WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient imperial colony

  1. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  2. Contemporaneity of colonialism: Capitalist modernity, imperial racism and necropolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefik Tatlić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This text articulates global capitalism as an imperial formation, it deems that modernity is a particular project and/or discursive rhetoric, as well as it articulates necropolitics as the dominant form of politics in capitalism in the post 9/11 era. Hence, global capitalism is being treated here as the imperial formation and a relation of dominance which fundamentally resides on colonial epistemologies and governing logic. Modernity is, therefore, being articulated as a particular discursive rhetoric of the First World which universalizes modernity in order to conceal and/or repress other formats of organizing modernity and, in order to apply and normalize various premodern logics and ideologies, such as racism, as foundations on the basis of which social differentiation and capitalist hierarchies of exploitation are being organized. Finally, this text articulates the concept of necropolitics which is an obscene form of politics that has, in the post 9/11 era, been reduced to a form of management of death and to a machinistic form of governing that treats the world as if it is just a commodifiable category.

  3. Imperialism, Social Control and the Colonial Curriculum in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephan J.

    1983-01-01

    The history of colonial education in Africa is examined. The political functions of educating indigenous peoples, conflict between the educational demands of the indigenous population and the colonial governments, and conflict between differing groups within the colonial system (i.e., missionaries and international aid societies) are discussed.…

  4. Imperial Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2015-01-01

    of this concept, which is ‘tailored’ to analyse only one type of empire, the colonial empire, and to disregard the existence of another type of empire. To escape this trap, the article suggests the use of two concepts, ‘inwards imperial governance’ and ‘outwards imperial governance’. These concepts make...

  5. Loan Documentation of the Ancient Rome Imperial Alimentary Fund (Tabula «Veleia»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Saiko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mortgage contracts engraved on the bronze plaques found in the Italian region Veleia and called Tabula «Veleia» are in the focus of investigation of the present paper. These are the agreements between authorities of the Imperial alimentary fund in Gallia Cispadana and Liguria and land owners of Veleia, Placentia, Luca, Parma and Libarna about granting loans on land lending. Money got on interest payments were directed towards orphans and poor parents free-born children support till their adulthood. Tabula «Veleia» contains 52 loan contracts, 15 of which are translated into Russian in full, others are given in brief. The structure and content of these mortgages are determined and some mistakes in calculations are found in the documents and some publications. The land domain size the square of which ranges from some dozens jugerum till more than 1000 jugerum is analyzed. The attention is also paid to the owners’ estates consisted of separate manors the square of which ranged within considerable limits (from 2 till 490 jugerum and their names are studied. It is determined that the manors’ names which end with «anus» belonged to the Roman names, others – to the Celt-Ligurian. Tabula «Veleia» allows becoming more familiar with finance and credit documents and the conclusions made on the basis of its analysis promote the deep insight in the social-economic relations of Ancient Rome.

  6. REVENUE FARMING AND IMPERIAL TRANSITION: AN ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF EARLY COLONIAL STATE FORMATION IN JAVA, C. 1800S-1820S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Revenue farming (pacht or verpachtingen in Dutch is a fiscal institution that existed in Java since the pre-colonial period. During the VOC period, the Dutch modified, institutionalized and &extended it as one of their fiscal institutions to solve human resource shortage and administrative barriers in collecting taxes from local population. For political and economic reasons the Dutch favored the Chinese as main partners in operating the system. The system was proven efficient to an extent that it collected substantial revenue contribution to the state exchequer. During the period of 'imperial' transition from 1800s until 1820s, changing regimes in Java retained the system to finance their political agenda. This paper argues that revenue-farming system was the financial source for the Dutch in establishing a real colonial state in Java.

  7. Mallaby’s car: colonial subjects, imperial actors, and the representation of human suffering in postcolonial exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Legêne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The iconic photograph of Mallaby’s car shows the wreckage of the vehicle of British brigadier A.S. Mallaby, which was destroyed in Surabaya in Indonesia on 30 October 1945 during the Indonesian uprising against the restoration of Dutch colonial rule. The streets show military vehicles, in control of the situation; however the billboard with ‘Once and forever – The Indonesia Republic’ indicate that the nationalists did not give up their political aspirations. The photograph is iconic in the fragile balance it depicts; a balance between violence and negotiations with many stakeholders, symbolised in the balancing car, with its front wheels, hood and left front door up and open. This photograph triggered my investigation into the impact of decolonisation on the representation of colonial subjects and ‘imperial actors’ in museums in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The image of the car appears in a recorded interview with the two sons of Mallaby, who in minute detail recount the events that resulted in their father’s death. The car points at a history of decolonisation that thoroughly changed the strong or weak citizenship entitlements of everyone involved. What role could they play, at the time, and how is this diverging agency now represented in historical or ethnographic displays? This theme is explored with close reference to the scholarly models provided by Asma Abbas in Liberalism and Human Suffering (2010, specifically the notion of re-presentation as ‘making present again’. I argue that distinct national frames, within which common histories of colonialism and decolonisation today are represented, create notions of ‘historical citizenship’ that discipline the victims of decolonisation, and refrain from challenging the legacies of the ethnographic categorisation in colonial museum displays.

  8. Burning down the brewery: establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baul, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E; Nash, Donna J; Williams, Patrick Ryan; DeFrance, Susan D; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-11-29

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning.

  9. Imperialism, colonialism and the new science of nutrition: the Tanganyika experience, 1925-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M

    1991-01-01

    The League of Nations is generally remembered as the ineffective forerunner of the United Nations. It is seldom acknowledged for the groundbreaking work it sponsored in the 1920s and 30s in the then new science of nutrition. The League's work resulted in the first internationally-recognized table of dietary standards. The information collected through the League's research was applied primarily to improving the health of industrial workers in European nations. However, member nations, such as Great Britain, were required to conduct nutrition surveys in their overseas territories. British administrative policies in Africa were a key factor in precipitating the shortages for at least one ethnic group, the Sukuma of northwest Tanganyika. The Sukuma were unable to maintain their precolonial subsistence system under the pressure of colonial taxation. The gradual degeneration of subsistence production altered the quality of the Sukuma diet. Colonial medical officers assumed that these crisis diets were the "traditional" African diets. This assumption combined with the general racist attitudes of the period precluded the application of the League's research to African populations under British administration.

  10. The genetic impact of Aztec imperialism: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence from Xaltocan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Overholtzer, Lisa; Rodríguez-Alegría, Enrique; Kemp, Brian M; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2012-12-01

    In AD 1428, the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan formed the Triple Alliance, laying the foundations of the Aztec empire. Although it is well documented that the Aztecs annexed numerous polities in the Basin of Mexico over the following years, the demographic consequences of this expansion remain unclear. At the city-state capital of Xaltocan, 16th century documents suggest that the site's conquest and subsequent incorporation into the Aztec empire led to a replacement of the original Otomí population, whereas archaeological evidence suggests that some of the original population may have remained at the town under Aztec rule. To help address questions about Xaltocan's demographic history during this period, we analyzed ancient DNA from 25 individuals recovered from three houses rebuilt over time and occupied between AD 1240 and 1521. These individuals were divided into two temporal groups that predate and postdate the site's conquest. We determined the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup of each individual and identified haplotypes based on 372 base pair sequences of first hypervariable region. Our results indicate that the residents of these houses before and after the Aztec conquest have distinct haplotypes that are not closely related, and the mitochondrial compositions of the temporal groups are statistically different. Altogether, these results suggest that the matrilines present in the households were replaced following the Aztec conquest. This study therefore indicates that the Aztec expansion may have been associated with significant demographic and genetic changes within Xaltocan.

  11. Manufacturing Ancient Imperial Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    China was the first country in the world to develop silkworm breeding silk reeling, silk weaving, dying and embroidering. Located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Zhejiang Province has a long history of silk production. At the Qianshanyang Remains, which date back 4,800 years, silk fabrics were excavated. All rulers of past ages had special organizations responsible for

  12. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  13. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  14. Burning down the brewery: Establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Michael E.; Nash, Donna J.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; deFrance, Susan D.; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  15. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  16. Imperialism and the English Language in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Considers whether the charge of linguistic imperialism can be appropriately leveled against the British government during its colonial rule of Hong Kong. The article analyzes the concept of linguistic imperialism, considers landmarks in the history of the English language in Hong Kong, and applies the concept of linguistic imperialism to the…

  17. An Aspect of Colonialism and Anti-Colonialism: A Comparative Study between the Traces of British Imperialism in English Literature and the Counterpoint of Anti-Colonialism in Bengali Literature of 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farhana

    2016-01-01

    In "Mansfield Park," Jane Austen has exhibited the English identity lies on property earned by the slave trade in Caribbean Islands. If we go deep inside of the history of Britain we could able to see their awareness and concern over a national identity, and consider American colonies a poor reflection on Britain. The traits of British…

  18. An Aspect of Colonialism and Anti-Colonialism: A Comparative Study between the Traces of British Imperialism in English Literature and the Counterpoint of Anti-Colonialism in Bengali Literature of 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Haque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mansfield Park, Jane Austen has exhibited the English identity lies on property earned by the slave trade in Caribbean Islands. If we go deep inside of the history of Britain we could able to see their awareness and concern over a national identity, and consider American colonies a poor reflection on Britain. The traits of British colonization always stretched their dominating wings soar above in the sky of ruling. The tyrannical rule on the Caribbean Islands and other places, where they have set the subjugation upon the destitute subjects. Such as West Indies, Jamaica, Haiti, Indian sub-continent and many more countries which they consider inferior in front of them. This was the ideology of English people and their smug of English identity. In the first part of my research paper, I am suppose to depict that, how the English superiority discern its voice through the narrative of the 19th century English novels. The great example of English superiority proved by the reading of Mansfield Park, and this novel will also explore the deepest meaning of coveted Englishness. Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park, which has written based on English identity earned by slave trade and also the English people who are very much obsessed with property, money, status, elite class attitudes and heedless towards their subordinate people. On the other hands, Kazi Nazrul Islam upholds the position of anti colonial writer. He was very much against the British rule and their despotic rulers.  Therefore, Kazi Nazrul Islam has established the notion of anti British ideology and activities through his writings and showed the world about his rebellious nature. Keywords: Mansfield Park, British colonialism, Caribbean Islands, Anti-colonialism, Rebellion

  19. COLONIALISM, HAN & ECO-THEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, nations exhibit imperial behaviour but not like the ancient agriculture driven landed empires or the 18-19th century mercantile empires. The land and trade divisions are not as clearly segregated as in the earlier ones, but Imperial nations do exist and do control other nations. Imperialism and colonialism has devastating effects on our world. It has nurtured self-worth through the accumulation of worldly goods for the purposes of serving their own interests and exploiting others for the sole purpose of self-gain. This is devastating not only to human beings but to the whole ecology of the planet. Consumerism drives trade, but consumer buying is now like an unchained beast with tooth and claw causing han for the exploited as well as the resources of the planet. Eco-theologians and feminist theologians examine the devastating effects to help ensure that we are seriously determined to preserve the planet. We will examine ways of rethinking and reimagining our errors and how we can work towards the right direction for a safer, sustainable planet. doi: 10.7833/111-1-15

  20. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  1. The Five Score and Percentage of Group Test Scores of Measurement Standard in Ancient Imperial Examination%中国科举“五级百分”计量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄裕泉; 干有成; 刘立云; 赵霖

    2016-01-01

    群体考试成绩如何计量,时至今日仍属研究领域。美国大学入学考试、托福、GRE、雅思英语考试、中国国际汉语等级考试、中国大学招生考试、各级学校学生的学期考试等,其计量标准和方法都不相同!中国国家计量法要求计量应建立国家统一标准,计量要有统一的计量单位和统一的计量基准、计量还必须有统一的监管。我国古代科举考试“五级百分”计量标准是古今中外最科学简便精准的计量标准。%How to measure the group test scores, which are still in the research category. For example, the entrance examin-ation of American University GRE TOEFL IELTS exam China international Chinese language Test, the measurement stan-dards and methods are not the same. China national measurement law requires measurement should establish a national unified standard, measurement must also have a unified supervision. Chinese ancient imperial examination“Five score and percentage scoring method”is the most scientific the most simple and convenient and the most accurate measurement standard at all times and in all over the world.

