colonial rule has impacted in the colony’s environment. The study aims to show the forces which stimulated forest conservation policies in a colony where the lack of imperial restraints on the early settlers permitted their control of extensive acreages of forest and uncontrolled extraction of particular species of the forests. It is argued that the pattern established by the early settlers was reinforced when British imperial control was established as the land holdings of private companies engaged in mahogany and agriculture were extended. The influence of these companies impeded the successful implementation of forest conservation and facilitated the over exploitation and denudation of the forest of Belize.

  14. CZARIST NATIONAL-COLONIAL POLICY IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Zakhida

    2007-01-01

    The author uses a vast amount of factual material to reveal the essence of czarist Russia’s colonial imperial policy toward the Muslims of the Caucasus, and Northern Azerbaijan in particular, when the area was finally conquered in the early 19th century. This discriminatory policy was acutely felt in all spheres of life; the Azeris, in particular, were deprived of many political, civil, and religious rights. Russia’s reforms in the area deprived Northern Azerbaijan of its previous administrat...

  15. Colonial film: moving images of the British Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2010 I was employed as a postdoctoral researcher on the AHRC-funded project, Colonial Film: Moving Images of the British Empire. The primary outcome of this project was a database detailing the colonial films held by BFI, the Imperial War Museum and the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum. Many of these films are not widely known, and the project provided the first thorough documentation of these materials. I was employed to write 95 1,000-word essays about selected films ...

  16. Economic benefits from colonial assets : the case of the Netherlands and Indonesia 1870-1958

    OpenAIRE

    van der Eng, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether and to what extent the economic relations between the Netherlands and its former colony Indonesia could be crucial to explaining `metropolitan' economic development and `peripheral' underdevelopment. It first surveys the literature on economic explanations for imperialism and the historiography involving Netherlands-Indonesia relations. The paper then generalises the broad economic importance to the Dutch economy of having Indonesia as a colony. The pa...

  17. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  18. Fast Food Paradox: Freedom and Cultural Imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea

    2012-01-01

    Fast food is often regarded as a form of cultural imperialism. Fast-food products, originating in the U.S.A., are considered by the critics of this phenomenon as responsible for eroding the interest in local food traditions and affecting their continuity. Based on the results of some researches realized at international and national level, the paper highlights the main issues underlying young people preference for fast-food. The consumption of fast food is associated with the idea of independ...

  19. Space wars and the new urban imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Hansen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes recent urban transformations through the lens of space wars. The main focus is on investment flows in the commercial property market, changes in urban governance and changes in social geography, and how these three aspects are related. Drawing on cross border investment data, archive studies, interviews with key actors and street walking experiences in Copenhagen, Lisbon and New York, the book offers insight into the ?glocal? logic of urban imperialism and its tenden...

  20. Une identité impériale sans Empire? Le sens de la politique de décolonisation britannique Imperial Identity without Empire? The Meaning of the British Decolonisation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Barrier-Roiron

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Britain’s history as a nation and a great power cannot be dissociated from the concept of imperialism. The object of this article will be to study the way Britain managed to adapt her imperial identity to the post-colonial world that her own decolonisation policy contributed to pace. As the shaping of decolonisation in Africa accelerated at the end of the 1950s, the Commonwealth of Nations was considered by Britain as an ideal through which the Empire and its assets could survive. Because of the Rhodesian deadlock, the former colonial power was put in the dock by her African Commonwealth partners in 1966. This provoked an unprecedented crisis within the Commonwealth of Nations. Through a very symbolical process, the British Prime Minister managed to reverse the situation and declared Britain’s independence within the post-colonial association. After the Rhodesian crisis, Britain was no longer an imperialist power, but her imperial identity and ambitions on the world political scene survived through the Commonwealth of Nations and can also be identified today in Tony Blair’s vision of Britain as a “pivotal partner”, a link between North and South. Though the Commonwealth Rhodesian crisis, Britain managed to reconcile her imperial identity with her post-colonial responsibilities. If the Commonwealth is no longer considered as the main pillar of Britain’s international role in the world, it remains an important element through which an idea of Britain’s global role, which remains imperial in essence, is still promoted. In fact, in spite of the crisis of identity she underwent in the middle of the 1960s, we may say that, at the end of the day, Britain never renounced her imperial identity.

  1. Analysis of the apiclutural industry in relation to geothermal development and agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, E.L.

    1979-04-01

    PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.

  2. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghwa Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業 in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film historiography that merely focused on the contributions of colonial Korean filmmakers. Here the author rather focuses on the cooperation or collaboration between Japan and Korea: Japanese directors and cinematographers working in Korea, Korean filmmakers with experience in the Japanese apprenticeship system, and filmmakers working together and independently during the silent film era. During the transition from the silent to the early talkie eras, second-generation filmmakers, especially those who trained in film studios in Japan, were significant. They dreamed of the corporatization of the colonial Korean film industry and took the lead in coproductions between Japanese film companies and their colonial Korean counterparts. Korean filmmakers were not unilaterally suppressed by imperial Japan, nor did they independently operate within the Korean film industry during the colonial period. The Japanese in colonial Korea did not take the lead in forming the colonial Korean film scene, either. The core formation of colonial Korean / Korean film was a process of Korean and Japanese filmmakers in competition and negotiation with one another within a complex film sphere launched with Japanese capital and technology.

  3. A Study of Imperial Maids Life Through Tangs Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuc Lin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Article observed the life of Tangs imperial maids through the poetry of Tang Dynasty. . Imperial maids were started from Sui Dynasty, especially Emperor Sui Yangdis period, and Tangs imperial maids were many. Emperor with various kind of reasons, in most every year would choose some girls and took them into his palace and they worked as imperial maids. They were girls from ordinary people, respectable, and noble families. Those girls who once entered imperial palace, theyb would be very hard to come out. They had to obey the regulation in the palace. Through some poetry it could be portrayed the imperial maids lifetime in serving the emperor, imperial concubines and got rest after midnight. Except for working, they werent able to come out from palace, they couldnt go home to visit their family, even got married, their lives were full of loneliness. If they were sick, or old, the emperor wouldnt like them anymore, they would be sent away anytime. Even if they left imperial palace, and got their freedom, but most of them lived tragically.

  4. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production.

  5. Future considerations: Imperial finds new promise in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After decades of having natural gas a minor part of its operations, Imperial Oil has reevaluated the importance of that resource within the company's strategy. A comprehensive business review of the industry was conducted in 1987 and prompted Imperial's subsidiary, Esso Resources Canada, to adopt the goal of becoming an industry leader in natural gas reserves, production, and marketing. Imperial's natural gas business started in 1921, when it assumed control of the company whose Turner Valley gas find sparked an oil rush in 1914. By the early 1940s, when Turner Valley was still Canada's only major oil field, Imperial was considering the manufacture of synthetic oil from natural gas, but then it discovered the first well of the Leduc oil boom in 1947. Imperial built the first gas conservation plant in Canada in 1950, but largely left other companies to develop gas fields. The deregulated gas market of the mid-1980s saw Imperial buying its first major acquisition in over 20 years, Sulpetro Ltd.; this boosted Imperial's annual gas production and its reserves by a third. A further purchase of Ocelot Industries increased overall gas production by another 20%. Imperial also made substantial gas finds in the Mackenzie Delta, and the company's holdings at Obed (Alberta) will add 8% to gas production

  6. Corporeal imperialism: Textual anti-masturbation in the eighteenth century – and – National negotiation: Toward feminist postnationalism in theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Leah Claire

    2006-01-01

    Essay 1: This essay discusses textual anti-masturbation in the eighteenth century in order to introduce the concept of corporeal imperialism and argue that the history of anti-masturbation prefigures the history of bodily colonialism. Conducting a close reading of Onania; Or, the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution and Samuel Tissot’s Onanism: Or, a Treatise on the Disorders Produced by Masturbation, this essay illustrates the ways in which the authors link acceptable sexuality to acceptable expres...

  7. The Imperial College Thermophysical Properties Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, S.; Cole, W. A.; Craven, R.; de Reuck, K. M.; Trengove, R. D.; Wakeham, W. A.

    1986-07-01

    The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project Centre in London has at its disposal considerable expertise on the production and utilization of high-accuracy equations of state which represent the thermodynamic properties of substances. For some years they have been content to propagate this information by the traditional method of book production, but the increasing use of the computer in industry for process design has shown that an additional method was needed. The setting up of the IUPAC Transport Properties Project Centre, also at Imperial College, whose products would also be in demand by industry, afforded the occasion for a new look at the problem. The solution has been to set up the Imperial College Thermophysical Properties Data Centre, which embraces the two IUPAC Project Centres, and for it to establish a link with the existing Physical Properties Data Service of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, thus providing for the dissemination of the available information without involving the Centres in problems such as those of marketing and advertising. This paper outlines the activities of the Centres and discusses the problems in bringing their products to the attention of industry in suitable form.

  8. Imperial climatographies from Tyrol to Turkestan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Deborah R

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of Europe's continental empires, Habsburg and Romanov, to the emergence of a physical-dynamical model of the global climate before World War I. It begins to identify a set of questions and methods that were distinctive of climatology as a continental-imperial science of "regionalization" with a global vision. The focus is on studies of mountain climatology by Heinrich von Ficker and A. I. Voeikov in the ecologically vulnerable regions of Tyrol and western Turkestan. This continental-imperial context deserves historians' attention because it suggests a new model for the globalization of knowledge: not simply a matter of scaling up, globalization must be understood as a process of seeing across scales, of recognizing causal connections between local, regional, and planetary phenomena. "For a change, the material for a dissertation was procured mostly with the feet." Heinz Ficker, of his research on the föhn wind in Tyrol, 1906 "Science is something beautiful, especially when you can do it on horseback." Ficker in his journal in 1913, in a mountain pass in central Asia. PMID:21936186

  9. The Wisdom of Youth: How Modern Ontario Roman Catholic Students Challenge and Resist the Persistent Colonial Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Terri-Lynn Kay

    2012-01-01

    Youth today in Roman Catholic schools are not experiencing the complete freedom of an identity that is unique and valued. They describe the Ontario Roman Catholic school system as if it is still an agent of colonial forces, maintaining imperial power through denominational religious elitism. Using a critical ethnographic methodology within a…

  10. Ant colony for TSP

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yinda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate Ant Colony Algorithm for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. This paper is based on the ideas of ant colony algorithm and analysis the main parameters of the ant colony algorithm. Experimental results for solving TSP problems with ant colony algorithm show great...

  11. Katsura Imperial Villa: A Brief Descriptive Bibliography, with Illustrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Buntrock

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three imperial residences in Kyoto: Gosho (京都御所, rebuilt in 1855 and used for formal affairs even today; Shūgakuin (修学院離宮, a summer retreat on mountain slopes built in the mid-seventeenth century; and Katsura Imperial Retreat (桂離宮, slightly older than Shūgakuin. Upon the death of the Hachijō imperial line in 1881, Katsura came into the hands of the reigning household; shortly afterward, the Imperial Household Ministry was formed and took responsibility for the care of such sites. Sometimes grouped with the other residences, Nijō Palace was originally built not for the imperial household but for the warriors who effectively ruled Japan from the seventeenth to the middle of the nineteenth century; today, it too is managed by the Imperial Household Agency (the scope and name of the Imperial Household Ministry having changed at the end of World War II. Of these four, Katsura, with its extensive grounds and esteemed teahouses in addition to a large, shoin-style residence, is best known of all, used both at home and abroad to illustrate arguments about architecture and national tradition. Yet even so, much remains to be said about the complex, as demonstrated by this brief descriptive bibliography.

  12. Assessing representations of the imperial cult in New Testament studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J J Botha

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A distinct conceptualisation of the imperial cult is common in NT scholarship, in which worship of the emperor is portrayed as a �foreign� development which served primarily political aims, with little integrity and no serious religious significance. This depiction does� not� do� justice� to� the evidence and is basically ethnocentric. That the imperial cult provides us with a crucial window on the mentality of the Roman Period comes closer to the truth. A few aspects of early Christian literature and history which might be reinterpreted in the light of a more comprehensive understanding of the imperial cult are briefly noted.�

  13. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  14. Social capital concept and economics 'imperialism'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of economic science social capital opened space for the analysis of social structure, social norms and institutions i.e. for the analysis of the long neglected influence of socio-cultural factors on economic changes and processes. Trying to explain how social structures emerge on the basis of individual optimization, i.e. to explain them by the logic of rational choice, economic science widened its analytical domain. The explanatory scope of the basic neoclassical principles has been considerably widened to incorporate what has previously been considered to be the analytical terrain of other social sciences. This process has been labeled in scientific circles as 'colonisation' of social sciences, or economics 'imperialism'. The goal of this paper is to determine the implications of these changes for the relation between economic science and other social sciences.

  15. Une identité impériale sans Empire? Le sens de la politique de décolonisation britannique Imperial Identity without Empire? The Meaning of the British Decolonisation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie Barrier-Roiron

    2009-01-01

    Britain’s history as a nation and a great power cannot be dissociated from the concept of imperialism. The object of this article will be to study the way Britain managed to adapt her imperial identity to the post-colonial world that her own decolonisation policy contributed to pace. As the shaping of decolonisation in Africa accelerated at the end of the 1950s, the Commonwealth of Nations was considered by Britain as an ideal through which the Empire and its assets could survive. Because of ...

  16. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  17. GOVERNANCE IN PTOLEMAIC EGYPT, THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS: A CASE OF IMPERIALISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article investigates the nature of governance in Ptolemaic Egypt during the first 100 years of their rule. It proposes that this governance was Imperialist and exploitative in nature and that the Macedonian Greeks acted as the master race while their Egyptian subjects were either collaborators in this exploitation (a small minority of no more than 2.5% or the exploited.

    In order to substantiate this submission, the nature of concepts such as imperialism, colonialism and colonization are defined and explored. Where applicable, comparisons are made with modern empires. The institutions of empire and the racist nature of Ptolemaic rule are investigated while the economic measures instituted to ensure maximum profit for the imperialists, are also examined.

  18. Selenium in aquatic habitats at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 1991 and 1992, selenium levels were studied in aquatic communities at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge on the lower Colorado River. Composite samples of...

  19. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Imperial NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  1. Assessing representations of the imperial cult in New Testament studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter J.J. Botha

    2004-01-01

    A distinct conceptualisation of the imperial cult is common in NT scholarship, in which worship of the emperor is portrayed as a �foreign� development which served primarily political aims, with little integrity and no serious religious significance. This depiction does� not� do� justice� to� the evidence and is basically ethnocentric. That the imperial cult provides us with a crucial window on the mentality of the Roman Period comes closer to the truth. A few aspects of early Christian liter...

  2. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves. PMID:23464646

  3. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorghinian, Astrik; Esposito, Adolfo; Ferretti, Marco; Catalli, Fiorenzo

    2013-08-01

    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor's reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin's spot with no patina due to usage.

  4. Geographies of Difference: Dutch Physical Anthropology in the Colonies and the Netherlands, ca. 1900-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Fenneke Sysling

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses how physical anthropologists created scientific circuitsbetween the Netherlands and their colonies in the East Indies. It shows that national and imperial anthropology were not two separate spheres and that the movement of anthropologists and their objects was important both for the making of anthropology as a scientific discipline and for making anthropological ideas. Trying to define the physical features of people in Dutch fishing villages and in East Indies inland re...

  5. New imperialism and beyond: why the new imperialism will fail and unseat the Bush Administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras los atentados terroristas del 11S de 2001, los Estados Unidos implantaron una política de nuevo imperialismo y de construcción de un nuevo tipo de imperio mundial. Las políticas globales norteamericanas pueden dividirse en economista, cooperativista y reglada por el idealismo Wilsoneano, y el imperialismo Rooseveltiano, basado en un nacionalismo agresivo, militarismo, unilateralismo y governanza global  basada en reglas directas, presencia física y coerción. Las políticas de la administraciones Bush representan esta última vertiente y la Guerra contra el Terror puede ser interpretada como una Primera Guerra Mundial y una guerra civil en los Estados Unidos. Se proclama que un nuevo imperialismo fracasará debido a diversas razones de tipo económica, política, étnica e histórica, y que esta política está debilitando la posición global de Estados Unidos. Al final, se explica cómo en el contexto de una Nueva Contención Pacífica, los ciudadanos norteamericanos y los ciudadanos del resto del mundo pueden utilizar la democracia en contra del nuevo imperialismo y apoyar un cambio de régimen democrático en Estados Unidos, procediendo a la construcción conjunta de un  mundo democrático y justo.________________ABSTRACT:After the terrorist attacks of S-11-2001 the US engaged in the policies of new imperialism and in the construction of a new kind of world-empire. US global policies can be divided in detached, economist, cooperative, rule-based Wilsonian Idealism and Theodore Rooseveltian Imperialism, based on aggressive nationalism, militarism, unilateralism and global governance based on direct rule, physical presence and coercion. The Bush administrations policies represent the latter and the War on Terror and Non-White Others can be seen as a First World War and an Internal Civil War in the US. It is claimed that the new imperialism will fail due to various economic, political, ethical and historical reasons and that this

  6. Rehabilitation of the imperial examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Haifeng

    2006-01-01

    Since the abolishment of the imperial examination system (the IES) in 1905,the system has been the target of severe criticism by most Chinese people.This paper is intended to clear up the misunderstanding of the IES in seven respects based on some ideas of rehabilitation of the IES over the past 100 years.In the author's opinion,the IES is actually not so contemptible as most people think,at least it is not a bad system.The examination system was an attempt to recruit men on the basis of merit rather than because of social position or political connections,which is a great invention of China.Although it was abolished,the method to select talents by means of examination has not yet been and cannot be exterminated,and it is still proper to be used in the present society.The IES with a 1,300-year history has rich experiences and valuable lessons,which have implications to various examination reforms.

  7. BEYOND CULTURAL IMPERIALISM: CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION AS HYBRIDIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, in its simple terms, has tended to be seen as a process in which economic unification of the globe comes into being through the integration national economies under a single grid of market. Rather than viewing globalization in merely economic terms, this article first aims to reconceptualize globalization in its broader sense as a multidimensional social process by looking into the various dimensions of globalization in the light of what Tomlinson (1999 calls complex connectivity. In doing so, this study secondly intends to critically examine two widely accepted and interrelated notions; (1 globalization, as a phenomenon, primarily associates with the economic integration of national economies into a single world market, operating in compliance with the creed of capitalism; and (2 globalization, in its cultural sense, refers to hegemonic domination of the West on the rest of the world appearing in the form of “cultural imperialism” or “Americanization”. To put it in an argumentative way, the article suggests that globalization does refer neither to the march of capitalism as an all-embracing economic system on a global scale nor to a new version of cultural imperialism signalling the convergence toward common set of cultural traits and practices, goes under the name of Westernization or Americanization.

  8. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  9. The New World Order and the Unmasking of the Neo-Colonial Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Burcar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In his dramatic sketch The New World Order Pinter exposes practices of psychological and physical abuse targeted at local people who resist neo-colonial advancements in territories directly occupied or indirectly controlled by Western hegemonic powers. Through the deployment of Pinteresque double-layered meanings conveyed through seemingly ordinary, everyday language, the drama unveils the ideological premises and operating principles of neo-colonial discourse. The paper discusses the way Pinter blasts apart a seemingly neutral Western rhetoric of humanitarian militarism, focusing on the discursive strategies by means of which neo-imperial violence, torture and massive dispossession of local populations are justified and naturalized.

  10. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor’s reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin’s spot with no patina due to usage

  11. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorghinian, Astrik, E-mail: astrik.gorghinian@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Esposito, Adolfo [INFN-LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ferretti, Marco [CNR-ITABC, via Salaria Km 29.300, c.p. 10, Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Catalli, Fiorenzo [National Archeological Museum, 9B Santissima Annunziata Square, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor’s reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin’s spot with no patina due to usage.

  12. Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zahálka, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with Ant Colony algorithms and their usage for solving Travelling Salesman Problems and Vehicle Routing Problems. These algorithms are metaheuristics offering new approach to solving NP-hard problems. Work begins with a description of the forementioned tasks including ways to tackle them. Next chapter analyses Ant Colony metaheuristic and its possible usage and variations. The most important part of the thesis is practical and is represented by application Ant Colony...

  13. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  14. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY RELATIONS AND POST-IMPERIAL ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the relations between former imperial powers and new sovereign states succeeding an empire in the field of international security, particularly when involving the use of force. Despite their stated attachment to the normative principles of what we usually call “Westphalian order”, former imperial powers continue to interfere in the domestic affairs of these new states, especially those unable to exercise their sovereignty efficiently and legitimately. One could say that, by military interventions, these powers deny the sovereignty of weak states in the regions once under their control; but the preparation of these missions makes the actions not to be interpreted as expressions of an imperialist attitude. I consider there are two major ideal-types that could better explain such interventions. In a power-oriented post-imperial order, the intervention of a former empire is the result of the projection of its national interests and identities. In a norm-oriented post-imperial order, the sense of moral responsibility of the former imperial power is the main reason for its interference. The intervention’s legitimacy and suitability require domestic and international support. This paper, grounded on a constructivist approach, intends to contribute to the understanding of international security issues in terms of a world shaped by actors’ interests and identities and the dynamics of their relations. The identified ideal-types of post-imperial orders consider both material and cultural factors. The analytical elements that may link extremely different situations are the socially variable interpretations of past and present.

  15. Post-Colonial Analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Güven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness tells the journey of Marlow through the African jungle and his search for the European Kurtz who exploits the natives by imposing violence. It is mainly based upon Conrad’s own experience in Congo. Conrad learned how Europeans exploited and traded the natives for their own benefits during his own journey. The book is regarded as an attack on imperialism and criticizes immoral treatments of the European colonizers in Africa in the 19th century. Keith Booker states that “the book deals with issues such as imperialism, capitalism, race, and gender that were very much at the forefront of the turn-of-the century European mind. Conrad’s ambivalent treatment of these issues is extremely representative of the way they were treated in any number of European discourses of the time” (217. Besides, Chinua Achebe in his An “Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” comments that “Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as ‘the other world’, the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality” (338. Although Achebe puts forward that the novel is in favor of colonialism, I consider that Conrad does not intend to write it to appreciate colonialism and therefore the purpose of this study is to approach Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from post-colonial perspective by taking European imperialism and colonialism over Africa into consideration in order to clarify how Conrad has deconstructed binary oppositions of colonialism by subverting the general idea of the Europeans towards Africa in the 19th century.