  2. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Juan; LI; Jiazhi; DENG; Zequn; WANG; Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  3. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    as an interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...

  4. [Kyongsong Imperial University Medical College].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Japan annexed Korea in 1910 and with the promulgation of the Chosen Kyoyuk Ryong (the Korea Education Decree) in 1911, it began to conduct education for the Korean people. However, this was only a matter of formality and a policy for liquidating the spirit of the Korean people. It finally resulted in the uprising of March 1, 1919 of the Korean people that has a cultural tradition of a high level. This event served as a cause of widely spread censure among the Korean people as well as the people of the whole world. Even in Japan voice of criticism rose high. Such being the situation, Japan amended the Korean educational law under the pretext of shifting to a so-called civil-rule policy. The Japanese authorities adopted the same educational system as was practiced in Japan proper, for primary and middle school education. As for higher education, they placed under a strict control the educational facilities already established by Korean people and foreign missionaries, suppressing even minor expansions of existing facilities. However, the movement by some Korean educators to establish a private university and efforts by some missionaries to integrate the existing educational organizations into a university made it inevitable for the Japanese authorities to set up a university of their own in Korea. Thus, they hurriedly established the Kyonsong Imperial University in which was included a medical college that was an indispensable organization for colonial education. They professed that the medical college was established for the purpose of providing equal opportunities and privileges to Korean and Japanese students, but, on the contrary, the operation of the college was done strictly under their colonial policy. The system of the Kyongsong Imperial University was enforced acording to the Japanese Imperial University Law, and all the faculty members and the administratial officials were Japanese. As for Koreans, a few graduates of the university was named nonpaid deputy

  5. Colonialism in Heart of Darkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    回志明

    2015-01-01

    Heart of Darkness, written by the renowned novelist Joseph Conrad, is regarded as“one of the half-dozen greatest novel as”. It has triggered a hot discussion from the perspective of colonialism, feminism and innovative narrative style. This paper aims to explore the colonialism revealed in the novel by showing the greedy nature of the colonizers and the subversion the writer has made against the majority of imperial opinions. The study of the colonialism in Heart of Darkness helps to better understand the heart of western colonialism and the revelations to build a harmonious world among different nations.

  6. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  7. Herman Merivale’s black legend: rethinking the intellectual history of free trade imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the lectures and theories of economist and colonial bureaucrat Herman Merivale on the imperial transition of British colonialism from slave labour to free labour, and toward free trade, in 1839. Author specifically shows how Merivale propagated the free trade imperialism of the reformed British Empire by using the "Black Legend" way of thinking, i.e. criticizing Spanish colonialism, to caricaturize the second British Empire, and thus justify imperial policy reforms. Author elaborates on this Black Legend tradition, going back to writings of Las Casas, and how it served as justification for "better" imperialisms of other colonial powers than Spain, and how Merivale's views followed this tradition. He shows how Merivale as part of this criticized the mismanagement, slavery, brutality, mercantilism, and the concentration of power and wealth in Cuba and other Spanish colonies, as negative examples contrasted to the British approach. Author points out, however, how Merivale's views were in part paradoxical and ambiguous, as he favoured a social hierarchy and an imperial authoritarianism limiting free labour.

  8. Colonial connections and consulting engineers 1850-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses colonial connections and networks of British consulting engineers. It unravels how consulting engineers operated within different imperial contexts, including settler colonies, Egypt and Crown colonies in West Africa in particular. The paper also examines the close and at times...

  9. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  10. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  11. Chinese ancient government running higher education---Luoyang imperial college teaching content and teaching form%中国古代官办高等教育--洛阳太学的教学内容和教学形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢留枝

    2014-01-01

    培养高级人才是高等教育的重要职责,高等教育教学内容和教学形式是高等教育的重要内容,更与人才质量的高低息息相关,因此,探究高等教育教学内容与教学形式是研究高等教育发展状况及未来人才培养方向的必然选择。我国古代高等教育按性质分为官办高等教育和私立高等教育两种形式。古代官办高等教育是我国当代公立高等教育的雏形,而古代官办高等教育中的洛阳太学是我国古代官办高等教育的典型代表,因此,研究我国古代的洛阳太学及其概况,对我国当代的公立高等教育具有及其重要的作用。%Is the important role of higher education to train talents of higher education,the teaching content and form is an important part of higher education,more and personnel quality is closely linked,therefore,the content of inquiry teaching in higher education and teaching is an inevitable choice for the development of higher education and the future direction of personnel training.Higher education in ancient China are divided into government run higher education and private higher education in two forms.The ancient official higher education is the embryonic form of China's contemporary public higher education,while the ancient official in higher education,Luoyang university is a typical representative of Chinese ancient government run higher education,therefore,study on China's ancient Luoyang Taixue and situation,to contemporary China Public Higher Education and its important role.

  12. CSR as Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Khan, Farzad Rafi

    2011-01-01

    The voices of local manufacturers have largely been overlooked in academic and policy debates on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the developing world. This article makes a contribution towards filling this gap in the literature by explicitly taking a phenomenological approach that maps...... the interpretations given to Western-based CSR initiatives by local manufacturers. Data from two qualitative research projects on CSR initiatives in the soccer ball industry of Sialkot, Pakistan, are utilized to explore this issue in an inductive and exploratory manner. The article suggests that many soccer ball...... manufacturers in Sialkot perceive CSR as part of the wider historic project of Western imperialism in the developing world through which economic resources are extracted from local manufacturers while their perceptions of what constitutes socially responsible behaviour are delegitimized. This counter...

  13. Imperial boyhood: piracy and the play ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Representations of perpetual boyhood came to fascinate the late Victorians, partly because such images could naturalize a new spirit of imperial aggression and new policies of preserving power. This article traces the emergence of this fantasy through a series of stories about the relationship of the boy and the pirate, figures whose opposition in mid-Victorian literature was used to articulate the moral legitimacy of colonialism, but who became doubles rather than antitheses in later novels, such as R.L. Stevenson's "Treasure Island" and Joseph Conrad's "Lord Jim." Masculine worth needed no longer to be measured by reference to transcendent, universal laws, but by a morally flexible ethic of competitive play, one that bound together boyishness and piracy in a satisfying game of international adventure.

  14. [Physical anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2008-12-01

    Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical

  15. International Students: Constructions of Imperialism in the "Chronicle of Higher Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Sagaria, Mary Ann Danowitz

    2004-01-01

    This article links colonial/neocolonial and feminist literature with discourses on international students to examine how a discourse of imperialism constructs and represents international students in U.S. universities. Applying a critical discourse analysis to 78 articles published in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" between 1996 and 1999, the…

  16. Absolute Cultural Imperialism is Impossible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2014-01-01

    As globalization develops quickly no matter in its depth and its scope, the worry about whether globalization equals cultural imperialism is also increasing. This article proposes to see this problem from a dialectical view. It first notices the complexity of globalization itself so that proves the inequality between globalization and cultural imperialism. And then that the confused identity globalization causes should not be neglected is pointed out. The essential part of this article lies in encouraging developing countries to seize the opportunity to prosper their national cultures.

  17. Spiritual and religious aspects of torture and scalping among the Indian cultures in Eastern North America, from ancient to colonial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiltunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few decades ago a common perception prevailed that the historic­al Native Americans were very prone to violence and warfare. Scalping and torture were seen as a specific custom attached into their ideology and sociocultural ethos. However in the 1960s a completely reversed picture started to emerge, following the course of other worldwide movements, such as ethnic rights, pan-Indianism, ecological conscience, revisionist historiography and so on. Immediately the Native American people came to be seen as the victims of the European colonialism and the Whites were the bad guys who massacred innocent women and children, either at Sand Creek or in Vietnam. Books were written in which the historians pointed out that the practice of scalping was actually not present in the Americas before the whites came. This theory drew sustenance from some early colonial accounts, especially from the Dutch and New England colonies, where it was documented that a special bounty was offered for Indian scalps. According to this idea, the practice of scalping among the Indians escalated only after this. On the other hand, the blame fell on the Iroquois tribesmen, whose cruel fighting spread terror throughout the seventeenth century, when they expanded an empire in the north eastern wilderness. This accords with those theorists who wanted to maintain a more balanced view of the diffusion of scalping and torture, agreeing that these traits were indeed present in Pre-Columbian America, but limited only to the Iroquoians of the east. Colonial American history has been rewritten every now and then. In the 1980s, and in the field of archaeology especially, a completely new set of insights have arisen. There has been a secondary burial of the myth of Noble Savage and a return of the old Wild Indian idea, but this time stripped of its cartoon stereo­typical attachments. The Indians are now seen as being like any other human beings, with their usual mixture of vices

  18. ["Imperial madness" - truth or legend?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Zerssen, D

    2011-03-01

    The notion of "imperial madness" was coined in the historical literature and belles-lettres of the 19th century. Around that time up to the first quarter of the 20th century, it was adopted by a few German psychiatrists. Two of them viewed "imperial madness" as ordinary forms of insanity which became excessive only due to reactions of the social environment. Another one, however, classified it as one of "mental borderland states" in between insanity and normality, although he conceived the final stage of the disorder as a paranoid one. In agreement with the historians he postulated that "imperial madness" resulted from unlimited power of predisposed rulers. In recent times the whole concept of "imperial madness" was referred to the realm of legends by historians of antiquity and other historically interested authors. Yet the existence of the phenomenon cannot be denied. Despite its rarity it has played and is still playing an important role with often catastrophic consequences in various cultures all over the world. Therefore, psychiatrists and other physicians as well as clinical psychologists should be acquainted with it. From a modern point of view, it is not a paranoid disorder but rather a syndrome of addiction-like behavioural excesses representing an intensification of a Hybris syndrome as described by Anglo-Saxon psychiatrists. According to the present authors' view, it should be classified nosologically as a chronic adjustment disorder. In this case, the underlying stresses need to be extended to situations of temptation (here: the temptation to abuse almost unlimited power).

  19. Language Teaching=Linguistic Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism is the expansion of a small number of privileged languages at the cost of a large number of others. The language teaching profession needs to address the ecological impact of language teaching and focus on the well-being of the inhabitants of a language ecology rather than on the economic benefits of the teaching…

  20. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  1. Atenas, República Imperial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El presente texto intenta exponer los motivos de por qué Atenas, una vez convertida en Imperio, y pese a ciertas convulsiones internas, logró mantener viva la democracia en la ciudad. Es decir, de por qué a pesar del ejercicio de una dominación imperial en el exterior, que recurría a la violencia cuando era necesario incluso contra los propios aliados, la democracia ateniense subsistió: al principio, porque los éxitos facilitaron la integración de todas las clases sociales en el ámbito públic...

  2. Situated Interpretations of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Cosmopolitanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    liberal nationalism and imperialism. This article seeks to complicate these theses by looking at the interpretations of nationalism, imperialism, and cosmopolitanism provided by Liang Qichao, one of the most influential Chinese intellectuals in early twentieth century, during his exile in Japan when...

  3. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  4. Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context…

  5. [The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M

    2000-01-01

    The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute (CIBI) allowed the development of a common medical effort between France and Turkey at a time when the main European powers were competing to have an influence on the Ottoman Empire. In 1887, Turkey sent Zoreos Pacha, a medical doctor, to Paris to learn anti-rabies immunization techniques, and he started a rabies control institute after his coming back. In 1893, a cholera epidemic in Constantinople was vanquished by A. Chantemesse, sent by Pasteur, and France was allowed to start another microbiologic Institute. The first director of this Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute was Maurice Nicolle. A brillant man, but suffering from a lack of diplomacy; he encountered numerous difficulties and regularly threatened to turn in his resignation. His successor, Paul Remlinger, arrived in 1900. His main research topic was rabies, and he became later a world-class expert on the subject. His position was taken over in 1911 by Paul-Louis Simond, unjustly forgotten nowadays despite his major discovery in 1898 showing that the plague was transmitted by ratfleas. The next director was a veterinary doctor, P. Forgeot, but his tenure was cut short by World War I, and he was the last French director of the CIBI. Since that time, Turkey has felt some gratitude towards France for its medical efforts. It organized in 1957 in Istambul a very congenial celebration for the 70th anniversary of the Rabies Control Institute, which numerous Pasteur Institute alumni attended. There is a clear contrast between the CIBI, the target of many intrigues and hostile maneuvers, and the North African Pasteur Institutes, which were making crucial discoveries during the same period. This contrast was mostly due to the absolute power of the Sultan, who would arbitrarily oppose some directors decisions, whereas the French government allowed the balanced growth of the Pasteur Institutes in territories under his control.

  6. Imperialism and Financialism: A Story of a Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimshon Bichler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the nexus of imperialism and financialism has become a major axis of Marxist theory and praxis. Many Marxists consider this nexus to be a cause of worldly ills, but the historical role they ascribe to it has changed dramatically over time. The key change concerns the nature and direction of surplus and liquidity flows. The first incarnation of the nexus, articulated at the turn of the twentieth century, explained the imperialist scramble for colonies to which finance capital could export its ‘excessive’ surplus. The next version posited a neo-imperial world of monopoly capitalism where the core’s surplus is absorbed domestically, sucked into a ‘black hole’ of military spending and financial intermediation. The third script postulated a World System where surplus is imported from the dependent periphery into the financial core. And the most recent edition explains the hollowing out of the U.S. core, a ‘red giant’ that has already burned much of its own productive fuel and is now trying to ‘financialize’ the rest of the world in order to use the system’s external liquidity. This paper outlines this chameleon-like transformation, assesses what is left of the nexus and asks whether it is worth keeping.

  7. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  8. Imperial College Alumni Association in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Are you a graduate of Imperial College London? If so, you might be interested in its new Swiss alumni association for graduate engineers and scientists. The aim of the founder members is to create a network of the several hundred graduates of Imperial College working at CERN, in Geneva, Lausanne and Zurich with a view to organising social and scientific events, informing members of the studies and research done by Imperial College, setting up a link between the College and Swiss academic institutes and, of course, building up an alumni directory. Membership applications and requests for further information should be sent to: Imperial College Alumni (ICA) - Swiss chapter Case Postale CH-1015 Lausanne Tel. : + 41 22 794 57 94 Fax : + 41 22 794 28 14 Email : imperialcollegeswissalumni@epfl.ch

  9. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  10. Pliocene Invertebrates From the Travertine Point Outcrop of the Imperial Formation, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-four invertebrate taxa, including one coral, 40 mollusks (30 bivalves and 10 gastropods), and three echinoids are recognized from a thin marine interval of the Imperial Formation near Travertine Point, Imperial County, California. The Travertine Point outcrop lies about midway between exposures of the Imperial Formation around Palm Springs, Riverside County, and exposures centered at Coyote Mountain in Imperial and San Diego Counties. Based on faunal comparisons, the Travertine Point outcrop corresponds to the Imperial and San Diego outcrops. The Travertine Point fauna is inferred to have lived in subtropical to tropical waters at littoral to inner sublittorial (<50 m) water depths. Coral and molluscan species from the Travertine Point outcrop indicate a Pliocene age. Two extant bivalve mollusks present have not previously been reported as fossils Anadara reinharti and forms questionably referred to Dosinia semiobliterata.

  11. 中国古代宫内正殿太极殿的建置及其与东亚诸国的关系%Institution of Establishing the Main Pavilion Taijidian in the Imperial Palace of Ancient China and Its involvement in the Relationship between Then China and Other East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲殊

    2003-01-01

    From the Wei period in the third century, the main pavilion in the imperial palace of successive Chinese dynasties was called "Taijidian 太极殿," which had not changed down to the Tang period starting from the seventh century. In the Koguryo, Paekche and Silla kingdoms of the Korean Peninsula, Chinese institutions and culture were upheld to different extents. But even if the "Taijidian" was deeply admired in these kingdoms, by legal principle they could not adopted this name to the palaces of their own because they were protectorates of China according to the titles their rulers accepted from the Chinese emperor. In Japan, the Tang style was upheld to the greatest extent. On the other hand, from the early seventh century onward, the Japanese ruler insisted on "diplomacy on an equal basis" and had not been under the titling by China''s emperor. Therefore in the Asuka period of the seventh century, the Nara period of the eighth century and the Heian period from final years of the eighth century, the main pavilion in the Japanese imperial palace had all along been called "Daigokuden太极殿" in imitation of the Chinese institution.

  12. NERO’S ANCESTRY AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY IN THE EARLY EMPIRE. A METHODOLOGICAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Hekster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the discipline of ancient history, diverse types of sources, such as coins, inscriptions, portraits and texts, are often combined to create a coherent image of a particular ruler. A good example of how such a process works is the way in which reconstructions by modern scholars of the emperor Nero tend to look for a clearly defined ‘Neronian image’, by bringing together various types of primary evidence without paying sufficient attention to these sources’ medial contexts. This article argues that such a reconstruction does not do justice to the complex and multi-layered image of the last Julio-Claudian. By focusing on one particular aspect of Neronian imagery, the propagation of this emperor’s ancestry, we will argue that different types of sources, stemming from varying contexts and addressing different groups, cannot unproblematically be combined. Through an investigation of the ancestral messages spread by imperial and provincial coins, epigraphic evidence and portraiture, it becomes clear that systematic analysis of ancient media, their various contexts and inconsistencies is needed before combining them. Such an analysis reveals patterns within the different sources and shows that, in creating imperial images, rulers were constrained by both medial and local traditions. Modern studies of ancient images should therefore consider this medial and geographical variety in order to do justice to the multi-faceted phenomenon of imperial representation.

  13. Situated Interpretations of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Cosmopolitanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    The idea of the nation has been considered to have delivered political modernity from its native Europe to the rest of the world. The same applies, though more implicitly, to those paradoxes inherent to the nationalist ideology – that between universalism and national particularity and that between...... liberal nationalism and imperialism. This article seeks to complicate these theses by looking at the interpretations of nationalism, imperialism, and cosmopolitanism provided by Liang Qichao, one of the most influential Chinese intellectuals in early twentieth century, during his exile in Japan when...

  14. Experimental Particle Physics at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Last friday Imperial's rector Sir Richard Sykes visited CERN, in particular CMS and LHCb; the visit was supervised by CERN's VIP service, a guaranteee that nothing can go wrong. A quite impressive organization that has not much in common with the usual "pivate" visits of LHCb or CMS.

  15. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  16. Imperial College London mascot visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Hills, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Boanerges (‘Son of Thunder’) is one of the mascots of Imperial College and is looked after by volunteer students of the City and Guilds College Motor Club. Team Bo visited CERN as part of a wider tour of France and Switzerland.

  17. Realities and Myths of Linguistic Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Alan Davies's review article "Ironising the Myth of Linguicism," summarizing principles for the analysis of linguistic imperialism and demonstrating that the phenomenon is far from mythical. The article responds to some of the points raised by Davies to show that his generalizations are not justified. (41 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  19. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Chinese History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is for a one semester course in the history of Imperial China, a study of the development of the world's oldest civilization still in existence. Emphasis is placed upon the cultural as well as the political and economic development of China until 1644. Major topics in the course outline are: 1) The Origins and Geography of China; 2)…

  20. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  1. CIDADES NEGRAS – PETRÓPOLIS IMPERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aquino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cidade negra e população negra são o enfoque deste artigo sobre a cidade de Petrópolis na Região Serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, visando estabelecer novos parâmetros para discussão do espaço geográfico da região da cidade de Petrópolis por meio de outras explicações sobre o povoamento e desenvolvimento desta localidade. Cidade que a história oficial consagrou como cidade imperial e de colonização alemã, negando de forma ideológica as atividades econômicas da cidade e da região e tornando invisível a existência de população de maioria afrodescendente. Apresentamos neste artigo uma discussão sobre a ideologia da colonização alemã como solução para o Brasil, o que explica a imigração alemã para a localidade e também permite compreender a formação da ideologia sobre as origens populacionais e econômicas deste lugar. Argumentamos contra tal ideologia, reafirmando e investigando a existência de colonizadores africanos a partir das diversas fontes que podem levar ao encontro das inscrições afro, materiais e imateriais, na história e na cultura da região. Partimos da ideia da constituição de um território no período colonial que se deu devido ao fluxo de populações dos arredores, não somente devido à Estrada do Ouro. A base do povoamento da região veio das fazendas que exploravam o trabalho escravizado. Do território ocupado por africanos e afrodescendentes, nasceu a cidade que, posteriormente, instalou alguns grupos de alemães e, nesta fusão populacional, constituiu-se a forte presença de populações negra e mesmo branca, de outra origem que não a alemã. Local que devido à existência da Estrada do Ouro, ligando cidades mineiras ao porto do Rio de Janeiro, recebeu as inscrições de povoamento de africanos e afrodescendente pelos dois séculos antes da fundação oficial da cidade. O artigo se concentra nos documentos que demonstram a existência de população negra na localidade.