  16. Post-Colonial Analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Güven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness tells the journey of Marlow through the African jungle and his search for the European Kurtz who exploits the natives by imposing violence. It is mainly based upon Conrad’s own experience in Congo. Conrad learned how Europeans exploited and traded the natives for their own benefits during his own journey. The book is regarded as an attack on imperialism and criticizes immoral treatments of the European colonizers in Africa in the 19th century. Keith Booker states that “the book deals with issues such as imperialism, capitalism, race, and gender that were very much at the forefront of the turn-of-the century European mind. Conrad’s ambivalent treatment of these issues is extremely representative of the way they were treated in any number of European discourses of the time” (217. Besides, Chinua Achebe in his An “Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” comments that “Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as ‘the other world’, the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality” (338. Although Achebe puts forward that the novel is in favor of colonialism, I consider that Conrad does not intend to write it to appreciate colonialism and therefore the purpose of this study is to approach Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from post-colonial perspective by taking European imperialism and colonialism over Africa into consideration in order to clarify how Conrad has deconstructed binary oppositions of colonialism by subverting the general idea of the Europeans towards Africa in the 19th century.

  17. Rethinking imperialist theory and US imperialism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo criticamos la teorización contemporánea sobre el imperialismo por su reducción al ámbito económico y su carencia de un análisis de clase e institucional específico dentro del estado imperialista. En el contexto de este argumento, establecemos la importancia del análisis de clase para aprovechar las dinámicas de cambio del poder imperialista procediendo a argumentar la alineación de las fuerzas de clase en el mundo de la economía, en sus interacciones con la configuración del poder imperialista, dejando la realineación del poder económico en el sistema mundial capitalista que constituye el mayor cambio para el imperialismo estadounidense en sus operaciones en América Latina. En la sección final del artículo explicamos las discontinuidades y continuidades en las relaciones imperialistas estadounidenses con Latinoamérica, y las potencialidades y contrastes de estas relaciones en el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo.Palabras clave: teoría imperialista, imperialismo estadounidense, Latinoamérica_____________________Abstract:In this paper we criticize contemporary theorizing about imperialism for its economic reductionism and a lack of class analysis and institutional specificity regarding the imperial state. In the context of this argument we establish the importance of class analysis for grasping the changing dynamics of imperial power before proceeding to argue how specific alignments of class forces in the world economy, in their interactions with existing imperial power configurations, is leading to a realignment of economic power in the world capitalist system that constitutes a major challenge for US imperialism in its Latin American operations. In the final section of the paper we point to the discontinuities and continuities in US imperial relations with Latin America, and the potentialities and constraints of these relations on economic growth and development.Keywords: Imperialism Theory, US

  18. Marking time: temporality and the imperial cast of occidental law

    OpenAIRE

    FITZPATRICK, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The gist is that imperialism – rather than being ex ceptional, aberrational, over and done with – was and remains definitive of occidental political and legal formation. But there is, for legal formation, a twist. Whilst the constituent connection to the imperial can account for a primacy accorded law (in such guises as the rule of law), the terms of that same connection import an unbounded law resistant to imperium. An instance and an origin of the pervasion of the i mperial can be ...

  19. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  20. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how an organization in Sweden, a country normally not considered among the former colonial powers, is still haunted by the specters of a western colonial history. Based on in-depth interviews as well as participant observation in the headquarters of a Swedish multinational...

  1. Is imposing risk awareness cultural imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, O H

    1998-11-01

    -class values like sociability, sharing, conviviality and tolerance can not be imposed without unwanted side effects on culture and human interaction. The moral and coercive crusade for increased risk awareness and purity in life style can too readily take on the form of cultural imperialism towards conformity. Epidemiologists and the health care movement in general have a mandate to fight disease and premature death; they have no explicit mandate to change culture. PMID:9783858

  2. Out of Place: Economic Imperialisms in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has received world-wide accolades for its Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum, Te Whariki. This paper explores the tension between economic imperialism, and a curriculum acknowledged as visionary. The foundational ideas of Te Whariki emanate from sociocultural and anti-racist pedagogies. However, its implementation is hampered…

  3. Cultural Imperialism and the Marketing of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Laurie Anne

    1995-01-01

    Using capitalist market assumptions and legal theories, the Western legal system is extending practices of cultural imperialism to include commodification and marketing of indigenous cultural resources (medicinal and spiritual knowledge, ceremonies, and artistic expressions) and genetic resources (human DNA). Recognizing that law has never been…

  4. Ironic imperialism : how Russian patriots are reclaiming postmodernism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordenbos, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes the recent appearance in Russian letters of ultra-nationalist fantasies about the restoration of Russia's imperial or totalitarian status. This new trend has its roots not only in the increasingly patriotic tone of Russian society and politics, but also in the dynamics of the lit

  5. US Imperialism, Transmodernism and Education: A Marxist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by discussing David Geoffrey Smith's analysis of the enantiomorphism inherent in the rhetoric of New American Imperialism. He goes on to examine critically Smith's defence of Enrique Dussel's advocacy of transmodernism as a way of understanding this enantiomorphism and of moving beyond what are seen as the constraints of both…

  6. 帝国主义—从帝国主义到文化帝国主义%Cultural Imperialism—From Imperialism to Cultural Imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀石

    2012-01-01

    Imperialism has gone through three phases: geographical imperialism, economical imperialism and cultural imperialism. These three forms are connected with each other. The society has entered a new era of globalization, modernization and information, followed by the transition from imperialism to cultural imperialism. Imperialism is different from cultural imperialism in four aspects. China’s attitude towards cultural imperialism is to protect own heritage openly and tolerantly.%帝国主义经历了三个阶段: 地域性帝国主义、帝国主义和文化帝国主义。这三种形式彼此联系。现代社会进入了一个新时代,全球化、现代化和信息化。伴随着帝国主义过渡到文化帝国主义。文化帝国主义在四个方面不同于帝国主义。中国对待文化帝国主义的立场应该是用开放和宽容的态度接纳并保护独有的文化遗产。

  7. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  8. COLONIZING THE MIND: PROCESS AND PRACTICE OF COLONIALISM IN GURCHARAN DAS'S LARINS SAHIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTTAM JADHAV AND TRIPTI KAREKATTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the process and practice of colonialism asreflected in Larins Sahib, Sultan Padmasee Prize winning play by Gurcharan Das. Theaction of the play is based on the real events in Punjab in 1846-47. The play is recreatedfrom the documents and letters exchanged by the principal characters. Prima-facie it is alove story of an Indian queen Rani Jindan Kaur and Henry Lawrence, an Agent of theEast India Company to the Government of Dalip Singh, the son of Maharaja RanjitSingh. Authors believe that imperialism operates in the play on psychological, political,economic, social, cultural and individual level. The play also throws light on thechanging cultural priorities in the process of colonialism. Colonial power initiallydefeats natives to show them that they are inferior and thereby incapable to rule.Secondly it lays down strict political, economic, geographical and military conditions tosustain control over them. On the cultural level, under the pretext of development andsocial reform, colonizers change cultural priorities. Once the colonizers have gained fullpower and altered the social and cultural priorities, they start to harass the colonized onindividual level. And when the colonized understand that they have been trapped in thenet, they start rebellion to overthrow the colonial rule. Thus the colonizer and thecolonized get locked in an unending struggle. However, the norms of the struggle arealways set by the colonizer. The play under assessment is a good example of the processand practice of imperialism.

  9. Earth scientists as time travelers and agents of colonial conquest: Swiss naturalists in the Dutch East Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Schär, Bernhard C.

    2015-01-01

    This case study on two Swiss naturalists illustrates some of the ways scientific exploration of planet earth was connected to imperial conquest in the Dutch East Indies at around 1900. Looking for answers for zoogeographical problems on the island of Celebes the Swiss benefited from and enabled Dutch colonial invasion of the island. The case illustrates that the Dutch empire was a site of scientific competition among a transnational community of scholars. Finally, the case illustrates how sci...

  10. Colony screening by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Matt Lewis ### Notes This is the fastest way to screen bacterial colonies. Our PCR machine takes 24 tubes so I routinely screen 22 colonies + 1 negative + 1 positive control. ### Choosing the primers Ideally you want a primer pair that can only work if the correct construct is present eg. a vector flanking primer and a gene specific primer. However, this may not allow you a positive control (essential) so you might have to use both vector flanking primers instead. If y...

  11. The colonial present

    OpenAIRE

    Bunnell, Tim

    2006-01-01

    cultural geographies 2006 13: 305-312 reviews in brief The colonial present. By Derek Gregory. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2004. 367 pp. £16.99 paper. ISBN 1577180909. The colonial present extends and deepens our understanding of contemporary geopolitics in ways that speak to the key concerns of this journal. For Derek Gregory as for Edward Said, to whom the book is dedicated, and whose intellectual legacy runs through its pages - issues of cu...

  12. ACO - Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Žumer, Viljem; Brest, Janez; Pešl, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a relatively new approach to solving NP-Hard problems. It is based on the behavior of real ants, which always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source. Such behavior can be transferred into the discrcte world, were real ants are replaced by simple agents. Such simple agents are placed into the environment where different combinatorial problems can be solved In this paper we describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesm...

  13. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  14. Resenha da Obra Dom Pedro II: Um Tradutor Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Leonor Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanelli, S; Soares, G. N.; Souza, R. de.  (Orgs.. Dom Pedro II: Um Tradutor Imperial, Tubarão: Ed. Copiart; Florianópolis: PGET/UFSC, 2013., 260p. A obra recém-publicada, intitulada Dom Pedro II: Um tradutor Imperial apresenta as análises dos manuscritos das traduções realizados pelo segundo Imperador brasileiro para o português das obras As mil e uma noites (do árabe, Hitopadesa (do sânscrito, A Divina comédia (do toscano, La Araucana (do espanhol e Il cinque maggio (do italiano. Escrito e organizado por Noêmia Guimarães Soares, Rosane de Souza e Sergio Romanelli, com participação de Romeu Porto Daros, Adriano Mafra, Ana Maria Sackl e Rosana Schmidt.

  15. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  16. Paradoxul alimentatiei fast – food: libertate si imperialism cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Lelia Voinea

    2011-01-01

    Alimentatia de tip fast-food cristalizeaza temerile privitoare la standardizarea alimentatiei si pe acelea referitoare la ascendentul culturii americane asupra lumii, fiind privita adesea ca o forma de imperialism cultural. Produsele fast-food, originare din SUA, sunt considerate de criticii acestui fenomen drept responsabile de erodarea interesului pentru traditiile culinare locale si de afectarea continuitatii acestora in spatiile in care au patruns. De aceea, corporatiile producatoare de f...

  17. PEASANT ECONOMIC CALCULATION AND THE HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY IN IMPERIAL GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Abbot

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Revisionist accounts of Imperial Germany, in stressing the progressive, rational, side to German agricultural development, have underestimated the degree to which older habits of peasant calculation continued to inform small and medium-scale enterprise. This paper surveys the lingering impact of household economic logics and imperatives—particularly those pertainingto inheritance and labor—upon peasant economic behavior and performance in rural Bavaria.

  18. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  19. Marketingová strategie hotelu Art Deco Imperial

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorská, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This Master's Thesis undertakes the procession of the Prague Art Deco Imperial Hotel situational analysis. The goal is to formulate the marketing strategy regarding the following time period. The paper starts with the analysis of the internal and external hotel environment and the characterization of the marketing mix. Part of this analysis is also establishing a competing hotel set, regarding which the mystery mail method has been used. Furthermore a review analysis of the Booking.com and Tr...

  20. Russian energy imperialism : the world maped along the gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baločkaitė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    Energy imperialism refers to the use of natural resources for political purposes, i.e. weaponization of energy. At the state level, it means specific institutional structure, as the state building is predetermined by oil led developments. At the international level, it means international nets of energy dependency, centered around the mother state possessing oil, gas and other natural resources. In a paradox way, the so called Western world (Western Europe and North America) becomes increasin...

  1. Goethe’s World Literature, Universal Particularism, and European Imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Goethe's World Literature, Universal Particularism, and European Imperialism" Dongho Cha tracks the ideology in Goethe's concept of "world literature." Early comparatists claim to stand for the universalism of this concept by understanding it to totalize all literatures across linguistic, territorial, and national boundaries and intended to go beyond European nationalism. Cha argues that Goethe's idea of world literature is not a universal category that includes all of the wor...

  2. PIXE analysis of ancient Greek copper coins minted in Epirus, Illyria, Macedonia and Thessaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Potiriadis, C.; Oeconomidou, M.; Touratsoglou, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ancient copper coins from Greek cities and confederacies such as Amphipolis, Veroia, Dion, Edessa, Magnetes, Stobi, Apollonia, Kerkyra, Pella, Philippoi, Phoenike, and the Macedonian and Thessalian Koina, were analyzed non-destructively by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after removal of the patina. The copper coins were minted during Roman Imperial times (31 B.C.-268 A.D.). Eleven elements were determined quantitatively. The correlation between the composition and the minting time is examined. The results are compared with those of a previous study for coins from the cities of Nikopolis in Epirus and Thessaloniki in Macedonia, in the same period.

  3. Behavioural sciences in law and policy : a case of scientific imperialism?

    OpenAIRE

    Malecka, Magdalena; LEPENIES, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses applications of the behavioural sciences to law and aims at contributing to the contemporary discussions on scientific imperialism. By analysing these applications we demonstrate difficulties with defining scientific imperialism in terms of relations between disciplines. The analysis advanced in the paper critically assesses existing accounts of scientific imperialism and paves the way for a more robust approach to both the definition and evaluation of instances of scienti...

  4. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  5. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  6. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  7. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  8. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  9. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  10. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  11. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Hussin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but with whom; not just that it is carried, but alongside what other commodities and baggage; not just that it moves, but that it is transformed by its passage across borders and among localities. Further, whereas much of rule of law and imperial law scholarship sees legal travel as from metropole to colony, this paper argues that ports of call are equally important for the fate of law. Aunque el proyecto de legislación parecía una parte obvia e inherente al proceso de construcción del imperio, y la creación de leyes ha sido a menudo una justificación para el imperialismo, este artículo lanza preguntas más detalladas sobre los recorridos del derecho. ¿Cómo se convierte una ley “universal” en “local”, y qué efectos conlleva? ¿Cómo han diferenciado entre las categorías “local” y “universal” los proyectos de legislación pasados y contemporáneos? Así pues, nuestro proyecto analítico no concluye simplemente que la ley tiene un recorrido, sino con quién; no simplemente que es transportada, sino con qué otras comodidades y equipaje; no sólo que se mueve, sino que se transforma en su viaje a través de límites y localizaciones. Es más, mientras que gran parte de la comunidad científica del estado del derecho y el imperio del derecho ve que las leyes van de la metrópoli a la colonia, este artículo defiende que las escalas que realiza son igual de importantes para el destino del derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  12. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  13. Dutch colonial anthropology in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Buskens, L.P.H.M.; Kommers, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to assess the results of colonial anthropology in Indonesia faced some problems, which, until recently, have not been dealt with properly. Therefore, in a newly published comprehensive history of anthropology in the Netherlands, several studies focused on the character, rather than on the substance of colonial anthropology. In the case of Dutch colonial representations of Indonesia, 'colonial anthropology' appears to be an assemblage of various disciplines that constituted a fragment...

  14. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  15. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  16. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    The prestigious red Imperial Porphyry was quarried from Mons Porphyrites in the Red Sea Mountains of Egypt. The porphyry, reserved for imperial use in Rome and Constantinople, was widely reused in Romanesque and Renaissance times, and in the Ottoman Empire. At the locality, the rocks vary from da...

  17. Menandro Rétor y el discurso imperial

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, María Jesús

    1998-01-01

    A través del estudio del basilikòs lógos de Menandro Rétor se puede observar cómo la propaganda imperial, en íntima conexión con los acontecimientos de la política exterior, elaboró la imagen de un princeps invencible conforme a la Teología de la Victoria, que permitiría el restablecimiento de la paz y la prosperidad en las regiones amenazadas del Imperio.

  18. Russia’s Monroe Doctrine: peacekeeping, peacemaking, or imperial outreach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the important changes in the Russian foreign policy doctrines that occurred in the beginnings of the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Author argues that the officially claimed devotion to peacemaking and peacekeeping are in fact manifestations of the Russian imperial outreach. The model of international relations promoted by Moscow in fact resembles the American 19th century Monroe Doctrine. Thus, the foreign policy doctrine and the potential national conflicts in the post-Soviet territory may become triggers for Russian actions aiming at restoring the Russian Empire.

  19. El Águila Imperial Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferrer Baena

    2005-01-01

    El Águila Imperial Ibérica es una de las aves más amenazadas de extinción del mundo. Actualmente, la población mundial de la especie está estimada en un poco más de 200 parejas. Todas ellas se encuentran en territorio peninsular español, en los bosques mediterráneos del cuadrante suroccidental, repartidas en una serie de subpoblaciones de pequeño tamaño (menos de 30 parejas) con un nivel de intercambio medio-bajo, estando algunas de ellas claramente aisladas. Este tipo de distribució...

  20. Intelligent predictive model of ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝晖; 胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    In order to know the ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace (ISF), and increase the output of plumbum, an intelligent modeling method based on gray theory and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed, in which the weight values in the integrated model can be adjusted automatically. An intelligent predictive model of the ventilating capacity of the ISF is established and analyzed by the method. The simulation results and industrial applications demonstrate that the predictive model is close to the real plant, the relative predictive error is 0.72%, which is 50% less than the single model, leading to a notable increase of the output of plumbum.

  1. Linguistic Imperialism and Chinese Language and Culture Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杰

    2014-01-01

    Influenced by the English imperialism theory proposed by Danish linguist Robert Philipson,the rapid development and popularity of English in the whole world have aroused debates among English hegemony.Some scholars in China are much concerned about the hegemony’s threat to Chinese language and culture and raised the concept of language and culture protection.Nevertheless,the author maintain that while caring about the adverse impact caused by English hegemony,the Chinese language and culture need to be protected,meanwhile,al-inclusive attitude shal be adopted towards English and western culture to enhance the communication and interaction between Chinese and English languages and cultures.

  2. A history of German anti-imperialism after 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Nadi, Selim; Fischer, Leandros

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the evolution of the German radical left’s relation to anti-imperialism since the end of World War II. Whereas in 1914, Rosa Luxemburg was the main figure of the SPD opposition to war – becoming the central figure of the German anti-militarist tradition – she later opposed Lenin on the question of national self-determination. According to Luxemburg, Bolshevik arguments in favor of the national aspirations of the Tsarist Empire’s oppressed min...

  3. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  4. Information use in colonial living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living. PMID:25882618

  5. La historia de la colonia Lepida-Celsa según sus documentos numismáticos: su ceca imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bellido, M. Paz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Colonia Lepida allow us to propose the years 48-87 B.C. as its foundation date. The city, previously known by the Iberian name of Celsa, was changed to Lepida probably as a punishment for its support to the Pompeyan party. On 36 B.C. the colony regains its name Celsa. In 19 B.C. Agrippa stablishes here as imperial mint for aurei and denarii that had previously been adscribed to Caesarugusta, even though this city was then not yet founded. Judging by the circulation coinage and by the heavy metrology which lasts until Augustan times. Lepida seems to have coined bronze for military needs since Pompeyan issues.Las emisiones de Colonia Lepida permiten proponer el año 48-87 a.C. como la fecha de fundación de la colonia e interpretar la abolición del nombre de la ciudad ibérica Celsa como un castigo por su adhesión al bando pompeyano. En el 36 la ciudad recupera su nombre Celsa. En el 19 a.C. Agripa debe establecer en la colonia una ceca imperial que habíamos adscrito a Caesaraugusta, ciudad que todavía no estaba fundada, y provocar con ello una gran eclosión urbanística y política de Colonia Celsa. A juzgar por la circulación monetaria y la metrología uncial que se mantendrá hasta tiempos de Augusto, la ciudad parece, ya desde sus emisiones bilingües pompeyanas, haber abastecido de numerario de bronce a las tropas.

  6. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  7. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  8. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  9. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  10. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  11. Architecture Space Paradigms in the Imperial Gardens of Qing Dynasty%清代皇家园林建筑空间范式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑刚

    2015-01-01

    By revealing the cultural foundation of architecture space in ancient China, this paper proposes the concept of architectural space paradigm which can be divided into two types: the ritual space paradigm and the literature space paradigm. It expounds the applications of spatial layout of courtyard and organization of temporal and spatial sequence in imperial garden. The paper indicates that rational use of architectural space paradigms can adapt to functional characteristics and space artistic atmosphere of imperial gardens.%通过揭示中国古代建筑空间生成的社会文化基础,提出建筑空间范式的概念及其分为礼制空间范式和文学空间范式两种范式类型。阐述了两种空间范式在皇家园林庭院布局和建筑时空序列组织方面的应用,并指出它们的合理运用是与皇家园林的特殊功能要求、空间艺术氛围相适应的。

  12. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  13. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  14. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  15. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when the colony was still being formed, and its current form can productively be described as a nostalgia for nostalgia. On a more general level, colonial nostalgia, which is often too easily dismissed...

  16. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  17. The Colonial Pygmalion: Unsettling Dinesen in Out of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlam, Shaun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the atavistic and feudal historical fantasies that structure Isak Dinesen’s 1937 memoir, Out of Africa. It analyses the imagery and symbolic logic of the memoir in conjunction with Dinesen’s letters from Africa in order to examine how Dinesen derives an idiom to speak of Africa that synthesizes the social structures of European feudalism, the discourse of the noble savage and the aesthetics of the sublime. The paper seeks to unpack the conundrum that fashions a modern, emancipated female subjectivity from the anachronistic paradigm of feudalism and within the framework of imperial domination and colonial occupation. The paper explores how Dinesen’s feudal idiom extends the genre of European pastoral to the colonial milieu and places it in the service of a larger search for a discourse of legitimacy. I argue that this is an abiding preoccupation of colonial literature. I analyze in detail the specular logic through which the narrator confronts Africa as a space that alternately panders to or challenges the psycho-political narcissism of the settler. Dinesen’s memoir reveals the myriad operations of the narcissistic structure through which the narrator strives to fill the copula of the question, “What is Africa to you or you to Africa?”Este trabajo explora las fantasías históricas de carácter atávico y feudal que vertebran las memorias de Isak Dinesen en Out of Africa (1937. Explora el imaginario y la lógica del simbolismo en las memorias junto con las cartas escritas por Dinesen desde África para analizar cómo Dinesen construyó todo un lenguaje para hablar de África que sintetiza las estructuras sociales del feudalismo europeo, el discurso del buen salvaje y la estética de lo sublime. El trabajo intenta explicar la manera rebuscada por medio de la cual se construye la subjetividad de la mujer moderna y emancipada desde el paradigma anacrónico del feudalismo y dentro del marco de la dominación imperial y

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  20. The Japanese Colonial Medicine as Seen Through the Life of Fujita Tsuguakira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyu-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was

  1. Resource assessment of the Imperial Valley. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehler, S.; Lee, T.

    1977-01-01

    A resource assessment of the Imperial Valley has been made based on the use of the gravity anomalies as indicators of total excess mass. These data indicate a potential of producing electric power of 7 to 80 thousand megawatts for 30 years. Over half of the total potential is located in the Salton Sea Anomaly and approximately half of the potential of the Salton Sea field is water covered. An attempt has been made to assess not only the heat in storage in the fluid but also recoverable from the country rock by reinjection. Based on calculations, the natural recharge rate of heat in the Valley due to sea floor spreading is too small to give the resource an indefinite life-span since the economic rates of withdrawal appear to be at least an order of magnitude greater.