  2. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  3. El Museo Imperial de Guerra en Londres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dacosta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalidades sobre algunos tipos de materiales especiales existen en el “Imperial War Museum” de Gran Bretaña. Se observa: a una superposición de métodos manuales y automatizados para el procesamiento técnico de las colecciones no tradicionales; b diferentes grabados de desarrollo en la implementación de sistemas computarizados.

  4. Optical legacy of Imperial College London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger Webb-Moore, Tina E.

    2016-10-01

    The Industrial Revolution, beginning primarily in the UK, generated an increasing need for highly skilled technical people. Throughout the 19th century, technical instruction increased dramatically and the formation of schools specializing in science and technology grew quickly. In England, there was much motivation in favour of a national prestige center for science and technology centered in London. Central among the motivating forces was Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert. Although there were already existing specialist science and technology institutions in major English cities, the growth of superior institutions in other countries within Europe, especially Germany and the Charlottenburg area of Berlin (e.g., the Berlin Technical High School), encouraged important English dignitaries to become more competitive with continental Europe. As a result of this strong continental motivation, several science and technology institutions were built in the south Kensington part of London during the latter half of the 19th century. Imperial College, founded at the start of the 20th century, was a culmination and consolidation of several of these 19th century English institutions. Optical science and technology was an early beneficiary of the founding of Imperial College. This paper will attempt to provide the reader with an understanding of how great was the influence of the optical section of Imperial College in the further development of the world's optical science and technology.

  5. Economic benefits from colonial assets: the case of the Netherlands and Indonesia 1870-1958

    OpenAIRE

    van der Eng, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether and to what extent the economic relations between the Netherlands and its former colony Indonesia could be crucial to explaining `metropolitan' economic development and `peripheral' underdevelopment. It first surveys the literature on economic explanations for imperialism and the historiography involving Netherlands-Indonesia relations. The paper then generalises the broad economic importance to the Dutch economy of having Indonesia as a colony. The pa...

  6. Cultural Imperialism of the West in the Work of Edward W. Said

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Jeknić

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main ideas and views of Edward W. Said on the relationship between culture and imperialism, and also on the link between Western culture and the formation of imperialism. Hence, special attention is given to Said’s interpretation of novels as constructions of the geopolitical reality: i.e. the characteristics of “imperialism” are examined as found in such English and French writers as Jane Austen, Rudyard Kipling, Joseph Conrad and Albert Camus, illustrating the way how novels as an aesthetic form participated in the “cultural construction” of colonialism. In the next part of the discussion, the paper presents another main topic of Edward Said that reveals how “cultural imperialism”, “orientalism” and “covering Islam” are still, unfortunately, current topics. Special attention is given to Said's demystification of the opposition between “us” and “them”, or “the West” and “Others”, through the example of the relationship between “the West” and “Islam”. Behind this issue, unequal power relations exist, as well as unequal relations of power and knowledge; “anti-systemic movements”, especially, and the “post-colonial discourse”, in general, warns us of this.

  7. Local responses to French medical imperialism in late nineteenth-century Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, William

    2007-08-01

    This article offers the first account of the lives of Algerian-born doctors working in the French colonial medical service between 1870 and 1900. Their stories reveal the manner in which the idea of medical imperialism had collapsed in Algeria, as a result of maladministration, racial policies, competition between civil and military authorities, budgetary constraints and the rise of the colons. The article also indicates the way in which medicine became a locus of opposition to French rule. It shows how the first decades of the Third Republic were critical in terms of a shift from the earlier idea of medicine serving as an emblem of the mission civilisatrice to the ideological potential of medicine being seen in much more nuanced terms by both French settlers and Algerian locals. It is argued that the notion of cultural resistance to imperialism through medicine emerges in the 1870s and 1880s, thereby prefiguring the work of Fanon and the Front de Liberation Nationale's later analysis of the 'sickness' of colonial Algerian society.

  8. Collaboration, Coproduction, and Code-Switching: Colonial Cinema and Postcolonial Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Aimee Kwon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reassesses the issue of colonial collaboration in the Japanese empire by examining the rise of cinematic coproductions between Japanese and Korean filmmakers. By the late 1930s, colonial Korea’s filmmaking industry had been fully subsumed into the Japanese film industry, and regulations were established that required all films to assimilate imperial policies. The colonial government’s active promotion of colonial “collaboration” and “coproduction” between the colonizers and the colonized ideologically worked to obfuscate these increasing restrictions in colonial film productions while producing complex and contentious desires across the colonial divide. The very concepts of “collaboration” and “coproduction” need to be redefined in light of increasingly complex imperial hierarchies and entanglements. Taking the concept of “code-switching” beyond its linguistic origins, this article argues that we must reassess texts of colonial collaboration and coproduction produced at a time when Korean film had to “code-switch” into Japanese—to linguistically, culturally, and politically align itself with the wartime empire. The article argues that recently excavated films from colonial and Cold War archives, such as Spring in the Korean Peninsula, offer a rare glimpse into repressed and contested histories and raise the broader conundrum of accessing and assessing uneasily commingled colonial pasts of Asian-Pacific nations in the ruins of postcolonial aftermath.

  9. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  10. Analysis of the apiclutural industry in relation to geothermal development and agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, E.L.

    1979-04-01

    PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.

  11. A Study of Imperial Maids Life Through Tangs Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuc Lin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Article observed the life of Tangs imperial maids through the poetry of Tang Dynasty. . Imperial maids were started from Sui Dynasty, especially Emperor Sui Yangdis period, and Tangs imperial maids were many. Emperor with various kind of reasons, in most every year would choose some girls and took them into his palace and they worked as imperial maids. They were girls from ordinary people, respectable, and noble families. Those girls who once entered imperial palace, theyb would be very hard to come out. They had to obey the regulation in the palace. Through some poetry it could be portrayed the imperial maids lifetime in serving the emperor, imperial concubines and got rest after midnight. Except for working, they werent able to come out from palace, they couldnt go home to visit their family, even got married, their lives were full of loneliness. If they were sick, or old, the emperor wouldnt like them anymore, they would be sent away anytime. Even if they left imperial palace, and got their freedom, but most of them lived tragically.

  12. Imperial climatographies from Tyrol to Turkestan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Deborah R

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of Europe's continental empires, Habsburg and Romanov, to the emergence of a physical-dynamical model of the global climate before World War I. It begins to identify a set of questions and methods that were distinctive of climatology as a continental-imperial science of "regionalization" with a global vision. The focus is on studies of mountain climatology by Heinrich von Ficker and A. I. Voeikov in the ecologically vulnerable regions of Tyrol and western Turkestan. This continental-imperial context deserves historians' attention because it suggests a new model for the globalization of knowledge: not simply a matter of scaling up, globalization must be understood as a process of seeing across scales, of recognizing causal connections between local, regional, and planetary phenomena. "For a change, the material for a dissertation was procured mostly with the feet." Heinz Ficker, of his research on the föhn wind in Tyrol, 1906 "Science is something beautiful, especially when you can do it on horseback." Ficker in his journal in 1913, in a mountain pass in central Asia.

  13. The Imperial College Thermophysical Properties Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, S.; Cole, W. A.; Craven, R.; de Reuck, K. M.; Trengove, R. D.; Wakeham, W. A.

    1986-07-01

    The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project Centre in London has at its disposal considerable expertise on the production and utilization of high-accuracy equations of state which represent the thermodynamic properties of substances. For some years they have been content to propagate this information by the traditional method of book production, but the increasing use of the computer in industry for process design has shown that an additional method was needed. The setting up of the IUPAC Transport Properties Project Centre, also at Imperial College, whose products would also be in demand by industry, afforded the occasion for a new look at the problem. The solution has been to set up the Imperial College Thermophysical Properties Data Centre, which embraces the two IUPAC Project Centres, and for it to establish a link with the existing Physical Properties Data Service of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, thus providing for the dissemination of the available information without involving the Centres in problems such as those of marketing and advertising. This paper outlines the activities of the Centres and discusses the problems in bringing their products to the attention of industry in suitable form.

  14. Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghwa Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines what I call a “system of cooperation” (K. hyŏp’ŏp, J. kyōgyō, 協業 in the colonial Korean film industry from 1923, when silent films appeared, to the late 1930s, when colonial cinema was restructured within an imperial wartime system. In other words, this article examines the interworking of colonial Korean and imperial Japanese cinema from Yun Hae-dong’s “colonial modern” perspective in order to go beyond the long established lens on colonial Korean film and film historiography that merely focused on the contributions of colonial Korean filmmakers. Here the author rather focuses on the cooperation or collaboration between Japan and Korea: Japanese directors and cinematographers working in Korea, Korean filmmakers with experience in the Japanese apprenticeship system, and filmmakers working together and independently during the silent film era. During the transition from the silent to the early talkie eras, second-generation filmmakers, especially those who trained in film studios in Japan, were significant. They dreamed of the corporatization of the colonial Korean film industry and took the lead in coproductions between Japanese film companies and their colonial Korean counterparts. Korean filmmakers were not unilaterally suppressed by imperial Japan, nor did they independently operate within the Korean film industry during the colonial period. The Japanese in colonial Korea did not take the lead in forming the colonial Korean film scene, either. The core formation of colonial Korean / Korean film was a process of Korean and Japanese filmmakers in competition and negotiation with one another within a complex film sphere launched with Japanese capital and technology.

  15. Symbolic figures in Early Imperial Asia Minor. Reshaping of funerary architecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrg. Lucia Novakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hellenistic tradition of funerary monuments in Early Imperial Asia Minor was based equally on both, the form and decoration of tomb monument. Figural decoration on panel reliefs or sarcophagi embodied political allegory and civic ideology together with the depiction of the deceased. Unfortunately, various free standing statues and mural paintings are nowadays consider lost, despite numerous references of ancient authors and epigraphic evidence. How much of funerary decoration should be understood in terms of traditional civic ideas of the Hellenistic world and how much in terms of Roman concept, is one of the most important issues related to the Roman sepulchral landscape in Anatolia. Early Imperial architectural forms followed hellenistic tradition while communicating Roman ideas through orientation and organization of space. Similar system of public honours that Greek cities bestowed upon their citizens and foreign benefactors in previous period (praise, crown, statue, prohedria, tafé demosia was maintained. Architectural changes in western Asia Minor came about in the Augustan Age, reflecting the major political transformation of the empire.

  16. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room: How Overseas Countries and Territories Play Games with the Norm of Sovereignty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet ...

  17. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  18. GOVERNANCE IN PTOLEMAIC EGYPT, THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS: A CASE OF IMPERIALISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article investigates the nature of governance in Ptolemaic Egypt during the first 100 years of their rule. It proposes that this governance was Imperialist and exploitative in nature and that the Macedonian Greeks acted as the master race while their Egyptian subjects were either collaborators in this exploitation (a small minority of no more than 2.5% or the exploited.

    In order to substantiate this submission, the nature of concepts such as imperialism, colonialism and colonization are defined and explored. Where applicable, comparisons are made with modern empires. The institutions of empire and the racist nature of Ptolemaic rule are investigated while the economic measures instituted to ensure maximum profit for the imperialists, are also examined.

  19. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  20. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  1. Selenium in aquatic habitats at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 1991 and 1992, selenium levels were studied in aquatic communities at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge on the lower Colorado River. Composite samples of...