  2. [Foundation and development of biochemistry at the Imperial Kharkov University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article summarizes the biochemical researches carried out at Kharkiv Imperial University from the middle of XIX century up to the cessation of its existence in 1920 as a result of transformation into the Kharkiv Institute of National Education. Scientific activity at the Chair of Medical Chemistry at Medical Department is described in details. Information on professors who led the chair and their researches are represented. Among them a great attention is spared to the Kharkiv works of such famous scientists as A. Danilevsky and V. Gulevich, who made a great contribution to the development of Russian and world biochemistry. There are also some resordes about researches of biological and physiological chemistry carried out at other chairs of Medical Department and Department of Physics and Mathematics of the Kharkiv University. In particular, the article presents the works of well-known plant physiologists and biochemists prof. V. Palladin and V. Zalessky, and the endocrinological researches led by prof. A. Reprev. PMID:10979572

  3. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  4. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  5. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language p...

  6. Colony Variation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Pryce, Todd M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearman, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is being increasingly reported as a pathogen with an outcome resembling that of S. aureus rather than coagulase-negative staphylococci. Recent local isolates exhibited colonial variation that delayed identification and interpretation of clinical significance. Until now previous descriptions have not emphasized colonial variation as an important identifying characteristic of S. lugdunensis.

  7. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  8. Centralização versus descentralização: a política monetária e fiscal do governo central Imperial e a Província de São Paulo, 1850-1889 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i3.437 Centralization versus decentralization: monetary and fiscal policy of the central Imperial government and the Province of São Paulo, 1850-1889 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i3.437 Centralización versus descentralización: la política monetaria y fiscal del gobierno central Imperial y la Provincia de São Paulo, 1850-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur José Renda Vitorino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo focaliza o fato de que no período do Segundo Reinado os monarquistas conservadores realizaram uma articulação entre a dimensão econômica (a lógica do capital mercantil e a dimensão política (a política monetária e fiscal, o que converteu a corte imperial do Rio de Janeiro no verdadeiro centro da economia colonial. Neste contexto, somente com o surgimento de novas áreas de expansão econômica na província de São Paulo, especialmente com a produção de café na região denominada “Oeste Paulista”, foram criadas as condições materiais para essa província se desligar das amarras político-financeiras construídas pelo governo central imperial e montar um projeto político contrário aos interesses da corte imperial.We shall focus on the fact that during the Second Reign period, Conservative Monarchists undertook a arbitration between the economic realm (the logic of mercantile capital and the political realm (monetary and fiscal policy, which turned the imperial court in Rio de Janeiro into the true center of the colonial economy. Thus, it was only the emergence of new areas of economic expansion in the de Province of São Paulo, especially coffee production in the region named “Oeste Paulista”, that created the material conditions for this province to come free from the political financial shackles set by the central imperial government, and seek a political project contrary to the interests of the imperial court.En este estudio, enfocaremos que durante el período del II Reinado, los Monárquicos Conservadores realizaron una articulación entre la dimensión económica (la lógica del capital mercantil y la dimensión política (la política monetaria y fiscal, convirtiendo a la Corte imperial de Río de Janeiro en el verdadero centro de la economía colonial. Así, fue sólo con el surgimiento de nuevas áreas de expansión económica en la Provincia de San Pablo, en especial con la producción de caf

  9. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  10. The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Felicitas

    2016-01-01

    “The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project: Second Millennium BCE” was intended and funded as a three-year project (2013-2016) to explore the world of Ancient Egyptian demons in the 2nd millennium BC. It intends to create a classification and ontology of benevolent and malevolent demons. Whereas ancient Egyptians did not use a specific term denoting “demons”, liminal beings known from various other cultures such as δαίμονες, ghosts, angels, Mischwesen, genies, etc., were nevertheless described ...

  11. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  12. Ann Laura Stoler, La Chair de l’empire. Savoirs intimes et pouvoirs raciaux en régime colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Goerg, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Sous l’impulsion de l’Institut Émilie du Chatelet, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power : Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2002) vient d’être traduit en français et publié par La Découverte, premier ouvrage de cette auteure prolifique et novatrice à être ainsi offert aux lecteurs francophones. Comment recevoir cette belle traduction une décennie après son édition originale, alors même qu’Ann Stoler continue d‘avancer d’un bon pas, creusant le mê...

  13. For an empire of ‘all types of climate': meteorology as an imperial science

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between meteorology, British imperialism and evolving forms of scientific internationalism in the twentieth century. Focussing on a series of imperial meteorology conferences begun in 1919, it is shown how the British Empire was positioned in the interwar period as a corrective to skewed forms of scientific internationalism which were emerging in meteorology, with standards and data formats biased towards Northern climates. Possessed of an empire of ‘all...

  14. The Principle of Liberal Imperialism: Human Rights and Human Freedom in the Age of Evangelical Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Noonan

    2006-01-01

    The paper argues that the principle that underlies liberal imperialism is conceptually incoherent. The Principle of Liberal Imperialism claims that liberal nations have a duty to intervene in non-liberal nations in response to persistent human rights violations for the sake of creating the conditions in which the agency of the population can be realized. The legitimacy of such interventions, however, is rooted in a presupposition that denies the very agency of the oppressed in whose name the ...

  15. Review - China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Entenmann

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Yingcong Dai. 2009. The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. xiv+368. Maps, notes, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-2959-8951-8 (hardcover, 80USD), 978-0-2959-8952-5 (paperback, 30USD). and Xiuyu Wang. 2011. China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. xv+291. Notes, tables, glo...

  16. The Effects of Historical Earthquakes on Cyzicus Ancient City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatepe, F.; Demirel, S.; Vardar, D.

    2012-04-01

    Cyzicus is one of the most important ancient settlement of Mysia region on Marmara coasts in Turkey. It's located on Belkis Tombolo which connects Kapıdağ (Arktonnesos) Peninsula to the shore. It was established by the King Cyzicus Kyzikos in B.C. 749 as a Miletos colony during the colonization movements of Ions. The main reason to determine the establishment place of Cyzicus was; a strong defense system formed by the natural conditions and the walls surrounding the city. In addition, from the documents, 3 natural harbor (one of them inner harbor) and one artificial canal in the ancient city has been designated. Because of these features, the ancient city had been developed by maritime trade and fisheries. And also, city's economy had grown due to its fertile soil. Works in marble that came from Marmara Island, were being effective in the artistic activities in the city. Due to the capital city of East Roman Empire was being Constantine (AD 324), the chance of Cyzicus was affected badly. Since its location on the south branch of the North Anatolian Fault zone in the Marmara Sea, ancient city was being ruined by a series of earthquakes. There were fifteen (15) destructive earthquakes occurred between AD 29 - 1887. For example the region had become a swamp because of AD 740 earthquake. At that time, despite metropolitan center pass through to Erdek, the city was not fully abandoned. In the end, the earthquake of 1064 had completely demolished Cyzicus. At the present day, this ancient city has come to the point to be lost in swamps, brushes and shrubs.

  17. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  18. Victorián de villava, public prosecutor of Charcas: Reform of Spain and new Imperial morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. PORTILLO VALDÉS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several proposals for the reform and political reorganization of the Spanish monarchy stemmed from the Hispanic Enlightenment at the end of the 18th century. The figure of Victorián de Villava, fiscal of Charcas between 1791 and his death in 1802, is especially relevant to study the birth of a way of thinking amongst Spanish thinkers of the Enlightenment which tried to make modernity and catholic culture compatible. Through his numerous writings, Villava promoted a new imperial ethos in which commercial colonization was established as the central aspect of colonial government, in opposition therefore to pure military conquest. His Apuntes para una reforma de Nueva España (1797 introduced the reform of American government into a comprehensive project with the purpose of reforming the monarchy, and in his Discurso sobre la mita del Potosí (1793, Villava hinted at the argument which demanded the reconsideration of the model of Hispanic civilization, and which years later would be redefined at the Cadiz Cortes to promote the abolition of the mita.

  19. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  20. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  1. How Slavery Came and How It Developed in the British Mainland Colonies and in the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Richard P.

    The story of slavery is told beginning with its earliest roots in ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Ethiopa, and western Africa. The slave trade in the British colonies is contrasted with that of Latin America, but it is concluded that, for the slave, destination mattered little in his destiny. (The author notes that this edition is in first draft…

  2. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  3. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  4. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  5. Letter to the editor: Genetics and the archaeology of ancient Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Aaron J; King, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    This letter is a call for DNA testing on ancient skeletal materials from the southern Levant to begin a database of genetic information of the inhabitants of this crossroads region. In this region, during the Iron I period traditionally dated to circa 1200-1000 BCE, archaeologists and biblical historians view the earliest presence of a group that called itself Israel. They lived in villages in the varied hill countries of the region, contemporary with urban settlements in the coastal plains, inland valleys, and central hill country attributed to varied indigenous groups collectively called Canaanite. The remnants of Egyptian imperial presence in the region lasted until around 1150 BCE, postdating the arrival of an immigrant group from the Aegean called the Philistines circa 1175 BCE. The period that follows in the southern Levant is marked by the development of territorial states throughout the region, circa 1000-800 BCE. These patrimonial kingdoms, including the United Kingdom of Israel and the divided kingdoms of northern Israel and Judah, coalesced varied peoples under central leadership and newly founded administrative and religious bureaucracies. Ancient DNA testing will give us a further refined understanding of the individuals who peopled the region of the southern Levant throughout its varied archaeological and historic periods and provide scientific data that will support, refute, or nuance our sociohistoric reconstruction of ancient group identities. These social identities may or may not map onto genetic data, but without sampling of ancient DNA we may never know. A database of ancient DNA will also allow for comparisons with modern DNA samples collected throughout the greater region and the Mediterranean littoral, giving a more robust understanding of the long historical trajectories of regional human genetics and the genetics of varied ancestral groups of today's Jewish populations and other cultural groups in the modern Middle East and Mediterranean

  6. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  7. Gold seal and Kyushu dynasty: Unsolved mysteries of ancient Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    1992-05-01

    A central dogma of the Japanese history is that, throughout the history, there was absolutely no other dynasty or kingdom than the dynasty of the Imperial House of Japan (Yamato dynasty) which continues to exist since some 1500˜2000 years ago. Although much inconsistency has been noted between this dogma and accumulated records of Chinese historical documents on ancient Japan, almost all the Japanese historians have not taken such inconsistency seriously and even attributed it to mistakes or confusion of the Chinese historians who wrote the documents. But, one historian, Takehiko Furuta, who fully believes in the Chinese records, analyzed them recently in a very logical and even scientific manner and reached a surprising conclusion that there was a dynasty in northern Kyushu (Kyushu dynasty) and it was always this dynasty that appeared in the Chinese old records until 648 A.D., whereas the Yamato dynasty which started as a branch of the Kyushu dynasty finally overcame the Kyushu dynasty around 700 A.D. This new theory seems to be supported by many archaeological discoveries in and around the Fukuoka area, one of the most notable examples of which is the Gold Seal that appears in the Symposium poster. These remind us of the famous story that Heinrich Scliemann who believed in Homer's The Iliad as real finally succeeded in excavating the ruins of Troy.

  8. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  9. New perspectives for satellite-based archaeological research in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasaponara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of satellite QuickBird images to find traces of past human activity in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey. This is one of the most important archaeological sites in Turkey, and in 1988 it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Although over the years the archaeological site of Hierapolis has been excavated, restored and well documented, up to now the territory around the ancient urban area is still largely unknown. The current research project, still in progress, aims to search the area neighbouring Hierapolis believed to have been under the control of the city for a long time and, therefore, expected to be very rich in archaeological evidence. In order to investigate a large area around the ancient Hierapolis and discover potential archaeological remains, QuickBird images were adopted.

    Results from satellite-based analysis allowed us to find several unknown rural settlements dating back to early Imperial Roman and the Byzantine age. Two significant test sites were focused on in this paper in order to characterize the different spectral responses observed for different types of archaeological features (shadow and soil marks. Principal Component Analysis and spectral indices were computed to enhance archaeological marks and make identification easier. The capability of the QuickBird data set (panchromatic, multispectral channel, PCA and spectral indices in searching for archaeological marks was assessed in a quantitative way by using a specific indicator.

  10. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  11. Barbara Fuchs & Emily Weissbourd (eds., Representing Imperial Rivalry in the Early Modern Mediterranean (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Tagliaferri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Barbara Fuchs, Emily Weissbourd (eds., Representing Imperial Rivalry in the Early Modern Mediterranean, (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 215, pp. 296, ISBN 9781442619272.

  12. Jejak-jejak Imperial dalam Beragam Nasionalisme Asia Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010, xiii + 248 pages.Reid has long been widely known as a senior historian with a specialty in the history of Aceh, Sumatra, and the Indonesian revolution. Recently, he has begun to write about the history of Southeast Asia. Inspired by French historian Fernand Braudel, this work presents what Reid calls a “total history” of this region. In this approach wars, royal dynasties, and foreign traders are not prioritized over the diets, health, and pastimes of ordinary people. Through this work, Reid has begun to strengthen the study of Southeast Asia. As one of the pioneers and masters of the study of Asia and the Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, Reid is uniquely positioned to offer new insights about this region’s history. In this book, Reid offers a new understanding of the historical data collected on the link between ethnic identity, nationalism, and history of Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.516

  13. El Águila Imperial Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrer Baena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Á guila Imperial Ibérica es una de las aves más amenazadas de extinción del mundo. Actualmente, la población mundial de la especie está estimada en un poco más de 200 parejas. Todas ellas se encuentran en territorio peninsular español, en los bosques mediterráneos del cuadrante suroccidental, repartidas en una serie de subpoblaciones de pequeño tamaño (menos de 30 parejas con un nivel de intercambio medio‐bajo, estando algunas de ellas claramente aisladas. Este tipo de distribución es típicamente inestable y paso previo habitual de los procesos de extinción. Entre las principales amenazas a la especie se encuentran la disminución de las poblaciones de conejo, que constituye su principal presa, y la mortalidad por electrocución en tendidos eléctricos.

  14. Esso Imperial Oil: 1996 annual report to shareholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil Limited is Canada's largest producer of crude oil and a major producer of natural gas. It is also the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products sold mostly under the Esso brand. It is a major producer of petrochemicals. This report presents a review of operations with a special report on the company's plans for developing its oil sands holdings at Cold Lake. Financial statistics and common share information show record earnings of $786 million, up from $514 million in 1995 and $359 million in 1994. Earnings per share rose for the fifth consecutive year to $4.47 per share, up 65 per cent over the previous year. Total return to shareholders from share-price appreciation and dividends exceeded 34 per cent in 1996, raising total returns over the past five years to 22 per cent a year. During 1996 the company bought back 30 million shares for $1.8 billion and reduced its debts by $350 million.tabs., figs

  15. 南宁古城园林与城池建设的关系%The Relationship of Ancient Gardens and Ancient Nanning City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷云黎

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese classical gardens, the ancient public gardens and government office yard are lower than the imperial gardens, temple gardens and private gardens in popularity. But in some particular ancient cities, their functions are obviously higher than other gardens. In ancient Nanning city construction, the ancient public gardens and government office yard occupies an important position, and are the main component of urban construction, endowed with some irreplaceable functions. Analyzing the generality and particularity of their relationship can help the construction of current urban gardens and landscapes become full of local characteristics, and add historical culture connotation to urban landscape, which is of extensive practical significance.%在中国古典园林中,公共园林与衙署园林在知名度上要低于皇家园林和私家宅园,但是在一些特定的古代城市中,它的作用要明显高于其他园林在南宁的古代城市建设中,公共园林与衙署园林占据重要地位,是城市建设的主要组成部分,被赋予了一些不可替代的功能.分析其关系的通用性与特殊性,对于深入认知中国园林传统,建设有地方特色的当前城市园林最观,增加城市园林景观的历史文化内涵具有广泛的现实意义.

  16. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  17. Geodetic constraints on frictional properties and earthquake hazard in the Imperial Valley, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric O.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    We analyze a suite of geodetic observations across the Imperial Fault in southern California that span all parts of the earthquake cycle. Coseismic and postseismic surface slips due to the 1979 M 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake were recorded with trilateration and alignment surveys by Harsh (1982) and Crook et al. (1982), and interseismic deformation is measured using a combination of multiple interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)-viewing geometries and continuous and survey-mode GPS. In particular, we combine more than 100 survey-mode GPS velocities with InSAR data from Envisat descending tracks 84 and 356 and ascending tracks 77 and 306 (149 total acquisitions), processed using a persistent scatterers method. The result is a dense map of interseismic velocities across the Imperial Fault and surrounding areas that allows us to evaluate the rate of interseismic loading and along-strike variations in surface creep. We compare available geodetic data to models of the earthquake cycle with rate- and state-dependent friction and find that a complete record of the earthquake cycle is required to constrain key fault properties including the rate-dependence parameter (a - b) as a function of depth, the extent of shallow creep, and the recurrence interval of large events. We find that the data are inconsistent with a high (>30 mm/yr) slip rate on the Imperial Fault and investigate the possibility that an extension of the San Jacinto-Superstition Hills Fault system through the town of El Centro may accommodate a significant portion of the slip previously attributed to the Imperial Fault. Models including this additional fault are in better agreement with the available observations, suggesting that the long-term slip rate of the Imperial Fault is lower than previously suggested and that there may be a significant unmapped hazard in the western Imperial Valley.

  18. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  19. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity. PMID:19069005

  20. Public health assessment for Stoker Company, Imperial, Imperial County, California, Region 9. Cerclis No. CAD066635442. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    Stoker Company is a pesticide dealer and crop dusting loading facility located in the County of Imperial, approximately 25 miles from the Mexican border. The 26-acre site is barren with no vegetation. Operations at the facility, beginning in 1966, have caused the surface soil over much of the site to be contaminated with pesticides. Some of the contaminated surface soil has blown off-site and impacted nearby surface soil and surface water. This preliminary public health assessment evaluated the potential for adverse health effects to occur in five populations identified as being impacted by contaminants. The impacted populations include: (1) on-site workers; (2) the family formerly living on the neighboring D K property; (3) the D K Duck Hunting Club members; (4) individuals using untreated surface water for drinking and/or other domestic purposes; and (5) individuals living or working near crop dusting operations. Based on this assessment, Stoker Company is considered to pose a public health hazard because long-term exposure to site-related contaminants may cause adverse health effects.

  1. Thinking by figures. An outline of mixed semiotics in ancient Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Chaparro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available From the standpoint of the regime of signs, proposed by Deleuze and Guattart. semiotics is understood as general pragmatics where the set of the systems of signs is articulated. From that perspective. this paper attempts to discus show the heart sacrifice and the anthropophagic pulsion, identified in the great pre-Hispanic cultures of Central America. can be projected as a plane of contents in a mixed semiotics to imperial scale. A number of scholars and academics have tried to postulate, from there, a fundamental symbolic structure of the Maya and Aztec cultures. We only wish to describe certain ritual-statements. where there is a coincidence between Sahagún's ethnographictexts and the writings left by the Aztecs. in arder to understand the role of what Lyotard calls 'figural', for others the pre-propositional, in the thought of ancient Mexicans.

  2. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  3. Genetic evidence for a recent divergence and subsequent gene flow between Spanish and Eastern imperial eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Cruz Begoña

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dating of population divergence is critical in understanding speciation and in evaluating the evolutionary significance of genetic lineages, upon which identification of conservation and management units should be based. In this study we used a multilocus approach and the Isolation-Migration model based on coalescence theory to estimate the time of divergence of the Spanish and Eastern imperial eagle sister species. This model enables estimation of population sizes at split, and inference of gene flow after divergence. Results Our results indicate that divergence may have occurred during the Holocene or the late Pleistocene, much more recently than previously suspected. They also suggest a large population reduction at split, with an estimated effective population size several times smaller for the western population than for the eastern population. Asymmetrical gene flow after divergence, from the Eastern imperial eagle to the Spanish imperial eagle, was detected for the nuclear genome but not the mitochondrial genome. Male-mediated gene flow after divergence may explain this result, and the previously reported lower mitochondrial diversity but similar nuclear diversity in Spanish imperial eagles compared to the Eastern species. Conclusion Spanish and Eastern imperial eagles split from a common ancestor much more recently than previously thought, and asymmetrical gene flow occurred after divergence. Revision of the phylogenetic proximity of both species is warranted, with implications for conservation.

  4. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Jay D. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, ...

  5. Ant Colony Optimization: A Review and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Sundus Shaukat; Riaz Ahmed Bhatti; Khalid Ibrahim Qureshi; Shafqat Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Many optmization algorithms are developed over period of time, among these most famous and widely used is Ant Colony systems (ACA). Ant Colony Systems (ACS) are the collection of different ant colony optimization algorithms. Different algorithms are used for solve the Travelling salesmen Problem (TCP) but ant colony algorithm is more preferred to solve the travelling salesmen problem. In ant colony best solution is found with the help of cooperating agents called ants. Ants cooperate with eac...

  6. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  7. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  8. Neoliberalismo: neo-imperialismo Neoliberalism: neo-imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Duménil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O neoliberalismo é uma nova fase do capitalismo, que se impôs a partir do começo dos anos 1980. Considerando seus traços mais gerais nos países do Centro, como nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, destacam-se três características: uma dinâmica mais favorável da mudança tecnológica e da rentabilidade, a criação de rendas a favor das classes mais abastadas, e a redução da taxa de acumulação. O imperialismo na era neoliberal pode se caracterizar pela hegemonia dos Estados Unidos, que drenam fluxos enormes de renda do resto do mundo. Mas esse domínio é solapado pelos desequilíbrios externos crescentes do país, a expressão de uma onda extraordinária de consumo por parte das famílias.Neoliberalism is a new phase of capitalism which was asserted at the beginning of the 1980s. Considering its more general features as in the United States and Europe, it can be characterized by: a more favorable dynamic of technical change and profitability, the creation of income flows to the benefit of the most accommodated classes of the population, and diminished rates of accumulation. A central feature of imperialism in the neoliberal era is U.S. hegemony, a country which is draining huge flows of income from the rest of the world. This domination is, however, undermined by increasing external disequilibria, the expression of an extraordinary wave of consumption from households.

  9. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  10. The colonial identity of wine: the "Leakey Affair" and the Franco-Algerian order of things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the 1905 crisis of French and Algerian viticulture that came to be known as the "Leakey Affair." It explains why metropolitan French observers reacted so strongly to Leakey's contract and subsequent advertising of Algerian wine on the British market, first from a socio-economic perspective, and second by reference to the importance of wine in French culture and identity. The final section of the article explains the response of Algeria's colonists to their metropolitan critics. Throughout, wine is used as a prism through which to explore the nature of identity in modern France and the complex colonial relationship in which the wine industry played such a major role. The Leakey Affair revealed the fragility of colonial cultural formations and the importance of wine as a conduit of ideas, and a symbol for fierce wrangling over identity, belonging, and the nature of empire. What was at stake was no less than the intellectual ownership of a mainstay of France's cultural mythology -- wine -- and the relationship between an imperial power and its colonial world. PMID:20063499

  11. YAKUTSKAYA OBLAST IN ALL-IMPERIAL SPACE (BASING ON GOVERNORS’ ALL-NATIONAL REPORTS (LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena I. Arkhipova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers governors’ reports in terms of imperial narrative presence. The author attempts to show Yakutskaya Oblast Governors V.N. Skrypitsyn and I.I. Kraft’s attitude towards non-Russian inhabitants, their views of region further development and its place in all-Imperial space.

  12. Negotiating creation in imperial times (Rm 8:18−30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Appreciation for the literary qualities and structural function of Romans 8:18−30 abounds. Recently, some attention has also been given to ostensible anti-imperial sentiments in the letter that Paul directed to a Jesus-follower community in the heart of the Roman Empire. Tensions and ambiguities inherent in this passage become more pointed when it is read with attention to the interplay between creation, conflict and empire. The focus of this contribution is on how creation is portrayed and negotiated in Romans 8:18−30, given its underlying Jewish setting which ought to be filled out by the imperial-infused environment. Acknowledging an anti-imperial thrust in Romans 8:18−30 but reading from a postcolonial perspective offers the advantage of accounting specifically for ambivalence typical of conflict situations characterised by unequal power relations, all of which are appropriate and vital for the interpretation of this passage.

  13. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  15. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  16. 编年史视角下的日本在华鸦片贸易%"Imperial Japanese"Drug Trafficking in China:Historiographic Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    若林正(加拿大); 王山峰(译)

    2014-01-01

    二战期间日本在华的毒品走私,很大程度上是通过日本在华的协作者,即汉奸政权开展的,这也是绝大多数日本学者在战后讨论此问题时一个大的语境,这一研究路径看起来似乎有些迂回复杂。为什么不直接研究鸦片贸易呢?有三个方面的因素证明迂回研究的必要性。第一,并非所有的“日本人”都是种族上的日本人,日本殖民下的朝鲜人和台湾人也充当了日本在华鸦片走私的工具。第二,这一问题在战后政治正确的框架下未获得研究许可并被严重忽略了。第三,正因为有上述意识形态方面的强制,历史学者对于日本侵华过程中殖民地扮演的角色理解被扭曲了。因而,很有必要先概要性地介绍一下1895年至1945年间日本在亚洲大陆的毒品活动,随后再说明为什么战后的日本学者将中国和朝鲜描述为1931年至1945年这“十五年战争”的受害者。换句话说,希望日本在华鸦片走私这一研究能够开启另一扇历史研究的大门。%This historiographic study places "imperial Japanese"opium operations -largely run through Chi-nese collaborator regimes-in the context of postwar Japanese scholarly debates on World War Two in Asia .This approach may seem circuitous and convoluted .Why not just describe the opium operations directly .Three factors necessitate this tactical detour .First, not all "imperial Japanese"were ethnic Japanese;colonial peoples such as Koreans and Taiwanese also plied the drug trade in their capacity as Japanese imperial subjects .Second , this topic suffers acute neglect in Japan today owing to a form of postwar political correctness that warrants as much attention as the wartime opium operations themselves .Third, such ideological constraints on historical scholarship warp our understanding of Japanese aggression in China -including the role played by colonial subjects .Below, I briefly out-line the

  17. "Rule Britannia" and the New American Empire: A Marxist Analysis of the Teaching of Imperialism, Actual and Potential, in the British School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by arguing that in order to understand imperialism it is necessary to have a conceptual awareness of the concepts of racism and racialisation. He then considers how the British Empire impacted on schools during the imperial era. He goes on to examine the nature of the New Imperialism. Calls are currently being made by notable…

  18. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  19. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  20. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  1. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  2. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  3. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

  4. Geotechnical environmental aspects of geothermal power generation at Herber, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source was assessed. Here, the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California were investigated. Geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence are discussed in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. Estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds, are discussed.

  5. Description of Imperial Valley, California for the assessment of impacts of geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.; Ermak, D.

    1976-08-26

    Impending geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California has raised concern over the possible impacts of such development. As an initial step in impact assessment of geothermal projects, relevant features of the valley's physical and human environments are described. Particular attention is placed on features that may either influence development or be affected by it. Major areas of consideration include the valley's physical resources (i.e., land, air, water, and biological resources), economic, fiscal, and social characteristics of Imperial County, and geothermal laws.

  6. COZINHEIRO IMPERIAL - Ou a nova arte do cozimento e do copeiro em todos os seus ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pereira de Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Cozinheiro Imperial Ou Nova Arte Do Cozinheiro E Do Copeiro Em Todos Os Seus Ramos é uma referencia tanto na culinária como na bibliografia brasileira, por tratar-se do primeiro livro de receitas editado no Brasil. De autor anônimo, foi reeditado em 1996 pela Best Seller. A Universidade de São Paulo digitalizou os originais, que hoje são parte de sua Coleção Brasiliana. Pela importância cultural do material, ele é destacado nesta edição de RRV. Palavras chave: Gastronomia. Cultura Brasileira. Cozinheiro Imperial

  7. De la res publica al Imperium: Poder y subjetividad en la Roma Imperial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Barrassús Herrero

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo pretende caracterizar la forma de poder imperial romano y las formas de subjetividad que aparecen tras la irrupción de un poder absoluto e irresistible propio del Principado. Trataremos de identificar los elementos de continuidad y discontinuidad que se dan en el ámbito del pensamiento político y de la subjetividad en el período republicano así como en el imperial. Los textos claves para comprender tal paso se encuentran tanto en los esc...

  8. Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Frei, Robert; Karup-Møller, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    contents, are consistent with crust contamination. Imperial Porphyry erupted during the second Great Oxygenation Event of the Earth atmosphere. Mineralogical observations as well as rock colour and texture, particularly the pleochroic epidote – piemontite, should allow archaeologists to reliably assign.......88 Ga and εNd from +5.1 to +5.7 were inferred. The magmas which led to formation of the Imperial Porphyry appear to be derived from a subduction-modified depleted mantle and underwent only minor contamination by older continental crust. Trace-element features, notably the high Th, U, K, Rb and Cs...

  9. Amizade e política em Roma: o patronato na época imperial Friendship and politics in Rome: patronage during the imperial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes Biazotto Venturini

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo buscou compreender as relações de poder em Roma dando ênfase ao entendimento do patronato na época imperial, particularmente o século I d.C. Este estudo foi feito utilizando-se os pressupostos já conhecidos e apresentados pela historiografia contemporânea, no que diz respeito às instituições políticas romanas, o que permitiu elucidar a íntima ligação entre amizade e política no âmbito das relações do patronato.Power relationship in Imperial Rome with special emphasis on the understanding of the patronage system over the first century A.D. is here discussed. The parameters of Roman political institutions available in contemporary historiography allowed to clarify the close connection between friendship and politics within the patronage system.

  10. Fractal Growth of Bacterial Colonies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Fridrich, Miroslav; Burkhard, M.

    London : Chapman&Hall, 1995 - (Novak, M.M.), s. 179-191 ISBN 0-412-71020-X. [Fractal Reviews in the Natural and Applied Sciences. Marseille (FI), 07.02.1995-10.02.1995] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fractal * bacteria l colony * growth pattern Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  12. Entre o altar e o trono: iniciativas de escolarização na capital imperial - Between the altar and throne: initiatives of schooling in imperial capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Morais Limeira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ao reconhecer que a produção da forma escolar moderna se efetivou por intermediações de forças distintas, investigamos iniciativas particulares de educação promovidas pela Igreja Católica. A partir das propagandas do Almanak Laemmert e de diversas informações do jornal O Apóstolo, foi possível localizar vestígios acerca da estrutura física, planos de estudos e valores propostos por alguns colégios particulares na Corte Imperial. O recorte cronológico abrange as décadas de 1870 e 1880, que compreendem a época da reforma Leôncio de Carvalho (1879. Também procuramos refletir acerca das relações estabelecidas entre o Estado Imperial e a Igreja Católica, e observar imbricações entre poderes públicos e privados, fenômeno que ultrapassa a sociedade oitocentista.Palavras-chave: ensino primário, colégios religiosos, Corte Imperial. BETWEEN THE ALTAR AND THRONE: INITIATIVES OF SCHOOLING IN IMPERIAL CAPITALAbstractRecognizing that adherence to the way modern school was made by different forces, we investigate private education initiatives promoted by the Catholic Church in the Imperial Court. From the advertisements that circulated Almanak Laemmert and O Apóstolo the newspaper was unable to locate information about the physical structure, curricula and amounts charged for those colleges. Establishing the chronological cut the 1870s and 1880s, which comprise the time of Reformation Leôncio de Carvalho (1879, we also reflect on the relationships established between the Imperial State and the Catholic Church an expression of the imbrications of public and private, a brandsociety in the nineteenth century.Key-words: primary education, religious colleges, the Imperial Court. ENTRE EL ALTAR Y EL TRONO: INICIATIVAS INSTRUCCIÓN EN IMPERIAL CAPITALResumenReconociendo que la construcción de forma de la escuela moderna fue dado por el área de fuerzas distintas, investigar iniciativas privadas de educación promovidos por la Iglesia

  13. Demystifying The Imperial Travel Gaze And Synchronizing The Borders: A Study of Vikram Seth’s From Heaven Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronami Bhattacharyya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From Heaven Lake is a travelogue which steers lucid of all Lonely Planet Guides and the habitual travel routes and Vikram Seth manages to sketch a picture of China, Tibet, and Nepal from a hungry (quite literally at times! but open to the “others” student traveler’s perspective. Travel writing is prevalently believed to be a means of spanning disproportionate worlds, of bridging gaps, of making sense of differences in culture. It is assumed that travel writing is a kind of reporting from a subaltern/mystifying culture, a culture which belongs to “them,” to one, which is modern and rational, and thus belongs to “us.” From Heaven Lake, which won the Thomas Cook award, is a class apart. This travelogue does not fall into the category of “rescue and recovery mission.” Vikram Seth in From Heaven Lake recognizes that modern day travelers must know how best to negotiate borders that are often the result of invisible lines of geopolitical force. Most of the Imperial travel writers furnished details about the legends and myths of a place they visited, instead of bringing into life the people who inhabited those places. Seth does exactly opposite of what his colonial counterparts did. The details he furnishes are related to the people he encounters. It’s not places and monuments which hold the utmost importance for Seth. But by and large, people are the real hero for him. By and large, the world Seth travels through is a homosocial one. There is bonhomie, there is solidarity, and there is kindness. Borders are almost indiscernible.

  14. El salvaje y la retórica colonial en El Orinoco ilustrado (1741) de José Gumilla S. J.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Del Cairo; Esteban Rozo Pabón

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo constituye una aproximación hermenéutica a la obra El Orinoco ilustrado, escrita por el jesuita José Gumilla y publicada por primera vez en 1741. Los autores exploran los fundamentos de la retórica colonial que se advierte en el texto a través de la identificación de las instancias retóricas a las que recurre su autor para escribir la historia natural del Orinoco. Se resalta la funcionalidad geopolítica e imperial de las misiones en los territorios de fr...

  15. A Friction of Cultural Values and Characteristics of Imperial Mosque in Ternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad tayeb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many religious culture that should be preserved one of  which is the imperial mosque. Most of the imperial mosque has its own characteristics in carrying out activities both religious and cultural. Sultanate of Ternate is the largest sultanates in eastern Indonesia which would give other peculiarities that need to be raised as a typical Indonesian culture. The purpose of this study is to identify the type of tradition in doing at the mosque sultanate by people of Ternate and changes in cultural values of the people of Ternate in the imperial mosque. In this study found the phenomenon characteristic changes in cultural values by linking changes in the physical aspect and non-physical. To determine the effect of these factors, the method used is the method of observation of physical traces. This method is expected to be able to explain the effect of the change occurred. Based on the results of the study indicate compliance is still customary rules of religious traditions in the imperial mosque although some traditions that formerly taboo has been done, the progress of the times, increase knowledge, and make the implementation of the reform and renewal of cultural values carried by the community for various reasons theTernate.

  16. Review - China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Entenmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yingcong Dai. 2009. The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. xiv+368. Maps, notes, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-2959-8951-8 (hardcover, 80USD, 978-0-2959-8952-5 (paperback, 30USD. and Xiuyu Wang. 2011. China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. xv+291. Notes, tables, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-7391-6809-7 (hardcover, 80USD 978-0-7391-6810-3 (ebook, 79.99USD. Until recently, historians have not paid much attention to Qing China's Tibetan frontier, but two excellent new studies address this neglect. One is Yingcong Dai's The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, which examines the Qing conquest of the Khams region up to the end of the eighteenth century and its effect on Sichuan. The other is China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands by Xiuyu Wang, in which he describes Qing efforts to impose direct administration on the Khams region in the last years of the dynasty. The Qing annexation of eastern Khams was part of the regime's attempt to secure military control of Tibet and deny it to the Zunghar Mongols. As Dai shows, Tibet's strategic importance to the Qing directly shaped Sichuan's development. Although Sichuan was long an integral part of China, its demographic collapse during the ...

  17. Caribbean Musical Social Commentary and the Exportation/Importation Perspective of Communication and Cultural Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Humphrey A.

    Cultural imperialism is seen not as a static phenomenon but as a dynamic process in which the more developed countries (the dominating "centers" of the world system) influence the less developed countries (the dominated "periphery" of the system). In this process the more developed countries produce artifacts and content that reflect their culture…

  18. "The Free Flow of News" and "Western Communication Imperialism": Divergent Views on Ethics in International Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C.

    A growing international controversy exists between the West on one hand and the Third World, Marxist states, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the other focusing on the concepts of "free flow of information" and "Western communication imperialism," and on ethical issues relating to these…

  19. Blue Indians: Teaching the Political Geography of Imperialism with Fictional Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Fictional film provides an opportunity to breathe life into the application of academic concepts by capturing the attention and imagination of students. Using the 2009 hit movie "Avatar", it is argued that popular fiction has the potential to help students grasp the dynamics of imperial/indigenous relationships in part because it removes…

  20. Jane Austen and Imperialism--A Rereading of "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…

  1. Linguistic Globalization and the Call Center Industry: Imperialism, Hegemony or Cosmopolitanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Selma K.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism, linguistic hegemony and linguistic cosmopolitanism are broad and contrasting conceptualizations of linguistic globalization that are frequently, if implicitly, invoked in the literature, both academic and non-academic, on language practices and perceptions in the call center industry. I begin with outlining each of these…

  2. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  3. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  4. Recruitment Strategies and Colony Size in Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

    2010-01-01

    Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explana...

  5. The volcanic aggregate of ancient Roman mortars from the Capitoline Hill: Petrographic criteria for identification of Rome's "pozzolans" and historical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Danti, Alberto; Gaeta, Mario

    2015-12-01

    We present a petrographic study of the pyroclastic-flow deposits used to produce mortar aggregates (Pozzolane Rosse, Pozzolane Nere, and Pozzolanelle), as well as dimension stones (Tufo del Palatino and Tufo Lionato) in ancient Roman times, in which we describe the characteristic textures and mineralogic assemblages of their juvenile fraction. This petrographic dataset is employed to compare and classify, through observation in thin section at the optical microscope, and complementary trace-element analyses, as well as EMP analyses on matrix glass on archaeological and bulk natural samples, the composition of the volcanic aggregate of 11 samples of ancient Roman mortars collected from several archaeological structures excavated on the Capitoline Hill. By means of the combined petrographic and geochemical identification criteria illustrated in this work, we recognize two main types of mortar aggregates characteristic of the Republican and Imperial ages, respectively, and a third type pertaining to the mediaeval epoch.

  6. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  7. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  8. Ancient Technology in Contemporary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Bruce A.

    1982-01-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Anima...

  9. Ant colony optimization in continuous problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; LIU Kang; LI Kaishi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space,an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.

  10. [The incredible story about the cesarean section from ancient times till nowadays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Kedar, Reuven; Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Lavie, Ofer

    2014-08-01

    During its evolution the cesarean section has meant different things to different people. The indications for it have changed throughout the course of history. From the initial purpose to retrieve an infant from a dead or dying mother in order to bury the child separately from his mother, to contemporary indications. This article strives to follow the roots of this common procedure--starting from the descriptions in the ancient Greek mythology, through the imperial Roman law, aspects of Judaism and the evolution of the procedure throughout modern history. Major improvements in the surgical techniques, the introduction of anesthesia and aseptic procedures contributed to the decline in mortality and morbidity rates. We will attempt to find the etymology for the expression "cesarean section" which has commonly been accounted to Julius Caesar's name, although history denies it. This review takes us on a historical journey, from ancient times to nowadays, in which we follow the course and nature of a procedure being performed daily in thousands of hospitals. PMID:25286639

  11. Temperature and precipitation effects on agrarian economy in late imperial China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Li, Guodong; Forêt, Philippe; Lee, Harry F.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been statistically proven to substantially influence the economy of early modern Europe, particularly in the long term. However, a detailed analysis of climate change and the economy of historical China remains lacking, particularly from a large-scale and quantitative perspective. This study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China (AD 1600–1840) at the national level. This study also compares the findings on the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China with those in early modern Europe. Results of multivariate regression and Granger causality analyses indicate that (1) climate change induces economic fluctuations in late imperial China, particularly in the long term; (2) given that the economic center is located in South China during the study period, temperature has a greater influence on the economy than precipitation; (3) the population of China is statistically proven to primarily act as consumers in the long term; and (4) given the long-term role of the Chinese population, the economic vulnerability in late imperial China under climate change is further increased and is higher than that in early modern Europe, whose population mainly acts as producers in the long term. In conclusion, the late imperial Chinese society has a high economic vulnerability to climate change. These findings revisit Malthusian theory and ‘Great Divergence’ theory by including the perspective of economic vulnerability under climate change during the study period. The role of the population must be investigated further to address the socioeconomic vulnerabilities under climate change.

  12. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  13. One Kilogram Interstellar Colony Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, A.

    Small interstellar colony probes based on nanotechnology will become possible long before giant multi-generation ships become affordable. A beam generator and magnetic sail can accelerate a one kg probe to .1 c, braking via the interstellar field can decelerate it, and the field in a distant solar system can allow it to maneuver to an extrasolar planet. A heat shield is used for landing and nanobots emerge to build ever-larger robots and construct colony infrastructure. Humans can then be generated from genomes stored as data in computer memory. Technology is evolving towards these capabilities and should reach the required level in fifty years. The plan appears to be affordable, with the principal cost being the beam generator, estimated at $17 billion.

  14. Nest- and colony-mate recognition in polydomous colonies of meat ants ( Iridomyrmex purpureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Ryan, D.; Morrison, P.; Marriott, P. J.; Elgar, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Workers of polydomous colonies of social insects must recognize not only colony-mates residing in the same nest but also those living in other nests. We investigated the impact of a decentralized colony structure on colony- and nestmate recognition in the polydomous Australian meat ant ( Iridomyrmex purpureus). Field experiments showed that ants of colonies with many nests were less aggressive toward alien conspecifics than those of colonies with few nests. In addition, while meat ants were almost never aggressive toward nestmates, they were frequently aggressive when confronted with an individual from a different nest within the same colony. Our chemical analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons of workers using a novel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography technique that increases the number of quantifiable compounds revealed both colony- and nest-specific patterns. Combined, these data indicate an incomplete transfer of colony odor between the nests of polydomous meat ant colonies.

  15. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  16. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2015-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical agriculture (1919–1938). We adopt the Dimson–March–Staunton method to compute real geometric annual average rates of return and assess our estimates in an international comparative perspective. We find...

  17. Changing Views on Colonial Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Roosmalen, P.K.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of a rational study and in order to arrive at a balanced appreciation of nineteenth and twentieth century heritage worldwide, architecture and town planning realized under colonial rule requires special attention. This paper describes the strengths and need for a revised vision of this particular heritage and the considerations and criteria that should be taken into account for evaluation of the objects. The Dutch East Indies are used as a stepping stone.

  18. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  19. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  20. Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'Er, Avraham

    2011-03-01

    As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

  1. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  2. 枪手替考惩治对策及其实施的更进研究--现代公务员考试与科举考试相关规程的比较分析%Suggestions for Punishing Imposter and its Implementation:A comparison between Policy of Imperial Examination and that of the National Recruitment Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春兰

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between policy of the national recruitment examination and that of Imperial Examination, including preventive measures before the exam, monitoring system in the exam and punishment measures after the exam. Thus the management to guard against imposter is different between the ancient and modern. From the ancient imperial examination management experience, the author will further improve the relevant measures in law, system and action strategies, which will make the policy to be carried out more effectively.%通过对科举考试与现代公务员考试的试前防范措施、试中监查制度、试后处罚举措的比较研究,认为古今公职人员录取过程中对于枪替行为的防范与惩治是宽严不一的。借鉴古代科举考试的管理经验,笔者分别从宏观法律层面、中观制度层面、微观策略层面对现代公务员考试的相关规程提出更进建议。

  3. Public Library Systems in Ancient South India

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper puts forward and substantiates the view that the concept of free public library service goes back to ancient times. Governments of those days were aware of their responsibility to provide to all citizens free information service. The study observes with reference to ancient Indian records that educational facilities and libraries were accessible to people of Ancient India without any discrimination based on economic status, caste, religion or geographical boundaries. Scholars handl...

  4. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  5. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding......How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...

  6. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  7. Re-inventing ancient human DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, beca...

  8. 78 FR 36568 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Approved Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Patrol and Imperial County were cooperating agencies. Though not a cooperating agency, the U.S. Fish and... designated areas for motorized vehicles, are implementation decisions appealable under 43 CFR part 4....