  2. 《简·爱》的现世性及帝国叙事%Worldliness in Jane Eyre and Imperial Narrative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢颖

    2014-01-01

    赛义德提出文本的现世性理论,文本与其所处的历史背景之间存在着至关重要的联系,与社会生活密切相关。借助赛义德的现世性理论解读《简·爱》的帝国文本,勃朗特赋予罗切斯特、圣约翰对外拓展的激情来象征大英帝国海外扩张的雄心。勃朗特的帝国偏见使她对来自英国殖民地的女人伯莎进行了非人化的处理。文本中帝国叙事的现世性生动说明了帝国主义的广泛性与渗透性。%Said puts forward worldliness theory of the text .That is, the text is closely connected with the historical background and social life .With the help of Said's worldliness theory , Jane Eyre is interpreted as an imperial text . Bronte lets Rochester and St .John have the passion for outward extension to symbolize overseas expansion ambition of the British Empire .Bronte's imperial bias makes her dehumanize Bertha who comes from the British colony .The imperial narrative vividly illustrates the extensiveness and penetration of the imperialism .

  3. A Qualified Optimistic Analysis of Imperial Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Worobec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In his magnum opus on Russia’s imperial history B.N. Mironov characterizes himself as a positivist thinker who marshals impressive amounts of statistics and other types of hard evidence, and employs economic theory, sociological paradigms to understand Russian social structures and development, political analysis, anthropology, and at times psychology to Russia over the longue durée. With this arsenal at hand, he argues against Russian exceptionalism and identifies Russia instead as a typical European state. In so doing, he emphasizes Imperial Russia’s successes as a state, the social and economic foundations of which, he argues, did not cause revolution and attributes revolution to political causes. As he has tried to do previously, the author does not begin with the revolutions of the early twentieth century and largely does not read history backwards, but rather delineates Russia’s historical development within a robust comparative European context (occasionally broadening that context to include the United States. More specifically, B.N. Mironov charts Russia’s modernization through the creation of well-defined estates in the late eighteenth century and the subsequent breakdown of those estates in the post-reform period as a result of greater social mobility; gradual urbanization; industrialization; the beginnings of a demographic transformation; improvements in the standard of living; an increase in literacy; the development of a civil society; the spread of private property among all social groups; the growth of individualism; and the eventual establishment of the rule of law, all of which constitute the attributes of a modern European state. The author’s largely negative perceptions of the Russian peasants’ mentalité, however, sit uneasily with his claims about advancements in the countryside by the turn of the twentieth century. Equating peasants’ collectivism with authoritarianism and conflating it with the Bolshevik

  4. New imperialism and beyond: why the new imperialism will fail and unseat the Bush Administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tras los atentados terroristas del 11S de 2001, los Estados Unidos implantaron una política de nuevo imperialismo y de construcción de un nuevo tipo de imperio mundial. Las políticas globales norteamericanas pueden dividirse en economista, cooperativista y reglada por el idealismo Wilsoneano, y el imperialismo Rooseveltiano, basado en un nacionalismo agresivo, militarismo, unilateralismo y governanza global  basada en reglas directas, presencia física y coerción. Las políticas de la administraciones Bush representan esta última vertiente y la Guerra contra el Terror puede ser interpretada como una Primera Guerra Mundial y una guerra civil en los Estados Unidos. Se proclama que un nuevo imperialismo fracasará debido a diversas razones de tipo económica, política, étnica e histórica, y que esta política está debilitando la posición global de Estados Unidos. Al final, se explica cómo en el contexto de una Nueva Contención Pacífica, los ciudadanos norteamericanos y los ciudadanos del resto del mundo pueden utilizar la democracia en contra del nuevo imperialismo y apoyar un cambio de régimen democrático en Estados Unidos, procediendo a la construcción conjunta de un  mundo democrático y justo.________________ABSTRACT:After the terrorist attacks of S-11-2001 the US engaged in the policies of new imperialism and in the construction of a new kind of world-empire. US global policies can be divided in detached, economist, cooperative, rule-based Wilsonian Idealism and Theodore Rooseveltian Imperialism, based on aggressive nationalism, militarism, unilateralism and global governance based on direct rule, physical presence and coercion. The Bush administrations policies represent the latter and the War on Terror and Non-White Others can be seen as a First World War and an Internal Civil War in the US. It is claimed that the new imperialism will fail due to various economic, political, ethical and historical reasons and that this

  5. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  6. National ornament and the imperial masquerade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Veszprémi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Rebecca Houze, Textiles, Fashion, and Design Reform in Austria–Hungary before the First World War: Principles of Dress: Rebecca Houze’s book is a thoroughly researched and original study of the impact of design reform on textile production and fashion in Austria-Hungary in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century which centres its argument around the Bekleidungsprinzip (“principle of dress” put forward by Gottfried Semper. It discusses the role of newly founded applied arts museums, industrial exhibitions, the concept of “house industry,” and the upsurge of interest in folk crafts in this process, while also placing a strong emphasis on the role of women as producers of textiles. One of the main virtues of the book is its wide scope which manages to investigate endeavours informed by different and sometimes opposed national and imperial interests in their complicated interconnectedness. It is a pity that this broad perspective is narrowed down in the second part of the book which focuses on with turn-of-the-century Vienna and does not deal with modernist tendencies in Hungarian design. Nevertheless, this part of the book also provides a fascinating discussion of its own subject, and the monograph as a whole is a valuable contribution to its field of study.

  7. Rehabilitation of the imperial examination system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Haifeng

    2006-01-01

    Since the abolishment of the imperial examination system (the IES) in 1905,the system has been the target of severe criticism by most Chinese people.This paper is intended to clear up the misunderstanding of the IES in seven respects based on some ideas of rehabilitation of the IES over the past 100 years.In the author's opinion,the IES is actually not so contemptible as most people think,at least it is not a bad system.The examination system was an attempt to recruit men on the basis of merit rather than because of social position or political connections,which is a great invention of China.Although it was abolished,the method to select talents by means of examination has not yet been and cannot be exterminated,and it is still proper to be used in the present society.The IES with a 1,300-year history has rich experiences and valuable lessons,which have implications to various examination reforms.

  8. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves.

  9. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  10. The New World Order and the Unmasking of the Neo-Colonial Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Burcar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In his dramatic sketch The New World Order Pinter exposes practices of psychological and physical abuse targeted at local people who resist neo-colonial advancements in territories directly occupied or indirectly controlled by Western hegemonic powers. Through the deployment of Pinteresque double-layered meanings conveyed through seemingly ordinary, everyday language, the drama unveils the ideological premises and operating principles of neo-colonial discourse. The paper discusses the way Pinter blasts apart a seemingly neutral Western rhetoric of humanitarian militarism, focusing on the discursive strategies by means of which neo-imperial violence, torture and massive dispossession of local populations are justified and naturalized.

  11. The psychology of colonialism: sex, age, and ideology in British India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, A

    1982-08-01

    It is becoming more and more obvious that colonialism--as we have come to know it during the last two hundred years--cannot be identified with only economic gain and political power. In Manchuria, Japan consistently lost money, and for many years colonial Indochina, Algeria and Angola, instead of increasing the political power of France and Portugal, sapped it. This did not make Manchuria, Indochina, Algeria or Angola less important as colonies. Nor did it disprove the point that economic gain and political power are important motives in a colonial situation. It only showed that colonialism could be characterized by the search for economic and political advantage without concomitant real economic or political gains, and sometimes even with economic or political losses. This essay argues that the first differentia of colonialism is a state of mind in the colonizers and the colonized, a colonial consciousness which includes the sometimes unrealizable wish to make economic and political profits from the colonies, but other elements, too. The political economy of colonization is of course important, but the vulgarity and insanity of colonialism are principally expressed in the sphere of psychology. The following pages will explore some of these psychological contours of colonialism in the rulers and the ruled and try to define colonialism as a shared culture which may not always begin with the establishment of alien rule in a society and end with the departure of the alien rulers from the colony. The example I shall use will be that of India, where a colonial political economy began to operate seventy-five years before the full-blown ideology of British imperialism became dominant, and where thirty years after the formal ending of the raj, the ideology of colonialism is still triumphant in many sectors of life.

  12. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY RELATIONS AND POST-IMPERIAL ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the relations between former imperial powers and new sovereign states succeeding an empire in the field of international security, particularly when involving the use of force. Despite their stated attachment to the normative principles of what we usually call “Westphalian order”, former imperial powers continue to interfere in the domestic affairs of these new states, especially those unable to exercise their sovereignty efficiently and legitimately. One could say that, by military interventions, these powers deny the sovereignty of weak states in the regions once under their control; but the preparation of these missions makes the actions not to be interpreted as expressions of an imperialist attitude. I consider there are two major ideal-types that could better explain such interventions. In a power-oriented post-imperial order, the intervention of a former empire is the result of the projection of its national interests and identities. In a norm-oriented post-imperial order, the sense of moral responsibility of the former imperial power is the main reason for its interference. The intervention’s legitimacy and suitability require domestic and international support. This paper, grounded on a constructivist approach, intends to contribute to the understanding of international security issues in terms of a world shaped by actors’ interests and identities and the dynamics of their relations. The identified ideal-types of post-imperial orders consider both material and cultural factors. The analytical elements that may link extremely different situations are the socially variable interpretations of past and present.

  13. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California... such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County....

  14. A Critique of the 'American Accent' and Linguistic Imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建刚

    2007-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism has been widespread throughout the world, especially when English has become the dominant has brought about the abundance of a lot of training programmes and websites such as www.americanaccent.com.This essay analyses this website from the perspectives of micro- and macro-indexicalities and presents a critique of the linguistic imperialism.Moreover, the article gives suggestions as to how to take advantage of the language resources for our best benefit and at the same time how to resist the linguistic hegemony in our teaching and learning of the English language.

  15. Rethinking imperialist theory and US imperialism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo criticamos la teorización contemporánea sobre el imperialismo por su reducción al ámbito económico y su carencia de un análisis de clase e institucional específico dentro del estado imperialista. En el contexto de este argumento, establecemos la importancia del análisis de clase para aprovechar las dinámicas de cambio del poder imperialista procediendo a argumentar la alineación de las fuerzas de clase en el mundo de la economía, en sus interacciones con la configuración del poder imperialista, dejando la realineación del poder económico en el sistema mundial capitalista que constituye el mayor cambio para el imperialismo estadounidense en sus operaciones en América Latina. En la sección final del artículo explicamos las discontinuidades y continuidades en las relaciones imperialistas estadounidenses con Latinoamérica, y las potencialidades y contrastes de estas relaciones en el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo.Palabras clave: teoría imperialista, imperialismo estadounidense, Latinoamérica_____________________Abstract:In this paper we criticize contemporary theorizing about imperialism for its economic reductionism and a lack of class analysis and institutional specificity regarding the imperial state. In the context of this argument we establish the importance of class analysis for grasping the changing dynamics of imperial power before proceeding to argue how specific alignments of class forces in the world economy, in their interactions with existing imperial power configurations, is leading to a realignment of economic power in the world capitalist system that constitutes a major challenge for US imperialism in its Latin American operations. In the final section of the paper we point to the discontinuities and continuities in US imperial relations with Latin America, and the potentialities and constraints of these relations on economic growth and development.Keywords: Imperialism Theory, US

  16. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  17. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  18. Post-Colonial Analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Güven

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness tells the journey of Marlow through the African jungle and his search for the European Kurtz who exploits the natives by imposing violence. It is mainly based upon Conrad’s own experience in Congo. Conrad learned how Europeans exploited and traded the natives for their own benefits during his own journey. The book is regarded as an attack on imperialism and criticizes immoral treatments of the European colonizers in Africa in the 19th century. Keith Booker states that “the book deals with issues such as imperialism, capitalism, race, and gender that were very much at the forefront of the turn-of-the century European mind. Conrad’s ambivalent treatment of these issues is extremely representative of the way they were treated in any number of European discourses of the time” (217. Besides, Chinua Achebe in his An “Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” comments that “Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as ‘the other world’, the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality” (338. Although Achebe puts forward that the novel is in favor of colonialism, I consider that Conrad does not intend to write it to appreciate colonialism and therefore the purpose of this study is to approach Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from post-colonial perspective by taking European imperialism and colonialism over Africa into consideration in order to clarify how Conrad has deconstructed binary oppositions of colonialism by subverting the general idea of the Europeans towards Africa in the 19th century.