  9. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  10. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  11. The Colonial and Transnational Production of "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" and "Love and the Vow"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article places two Japan-Korea collaboration films produced during the Pacific War—"Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" (Bōrō no kesshitai, 1943 and "Love and the Vow" (Ai to chikai, 1945—within the broader colonial and transnational context of filmmaking. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship of these films to the careers of their co-directors, Imai Tadashi (1912–1991 and Ch’oe In-gyu (1911–1950?. At the same time, the article shows how cinematic and cultural conventions such as the bildungsroman and the “Victorian empire film,” which are more commonly associated with cultural production in the modern West, can, with appropriate adjustments, be fruitfully used to understand the power and entertainment value of these films. "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" portrays a joint Japanese-Korean police squad controlling the border between Manchuria and Korea and its service to the Japanese empire; "Love and the Vow" is a story about a Korean orphan boy who, after interviewing the family of a kamikaze pilot, is inspired to become an imperial soldier himself. These two films were joint projects between Tōhō Film in Japan, where Imai was employed, and the Korean Motion Picture Production Corporation, the only film production company in colonial Korea (and the company into which all Korean film production companies had been absorbed during the war.

  12. FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS EN LA AMPURIAS ROMANA DE ÉPOCA ALTO-IMPERIAL (Economic fluctuations in Roman Ampurias during early imperial times)

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2010-01-01

    La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis del gasto funerario en la Ampurias romana de época alto-imperial, ha evidenciado la enorme utilidad de esta herramienta en la reconstrucción económica y social del pasado de esta ciudad. Se han aislado las diversas fluctuaciones económicas registradas en los ajuares de las tumbas, desde la época de Augusto hasta la primera mitad del siglo II de nuestra era, confirmando lo que ya apuntaban las fuentes literarias y arrojando más luz ...

  13. UFUS-Imperial: nova cultivar de soja para o Estado de Mato Grosso UFUS-Imperial: new soybean cultivar for the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Toshiyuki Hamawaki; Analy Castilho Polizel; Fernando Cézar Juliatti; Raphael Lemes Hamawaki; Patrícia Brunetta

    2007-01-01

    A fim de ampliar as opções ao cultivo da soja, a Universidade Federal de Uberlândia lançou a cultivar UFUS-Imperial, proveniente do cruzamento entre (Msoy 8411xMsoy 8914) x (Emgopa 313xTucano). A cultivar apresentou resistência ao acamamento, à deiscência da vagem e aos patógenos: Fusarium solani, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines e Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, e resistência parcial a Septoria glycines, Erysiphe diffusa e Phakopsora pa...

  14. ‘Korean Wave’ — The Popular Culture, Comes as Both Cultural and Economic Imperialism in the East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Huang

    2009-01-01

    Korean popular culture such as movies, TV dramas, and pop music is overwhelmingly powerful and TV dramas are one of the most remarkable popular cultures of these. They are not only popular in terms of the fanaticalness of audiences and fans, but also bring considerable profit to the national income. Cultural imperialism to be a new form of economic imperialism. The Korean wave brings a different level of Korean fever in certain East Asian countries, such as China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore...

  15. Counter-Imperial Orientalism: Friedrich Berber and the politics of international law in Germany and India, 1920s-1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Rietzler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The most trenchant critiques of Western international law are framed around the legacy of its historic complicity in the imperial project of governing non-European peoples. International law organised Europe and its ‘others’ into a hierarchy of civilizational difference that was only ever reconfigured but never overturned. But when analysing the complex relationship between international law and imperialism the differences within Europe—as opposed to a dyadic opposition of Europe versus the ‘...

  16. Professional 'imperialism' and resistance: Social Work in the Filippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jem Price

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sociology of professions has traditionally attempted to increase our understanding of categorisations of different occupations by reference to taxonomic hierarchies, as well as the identification and exploration of characteristics that warrant 'professional status'. In may cases, this explorations take the forms of historical accounts of professional activity. Rarely, however, has the literature on professions explored processes of professionalization in devoliping, post-colonial contexts. This article contributes to this body of literature in the study of professions in a number of ways. Firstly, it 'maps' the growth of social work in the Filippines, placing this account within a broader discussions of social work as an internationality activity (Harrison & Melville, 2010; Lyons, 2006 and identifying some of the key forms and features of social work in the Filippines. Consideration is given to the degree of professionalisation of social work within the country by exploring professional organisation, regulation and education.  In doing this, the article offers a critical overview of the nature and preoccupations of social work in the Filippines and celebrates the invaluable contributions it makes to the country and its people. The article argue that the forms social work takes and the settings in wich it happens reflect both contemporay societal and environmental factors as well as the global development of social work.  In this sense, the article considers the impact of Roman Catholicism as well as the orientation of social work in relation to some enduring tensions and debates around the profession's purpose and potential. Key to the professional forms that social work takes in the Filippines is the contribution of 'indigenous' social work knowledge base wich is explored, alongside a comentary on social work education and training in the country. 

  17. The logic of hypersocial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2012-01-01

    It is no wonder that we are transfixed with fascination when we stand in the midst of an ocean of flowing ants within a single extensive society of one of the invasive species. Normal terms do not fit anymore: this is not just a colony, but a “supercolony.” The iconic supercolonial species is the...... Argentine ant, infamous as a pest and now very well studied, all the way from having its genome sequenced to its global distribution mapped. As the Argentine ant can be the key to understanding other supercolonial and/or invasive ants, it is very timely that Moffett's review (2012) focuses on how we...

  18. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  19. The Entangled Sovereignties of Air Police: Mapping the Boundary of the International and the Imperial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary proliferation of drones and other forms of aerial interventions herald the (re)emergence of air policing as the principal modality for the fabrication of order in the global periphery. Air policing is predomi- nantly framed by international legal analysis as merely ‘killing from...... above,’ yet this designation obfuscates the concomitant occupation of airspaces entailed by drones and other aerial technologies. Such occupations constitute an assertion of jurisdiction in nominally sovereign airspaces authorised by latent imperial legality. The history of air policing reveals a...... genealogy of ‘aerial imperial formations,’ enfolded within the abstract airspaces regu- lated by international law notions of ‘complete and exclusive’ sovereignty. Through a focus on the spatio-legal construction of airspace, this paper proposes a reframing of the nexus of sovereignty, jurisdiction and...

  20. The Principle of Liberal Imperialism: Human Rights and Human Freedom in the Age of Evangelical Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Noonan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the principle that underlies liberal imperialism is conceptually incoherent. The Principle of Liberal Imperialism claims that liberal nations have a duty to intervene in non-liberal nations in response to persistent human rights violations for the sake of creating the conditions in which the agency of the population can be realized. The legitimacy of such interventions, however, is rooted in a presupposition that denies the very agency of the oppressed in whose name the intervention is justified. In response to this incoherence the paper concludes with the outline of a materialist conception of agency that prioritises the capability of oppressed populations to find internal resources of critique and social transformation.

  1. How Neoliberal Imperialism is Expressed by Programming Strategies of Phoenix TV: A Critical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This project is a case study of Phoenix Television, which is a Hong Kong-based satellite TV network broadcasting to the global Chinese-speaking community, primarily to the mainland of China. In the theoretical framework of media imperialism and neoliberal imperialism, this study focuses on the programming strategies of Phoenix TV and examines how the global trend of neoliberalism, the Chinese government’s tight control of the media, and the sophisticated ownership of Phoenix TV intertwined to influence on its programming. The analysis of the format, content, naming, and scheduling reveals that US-inspired neoliberalism is expressed in the network’s programming strategies. This expression, in fact, is the balance that Phoenix found between the tension of global and Chinese interests, the tension between revenue making and public service, and the tension between Party-control and profit seeking.

  2. An Authomated approach for Bacterial Colony Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Nagpal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Counting of bacterial colonies is complex task for microbiologist. To a large extent, accurate colony counting depends on the ability to see colonies distinctly, whether viewed by the naked eye or by an automated instrument. An increased area of focus in Microbiology is the automation of counting methods.. Further in an Industry thousands of such samples are formed per day and colonies on each sample are counted manually, then this becomes a time consuming hectic and error prone job.We proposed a method to count these colonies to save time with accurate results and fast delivery to customers. This proposed research work will count the colonies after 6 to 8 hours priori, saving a lot more time and this work will more efficient because market range for this is about 10,000 only as compare to prior systems.

  3. Reflection of reading Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    The author Spivak examines three women’s texts: Jane Eyre, Wide Sargasso Sea and Frankenstein. After comparison of these three texts, we will find that there is something common in these three works——something unspoken. In Spivak’s point of view, it is not only about the theme of western culture, but also about the imperialism imposed upon the third world.

  4. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  5. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance

  6. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daccà, A.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Pera, R.

    2000-03-01

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance.

  7. Esso Imperial Oil annual report to shareholders 2002 : positioned for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Some of the highlights of 2002 are: the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was 3 per cent, compared with a net loss of 12 per cent for the Standard and Poors/TSX composite index; in the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares have averaged 17 per cent a year, compounded; regular dividend payments increased to 84 cents a share, the eighth consecutive year of dividend growth; and, the company has purchased more than 200 million shares for $5.2 billion since 1995, reducing the number outstanding by 35 per cent. Progress in key priority areas for 2002 included a second-best year for safety performance, a successful $1.6 billion capital investment program, the expansion of the Cold Lake oil sands project, an increase of 15 per cent in polyethylene production, an increase of 3.5 per cent in retail sales of Esso gasoline, and advancement of the Mackenzie gas project. Other achievements included the development of a 170 megawatt cogeneration plant at Cold Lake that will reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. A 95 megawatt unit was also constructed at the Sarnia manufacturing facility. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  8. Solving man-induced large-scale conservation problems: the Spanish imperial eagle and power lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti. Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974-2009 on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electricuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects

  9. The Foundry: the DNA synthesis and construction Foundry at Imperial College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephen; Kitney, Richard; Freemont, Paul

    2016-06-15

    The establishment of a DNA synthesis and construction foundry at Imperial College in London heralds a new chapter in the development of synthetic biology to meet new global challenges. The Foundry employs the latest technology to make the process of engineering biology easier, faster and scalable. The integration of advanced software, automation and analytics allows the rapid design, build and testing of engineered organisms. PMID:27284027

  10. Imperial Japanese Army Intelligence in North and Central China During the Second Sino-Japanese War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese today seek to improve their national intelligence apparatus, particularly in relation to human intelligence assets and higher echelon coordination. To be successful, Japan must examine its wartime past in the intelligence field. The Imperial Japanese Army maintained a prolific intelligence presence in North and Central China during the Second World War. Its intelligence apparatus encompassed all aspects of information collection, with considerable overlap between intelligence org...

  11. The Foundry: the DNA synthesis and construction Foundry at Imperial College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephen; Kitney, Richard; Freemont, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a DNA synthesis and construction foundry at Imperial College in London heralds a new chapter in the development of synthetic biology to meet new global challenges. The Foundry employs the latest technology to make the process of engineering biology easier, faster and scalable. The integration of advanced software, automation and analytics allows the rapid design, build and testing of engineered organisms. PMID:27284027

  12. Recall to Life: Imperial Britain, Foreign Refugees and the Development of Modern Refuge, 1789-1905

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Caroline Emily

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation that follows offers the first historical examination of the nineteenth-century origins of the "refugee" as a modern humanitarian and legal category. To date, scholars have tended to focus on a single refugee group or have overlooked this period entirely, acknowledging the linguistic origins of the term "refugee" with the seventeenth-century French Huguenots before skipping directly to the post-WWI period. I find that it is only through the imperial and global history of Briti...

  13. Alfalfa water use pinpointed in saline, shallow water tables of Imperial Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Khaled M.; Grismer, Mark E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Although alfalfa is the dominant water user in the Imperial Valley and is planted on 40% of its irrigated acreage, data is incomplete regarding its water use under the most common growing conditions: moderately saline, clay soils with a relatively shallow, moderately saline water table. In a study from 1996 through 1998, we determined the seasonal variation in the alfalfa crop coefficient (Kc), based on measurements of applied water and soil-moisture depletion, and the contribution from the w...

  14. REREADING LENIN: A REVIEW OF THE CONTEMPORARY DEBATE ABOUT THE IMPERIALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinícius Pansardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of the fecund concept of imperialism, in the second decade of the twentieth century, the mistrust in their use that is installed in the 1970s, his return in the 1990s and early twenty-first century, appropriated by reformist and conciliatory views. However, within the current context, brings back Lenin and Gramcsi, settles in the left the debate whose purpose is none other than understanding and explaining the world, appealing to reinterpretations of classic...

  15. Are Holocaust Victims Jewish?:Looking at Photographs in the Imperial War Museum Holocaust Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Holtschneider, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that the representation of Jewish identifications in the permanent Holocaust exhibition in the Imperial War Museum, London, tries to balance the self-representation of Jewish victims with the demands of a perpetrator-led narrative that by necessity characterises Jews in antisemitic terms. The analysis is based on close readings of the exhibition, in particular of the photographic displays, archival sources and interviews with curators. Ultimately, the exhibition is unable to...

  16. THE ROLE OF BRAZIL IN LATIN AMERICA: A BRIEF REFLECTION OF THE BRAZILIAN SUB IMPERIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Teixeira Coutinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to raise some conceptual propositions that help us understand the Brazilian role in Latin America and, start a debate on the contemporary Brazilian foreign policy and its practical applications in geopolitics inserted into the world economy. For that, we aim to explain the concept of “multiterritorialidade”, using the sub-imperialism thesis, by Ruy Mauro Marini, creating a dialogue with the concept of semi-periphery, formulated by Immanuel Wallerstein.

  17. THE ROLE OF BRAZIL IN LATIN AMERICA: A BRIEF REFLECTION OF THE BRAZILIAN SUB IMPERIALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Teixeira Coutinho; Guilherme Pereira do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we intend to raise some conceptual propositions that help us understand the Brazilian role in Latin America and, start a debate on the contemporary Brazilian foreign policy and its practical applications in geopolitics inserted into the world economy. For that, we aim to explain the concept of “multiterritorialidade”, using the sub-imperialism thesis, by Ruy Mauro Marini, creating a dialogue with the concept of semi-periphery, formulated by Immanuel Wallerstein.

  18. Esso Imperial Oil annual report to shareholders 2003 : sustaining growth in shareholder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Esso Imperial Oil, one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil and natural gas, was presented and a review of their 2003 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. In 2003, the total return on Imperial shares including capital appreciation and dividends was more than 30 per cent (TSX), and about 58 per cent (AMEX). In the past decade, the total return on Imperial's shares has averaged more than 18 per cent per year. Dividend payments have been paid every year for more than a century, and regular dividend payments have increased in each of the past 9 years. Since 1995, nearly 220 million shares have been purchased, reducing the number of outstanding shares by 38 per cent, representing a total distribution to shareholders of about $6 billion over this period. Major projects in natural resources have included expansion at Syncrude, increased production at Cold Lake, progress in the project to develop natural gas resources in the Mackenzie Delta, and plans to develop Kearl oil sands properties near Fort McMurray, Alberta. There were also promising exploration opportunities off Canada's east coast. Employee safety performance in 2003 was the best on record. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information. This included the accounts of Imperial Oil Inc. and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  19. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  20. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  1. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  2. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  3. An ancient rangefinder for teaching surveying methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. Here we propose a discussion of some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to the modern methods. Using an ancient roman artefact as a model, we can pre-pare a rangefinder at no cost for teaching surveying methods to students of engineering and military schools

  4. UFUS-Imperial: nova cultivar de soja para o Estado de Mato Grosso UFUS-Imperial: new soybean cultivar for the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Toshiyuki Hamawaki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fim de ampliar as opções ao cultivo da soja, a Universidade Federal de Uberlândia lançou a cultivar UFUS-Imperial, proveniente do cruzamento entre (Msoy 8411xMsoy 8914 x (Emgopa 313xTucano. A cultivar apresentou resistência ao acamamento, à deiscência da vagem e aos patógenos: Fusarium solani, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines e Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, e resistência parcial a Septoria glycines, Erysiphe diffusa e Phakopsora pachyrhizi. O rendimento dessa cultivar, em ensaios regionais, foi 45% superior ao da testemunha Msoy 6101, e é indicada para o Estado de Mato Grosso.With the purpose of offering new options for soybean production, the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia released the cultivar UFUS-Imperial, originated from the crosses between (Msoy 8411xMsoy 8914 x (Emgopa 313xTucano. It showed resistance to lodging, to pod shattering, and to the pathogens Fusarium solani, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines and Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, and partial resistance to Septoria glycines, Erysiphe diffusa, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Its average yield from uniform trials was 45% higher than that of the control Msoy 6101, and it is indicated for cultivation in the State of Mato Grosso.

  5. Growth and form of melanoma cell colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldi, Massimiliano Maria; Alemi, Alexander A.; Sethna, James P.; Caracciolo, Sergio; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for di?erent growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of...

  6. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND ORIENTALISTSIN THE COLONIAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses to what extent colonial India was responsive to cultural diversity? It shows the orientalist policies of British rulers to find out how much it was favorable to the various ways of life prevailing in India during colonial times? In the colonial period we find out, how the colonizers in India insisted on their distinctness instead of accepting the path of assimilation. The Orientalist administrators and scholars presented India as having a long living civil...

  7. Towards a multilevel ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Thomas Andreé; Llave, Marilex Rea

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach for solving combinatorial optimization problems which belongs to swarm intelligence techniques. Ant colony optimization algorithms are one of the most successful strands of swarm intelligence which has already shown very good performance in many combinatorial problems and for some real applications. This thesis introduces a new multilevel approach for ant colony optimization to solve the NP-hard problems shortest path and traveling salesman....

  8. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. P.Mathiyalagan; U.R. Dhepthie; S.N. Sivanandam

    2010-01-01

    Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedu...

  9. Data on the Trophic Spectrum of Young Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 in South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin V. Zhelev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current publication presents the results of a research on the food spectrum of young Imperial eagles (juvennes, immaturus (Aquilaheliaca, SAVIGNY, 1809 in South Bulgaria. Dispersal sites and temporary settlement areas were identified tracking two young eagles marked with radio-transmitters. The birds were tagged in 2007 by the team of Green Balkans Federation. The feeding and behaviour of over 20 young Imperial eagles was observed in a total of 6 regions, including vulture feeding sites. A total of 32 pellets were collected from the trees used by those birds for roosting. Thus the feeding spectrum of young imperial eagles in their roaming period just after fledgling was identified. A total of 13 feeding components, comprising 101 specimens were identified. These were mainly small mammals, dominated by *- (Microtus arvalis, P. - complex (n= 56 specimens, 55,45% and significant presence of House mouse (Mus musculus, L. – 18 specimens or 17,82 %. The observations prove the presence of carcass among the food items taken by the wintering eagles and the particular use of the existing artificial feeding sites for vultures. The study proves the food opportunism of the species.

  10. Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H. (ed.)

    1976-12-17

    This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working Groups addressed the ecological problems. Water resource management problems include forces on water use, irrigation methods and water use for crops, water production, and water allocation. Agricultural problems are the contamination of edible crops and the reclamation of soil. A strategy is discussed for predevelopment baseline data and for identification of source term tracers. Wildlife resources might be threatened by habitat destruction, powerline impacts, noise and disturbance effects, gas emissions, and secondary impacts such as population pressure. Aquatic ecosystems in both the Salton Sea and fresh waters have potential hazards of salinity and trace metal effects, as well as existing stresses; baseline and bioassay studies are discussed. Problems from air pollution resulting from geothermal resource development might occur, particularly to vegetation and pollinator insects. Conversion of injury data to predicted economic damage isneeded. Finally, Imperial Valley desert ecosystems might be threatened by destruction of habitat and the possible effects on community structure such as those resulting from brine spills.

  11. Religious Education in Russia: Inter-Faith Harmony or Neo-Imperial Toleration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisovskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.

  12. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  13. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  14. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedules the tasks efficiently and better resource utilization. The simulation results prove that proposed method reduces the execution time of tasks compared to existing ant colony algorithm.

  15. Resultados paleomagnéticos preliminares en las sedimentitas neo-paleozoicas de la Formación El Imperial, bloque de San Rafael, Mendoza Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Carboniferous-Permian El Imperial Formation sedimentary rocks in the San Rafael Block, Mendoza province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Tomezzoli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el Pérmico Temprano se desarrolló, en el margen sudoccidental del Gondwana, una extensa faja de deformación contraccional conocida con el nombre de cordón de las Gondwánides. En el extremo occidental de esta faja se instaló, durante el Carbonífero Tardío-Pérmico Temprano, una cuenca de antepaís cuyo relleno se encuentra representado por las sedimentitas de la Formación El Imperial aflorante en el bloque de San Rafael. Esta unidad presenta una sección superior que registra una inversión de las paleopendientes, la cual ha sido interpretada como la primera evidencia de la migración del frente de deformación hacia el antepaís. Se ha encarado un estudio paleomagnético de esta unidad en busca de elementos que permitan acotar la deformación en el tiempo para poder evaluar así el posible carácter diacrónico de la misma. Se presentan y discuten los primeros resultados paleomagnéticos obtenidos en sedimentitas del miembro inferior (Represa Agua del Toro y superior (Puesto La Josefa de la Formación El Imperial. Estas rocas son portadoras de magnetizaciones remanentes reversas portadas principalmente por hematita, de posible edad pérmica. Las posiciones paleopolares obtenidas en ambas localidades no coinciden con las esperadas según la edad de estas rocas, lo que se podría explicar o bien por que no se ha cancelado correctamente la variación secular, por rotaciones según ejes verticales en los bloques de las localidades de muestreo, o bien por la combinación de algunos o de todos estos factores.During the Early Permian an extensive deformation belt well-known as Gondwánides developed in the southwest Gondwana margin. A foreland basin has been settled during the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian in the western end of this strip, and is represented by the El Imperial Formation, which crops out in the San Rafael Block. The upper section of this unit records an inversion of the ancient slopes, which has been interpreted as

  16. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules...

  17. Genetic divergence among extant and extirpated colonies of an endangered pelagic seabird, the Hawaiian petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, A. J.; Fleischer, R. C.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to consider both the temporal and spatial dimensions of variability in ecology and evolution. Given the potentially great dispersal capabilities and long generation times of pelagic seabirds, genetic diversity in these species seems likely to be homogeneously distributed and relatively static over time. Investigating temporal and spatial processes involved in the ecology and evolution of seabird populations is important to island ecosystem sustainability, as they play a significant role in transferring marine derived nutrients to terrestrial oceanic ecosystems. Additionally, many seabird species are threatened by extinction due to increasing mortality both at land and at sea. Here we investigate population divergence of the endemic and endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). We examined four extant colonies on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Kauai, and employed ancient DNA techniques to study a prehistorically extirpated colony on Oahu, and a historically large, but likely extirpated, colony on the island of Molokai. Analyses of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene as well as nuclear microsatellite markers indicate substantial differentiation (global Φst of 0.38, p < 0.0001). Significant divergence was found among each pair of the six islands except between Oahu and Molokai (Φst = 0.10, p = 0.07). However, this could result from low power due to the limited availability of amplifiable samples, especially for the hot, low elevation colony formerly present on Oahu. The largest differentiation occurred between the islands of Lanai and Kauai (Φst = 0.58, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that despite their great dispersal capabilities, spatially proximate colonies of the Hawaiian petrel are not genetically homogenous. Additionally, the extirpation of large colonies, such as those on Oahu and Molokai, could result in loss of a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Future work should further investigate temporal

  18. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene....../Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our...