  19. Post-Colonial Analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Güven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness tells the journey of Marlow through the African jungle and his search for the European Kurtz who exploits the natives by imposing violence. It is mainly based upon Conrad’s own experience in Congo. Conrad learned how Europeans exploited and traded the natives for their own benefits during his own journey. The book is regarded as an attack on imperialism and criticizes immoral treatments of the European colonizers in Africa in the 19th century. Keith Booker states that “the book deals with issues such as imperialism, capitalism, race, and gender that were very much at the forefront of the turn-of-the century European mind. Conrad’s ambivalent treatment of these issues is extremely representative of the way they were treated in any number of European discourses of the time” (217. Besides, Chinua Achebe in his An “Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness” comments that “Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as ‘the other world’, the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality” (338. Although Achebe puts forward that the novel is in favor of colonialism, I consider that Conrad does not intend to write it to appreciate colonialism and therefore the purpose of this study is to approach Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from post-colonial perspective by taking European imperialism and colonialism over Africa into consideration in order to clarify how Conrad has deconstructed binary oppositions of colonialism by subverting the general idea of the Europeans towards Africa in the 19th century.

  20. Bologna Goes Global: A New Imperialism in the Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that imperialism continues to exist today. It focuses on the ideational dimension of such power constellation and highlights the role of "educational diplomacy". Specifically, it examines norm-settings within international educational politics as a way of identifying shifts within what might be called benevolent…

  1. Strategic environmental management of air in Mexicali-Imperial border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos García

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the importance of an approach on local environmental management regarding the quality of air in the Mexicali and Imperial Valley region. The paper discusses that the absence of a strategic approach in the environmental local policy will enhance the air pollution in the region

  2. Ironic imperialism : how Russian patriots are reclaiming postmodernism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordenbos, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes the recent appearance in Russian letters of ultra-nationalist fantasies about the restoration of Russia's imperial or totalitarian status. This new trend has its roots not only in the increasingly patriotic tone of Russian society and politics, but also in the dynamics of the lit

  3. (Re)experiencing Hegemony: The Linguistic Imperialism of Robert Phillipson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Margie; Barrett, Jeanelle; Chan, Chak; Chikuma, Yoshiki; Friedrich, Patricia; Hadjidimos, Olga-Maria; Harney, Jill; Hislope, Kristi; Johnson, David; Kimball, Suzanne; Low, Yvonne; McHenry, Tracey; Palaiologos, Vivienne; Petray, Marnie; Shapiro, Rebecca; Shook, Anna Ramirez

    1998-01-01

    Reading Phillipson's "Linguistic Imperialism" in a World Englishes graduate seminar at Purdue University prompted intense discussion not only on the issues the author raised, but also on the rhetorical style and strategies that he chose to present a story of oppression. This article documents the reactions of the students.(Author/VWL)

  4. Language Choice and Cultural Imperialism: A Nigerian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisong, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Argues against the thesis put forth in Phillipson's "Linguistic Imperialism," that the relationship between core English-speaking countries and periphery-English countries is one of dominant and dominated languages, as it applies to Nigeria. It is maintained that the sociolinguistic and sociocultural realities of the country have not been properly…

  5. US Imperialism, Transmodernism and Education: A Marxist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by discussing David Geoffrey Smith's analysis of the enantiomorphism inherent in the rhetoric of New American Imperialism. He goes on to examine critically Smith's defence of Enrique Dussel's advocacy of transmodernism as a way of understanding this enantiomorphism and of moving beyond what are seen as the constraints of both…

  6. 帝国主义—从帝国主义到文化帝国主义%Cultural Imperialism—From Imperialism to Cultural Imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀石

    2012-01-01

    Imperialism has gone through three phases: geographical imperialism, economical imperialism and cultural imperialism. These three forms are connected with each other. The society has entered a new era of globalization, modernization and information, followed by the transition from imperialism to cultural imperialism. Imperialism is different from cultural imperialism in four aspects. China’s attitude towards cultural imperialism is to protect own heritage openly and tolerantly.%帝国主义经历了三个阶段: 地域性帝国主义、帝国主义和文化帝国主义。这三种形式彼此联系。现代社会进入了一个新时代,全球化、现代化和信息化。伴随着帝国主义过渡到文化帝国主义。文化帝国主义在四个方面不同于帝国主义。中国对待文化帝国主义的立场应该是用开放和宽容的态度接纳并保护独有的文化遗产。

  7. The Last State Monopoly Iron Works in Imperial China: The Zunhua Iron Works of the Ming Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongli; Liu, Haifeng; Qian, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The Zunhua iron works was the last state monopoly iron industry in Imperial China. Its history could be a clue to explain why such a well-developed iron industry in ancient China faded after the works collapse. From the available historical record, the study found that the iron works had a complex history with several openings, closings and relocations. In order to prove this, field investigations were carried out and three locations were finally confirmed, and a well-preserved furnace and many iron- and steel-making relics were found. Lastly, these relics, including the fuel, iron ores, and flux, were analyzed in order to infer the relevant iron- and steel-making technology in use at that time.

  8. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  9. Siberia on Russian mental maps: The imperial and national space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical problem of understanding the nation-building process within continental empires, this paper investigates the various meanings of ‘Siberia’ in the Russian imperial and national imagination. Analyzing discursive practices that create various representations of the geographical space, this study shows the changes in Russian perceptions of Siberia from the ‘alien’ space and the ‘colony’, to an unalienable part of the national territory (‘Russian land’ or ‘homeland’. Tracing the creation of ‘Russianness’ of Siberia, the author interprets this concept as a part of broader debates about ‘Russian identity’ and the relationship between ‘European’ and ‘Asiatic’ Russia. Therefore, the principal aim of the present study is to examine one of the most important aspects of the process Russia’s transformation from imperial to a ‘nationalizing State’.

  10. Space Agriculture, Tourism and Health - Lessons from British Imperial History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, D. J.

    Advocates of space commercialisation and colonisation have drawn on previous centuries' experience of the exploration and exploitation of terrestrial New Worlds. Although so far chiefly confined to the colonisation of the Americas and exploration of the Antarctic, a proper examination of the problems and solutions faced and found by the late 19th - early 20th century Jamaican tourist trade, mid-Victorian planter agriculturalists in Sri Lanka and the impact of climatic theories of health on early 20th century White colonists in Kenya and Rhodesia, can, if properly applied to today's conditions affecting modern space businesses, offer important insights to the psychological impact and aetiology of disease amongst future space colonists, and the success- ful establishment and management of tourism and agriculture in space. By following the precedents set by the imperial pioneers, it should be possible to apply their founding principles in these sectors successfully, while avoiding the pitfalls and excesses of terrestrial imperialism.

  11. Obreras y empresarias en el Periodo Romano Alto Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Uriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de la situación laboral y las diferentes medios y trabajos de las mujeres en el contexto de la Roma alto Imperial, frente a la situación mentalidad tradicional femenina a través de la documentación que proporcionan las fuentes históricas. Se contempla su relación con la sociedad, su ámbito doméstico e incluso la posible repercusión que pudiera existir en la cultura y mentalidad de este momento histórico.Analysis of the labor situation and the different ways and works of women in the context of high Imperial Rome, facing the situation traditionally minded women through the documentation provided by historical sources. It sees its relationship with society, its domestic and even the possible impact that might exist in the culture and mentality of this historical moment.

  12. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  13. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  14. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  15. Imperial Senate: American Legislative Debates on Empire, 1898-1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    with the opposition to imperialism, and links the legislative agitation of 1898–1900 to subsequent resistance to the Treaty of Versailles .45 Welch...century attempts, starting with the rejection of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. The related debates reflected not only a change in the role of this...culminating in his successful opposition to President Wilson over the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.111 While the diehard administration partisans were

  16. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work.

  17. Selfies of Imperial Cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps): What Is Happening Underwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Yoda, Ken; Zavalaga, Carlos; Quintana, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, the development of animal-borne still cameras and video recorders has enabled researchers to observe what a wild animal sees in the field. In the present study, we deployed miniaturized video recorders to investigate the underwater foraging behavior of Imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps). Video footage was obtained from 12 animals and 49 dives comprising a total of 8.1 h of foraging data. Video information revealed that Imperial cormorants are almost exclusively benthic feeders. While foraging along the seafloor, animals did not necessarily keep their body horizontal but inclined it downwards. The head of the instrumented animal was always visible in the videos and in the majority of the dives it was moved constantly forward and backward by extending and contracting the neck while travelling on the seafloor. Animals detected prey at very short distances, performed quick capture attempts and spent the majority of their time on the seafloor searching for prey. Cormorants foraged at three different sea bottom habitats and the way in which they searched for food differed between habitats. Dives were frequently performed under low luminosity levels suggesting that cormorants would locate prey with other sensory systems in addition to sight. Our video data support the idea that Imperial cormorants’ efficient hunting involves the use of specialized foraging techniques to compensate for their poor underwater vision. PMID:26367384

  18. A Wind of Change on Java’s Ruined Temples: Archaeological Activities, Imperial Circuits and Heritage Awareness in Java and the Netherlands (1800-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Bloembergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on early archaeological activities on Java between 1800 and 1850 in the context of the multiple regime changes of that period. It engages with the New Imperial History’s network-centred approach by looking at circuits of archaeological knowledge gathering in which not empire, but Java’s ruined Hindu and Buddhist temple sites provide ‘the nodal points’. By tracing how people, objects and ideas travelled via these sites, and between the Netherlands and the colony, the article aims to understand the origins and nature of heritage awareness of the modern colonial state. It argues that this archaeological site-centred approach helps us understand how both European concepts and indigenous appropriations of archaeological sites contributed to the development of heritage awareness. There were complex multilayered power-hierarchies at work at these sites and forms of indigenous agency that we might miss if we follow only empire-centred networks.

  19. ANALYSIS OF RAIN BY WILLIAM SOMERSET MAUGHAM IN TERMS OF POST-COLONIAL TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şaban KÖKTÜRK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the analysis of a short story, Rain by William Somerset Maugham in terms of post-colonial terms or elements. Before the analysis, the writer of the book was introduced and then the plot was explained so as to make readers familiar with the short story. In the analysis section, post-colonial elements or related terms such as missionary, colonial authority, the state of being subaltern, Manichean allegory, mimicry, ambivalence, surveillance, imperial hegemony, hybridity, essentialism, monolithic culture, alienation, dislocation, misuse of power, gender difference were analyzed from some of the excerpts whether to see how strong these concepts affect the course of the fiction. The study targeted at showing students of language & literature departments the application of the related terms or elements in such stories.

  20. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bratu; Monk Siluan; C. Măruţoiu; Kacso, I.; S. Garabagiu; V. C. Măruţoiu; C. Tănăselia; Popescu, D.; D. L. Postolache; Pop, D

    2017-01-01

    Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTI...

  1. Informal Imperialism and the 1879 Hesperia Incident : Containing Cholera and Challenging Extraterritoriality in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    FUESS, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Informal empire is a classical term of diplomatic history to designate the British role in East Asia after the Opium Wars. This paper looks at informal imperialism more broadly to question the interaction of foreign powers and their citizens with and within Japan. It argues for a contested complexity of the extraterritorial arrangements such that Japanese independence was not only advocated against foreign imperialism but partly with the support of imperial powers and their nationals, accordi...

  2. System Innovations for Ceramic Production at the Imperial Ceramic Plant in Ming and Qing Dynasties%明清御窑厂制瓷制度创新探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜辉; 兰淑雯

    2016-01-01

    明清御窑厂的设置是我国古代陶瓷生产上的一项伟大创新。本文从明清帝王对御瓷极为重视、生产关系变革、行政制度变革、生产制度改革和技术保密制度改革等五个方面论述了御窑厂制瓷制度的创新。%A great step forward in ancient Chinese ceramic manufacturing history is the founding of imperial plants in Ming and Qing Dynasties. This paper takes an insight into the system innovations of the imperial plant in this period in terms of the concerns for ceramics of the emperors, transformations in productive relations and administrative systems, reforms in production institutions and technical information systems, etc.

  3. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Hussin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but with whom; not just that it is carried, but alongside what other commodities and baggage; not just that it moves, but that it is transformed by its passage across borders and among localities. Further, whereas much of rule of law and imperial law scholarship sees legal travel as from metropole to colony, this paper argues that ports of call are equally important for the fate of law. Aunque el proyecto de legislación parecía una parte obvia e inherente al proceso de construcción del imperio, y la creación de leyes ha sido a menudo una justificación para el imperialismo, este artículo lanza preguntas más detalladas sobre los recorridos del derecho. ¿Cómo se convierte una ley “universal” en “local”, y qué efectos conlleva? ¿Cómo han diferenciado entre las categorías “local” y “universal” los proyectos de legislación pasados y contemporáneos? Así pues, nuestro proyecto analítico no concluye simplemente que la ley tiene un recorrido, sino con quién; no simplemente que es transportada, sino con qué otras comodidades y equipaje; no sólo que se mueve, sino que se transforma en su viaje a través de límites y localizaciones. Es más, mientras que gran parte de la comunidad científica del estado del derecho y el imperio del derecho ve que las leyes van de la metrópoli a la colonia, este artículo defiende que las escalas que realiza son igual de importantes para el destino del derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  4. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana M F Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; Souza, Sheila Maria Mendonça de; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Maria; Travassos, Renata; Souza, Wanderley de; Araújo, Adauto

    2015-02-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.

  5. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Bianucci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.

  6. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana MF Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; de Souza, Sheila Maria Mendonça; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Machado; Travassos, Renata; de Souza, Wanderley; Araújo, Adauto

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition. PMID:25742276

  7. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  8. 乾隆朝殿试策问中的史学考题%history exam in Qianlong final imperial examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋硕硕

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses and Qing Qianlong dynasty final imperial examination answers in the history examination questions of content, form and characteristics of questions reveal a series of large-scale official academic activities in the Qianlong period, is the root cause of the make this stage historical prosperity, this is the ruler, attaches great importance to the political functions of historical and social utility. Thus the author put forward the conclusion that the present research into the history of the imperial most background to explore the history of the imperial examination, examination procedures, the final imperial examination measures of language arts and the literature value of the examination paper, less attention to position the content of the answers is proposition, mindset, skills, and embodied in the interaction between politics and academic. If you could start from this Angle, not only can enrich the study of Chinese traditional historiography, and the ancient Chinese cultural history, academic history and will open up a new perspective to the research on the history of the imperial examination system.%本文梳理和分析了清乾隆朝殿试策问中史学考题的内容、出题形式及特点,揭示出乾隆时期一系列大规模官方学术活动的开展,是造就这一阶段史学繁荣的根本原因,此正是统治者高度重视史学的政治功能与社会效用所致。由此笔者提出结论:当下的科举史研究,大多探讨科举考试的历史背景、考试程序,殿试对策的语言艺术和试卷的文献价值,较少关注殿试策问本身的内容、思想倾向、命题技巧,及其中所体现的政治与学术之间的互动关系。如能从这一角度入手,不仅能丰富中国传统史学的研究,且必能为中国古代文化史、学术史和科举制度史的研究开辟一个新的视角。

  9. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  10. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  11. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  12. [Visiting the Amana Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch: Iowa History for Young People" focuses upon the Amana Colonies, which were home to many German immigrants in the 19th century, and which retain much of their ethnic heritage today. The articles and activities included in this issue are "Amana Today"; "No Black Buggies in Amana";…

  13. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    organization, we show how an overarching colonial discourse – although not acknowledged – shapes the experience that foreign employees have of work. This leaves foreign workers in an integration dilemma, as they are expected to suppress home-country values and identities in order to become accepted, while...

  14. Intelligent predictive model of ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝晖; 胡燕瑜; 桂卫华; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    In order to know the ventilating capacity of imperial smelt furnace (ISF), and increase the output of plumbum, an intelligent modeling method based on gray theory and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed, in which the weight values in the integrated model can be adjusted automatically. An intelligent predictive model of the ventilating capacity of the ISF is established and analyzed by the method. The simulation results and industrial applications demonstrate that the predictive model is close to the real plant, the relative predictive error is 0.72%, which is 50% less than the single model, leading to a notable increase of the output of plumbum.

  15. Linguistic Imperialism and Chinese Language and Culture Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杰

    2014-01-01

    Influenced by the English imperialism theory proposed by Danish linguist Robert Philipson,the rapid development and popularity of English in the whole world have aroused debates among English hegemony.Some scholars in China are much concerned about the hegemony’s threat to Chinese language and culture and raised the concept of language and culture protection.Nevertheless,the author maintain that while caring about the adverse impact caused by English hegemony,the Chinese language and culture need to be protected,meanwhile,al-inclusive attitude shal be adopted towards English and western culture to enhance the communication and interaction between Chinese and English languages and cultures.

  16. The Garden and the Jungle: Burnett, Kipling and the Nature of Imperial Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Imperial British India is the point of origin for protagonists in both Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden" (1911) and Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Books" (1894-1895), two influential children's stories in which late Victorian notions of childhood education and nature converge with those of national and imperial identity. In Burnett's…

  17. 78 FR 896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County...

  18. The Perversion of Empire: Edmund Burke and the Nature of Imperial Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeff D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes an alternative interpretation of imperial responsibility, founded upon Edmund Burke's rhetorical denunciation of the East India Company in 1783. Shows how Burke constructed a new understanding of imperial responsibility, in which the need to protect foreign peoples from unscrupulous Britons was stressed instead of any sense of racial…

  19. Breaking the Boundaries of Victorian Imperialism or Extending a Reformed 'Paternalism'? Mary Carpenter and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the debate on gender and imperialism in India by examining the case of Mary Carpenter, a nineteenth century English educationist and social reformer, in order to provide more information on the debate. Addresses where Carpenter stood in the discourse on imperialism. (CMK)

  20. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County. We are proposing to approve local...

  1. Bodies for empire: biopolitics, reproduction, and sexual knowledge in late colonial Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-kyung

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the history of the biomedical construction of women's bodies as social bodies in the formation of colonial modernity in Korea. To do so, I engage with Michel Foucault's concepts of governmentality and biopolitics and the postcolonial history of medicine that has critically revisited these Foucauldian notions. These offer critical insights into the modern calculation of population and the biomedical gaze on female bodies on the Korean Peninsula under Japan's colonial rule (1910-1945). Foucauldian reflections on governmentality and colonial medicine can also shed light on the role of biomedical physicians in the advancement of colonial biopolitics. Biomedical physicians-state and non-state employees This paper explores the history of the biomedical construction of women's bodies as social bodies in the formation of colonial modernity in Korea. To do so, I engage with Michel Foucault's concepts of governmentality and biopolitics and the postcolonial history of medicine that has critically revisited these Foucauldian notions. These offer critical insights into the modern calculation of population and the biomedical gaze on female bodies on the Korean Peninsula under Japan's colonial rule (1910-1945). Foucauldian reflections on governmentality and colonial medicine can also shed light on the role of biomedical physicians in the advancement of colonial biopolitics. Biomedical physicians-state and non-state employees and colonizers and colonized alike - served as key agents investigating, knowing, and managing, as well as proliferating a discourse about, women's bodies and reproduction during Japan's empire-building. In particular, this paper sheds light on the processes by which Korean women's bodies became the objects of intense scrutiny as part of an attempt to quantify, as well as maximize, the total population in late colonial Korea. In the aftermath of the establishment of the Manchurian puppet state in 1932, Japanese imperial and colonial states

  2. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  3. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  4. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  5. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The ancient Kingdom of Kalinga mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela (1st century B.C.) extended from the mouths of the Ganges to the estuary of Godavari river on the East Coast. Ptolemy (100 A.D.) mentions that Paluru (District...

  6. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  7. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  8. 77 FR 55224 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area... Impact Statement (EIS), for the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA), and by this notice is... Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP and CDCA Plan Amendment/Final EIS...

  9. 78 FR 36568 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Approved Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Approved Imperial Sand... Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Record of Decision... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Imperial Sand...

  10. 75 FR 45653 - Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes... of the comment period on the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan (RAMP) and... So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS...

  11. Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelbach, Annemarie

    2006-07-01

    From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures.

  12. Talented Women of Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuoJianying

    2004-01-01

    IN feudal times, imperial exams were the main channel for men of letters to enter officialdom.Unfortunately only men were eligible to take these examinations. Su Xun, a great scholar of the Northern Song Dynasty (9601127), had two sons, both of whom

  13. Modeling Events in the Lower Imperial Valley Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X.; Wei, S.; Zhan, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    The Imperial Valley below the US-Mexican border has few seismic stations but many significant earthquakes. Many of these events, such as the recent El Mayor-Cucapah event, have complex mechanisms involving a mixture of strike-slip and normal slip patterns with now over 30 aftershocks with magnitude over 4.5. Unfortunately, many earthquake records from the Southern Imperial Valley display a great deal of complexity, ie., strong Rayleigh wave multipathing and extended codas. In short, regional recordings in the US are too complex to easily separate source properties from complex propagation. Fortunately, the Dec 30 foreshock (Mw=5.9) has excellent recordings teleseismically and regionally, and moreover is observed with InSAR. We use this simple strike-slip event to calibrate paths. In particular, we are finding record segments involving Pnl (including depth phases) and some surface waves (mostly Love waves) that appear well behaved, ie., can be approximated by synthetics from 1D local models and events modeled with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) routine. Simple events can then be identified along with path calibration. Modeling the more complicated paths can be started with known mechanisms. We will report on both the aftershocks and historic events.