  19. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  20. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  1. Recruitment strategies and colony size in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Planqué

    Full Text Available Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explanations for this correlation have focused on the ants' ecology, such as food resource distribution. However, many species have colonies with a single queen and workforces that grow over several orders of magnitude, and little is known about how a colony's organization, including recruitment methods, may change during its growth. After all, recruitment involves interactions between ants, and hence the size of the colony itself may influence which recruitment method is used--even if the ants' behavioural repertoire remains unchanged. Here we show using mathematical models that the observed correlation can also be explained by recognizing that failure rates in recruitment depend differently on colony size in various recruitment strategies. Our models focus on the build up of recruiter numbers inside colonies and are not based on optimality arguments, such as maximizing food yield. We predict that ant colonies of a certain size should use only one recruitment method (and always the same one rather than a mix of two or more. These results highlight the importance of the organization of recruitment and how it is affected by colony size. Hence these results should also expand our understanding of ant ecology.

  2. O ensino da medicina na Índia colonial portuguesa: fundação e primeiras décadas da Escola Médico-cirúrgica de Nova Goa Medical teaching in Portuguese colonial India: the creation and earliest decades of the New Goa Medical-surgical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As comemorações centenárias da Escola Médico-cirúrgica de Nova Goa (1942 exaltavam o seu contributo para a consolidação do império português em África. Observamos esta instituição à luz da literatura 'medicina e império', que tende a analisá-la como um instrumento para o exercício do biopoder. Esta hipótese é contestada à luz das fontes primárias sobre as primeiras décadas da escola, das quais surge um quadro de fragilidade e descaso administrativo pouco compatível com um projeto imperial para formar médicos e distribuí-los pelas colônias. Sugerimos que a fundação da escola resulta de um processo em que predominam interesses locais, numa sociedade onde os recortes 'colonizador' e 'colonizado' se diluem nos inúmeros desdobramentos da diferenciação social. A apropriação da escola pela narrativa de glorificação imperial é algo que ocorre no século XX, quando se reescreve a história colonial portuguesa.The centennial celebration of the New Goa Medical-surgical School, held in 1942, glorified the institution's contribution to the consolidation of the Portuguese Empire in Africa. I observe the School from the perspective of the literature on medicine and empire, whose analyzes tend to view it as a tool for exercising biopower. I then question this hypothesis from the perspective of primary sources on the School's first decades, which paint a picture of frailty and administrative disregard that is not very compatible with an imperial project engineered to train physicians and disperse them throughout the colonies. I conclude that the School's creation stemmed from a process where local interests dominated, in a society where the categories "colonizer" and "colonized" were diluted within the complexities of social differentiation. It was with the twentieth-century rewriting of Portuguese colonial history that the narrative of imperial glorification appropriated the School.

  3. Los edificios deportivos de la Roma Antigua Sportive buildings in the ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela TEJA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La educación física y el deporte retrocedió —en la Roma antigua— respecto a los ideales físico-corporales griegos. Por contra, se fomentó una notable cultura de espectáculos y divertimentos, especialmente durante la época imperial. A fin de dar cobijo a los diversos espectáculos se construyeron en la ciudad de Roma —y por mimetismo en todas las urbes del Imperio— sofisticados edificios. En efecto, además de una importante red de circos —el más emblemático de los cuales fue el circo Máximo—, se levantaron anfiteatros y termas, amén del estadio de Dominiciano. La autora pasa revista a las distintas instalaciones «deportivas» de la Roma antigua, así como a los espectáculos que albergaban: las carreras del circo, los combates de gladiadores, las cacerías de fieras, las naumaquias, sin olvidar las competiciones del estadio y la pasión romana por las termas.Sport and physical education —in Ancient Rome-, looked back to the physical ideals of the Greeks. In contrast, there was also a specific encouragement of spectacles and performance or general entertainment during the Imperial Era. In order to cater for the diverse shows, sophisticated buildings were constructed in Rome, and reproduced in all the built-up areas throughout the Empire. In fact, besides the important circus network, the most emblematic of these being Maximo's Circus, amphitheatres, arenas and spa resorts were constructed, in addition to the Dominitian Stadium. The author studies the different types of «sporting» installations in Ancient Rome, considering the entertainments which took place in them: chariot races, gladiatorial combat, the hunting of wild beasts, naval combats, the stadium sports and, of course, the Roman passion for spas and hot baths.

  4. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...... Greenland populations in an international context are the populations of northern fulmar, great cormorant, common eider, Iceland gull, kittiwake, arctic tern, Brünnich's guillemot, black guillemot and little auk. Furthermore, populations of great cormorant and great black-backed gull are probably isolated...... from other North Atlantic populations. The Iceland gull population is referred to an endemic Greenland subspecies. The population of little auks in Avanersuaq probably makes up more than 99 % of the Baffin Bay population and perhaps 80 % of the global population (Nettleship & Evans 1985). Of particular...

  5. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  6. Formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christoph A.; Lin, Yen Ting; Biais, Nicolas; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2015-09-01

    Many organisms form colonies for a transient period of time to withstand environmental pressure. Bacterial biofilms are a prototypical example of such behavior. Despite significant interest across disciplines, physical mechanisms governing the formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies are still poorly understood. Starting from a kinetic description of motile and interacting cells we derive a hydrodynamic equation for their density on a surface, where most of the kinetic coefficients are estimated from experimental data for N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. We use it to describe the formation of multiple colonies with sizes consistent with experimental observations. Finally, we show how the changes in the cell-to-cell interactions lead to the dissolution of the bacterial colonies. The successful application of kinetic theory to a complex far from equilibrium system such as formation and dissolution of living bacterial colonies potentially paves the way for the physical quantification of the initial stages of biofilm formation.

  7. Hydrodynamics of bacterial colonies: A model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, J.; Passot, T.

    2003-03-01

    We propose a hydrodynamic model for the evolution of bacterial colonies growing on soft agar plates. This model consists of reaction-diffusion equations for the concentrations of nutrients, water, and bacteria, coupled to a single hydrodynamic equation for the velocity field of the bacteria-water mixture. It captures the dynamics inside the colony as well as on its boundary and allows us to identify a mechanism for collective motion towards fresh nutrients, which, in its modeling aspects, is similar to classical chemotaxis. As shown in numerical simulations, our model reproduces both usual colony shapes and typical hydrodynamic motions, such as the whirls and jets recently observed in wet colonies of Bacillus subtilis. The approach presented here could be extended to different experimental situations and provides a general framework for the use of advection-reaction-diffusion equations in modeling bacterial colonies.

  8. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  9. Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Phillips, Matthew J.; Willerslev, Eske

    2005-01-01

    Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and...... insufficient authentication of results. Consequently, it remains doubtful whether amplifiable DNA sequences and viable bacteria can survive over geological timescales. To enhance the credibility of future studies and assist in discarding false-positive results, we propose a rigorous set of authentication...... criteria for work with geologically ancient DNA....

  10. The Examination Guidance of Ancient China——a Glimpse of the Poems for the Provincial Examination%中国古代应试指南——《饯秋试诗》管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传松

    2012-01-01

    The long history of imperial examination in ancient China accumulates a lot of literatures about imperial examination,the Poems for the Provincial Examination is one of them.It systematically describes how to prepare for the examination,how to answer questions and the cautions about storing papers.It is the best examination guidance in imperial examination age,and still has an important reference value for large-scale selective examination such as prersent college entrance examination.%中国古代漫长的科举考试史积淀了丰富的科举文献,《饯秋试诗》便是其中之一。它以诗的形式较为系统地阐述了考前准备、答题、试卷保管及中式后的注意事项,是科举时代的应试宝典,对今天的高考等大规模选拔性考试仍具有重要借鉴价值。

  11. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'. PMID:24981994

  12. Population Change in a Marine Bird Colony is Driven By Changes in Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of long-lived birds are thought to be very sensitive to changes in adult survival. However, where natal philopatry is low, recruitment from the larger metapopulation may have the strongest effect on population growth rate even in long-lived species. Here, we illustrate such a situation where changes in a seabird colony size appeared to be the consequence of changes in recruitment. We studied the population dynamics of a declining colony of Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus at East Limestone Island, British Columbia. During 1990-2010, Ancient Murrelet chicks were trapped at East Limestone Island while departing to sea, using a standard trapping method carried on throughout the departure period. Adult murrelets were trapped while departing from the colony during 1990-2003. Numbers of chicks trapped declined during 1990-1995, probably because of raccoon predation, increased slightly from 1995-2000 and subsequently declined again. Reproductive success was 30% lower during 2000-2003 than in earlier years, mainly because of an increase in desertions. The proportion of nonbreeders among adult birds trapped at night also declined over the study period. Mortality of adult birds, thought to be mainly prebreeders, from predators more than doubled over the same period. Apparent adult survival of breeders remained constant during 1991-2002 once the first year after banding was excluded, but the apparent survival rates in the first year after banding fell and the survival of birds banded as chicks to age three halved over the same period. A matrix model of population dynamics suggested that even during the early part of the study immigration from other breeding areas must have been substantial, supporting earlier observations that natal philopatry in this species is low. The general colony decline after 2000 probably was related to diminished recruitment, as evidenced by the lower proportion of nonbreeders in the trapped

  13. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Iza Hussin

    2012-01-01

    While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but wi...

  14. FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS EN LA AMPURIAS ROMANA DE ÉPOCA ALTO-IMPERIAL (Economic fluctuations in Roman Ampurias during early imperial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis del gasto funerario en la Ampurias romana de época alto-imperial, ha evidenciado la enorme utilidad de esta herramienta en la reconstrucción económica y social del pasado de esta ciudad. Se han aislado las diversas fluctuaciones económicas registradas en los ajuares de las tumbas, desde la época de Augusto hasta la primera mitad del siglo II de nuestra era, confirmando lo que ya apuntaban las fuentes literarias y arrojando más luz sobre la naturaleza de tales cambios. También se han detectado crisis tan relevantes como la de tiempos de Tiberio y oscilaciones monetarias. Todo ello viene a probar la extraordinaria importancia de esta metodología para ampliar nuestro conocimiento objetivo de la sociedad romana y de muchas otras civilizaciones y pueblos de la antigüedad. ENGLISH: The application of a contextual appraisal method to the analysis of funerary expense in early imperial Roman Ampurias, has shown the enormous utility of this tool for the economic and social reconstruction of the history of this city. Various economic fluctuations have been documented in the record of grave goods, from the time of Augustus to the first half of the second century AD, confirming information already indicated by literary sources and shedding more light on the nature of these changes. Economic crises were identified, including some as significant as those experienced during the Tiberius period, as well as currency fluctuations. This serves to demonstrate the extraordinary importance of the contextual approach to expand not only our knowledge of Roman society, but also of many other civilizations and peoples of antiquity.

  15. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  16. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  17. Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R;

    2010-01-01

    locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the...... ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for...

  18. Faience: the ceramic technology of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Faiences are ancient Egyptian ceramic materials, considered as "high-tech" products. The paper discussed the method by which the faiences were produced and the application of SEM and Raman spectroscopy to their analysis

  19. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  20. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  1. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  2. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  3. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  4. [Academic presentation of neurology and psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University at annual meetings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Keijo Imperial University, Medical School, Psychiatry course, and presentation at the Annual Meetings of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology were investigated from its establishment to 1945. Keijo was the name used for the capital city of Korea, Seoul, when Korea was under Japanese rule. We believe the Keijo Imperial University evolved out of the Governor-General of Korea Hospital and Keijo Medical Professional School. The first Professor at the University was Shinji Suitsu, who studied under Shuzo Kure. He visited Shizuoka prefecture when he collaborated in Kure's "Actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients" (1918). This was confirmed by photographic materials from this time. The year after the visit to Shizuoka, Suitsu was sent to the Korean Peninsula. In 1913, Suitsu established the Department of Psychiatry at the Governor-General of Korea Hospital, and the institution had 500 tsubo (approximately 1,650 m2) of land within Keijo (Seoul), with floor space of 160 tsubo (approximately 528 m2) and 24 beds. Treatments were performed by Suitsu, an assistant, and 8-9 nurses. The number of hospitalized patients was 30-50 patients per year. Cells had floor heating. Keijo Imperial University was established in 1924, and was called Jodai. In 1925, Suitsu retired from his Professorship of Psychiatry at Keijo Medical Professional School. Suitsu was from Kyoto Imperial University, and had studied abroad. In 1925, Suitsu's father-in-law, and a long-time friend of Shuzo Kure, Seiji Yamane, passed away. The professor who took up the position after Suitsu was Kiyoji Kubo, who was originally supposed to go to Hokkaido Imperial University. When the medical school was established at Keijo Imperial University in 1926, Kubo was offered a professorship there. Jodai was under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Korea, and not the Ministry of Education. Later

  5. The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Kukjalko

    2011-01-01

    Annotation to the Doctoral Thesis by Brigita Aleksejeva: The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts An Ancient Greek philological text often combined the research of various language-related issues, which are nowadays studied by separate branches of linguistics – such as orthography, phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax, and stylistics. The language of these texts differs from that of the fictional and non-theoretical texts of the period: since they represent the origins of the ...

  6. Archaeological Excursion into Proximal Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia-Herzegovina by the end of the 19th century, presided by Benjamin Kallay, the Empire’s Minister of Finance and governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, strived to gain wider international justification for its years’ long project of “civilizing” Bosnia and Herzegovina, or particular “historizing” of this proximal colony. In the summer of 1894 the Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina organized the Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists in the Landesmuseum in Sarajevo. The aim of the Congress was to inform archaeologists and anthropologists about the results of archaeological investigations in the country, and to seek their advice in directing further work. The wider ideological, political, as well as theoretical context of this congress, however, was much more complex and layered, with the aim to present the constructed image of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country of tamed and civilized European Orient of rich past and luxurious folklore. The participants of the Congress discussed the archaeological and anthropological data presented to them by the hosts, including the specially organized excavations at Butmir and Glasinac. It is interesting to analyze, from the point of view of the history of archaeological ideas, the endeavours of the participants to adapt the archaeological finds before them to the wishes of the hosts, and, on the other hand, to their favoured archaeological paradigms dominant at the time.

  7. Colony Foundation in an Oceanic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munilla, Ignacio; Genovart, Meritxell; Paiva, Vitor H.; Velando, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seabirds are colonial vertebrates that despite their great potential for long-range dispersal and colonization are reluctant to establish in novel locations, often recruiting close to their natal colony. The foundation of colonies is therefore a rare event in most seabird species and little is known about the colonization process in this group. The Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) is a pelagic seabird that has recently established three new colonies in Galicia (NE Atlantic) thus expanding its distribution range 500 km northwards. This study aimed to describe the establishment and early progress of the new Galician populations and to determine the genetic and morphometric characteristics of the individuals participating in these foundation events. Using 10 microsatellite loci, we tested the predictions supported by different seabird colonization models. Possibly three groups of non-breeders, adding up to around 200 birds, started visiting the Galician colonies in the mid 2000’s and some of them eventually laid eggs and reproduced, thus establishing new breeding colonies. The Galician populations showed a high genetic diversity and a frequency of private alleles similar to or even higher than some of the large historical populations. Most individuals were assigned to several Atlantic populations and a few (if any) to Mediterranean colonies. Our study suggests that a large and admixed population is settling in Galicia, in agreement with predictions from island metapopulation models of colonization. Multiple source colonies imply that some birds colonizing Galicia were dispersing from very distant colonies (> 1500 km). Long-distance colonizations undertaken by relatively large and admixed groups of colonizers can help to explain the low levels of genetic structure over vast areas that are characteristic of most oceanic seabird species. PMID:26909694

  8. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  9. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  10. Technological breakthrough to boost oilsand/heavy oil production : Imperial Oil at Cold Lake - steam it, soak it, produce it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    Next to Syncrude and Suncor, Imperial Oil is one of the major players in improving the technology to increase oil sand and heavy oil recovery. In 1985, Imperial Oil brought on production of 25,000 barrels per day from its Cold Lake project. During the summer of 1997, the company produced 130,000 barrels of oil from 2,300 wells using 380,000 barrels of steam daily for well injection. Currently, Imperial Oil is planning a 500 million dollar, 30,000 barrels per day capacity plant, the fifth one at Cold Lake. The project has been delayed until mid-1998 due to backlog in applications for approval before the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. 1 fig.

  11. Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Gerula Dariusz; Węgrzynowicz Paweł; Panasiuk Beata; Bieńkowska Małgorzata; Skowronek Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic d...

  12. Body, gender, and disease: the female breast in late imperial Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the diverse ways in which Chinese medical experts historically gendered breast disease as a female ailment. By comparing representations of the female breast from the "Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of Medical Learning (Yuzuan yizong jinjian, 1742)" to those from earlier and contemporary texts, this paper analyzes how breast disease was alternately categorized as an ailment of childbearing and as a disease rooted in pathological female emotion. Medical awareness of breast disease in men did somewhat challenge these connections between womanhood and disease. Nevertheless, medical illustrations of women helped to reinforce the idea that breast disease was a characteristically female problem. PMID:22069795

  13. Identification of environmental control technologies for geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeberger, D.F.; Hill, J.H.

    1978-10-05

    Control technologies to manage environmental impacts from geothermal developments in California's Imperial Valley from development to 1985 are discussed. Included are descriptions of methods for managing land subsidence by fluid injection; for preventing undesirable induced seismicity or mitigating the effects of seismic events; for managing liquid wastes through pretreatment or subsurface injection; for controlling H/sub 2/S by dispersal, reinjection, and chemical treatment of effluents; and for minimizing the impact of noise from power plants by setting up buffer zones and exclusion areas.

  14. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  15. Patterns of geothermal lease acquisition in the Imperial Valley: 1958--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.; McDougal, S.; Van Huntley, F.

    1974-08-01

    Patterns for the development of geothermal resources in the Imperial Valley are analyzed, with particular consideration of corporate behavior in geothermal development. Actions of the companies were examined over a period of time to discover patterns of involvement, investment, and likelihood of further development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: research organization; legal aspects; characteristics of development; location of geothermal leases; analysis of major leaseholders; and findings and conclusions. The addendum is entitled Federal Land Lease Sales: An analysis in terms of Lease Acquisition Patterns. The three appendices are: research methodology; a methodological note on the maps; and exploratory drilling sites. (JGB)

  16. The Entangled Sovereignties of Air Police: Mapping the Boundary of the International and the Imperial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary proliferation of drones and other forms of aerial interventions herald the (re)emergence of air policing as the principal modality for the fabrication of order in the global periphery. Air policing is predomi- nantly framed by international legal analysis as merely ‘killing from...... above,’ yet this designation obfuscates the concomitant occupation of airspaces entailed by drones and other aerial technologies. Such occupations constitute an assertion of jurisdiction in nominally sovereign airspaces authorised by latent imperial legality. The history of air policing reveals...

  17. REREADING LENIN: A REVIEW OF THE CONTEMPORARY DEBATE ABOUT THE IMPERIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Pansardi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the emergence of the fecund concept of imperialism, in the second decade of the twentieth century, the mistrust in their use that is installed in the 1970s, his return in the 1990s and early twenty-first century, appropriated by reformist and conciliatory views. However, within the current context, brings back Lenin and Gramcsi, settles in the left the debate whose purpose is none other than understanding and explaining the world, appealing to reinterpretations of classics and its updating.

  18. Understanding colonial chieftaincy from its final phase

    OpenAIRE

    Keese, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    With the transfers of power in still-colonial sub-Saharan Africa, the epoch of ‘traditional chieftaincy’ seemed to be finally over. The chiefs, frequently regarded by historians and social scientists as a product of the colonial state, appeared to lose all of their authority. Or so it seemed. Fifty years later, we are puzzled by the resilience of chieftaincy in many parts of the African continent. A more profound analysis of chieftaincy in several West African territories under colonial rule...

  19. Seismic Calibration Shots Conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, Southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a large-scale collaborative project with the goal of developing a detailed 3-D structural image of the Salton Trough (including both the Coachella and Imperial Valleys). The image will be used for earthquake hazard analysis, geothermal studies, and studies of plate-boundary transition from an ocean-ocean to a continent-continent plate-boundary. As part of SSIP, a series of calibration shots were detonated in June 2009 in the southern Imperial Va...

  20. The Evolution of Imperial Examination%论清代科举制度发展的因革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵

    2011-01-01

    清代定鼎之初,即宣布采行科举取士之制。沿袭相对较为完善的明朝科举是并不熟悉科举的满洲贵族迅速实现开科取士的便捷之途。在顺治朝建立清代科举制度框架的基础上,经康熙、雍正、乾隆三朝的不断调整与补充,科举制度步入了鼎盛,其缜密与完善程度远超前代。嘉庆、道光朝虽将多项科举制度发展成定制,但受内忧外患之冲击,科举弊端逐渐显露,衰败之势已逐渐显露。咸丰、同治朝,科举已无法沿着其制度之规定正常运作,发展新式教育、改革科举成为晚清有识之士之共识。至光绪朝,清廷虽对科举进行了局部改革,终回天乏力。清廷被迫下诏停废科举。%As soon as the Qing Dynasty is established, The relatively perfect imperial examination evolved from the System in the Qing Dynasty it announces to carry out imperial examination. Ming Dynasty is the short cut for Manzhou no- bles to select talents by different subjects quickly. The system of imperial examination in the Qing Dynasty is established during the reigns of Emperor Shunzhi and improved constantly then. After the three reigns of Emperor Kangxi,Yongzhen and Qianlong, imperial examination reaches a peak, surpassing that in the past. During the reigns of Emperor Jiaqing, Daoguang, although many systems become to be customized, the abuses of imperial examination which is affected by domestic trouble and foreign invasion appears gradually and that it is on the decline becomes apparent. In the reigns of Emperor Xianfeng and Tongzhi, imperial examination can not work normally along its system, and developing new education and reform imperial examination become a common view of scholars in the later Qing Dynasty. Till the reigns of Emperor Guangxu, despite reforming it partly, it is too later and the Qing government is forced to abolish imperial examination.

  1. Imperial shipyard (tersane-i amire) in the ottoman empire in 17th century: management and accounting.

    OpenAIRE

    TORAMAN, Cengiz; Güvemli, Batuhan; Bayramoglu, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    Las instituciones del Imperio Otomano se encontraban bajo control estatal. El astillero Imperial (Tersane-i Amire) estaba entre ellas. El astillero Imperial se estableció a finales del siglo 15 en el Cuerno de Oro (Halic), Estambul, y todavía hoy sigue funcionando. Este estudio examina la gestión y la infraestructura contable de los astilleros con el fin de comprender las razones de la interacción mutua entre la dirección y las prácticas contables del Imperio Otomano. Así, este estudio propor...

  2. Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

    2006-02-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

  3. Growth and form of melanoma cell colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for different growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of elastic cells, showing that experimental results are best reproduced by restricting cell division to the outer rim of the colony. Our results serve to illustrate the wealth of information that can be extracted by a standard experimental method such as the crystal violet assay. (paper)

  4. Bacterial colony counting by Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lombardi, Stefano; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Counting bacterial colonies on microbiological culture plates is a time-consuming, error-prone, nevertheless fundamental task in microbiology. Computer vision based approaches can increase the efficiency and the reliability of the process, but accurate counting is challenging, due to the high degree of variability of agglomerated colonies. In this paper, we propose a solution which adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for counting the number of colonies contained in confluent agglomerates, that scored an overall accuracy of the 92.8% on a large challenging dataset. The proposed CNN-based technique for estimating the cardinality of colony aggregates outperforms traditional image processing approaches, becoming a promising approach to many related applications. PMID:26738016

  5. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predatio...

  6. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  7. Automatic Programming with Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer; Jacqueline L. Whalley; Johnson, Colin G.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic programming is the use of search techniques to find programs that solve a problem. The most commonly explored automatic programming technique is genetic programming, which uses genetic algorithms to carry out the search. In this paper we introduce a new technique called Ant Colony Programming (ACP) which uses an ant colony based search in place of genetic algorithms. This algorithm is described and compared with other approaches in the literature.

  8. Eutectic colony formation: A phase field study

    OpenAIRE

    Plapp, Mathis; Karma, Alain

    2001-01-01

    Eutectic two-phase cells, also known as eutectic colonies, are commonly observed during the solidification of ternary alloys when the composition is close to a binary eutectic valley. In analogy with the solidification cells formed in dilute binary alloys, colony formation is triggered by a morphological instability of a macroscopically planar eutectic solidification front due to the rejection by both solid phases of a ternary impurity that diffuses in the liquid. Here we develop a phase-fiel...

  9. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK; Ogrinc, Nives; Lilek, Nataša; Boštjan NOČ; Božič, Janko; Korošec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper c...

  10. ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Camilo; Bagga, Manish; Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine...

  11. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guzmán

    Full Text Available The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS on human glioblastoma cells (T98G. The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.

  12. Human myeloma in vitro colony growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human myeloma stem cells were examined by their capacity to form colonies in culture. Cells separated from bone marrow of 15 patients with multiple myeloma were cultured in semi-solid methylcellulose with conditioned medium obtained from cultured T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. The number of colonies consisting of more than 20 cells was counted after 10 days of culture. The colonies formed consisted mostly of lymphoplasmacytoid or plasma cells, and the immunoglobulin in the cytoplasm of cells from colonies was identical to that found in cells used for culture. The number of colonies formed was proportional to the number of cells plated. These results suggested that the cells in the colonies were derived from the myeloma cells originally used. The proportion of myeloma stem cells in the proliferative state was examined in 12 patients by the suicide method using [3H]-TdR and the results were between 21 and 75 %, the mean value being approximately 40 %. The irradiation sensitivity of myeloma stem cells was examined by the 60Co-γ-irradiation method. The mean Do value in 7 cases was 116 rads and the mean extrapolation number was 2.0. An inverse relationship was observed between the Do value and the proportion of cells in the S phase. (author)

  13. Periodic Pattern Formation of Bacterial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroto; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1999-04-01

    We have experimentally investigated pattern formation of colonies ofbacterial species Proteus mirabilis, which is famous forforming concentric-ring-like colonies.The colony grows cyclically with the interface repeating an advance anda stop alternately on a surface of a solid agar medium.We distinguish three phases (initial lag phase, the followingmigration and consolidation phases that appear alternately) for the colony growth.When we cut a colony just behind a migrating front shortly after the migrationstarted, the migration ended earlier and the following consolidationlasted longer.However, the following cycles were not influenced by the cut, i.e., thephases of the migration and consolidation were not affected.Global chemical signals governing the colony formation from thecenter were not found to exist.We also quantitatively checked phase entrainment by letting two coloniescollide with each other and found that it does not take place in macroscopic scales.All these experimental results suggest that the most important factorfor the migration is the cell population density.

  14. Staying Home While Studying Abroad: Anti-Imperial Praxis for Globalizing Feminist Visions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Roshanravan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper hinges on the recognition that when study-abroad opportunities are presented and perceived as a means of access to global perspectives on women and gender, they reduce the problem of US-centrism in Women's Studies to a geographic rather than an epistemic limitation. According to this logic, physical travel away from the United States can serve as an effective method for overcoming US-centrism and attending to the "global," a curricular strategy that Chandra Mohanty and M. Jacqui Alexander call "the cartographic rule of the transnational as always 'elsewhere'" (Mohanty and Alexander 2010, 33. This cartographic rule reinforces hegemonic representations of the United States as a unified "modern" white/Anglo nation against which the culturally Other terrain of the "global" becomes understandable. As such, the study-abroad approach to internationalizing US Women's Studies relies on the re-erasure of US Women of Color genealogies and epistemologies that disrupt the white/Anglo cultural assumptions grounding the field's central category of "woman/women." If challenging US-centrism in US Women's Studies is meant to dismantle the white/Anglo monocultural perspective of US imperialism, I argue that the geographic travel imperative of "study abroad" must be tempered by a re-inhabitation of the field through the radical genealogies and epistemologies of US Women of Color, a strategy I call the anti-imperial feminist praxis of "staying home."

  15. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaming, V. de [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: vldevlaming@ucdavis.edu; DiGiorgio, C. [Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 942836, Sacramento, CA 94236 (United States); Fong, S. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deanovic, L.A. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la [Colorado River Basin Region Water Quality Control Board, 73-720 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 100, Palm Desert, CA 92260 (United States); Miller, J.L. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, M.J. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Richard, N.J. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California.

  16. Y chromosome of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Tachibana, Harumasa; Wei, Lan-Hai; Yu, Ge; Wen, Shao-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2015-06-01

    The House of Aisin Gioro is the imperial family of the last dynasty in Chinese history-Qing dynasty (1644-1911). The Aisin Gioro family originated from Jurchen tribes and founded the Manchu people before they conquered China. By investigating the Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) of seven modern male individuals who claim to belong to the Aisin Gioro family (three of which have full records of pedigree), we found that three of them (two of which having full pedigree, whose most recent common ancestor is Nurgaci) showed very close relationship (1-2 steps of differences in 17 STRs) and possessed a rare haplotype. We therefore conclude that this haplotype is the Y chromosome of the House of Aisin Gioro. Further tests of single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicate that they belong to haplogroup C3b2b1*-M401(xF5483), although their Y-STR results indicate that they are not a part of the 'star cluster' (once linked to Genghis Khan), which belongs to the same haplogroup. This study forms the base for the pedigree research of the imperial family of Qing dynasty by means of genetics. PMID:25833470

  17. Relationship between demographics and diet specificity of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd; Bragin, E.; Knick, Steven T.; Smith, Andrew T.

    2005-01-01

    The demographic consequences of within-population variability in predator foraging are not well understood. We assessed the relationship between the degree of diet specialization and two demographic parameters, population density and reproductive output, within a single population of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca at a nature reserve in north-central Kazakhstan. Nearest-neighbour distances between eagle nests throughout the reserve, and thus population density, were correlated with the degree to which diets were specialized. Diet diversity showed an extensive regional variability that was linked to prey distributions, but within-year analyses of reproductive output did not show similar linkages. However, multi-year analyses of breeding performance showed inter-regional differences in nesting success that were paralleled, and probably driven by, similar trends in diet diversity. In contrast, brood size at fledging was not linked to diet diversity and was more probably driven by reserve-wide influences such as weather. Finally, the decision to initiate breeding was associated neither with diet diversity nor with environmental variability. Our results indicate that the degree of dietary specialization is linked to the demographics of Imperial Eagle populations. For these and other raptor populations, it is possible that management could be used separately to increase or decrease nesting success, brood size at fledging, and the likelihood that a pair will initiate breeding.

  18. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California

  19. The first korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology: early career of Kong pyung woo (1907-1995) as an unusual example of medical profession in colonial Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho

    2013-12-01

    This article traces early career of Kong Pyung Woo, a public figure famous for being the first doctor of medicine in ophthalmology with Korean ethnicity in 1936, for founding and running the oldest and still the most successful private eye clinic in Korea since 1937, and also for his engagement in development of Korean mechanical typewriter since 1949. His case is an illustrative example of how a Korean under the Japanese colonial rule (1910-1945) could build up a career to become a medical doctor, taking full advantage of the chances available. Kong, born in 1907 in a rural province in northwestern Korea, acquired a doctor's license in 1926 by passing the qualifying examination of the Government General in Korea. The qualification test was in itself an outcome of colonial education system, in which the supply of medical doctors by only a few tertiary schools could not meet the demands. After working for a state hospital for one year, Kong volunteered to be a visiting student at Keijo Medical College, to fulfill his dream of "becoming a prominent bacteriologist like Noguchi Hideyo." He was soon officially appointed as a tutor at Department of Ophthalmology, as he had been endorsed by professor Satake Shyuichi for his diligence and earnestness. Satake also encouraged Kong to pursue a doctoral degree and recommended him to Tokumitsu Yoshitomi, a professor in the Department of Pathology at Keijo Imperial University, so that Kong could experience cutting-edge research at the imperial university. Kong reported on his experiments on the pathology of chorioretinitis centralis by 1935. He submitted the reports to Nagoya Imperial University, Japan, as a doctoral thesis, and eventually obtained the degree in 1936, which was the first Korean doctor of medicine in ophthalmology. The doctorate made Kong a public figure and he opened his own private clinic in 1937. The Kong Eye Clinic was the first private eye clinic owned and run by Korean, and soon became popular in Seoul

  20. [The characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in the colonial period represented in the bulletin, Woosaeng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world. was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well as in Korea. It

  1. Blurring boundaries, distant companions: non-kin female caregivers for children in colonial India (nineteenth and twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Swapna M

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of child-care by non-kin, “non-family” members and their representations in colonial India. It focuses primarily on Bengal and relies on several genres of literary documents. Bengal harboured the seat of the British imperial capital in the city of Calcutta until 1911 and its culture was shaped in unique ways compared with other Indian cities. Based on a reading of select literary documents such as European advice manuals and Bengali personal narratives, the paper argues that the relationship between caregivers and children in colonial households attests to the building of new ties and deep ambiguous, multi-dimensional relationships with non-kin members thereby revealing the plasticity of Indian families where sociocultural boundaries were blurred and intimate relationships forged. Beginning with the literary representation of a wet-nurse in Mahasweta Devi's short story Breast-Giver, the paper delves into the world of European and Indian accounts to recuperate the history of the caregivers. It demonstrates that despite the emphasis of recent scholars that the construction of a respectable middle-class identity was based on a sharp distinction from lower social groups, such as working women and prostitutes, the history of child-care by hired domestics reveals the sharing of a common world by different caste-class groups and the interpenetration of the two domains of culture. PMID:21280398

  2. The History of the Look-To-The-East Idea in Malaya during the British Colonial Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uqbah Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze the existence of the Look-To-The-East idea in Malaya during the British colonial era. The methodology used is based on the observation method of the resources available in libraries and the National Archives of Malaysia. The main issue of this study is to unravel the existence of the Look-To-The-East idea in Malaysia before it was made as the Look-To-The-East Policy in 1982 during the administration of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. Developments around the world due to Western imperialism have driven the Malay community to re-examine their condition. At this point, many questions begin to arise why they are left so far compared to the advances made by Western civilization. Since the British colonial not very likely in the promotion of the modernization effort among the indigenous population, but preferred the efforts that can strengthen their importance, the greater responsibility lies within the intellectuals in Malaya. The main media used as a channel for the dissemination of their new ideas and thinking are newspapers and magazines. In Malaya, the emergence of so many newspapers and magazines in the first half of the 20th century was associated with the phenomenon of modernization. Therefore, when we want to examine the existence of the Look-To-The-East idea in the Malay community modernization efforts at this time, newspapers and magazines serve as very useful documents.

  3. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  4. Opiate addiction and the entanglements of imperialism and patriarchy in Manchukuo, 1932-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Norman

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese colonial state of Manchukuo, opiate addiction was condemned by officials and critics alike. But the state-sponsored creation of a monopoly, opium laws, and rehabilitation programs failed to reduce rates of addiction. Further, official media condemnation of opiate addiction melded with local Chinese-language literature to stigmatise addiction, casing a negative light over the state's failure to realise its own anti-opiate agenda. Chinese writers were thus transfixed in a complex colonial environment in which they applauded measures to reduce harm to the local population while levelling critiques of Japanese colonial rule. This paper demonstrates how the Chinese-language literature of Manchukuo did not simply parrot official politics. It also delegitimised Japanese rule through opiate narratives that are gendered, consistently negative, and more critical of the state than might be expected in a colonial literature. PMID:20058395

  5. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study are......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state of...... research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  6. PIXE analysis on an ancient scroll sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn. (author)

  7. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  8. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  9. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  10. The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

  11. La vil·la romana baix-imperial de la Ciutadella de Roses: algunes consideracions i darreres novetats

    OpenAIRE

    Nolla, Josep Maria; Nieto, Xavier

    1980-01-01

    Descripció dels resultats de les excavacions arqueològiques corresponents al gran edifici o vil·la baix-imperial que es va localitzar al sud de les restes arqueològiques corresponents al barri hel·lenístic de la Ciutadella de Roses

  12. Imperial visits of the Habsburgs in the collection fund of the Slovak Mining Museum in Banská Stiavnica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celková, M.

    2004-01-01

    The members of the Habsburg royal family visited Banská Štiavnica several times. As Banská Štiavnica belonged to a number of significant mining towns in the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, emperors paid attention to its development and progress in mining. The imperial visits were always connected with

  13. The imperial conquest and reordering of the production, processing, distribution and consumption of food: a theoretical contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The imperial conquest and reordering of the production, processing, distribution and consumption of food: a theoretical contribution - Empire is a new mode of ordering and governance. Food empires are monopolistic networks that control large, and expanding, parts of the production, processing, distr

  14. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...

  15. 77 FR 55224 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... are available for public inspection at the BLM El Centro Field Office, 1661 South Fourth Street, El Centro, CA 92243. Interested persons may also review the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP and CDCA Plan... of appeal must be filed in the BLM El Centro Field Office, 1661 South Fourth Street, El Centro,...

  16. 75 FR 45653 - Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS are available in the El Centro Field Office at the above address and at the BLM California State Office, 2800... INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Zale, BLM El Centro Field Office, 1661 S. 4th Street, El Centro, CA 92243. (760)...

  17. Study on the Design Concept of Ancient Peking City%古代北京城市设计意匠探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震

    2014-01-01

    元、明、清三代的北京城及其内部主要宫殿、坛庙的选址、规划与建筑设计具有明显的特征。城市的“外局-大地景观”,“内局-皇城与宫城”和“堂局-紫禁城建筑群”三个层面的设计中运用了中国传统的风水与礼制思想方法,城市及其内部主要建筑群的位置、形态与尺度的确定具有深刻的含义。归纳并总结这一古代优秀城市与建筑的设计意匠,将为当代全球化加剧背景下我国城市与建筑设计特色的建构带来启示和借鉴,具有重要意义。%There were distinctive features of site selection, layout and architecture design in ancient Peking city and its main palaces and temples in Yuan/Ming/Qing dynasty. The methods of Chinese traditional Fengshui and set of etiquette concepts had been applied in the designs of “landscape architecture”, “ imperial city and imperial palace ” and “building group in the forbidden city” , and the site, form and scale decision of the city and the main buildings had profound meanings. To analyze and summarize the design concept of this excellent ancient city and its buildings, the study has important significance and will bring inspirations and references to construct unique feature of city and architecture design in our country under the background of globalization.

  18. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy M; NIELSEN, STEEN L.; Per Kryger

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were ...

  19. The makeshift settlement: colonial policy in British West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A M

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the evolution of colonial policy within British West Africa, and is based largely on unpublished correspondence between the Colonial office and colonial governors, held in the Public Record Office in London. It argues that the colonial states were unable to generate or implement a satisfactory strategy for capitalist development. In the first twenty years of colonial rule, various projects were outlined, which assumed the introduction of private property in land, the enco...

  20. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  1. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muruganandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures.

  2. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  3. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  4. Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains based on position distribution model of ant colony foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao; Gao, Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24955402

  5. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  6. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  7. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  8. Investigation of ecosystems impacts from geothermal development in Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Ireland, R.R.; Kercher, J.R.; Koranda, J.J.; Tompkins, G.A.

    1979-07-13

    A summary of three years of field ecological investigation in Imperial Valley Environmental Program is presented. The potential terrestrial habitat impacts of geothermal development are discussed for shorebirds and waterfowl habitat, the endangered clapper rail, powerline corridors, noise effects, animal trace element burdens, and the desert community. Aquatic habitats are discussed in terms of Salton Sea salinity, effects of geothermal brine discharges to the Salton Sea, trace element baselines, and potential toxicity of brine spills in freshwater. Studies of impacts on agriculture involved brine movement in soil, release of trace metals, trace element baselines in soil and plants, water requirements of crops, and H{sub 2}S effects on crop production in the presence of CO{sub 2} and ozone.

  9. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software

  10. REVISITING IMPERIAL CULTURAL STUDIES AND ETHNIC WRITING: A Subaltern Speaks from the Boondocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. San Juan, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying a historical-materialist framework, this exploratory venture to critique Eurocentric cultural studies deploys certain oppositional events/discourses to point out the limitations of the hegemonic discipline. Deconstructing elite bourgeois culture via institutionalizing popular tastes and demystifying idealist rhetoric simply reinforce alienation with a postmodernist hubris. The resurgence of “third-world” resistance with its focus on racial/gender negativity (as in certain democratizing initiatives in the Philippines and among people of color in the metropole may signal a return to the radical vision of cultural studies. Key to this renewal is the rediscovery of the dialectics of local/ethnic practice and the concrete universal of an anti-capitalist liberation project of subalterns everywhere defying imperialism and the terrorist neoliberal global order.

  11. Ludus de Antichristo e o drama da escatologia imperial no século XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cesar Dreger de Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buscamos neste texto analisar as imbricações entre o texto teatral germânico do século XII, o Ludus de Antichristo, e o seu contexto político-cultural, particularmente em relação às personagens do Anticristo e do Último Imperador Romano, seus protagonistas, com a Escatologia Imperial encontrada no período. Nosso artigo contém um detalhado resumo da peça, estudos relacionados às tradições e documentos que levaram à sua concepção e seu enquadramento nos debates políticos e religiosos do século XII.

  12. The origins of the psychological 'interior'--evidence from imperial Roman literary practices and related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Ciarán

    2008-01-01

    The pervasiveness in psychological literature of the assumption that mental events and psychology in general occur within the person-henceforth the psychological 'interior'- is introduced and the received view of its historical origin is presented. This account is challenged and classical historical source material from the period 100 to 400 CE is interpreted in relation to factors of literary practice and related issues (mode of reading, authority and format of text, mode of writing, and author's motivation). It is concluded that the 'interior' that emerges in the reflexive discourse of Imperial Rome develops in tandem with changes in literary practices and that there is consequently substantial evidence for positing an intimate relationship between these practices, subjective experience, and reflexive discourse. PMID:18196548

  13. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  14. The Contemporary Value of the Imperial Examination System:International Prestige Promotion and National Civil Servant System Reform%科举制的当代价值:国际影响力的提升与公务员制度改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭靖; 彭程远

    2013-01-01

      邓嗣禹是我国科举考试制度史理论研究的奠基人与开拓者。学习邓嗣禹对于我国古代科举制度的分析理论,评述其历史影响,论述其当代价值,研究对我国文化战略的发展,以及对于公务员考试录用制度的借鉴作用都有十分重要的意义。本文在对邓嗣禹所著《中国考试制度史》一书研究、评价的基础上,对于科举制度的历史影响,从利弊两个方面进行了全面、综合评述。同时引用政治学、管理学的相关理论,在国内首次提出将科举制度作为我国“文化软实力”项目的概念,以及如何进一步扩大国际影响力的具体建议,并对目前我国公务员考录制度中存在的问题,也提出了相关借鉴措施。%Deng Siyu(Ssu-yu Teng)is the founder and pioneer in history theory of Chinese imperial examination system . Study of Deng Siyu for China’s ancient imperial examination system analysis theory, review its historical influence, discussed its contemporary value, research on promote China’s cultural development strategy, as well as for the civil servant examination system draw lessons from action to have very important significance. In this paper, written by Deng Siyu History of Chinese Examination System one book study, on the basis of the evaluation, for the historical influence of the imperial examination system, from the pros and cons of two respects undertook comprehensive, comprehensive review from. At the same time, citing political science, management science theory, for the first time in China the imperial examination system as China’s“soft power of culture”is the concept of the project, and how to further expand the international influence of specific recommendations, and to our country is at present the civil servant recruitment examination system is also put forward to draw lessons from, reform measures.

  15. 举子科考心理研究刍议%The Tentative Opinion about the Study of the Examinee’s Psychology under the Influence of the Imperial Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮

    2013-01-01

    举子的科举考试心理主要涉及科考牵引下的举子心理动机、科考影响下的举子心理过程和科考塑造出的举子心理个性三个方面。对举子的科考心理进行研究不仅可以使人了解古代考生的心理活动,也可以与现在的考生心理进行比较以探寻考试影响下的考生心理活动的一般规律,进而服务于当前的教育考试实践。目前,部分学者对应考举子心态和心理活动的一些探讨在一定程度上为该研究的深入开展奠定了初步基础。%There are mainly three aspects contained in the examinee’s psychology under the influence of the Imperial Examination:the motivation of taking the examination, the mental process influenced by the examination, the personality shaped by the examination. The study of these above not only makes the psychology of the ancient examinee easily understood, but also can be used to provide guidance and reference for the practice of current educational exams after its comparison with the modern examinee’s psychology and the general laws of the psychological activity of the examinee are found. Now some scholars’exploration of the ancient examinee’s psychology and mentality has laid a preliminary foundation for the in-depth study to some extent.

  16. Watermarking ancient documents based on wavelet packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Med Neji; Jedidi, Ola; Essoukri Ben Amara, Najoua

    2009-01-01

    The ancient documents present an important part of our individual and collective memory. In addition to their preservation, the digitization of these documents may offer users a great number of services like remote look-up and browsing rare documents. However, the documents, digitally formed, are likely to be modified or pirated. Therefore, we need to develop techniques of protecting images stemming from ancient documents. Watermarking figures to be one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless, the performance of watermarking procedure depends on being neither too robust nor too invisible. Thus, choosing the insertion field or mode as well as the carrier points of the signature is decisive. We propose in this work a method of watermarking images stemming from ancient documents based on wavelet packet decomposition. The insertion is carried out into the maximum amplitude ratio being in the best base of decomposition, which is determined beforehand according to a criterion on entropy. This work is part of a project of digitizing ancient documents in cooperation with the National Library of Tunis (BNT).

  17. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  18. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  19. Fast neutron activation analysis of ancient mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty specimens of ancient Chinese bronze mirror from various dynasties are analysed by fast neutron radiated from neutron generator. The contents of copper, tin and lead in the mirror are listed in this paper. Experimental method and measurement equipment are described too

  20. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize...

  1. Ancient science in a digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Daryn

    2013-03-01

    Technology is rapidly changing our understanding of ancient science. New methods of visualization are bringing to light important texts we could not previously read; changes in online publishing are allowing unprecedented access to difficult-to-find materials; and online mapping tools are offering new pictures of lost spaces, connectivities, and physical objects. PMID:23789512

  2. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…

  3. Moessbauer effect study of ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in examining ancient Egyptian pottery. From the values of Moessbauer parameters and the differences for the individual samples, conclusions could be drawn as to the temperature of baking and the kind of clay used in various archaeological periods. (A.K.)

  4. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  5. A Roman Dodecahedron as an ancient rangefinder

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. I report about some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to modern methods. In particular, I am discussing the use of Roman Dodecahedra, bronze artifacts of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance

  6. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  7. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  8. Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Erik H.

    2013-03-01

    The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

  9. A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhof, Mark Jan; Rahman, Fahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a probabilistic model to describe how signs form words in Ancient Egyptian writing. This applies to both hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. The model uses an intermediate layer of sign functions. Experiments are concerned with finding the most likely sequence of sign functions that relates a given sequence of signs and a given sequence of phonemes. Postprint

  10. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  11. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  12. Characteristics of mortars from ancient bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    Vol. 7. Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Válek, J.; Hughes, J.; Groot, J.), s. 165-174 ISBN 978-94-007-4634-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067; GA MŠk(CZ) LA09008 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mortars * ancient bridges * analytical methods Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  14. Surface pauses in relation to dive duration in imperial cormorants; how much time for a breather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2004-05-01

    Air-breathing animals diving to forage can optimize time underwater by diving with just enough oxygen for the projected performance underwater. By so doing they surface with minimal body oxygen levels, which leads to maximal rates of oxygen uptake. We examined whether imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps adhere to this by examining dive:pause ratios in birds diving for extended, continuous periods to constant depths, assuming that the oxygen used underwater was exactly replenished by the periods at the surface. Examination of the cumulative time spent in surface pauses relative to the cumulative time spent in diving showed that surface pauses increase according to a power curve function of time spent in the dive or water depth. In a simplistic model we considered the rate at which birds expended energy underwater to be constant and that the rate of oxygen replenishment during the surface pause was directly proportional to the oxygen deficit. We then worked out values for the rate constant for the surface pause before using this constant to examine bird body oxygen levels immediately pre- and post dive. The model predicted that imperial cormorants do not submerge with just enough oxygen to cover their projected dive performance but rather dive with substantial reserves, although these reserves decrease with increasing dive depth/duration. We speculate that these oxygen reserves may be used to enhance bird survival when rare events, such as the appearance of predators or discovery of large prey requiring extended handling time, occur. The form of the oxygen saturation curve over time at the surface means that the time costs for maintaining constant oxygen reserves become particularly onerous for long, deep dives, so the observed decrease in reserves with increasing dive duration is expected in animals benefiting by optimizing for time. PMID:15107434

  15. Testing ground : Imperial conducting SA-SAGD pilot at Cold Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2009-03-15

    Imperial Oil Limited will test a variation of its patented steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process at its Cold Lake holdings, where oilsand deposits are interspersed with thin shale layers. Most of the deposit is developed using cyclic steam stimulation (CSS). However, Imperial Oil developed the solvent assisted SAGD (SA-SAGD) process for use in areas where CSS does not work due to the degree of heat loss, such as oilsands with top gas and bottom water. In such cases, the challenge lies in minimizing the amount of steam wasted in water and gas thief zones. A pilot plant has been constructed to compare resource recovery performance of SA-SAGD with conventional SAGD. The long term potential for both processes for certain reservoir areas will also be evaluated. SA-SAGD pilot tests conducted at Cold Lake have revealed that the process may also be applicable to portions of the Athabasca oilsands. The pilot test is being conducted on the southwestern portion of the Cold Lake property near the Mahkeses plant which includes facilities for steam generation, bitumen treating and electricity generation. The pilot scale tests involve the use of 2 horizontal well pairs and 6 observation wells. Steam injection is expected to be underway in the second half of 2009. The solvent composition will be similar to the diluent used at Cold Lake, which is usually a natural gas condensate. It was concluded that SA-SAGD should not be confused with the Liquid Addition to Steam to Enhance Recovery (LASER) process, where a small amount of solvent is added to steam injection into CSS wells. 1 fig.

  16. Esso Imperial Oil annual report to shareholders 2004 : 125 years of energy leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information of Esso Imperial Oil to its shareholders, as well as a review of its 2004 operations. In 2004, the total return on shares was more than 25 per cent (TSX) and has averaged almost 20 per cent a year for the past 10 years. The highest earnings in the company's history were achieved in 2004, $2,052 million, a significant increase from the record $1,705 million earnings in 2003. In 2004, total distributions to shareholders were almost $1.2 billion, including $872 million to buy back around 14 million shares. Debt as a percentage of total capital was below 20 per cent. At year end, the balance of cash was $1,279 million. Capital expenditures for 2004 were $1,445 million. Investments included advancing major upstream projects and funding significant refinery upgrades to reduce sulphur levels in diesel fuel. Operating highlights included substantial progress on upstream projects with a focus on developing oil-sands leases in Alberta, natural gas in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories and offshore resources on Canada's East Coast. Total research expenditure in Canada was $38 million, with 3 new patents and 180 new or reformulated products commercialized. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included accounts of Imperial Oil Inc., and its subsidiaries, as well as the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  17. Colony location algorithm for assignment problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingwei WANG

    2004-01-01

    A novel algorithm called Colony Location Algorithm (CLA) is proposed. It mimics the phenomena in biotic conmunity that colonies of species could be located in the places most suitable to their growth. The factors working on the species location such as the nutrient of soil, resource competition between species, growth and decline process, and effect on environment were considered in CLA via the nutrient function, growth and decline rates, environment evaluation and fertilization strategy.CLA was applied to solve the classical assignment problems. The computation results show that CLA can achieve the optimal solution with higher possibility and shorter running time.

  18. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses African and Indian newspaper networks in Kenya in the late 1940s in an Indian Ocean perspective. Newspapers were important parts of a printing culture that was sustained by Indian and African nationalist politics and economic enterprise. In this period new intermediary groups...... of view in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter...

  19. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  20. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  1. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  2. Monoclonal origin of B lymphocyte colony-forming cells in spleen colonies formed by multipotential hemopoietic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, PK; Johnson, GR

    1978-01-01

    Spleen colonies produced by transplanting lethally irradiated mice with either 12 day fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells were found to contain B- lymphocyte colony-forming cells (BL-CFC) . The proportion of BL-CFC positive spleen colonies did not increase substantially between 8 and 14 days after transplantation, the range being 18-45 percent. However, the absolute number of BL-CFC per spleen colony varied considerably (between 1 and 10,318), although the majority of colonies contained less than 200 BL-CFC. Irrespective of the time after transplantation, smaller spleen colonies were found to have a higher frequency of BL-CFC than larger spleen colonies. To determine the possible clonal origin of BL-CFC from spleen colony- forming unit (CFU-S), CBA mice were injected with equal numbers of CBA and CBA T(6)/T(6) fetal liver or adult bone marrow cells. Analysis of 7-15-day spleen colonies demonstrated that 90 percent were either exclusively T(6) positive or T(6) negative and approximately equal numbers ofboth colony types were observed. B-lymphocyte colonies were grown and successfully karyotyped from 19 spleen colonies. When compared with the original spleen colony karyotype the B-lymphocyte colony cells karyotype was identical in all 19 cases. In 3 of the 19 colonies analyzed a mixture of T(6) positive and T(6) negative karyotypes was present and identical proportions of the karyotypes were present in the pooled B-lymphocyte colony cells and spleen colony cells. The data indicate that the B-lymphocyte colony-forming cells detected in spleen colonies are genuine members of the hemopoietic clone derived from the initiating hemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S). PMID:309918

  3. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmakoupi, Mantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC) research project (1963–77) of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodologica...

  4. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  5. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  6. Primary study of Gu Dingfang, an imperial doctor of the Ming dynasty and his funerary objects%明代御医顾定芳及其随葬品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高毓秋

    2001-01-01

    Through researching textually the name, alias, life story, family tree, and medical thought, medical activities and unearthed culture relics etc. of an imperial doctor, Gu Dingfang, his remarkable contribution to the reservation of ancient classic medical editions and the reality of a new creative theory on psychological therapy put forward by him are shown. His outstanding achievements not only complement the blank of medical history of the Ming dynasty, but also occupy a position in the world's medical history.%考证御医顾定芳的姓名字号、身世谱系、生平事迹、医学思想、医学活动、医学文物等内容,发掘出他在保存古代经典医学版本方面的卓越贡献和他提出的心理治疗方面的独创性论述事实,不仅可补充明代医学史的一项空白,而且当在世界医学史上占有一席之地。

  7. Chao Yuanfang: Imperial Physician of the Sui Dynasty and an Early Pertussis Observer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Wu, Wendy; Kilgore, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Early Chinese texts contain extensive disease descriptions, including various texts that contain descriptions of modern-day conditions. During the Sui Dynasty, a leading scholar, Chao Yuanfang, may have authored a leading treatise 1400 years ago. Although these texts are the subject of ongoing research, evidence suggests that a clinical syndrome consistent with pertussis was observed in ancient China. PMID:26977422

  8. RICE IN COLONIAL AND POST COLONIAL SOUTHEAST ASIA: A FOOD REGIME ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Pradadimara

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the ways in which rice, as a global commodity, has been produced and sold in various regions in Southeast Asia from the colonial era to the present days. This paper employs a food regime analysis first introduced by Harriet Friedmann (1982) and later developed together with Philip McMichael (1989) to look at the global political economy of rice. In this paper, it will be shown how various colonial and post colonial states in Southeast Asia (including Thailand who was never f...

  9. PERFIL SOCIO- FAMILIAR EN ADULTOS MAYORES INSTITUCIONALIZADOS: TEMUCO, PADRE LAS CASAS Y NUEVA IMPERIAL SOCIO- FAMILY PROFILE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED OLDER ADULTS TEMUCO, PADRE LAS CASAS AND NUEVA IMPERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Sepúlveda R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El proceso de envejecimiento genera cambios importantes en el estilo de vida de la población con repercusiones significativas en el volumen y distribución de la carga social de enfermedad. La Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU plantea que es un fenómeno secuencial, acumulativo e irreversible, que deteriora el organismo progresivamente hasta hacerlo incapaz de enfrentar circunstancias y condiciones del entorno. Objetivo general: Conocer el perfil socio-familiar de adultos mayores institucionalizados en comunas de Temuco, Padre Las Casas y Nueva Imperial, año 2009. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal correlacional, en muestra de 80 adultos mayores institucionales. La recolección de la información se realizó con el Cuestionario Calidad de Vida para Ancianos, elaborado por Inga y Vara, adaptado a los objetivos del estudio. Se realizó análisis descriptivo (distribución de frecuencias, medias, promedios-desviación estándar e inferencial (chi cuadrado, Pearson. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 78,1 años, 15,0% eran mapuches, 55,0% eran masculinos, 11,2% "no sabe leer ni escribir" , 40,5% no tiene contacto con sus hijos, en maltrato ha recibido golpes o empujones (15,1% más de diez veces.18,7% piensa casi a diario que está insatisfecho con su vida actual, 59,4% no recibe atención de salud por la institución. Conclusiones: se constató una situación de aislamiento, soledad personal y déficit de cuidados entregado por las instituciones, reto para Enfermería, donde debería tener participación de privilegio en la toma de decisiones en políticas de cuidado para la población en estudio.The aging process produces important lifestyle changes in the population with a significant impact on the volume and distribution of the social burden of disease. The United Nations (UNO suggests that it is a sequential, cumulative and irreversible phenomenon beginning at age 60 where the human being experiences physical

  10. Statement of John F. Turner on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Havasu/Imperial/Kofa/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given...

  11. Statement of Michael J. Spear on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Kofa/Havasu/Imperial/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given...

  12. Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerula Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.

  13. Education and Evangelism in the English Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article considers two related educational endeavors of the Massachusetts colony. The first is the colonists' efforts to pass their religious traditions to their children. The second is the effort of missionaries to spread the Christian faith to Native Americans. In both cases, the colonists wanted their children and the American Indians to…

  14. Medical management: from colony to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2010-12-01

    In this article the development from the colonies founded in the 19th century to the current situation is discussed. Future development is not to simply follow the slogan 'to the community' translated as 'epilepsy must be treated in general hospitals' but to preserve epileptology as specialized care with 'centres of excellence' orchestrated by coupling epilepsy centres with academical neurology. PMID:21074458

  15. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  16. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  17. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  18. Individuals, Institutions and Discourses: Knowledge and Power in Russia's Iranian Studies of the Late Imperial, Soviet and Post-Soviet Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Denis V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    The scholarship on late Imperial Russia’s Oriental studies is divided by a disagreement over the applicability of Edward Said’s ‘Orientalism’ to the Russian case. Moreover, in a broader sense, since the mid 1990s, Western scholarship has not been unanimous on the applicability of the underlying Foucauldian notions to late Imperial and Soviet Russia. While presenting a systematic study of Soviet and post-Soviet scholarship (mostly unfamiliar to Western readership), this article offers an asses...

  19. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  20. Preliminary catalog of seabird colonies and photographic mapping of seabird colonies: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary catalog identifies 339 seabird colonies lying along the North Pacific coast of Alaska between Cape Fairweather and Unimak Pass. Information is...

  1. Oswaldo Costa, Antropofagia, y la crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui, Carlos A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oswaldo Costa was a key member of the Brazilian modernist Antropofagia (Anthropophagy movement of the late 1920s, yet he has been largely forgotten by critics and marginalized from national cultural history. Costa articulated —as no other member of the movement did, including his famous leader Oswald de Andrade— an Antropofagia intellectually engaged in what we call a cannibal critique of colonial modernity and Occidentalism. Costa’s Antropofagia cannibalized the historical archive, reading against the grain of a triumphant Western imperial history. Throughout his contributions to the Revista de Antropofagia, he questioned Brazil’s cultural allegiance to Europe, pointed out the existence of asynchronous temporalities within Brazil, and defied Eurocentric notions of civilization and progress that ideologically structure Brazilian nationalism in the ninetieth and twentieth centuries. He also enacted an anthropophagous re-reading of Brazilian historiography against its celebration of colonialism and proposed the necessity of a cultural decolonization. This article analyzes Costa’s principal contributions to Antropofagia and rescues his hitherto overlooked countercolonial thought from the oblivion of collective forgetting. Moreover, it examines Costa’s significant view of Brazilian modernity as a perfidious armistice with other barbarous temporalities, and of the Westernization of Brazil as a deceptive appearance that hides ever-present colonial antagonisms.Oswaldo Costa fue un miembro fundamental del movimiento modernista Antropofagia de finales de la década de 1920. Pese al olvido crítico de su obra y a su exclusión de la historia cultural brasileña, Costa articuló —como acaso ningún otro miembro del movimiento, incluyendo a su famoso líder Oswald de Andrade— una Antropofagia-otra, intelectualmente trabada en lo que denominamos una crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial y del Occidentalismo. A diferencia de la mayor

  2. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    revealed that his brother Tadaske and Shigeo also stayed in Chosŏn to act as an important assistants for the Colonial Chosŏn Government-general. Kudoh was an important man in Japanese society in Chosŏn, acting as a member of 「Group of Same Origin」 and 'Chosŏn Association of great Asia'which was an important organization assisting Colonial Chosŏn Government-general and was a representative position in Seoul district of Bukmichang-jeong(now Bukchang-dong) Fifth, Kudoh Takeki's precise activity to terminate Chosŏn cultural 'gene'and lead to enlightenment was analyzed by an examination of his Medical Science as an occupation and Confucianism as a background of his thought. Even he attempted to enlighten the brutal Chosŏn people in cultural aspects but it was only a tool to assist the colonial policy of Japan by emphasizing 'Kyoikuchokugo(Imperial Rescript on Education)'to implant the Kodo-Seishin(Imperial Spirit). Analyzing the relationship of Kumamoto Practical Party with Yi Toegye, the intention of a deep connection toward 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'by colonial policy was revealed. In conclusion, the paper revealed the Japanese modernization frame to complete 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'and 'Make people to obey the Japan Emperor'by enlightening the dark Chosŏn and merging them with Japan as Kudoh intended. PMID:26819437

  3. Proud to be a Goan: colonial memories, post-colonial identities and music

    OpenAIRE

    Sardo, Susana

    2010-01-01

    During 451 years of colonial history, catholic Goans used music as a mediator of identity negotiation. In a political context repressing musical sonority of Indian flavour, in which Portuguese was the official language, catholic Goans created their own music, sung in Konkani and performed according to Portuguese models. Mandó among other hybrid and ambivalent musical genres, comprehen- sible for colonial rulers and Goans but with different significance for both, acquired an emblematic status....

  4. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  5. A quantitative model of honey bee colony population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Khoury

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem.

  6. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes such as...... early native Americans. Hence, ancient DNA contains information pertinent to numerous fields of study including evolution, population genetics, ecology, climatology, medicine, archeology, and behavior. The major obstacles to the study of aDNA are its extremely low yield, contamination with modern DNA...

  7. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused on the characterization study of ancient pottery shreds excavated recently from Sembiankandiyur in India. The study is intended to identify the firing temperature, firing conditions and morphology of the ancient pottery samples. The samples were analyzed using FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. FTIR and XRD studies were used in mineralogical characterization of potteries. The firing temperature and conditions were interpreted by studying the difference in mineral composition in the samples using FTIR and XRD. TG-DTA is considered the complementary technique to elucidate the firing temperature from the thermal characteristic reactions such as dehydration, decomposition and transformations of minerals in the course of controlled firing of the samples. The results showed that all the samples fired in a oxidizing condition and firing temperature also inferred.(authors)

  8. Images of Indonesia in the Dutch press 1950-1962 : Characteristics of an Imperial Hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Johannes

    1993-01-01

    Cartoons in Dutch newspapers and magazines in the decade after the Indonesian decolonisation until the end of the New Guinea dispute in 1962 illustrate the deteriorating relationship between the Netherlands and its former colony from Dutch perspective in all its different shades. They represent the

  9. Anti-Imperialism during the Philippine-American War: Protesting "Criminal Aggression" and "Benevolent Assimilation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin Leigh

    2009-01-01

    At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War of 1898, the United States purchased the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris. For over a decade beginning in early 1899, the United States waged a brutal war to suppress Filipinos seeking an end to colonial rule. My dissertation investigates the anti-imperialist movement in the United States…

  10. Optimized Ant Colony Algorithm by Local Pheromone Update

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Yu

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony algorithm, a heuristic simulated algorithm, provides better solutions for non-convex, non-linear and discontinuous optimization problems. For ant colony algorithm, it is frequently to be trapped into local optimum, which might lead to stagnation. This article presents the  city-select strategy, local pheromone update strategy, optimum solution prediction strategy and local optimization strategy to optimize ant colony algorithm, provides ant colony algorithm based on local pheromone...

  11. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  12. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-01-01

    Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent ed...

  13. Science in the Study of Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia; Shortland, Andrew; Rowland, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Egyptology has been dominated by the large quantity of written and pictorial material available. This amazing archaeology has opened up a wonderful view of the ancient Egyptian world. The importance of hieroglyphics and texts, and their interpretation, has led to other areas of archaeology playing much less prominence in the study of Egypt. Perhaps most notable in this is relative lack of the application of analytical science to answer Egyptian questions. This problem has been compounded by d...

  14. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  15. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  16. HTLV-1: ancient virus, new challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Rahimzadegan; Farshid Abedi; Seyed Abodolrahim Rezaei; Reza Ghadimi

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) is an ancient pathogen for human being but arising and recognized recently. The routes of transmission are vertical (mainly by breastfeeding), unsafe sexual contacts and through contaminated blood components specially in whom need frequent and repeated blood transfusions such as permanent anemia due to blood loss in hemophilia and major thalassemia. Patients who should undergo hemodialysis in their lifelong are another instance for increased risk of HTLV-1 ...

  17. Imperial Doors of Assyria: Monumentality, Spatiality, and Rituality of the Neo-Assyrian Architectural Doors From Balawat

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation, titled "Imperial Doors of Assyria," aims to examine the artistic form and cultural value of Neo-Assyrian architectural doors as highlighted by the three concepts of monumentality, spatiality, and rituality, using the three bronze-banded wooden doors from Balawat as a case study. Having introduced the materials and questions to be raised in this dissertation in the introductory Chapter I, Chapter II on the "monumentality" of the Balawat doors explores the commemor...

  18. Garbage Out: Space, Place, and Neo­imperial Anti­development in Gioconda Belli’s Waslala

    OpenAIRE

    DeVries, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gioconda Belli’s Waslala criticizes the concept of “anti-developmental neo-imperialism”: the novel’s fictional Central American nation's development is cancelled by a form of neo-imperial conservation that forces the preservation of rainforest to supply breathable air to oxygen-starved nations that will cut off electrical power for non--compliance. The theoretical approach engages with the idea of a global expansion of the sense of place, but I argue that the novel rejects ...

  19. Commodification and politicization of heritage: implications for heritage tourism at the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, Hanoi (Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Huong T.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    "The current study deconstructs the process of turning heritage resources into tourism products. A case study of the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, a UNESCO World Heritage site located in the capital city of Vietnam, Hanoi, provides an in-depth understanding of the plural use of heritage. Findings from the study reveal issues of heritage dissonance inherent in the process of resource selection, interpretation, and targeting for different audiences. It is apparent that c...

  20. Abstracts of contributions presented in the VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschová Lucia; Guziová Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) was held on October 2-5, 201 3 in Barónka hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia and it was organised by Raptor Protection of Slovakia (RPS) in cooperation with the Czech Society for Ornithology and MME/BirdLife Hungary, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, supported by the International Visegrad Fund. Results of 43 experts from ten countries, including three countries of Visegrad region (Slo...