  14. On Cleaning: Student Activism in the Corporate and Imperial University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Carey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, over 100 university campuses in the United States and elsewhere have witnessed student protest, specifically against institutionalized racism and in response to symptoms of the university’s neoliberal, capitalist and imperial culture. This article outlines the emergence and confluence of the corporate and imperial university, producing and reproducing the violence of consumer culture, academic containment, and institutional control. This case study of a small, elite, liberal arts college in the United States will unravel the messiness of the contact zone where university administration and student protest meet, and its meanings for those of us who find ourselves ever-contained within spaces of higher education. Through critical discourse analysis and participant observation, I provide some preliminary mapping of how the university sanitizes—how it keeps itself ‘clean’—and the different ways this is interpreted, confirmed, and resisted by its campus community. Queer and feminist readings of pollution, dirt, and bacteria contextualize the university’s response to student activism, and daily operation, in the politics of containment and cleanliness.

  15. Physics in Penguin Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Richter, Sebastian; Le Bohec, Celine; Schneider, Werner; Metzner, Claus; Gerum, Richard; Wienecke, Barbara; Fabry, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In polar regions, highly adapted social behavior is crucial for the survival of several species. One prominent example is the huddling behavior of Emperor penguins. To understand how Emperor penguins solve the physical problem of movement in densely packed huddles, we observed an Emperor penguin colony (Atka Bay) with time-lapse imaging and tracked the positions of more than 1400 huddling penguins. The trajectories revealed that Emperor penguins move collectively in a hig...

  16. La historia de la colonia Lepida-Celsa según sus documentos numismáticos: su ceca imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bellido, M. Paz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Colonia Lepida allow us to propose the years 48-87 B.C. as its foundation date. The city, previously known by the Iberian name of Celsa, was changed to Lepida probably as a punishment for its support to the Pompeyan party. On 36 B.C. the colony regains its name Celsa. In 19 B.C. Agrippa stablishes here as imperial mint for aurei and denarii that had previously been adscribed to Caesarugusta, even though this city was then not yet founded. Judging by the circulation coinage and by the heavy metrology which lasts until Augustan times. Lepida seems to have coined bronze for military needs since Pompeyan issues.Las emisiones de Colonia Lepida permiten proponer el año 48-87 a.C. como la fecha de fundación de la colonia e interpretar la abolición del nombre de la ciudad ibérica Celsa como un castigo por su adhesión al bando pompeyano. En el 36 la ciudad recupera su nombre Celsa. En el 19 a.C. Agripa debe establecer en la colonia una ceca imperial que habíamos adscrito a Caesaraugusta, ciudad que todavía no estaba fundada, y provocar con ello una gran eclosión urbanística y política de Colonia Celsa. A juzgar por la circulación monetaria y la metrología uncial que se mantendrá hasta tiempos de Augusto, la ciudad parece, ya desde sus emisiones bilingües pompeyanas, haber abastecido de numerario de bronce a las tropas.

  17. 北宋太学办学经费扩充探析%An Analysis on Imperial College Funds Expansion of the Northern Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉霞; 喻本伐

    2012-01-01

      As one of the main forms of higher education in ancient China. The Imperial College of the Northern Song Dynasty is outstanding. even taking the first place in the Chinese educational history. The successful handling of the Northern Song Dynasty Imperial College is insepara-ble to the sufficient provision ,which source of funds comes from two main channels:one is government funding;the other independent financing. the main subdivision consists of learning field rent,given money, house rent ,sale income of printing books, interest rate, minister money, folk dona-tion. Because of its funding source is wider, and allowing for independent financing, so the Northern Song Dynasty Imperial College can be healthy managed.%  太学是中国古代高等教育的主要形式之一。北宋太学在中国教育史上出类拔萃,乃至独占鳌头。北宋太学的成功办理,与其经费供应的相对充足是密不可分的。其经费来源,主要有两个渠道:一是政府拨款;二是太学自主筹措。若细分,计有赡学钱、赐钱、学田租、房租屋课、光监钱、刊印经籍销售款、公使钱、息钱、民间捐资等。正因为其来源较广,并允许自主筹措,故使北宋太学得以健康办理。

  18. Information use in colonial living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living.

  19. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  20. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  1. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  2. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  3. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2004-01-01

    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  4. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  5. Cannibalism in Colonial Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Anders; Gehin, Laurent; Bliddal, Marie; Christensen, Josefine; Mauritzen, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project is to view the different concepts of cannibalism seen in colonial Congo. By analyzing the meaning of cannibalism in Congo in the time span between 1890-1905, we have tried to find a coherence between cannibalism in its definitive and metaphorical form. Additionally we have attempted to determine whether cannibalism was more a myth than fact, and what impact it had on the natives. We have furthermore tried to put cannibalism in relation to contemporary fiction of the tim...

  6. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  7. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity and seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. The gravity method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. Seismic tomography treats the problem of identifying a buried structure as a wave propagation process by inverting the linearized wave equation to compute the spatial distribution of the slowness of the velocity. The purpose of our tomographic study is to further test the method and to guide archaeologists in their future excavations by locating and identifying buried structures. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible

  8. The Colonial Pygmalion: Unsettling Dinesen in Out of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlam, Shaun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the atavistic and feudal historical fantasies that structure Isak Dinesen’s 1937 memoir, Out of Africa. It analyses the imagery and symbolic logic of the memoir in conjunction with Dinesen’s letters from Africa in order to examine how Dinesen derives an idiom to speak of Africa that synthesizes the social structures of European feudalism, the discourse of the noble savage and the aesthetics of the sublime. The paper seeks to unpack the conundrum that fashions a modern, emancipated female subjectivity from the anachronistic paradigm of feudalism and within the framework of imperial domination and colonial occupation. The paper explores how Dinesen’s feudal idiom extends the genre of European pastoral to the colonial milieu and places it in the service of a larger search for a discourse of legitimacy. I argue that this is an abiding preoccupation of colonial literature. I analyze in detail the specular logic through which the narrator confronts Africa as a space that alternately panders to or challenges the psycho-political narcissism of the settler. Dinesen’s memoir reveals the myriad operations of the narcissistic structure through which the narrator strives to fill the copula of the question, “What is Africa to you or you to Africa?”Este trabajo explora las fantasías históricas de carácter atávico y feudal que vertebran las memorias de Isak Dinesen en Out of Africa (1937. Explora el imaginario y la lógica del simbolismo en las memorias junto con las cartas escritas por Dinesen desde África para analizar cómo Dinesen construyó todo un lenguaje para hablar de África que sintetiza las estructuras sociales del feudalismo europeo, el discurso del buen salvaje y la estética de lo sublime. El trabajo intenta explicar la manera rebuscada por medio de la cual se construye la subjetividad de la mujer moderna y emancipada desde el paradigma anacrónico del feudalismo y dentro del marco de la dominación imperial y

  9. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  10. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language...

  11. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  12. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  13. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  14. 77 FR 73391 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; Eastern Kern, Imperial County, Placer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ..., Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Greenhouse gases, Incorporation by reference... four permitting rules submitted for the Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District...

  15. 77 FR 73316 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; Eastern Kern, Imperial, Placer, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Greenhouse gases, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... rules submitted for the Eastern Kern Air Pollution Control District (EKAPCD), Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), and...

  16. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  17. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  18. [The Japanese Colonial Medicine as Seen Through the Life of Fujita Tsuguakira].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyu-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Fujita Tsuguakira was a man who established Jahyeuiwon, a governmental medical facility, during the Residency-General Period and took over the presidency of a committee in the Japanese Government-General of Chosun after Chosun was annexed to Japanese. In addition, he is a man well qualified to be placed on the top of the list when discussing the Japanese colonial medicine in Chosun, considering his personal history of getting evolved in the colonial rule of Taiwan for seven years as an army surgeon. He led the colonial medicine in Chosun for nine years before and after the Japanese annexation of Korea. He was engaged in almost all the areas related to the colonial medicine such as anti-cholera projects, Hansung Sanitation Union, Deahan Hospital, Chosun Chongdokbu Hospital, Jahyeuiwon, medical schools affiliated to the Japanese Government-General of Chosun. In all respects, his life was in sync with the expansionist strategies of Imperial Japan. Especially, his deeds in Chosun was an "active aid to the instructions" from Army Minister Terauchi Masatake " as Sato Kozo testifies. Fujita was chosen by the military, and so he faithfully served the role given from it. The rewards that he received form the military attest to this fact. He took the position of Surgeon General in Army Medical Service on September, 1912, the top place that an army surgeon could hold. The position was first given to the officer who worked outside Japan proper, and he was the only army surgeon with no doctorial degree to receive such title except for Ishiguro Tadanori who was the first army surgeon in Japan. To sum up, Fujita was not a "doctor" but a "military officer". His walk of life mainly lay in the role of an aider adjusted to the ups and downs and the speeds of the plans of Imperial Japan to invade the continent. Therefore, the Japanese colonial medicine controlled by such man as Fujita in Chosun was inevitably studded with the military things. As a chief in the army medicine, what was

  19. Belgium’s Expansionist History between 1870 and 1930: Imperialism and the Globalisation of Belgian Business

    OpenAIRE

    Abbeloos, Jan-Frederik

    2008-01-01

    This chapter considers if and how the political action of imperialism and the globalisation of business influenced each other in Belgium between 1870 and 1930. In addition to the role that Belgian King Leopold II played in the territorial partition of Africa and the opening up of China, the period sees a growing amount of capital and industrial know-how from Belgium being invested in markets outside Europe. Before World War I, the globalisation of Belgian business and Belgian imperialism oper...

  20. The Imperial Japanese Army as a Factor in Spreading Militarism and Fascism in Prewar Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Although a broad variety of aspects concerning militarism and fascism in Japan have been focal points of research, little attention has been given to the Imperial Japanese Army as an actor in spreading militarist and fascist ideology among the Japanese populace. Japan lacked a fascist mass movement centered in a fascist political party. Nonetheless, the majority of the populace supported the government’s policies, the Imperial Japanese Army's adventurism, and right wing terrorism. In order to...

  1. The Silver Dragon and the Golden Fish: an imperial Ottoman symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David

    2003-01-01

    This article studies and catalogues a group of ottoman swords decorated with dragon and fish emblems on their hilts. Both animals were associated to the imperial power according the oriental traditon.

    Este trabajo estudia y cataloga un grupo de espadas otomanas decoradas con dragones y peces en sus empuñaduras. Estos animales fueron asociados con el poder imperial según la tradición oriental.

  2. The Silver Dragon and the Golden Fish: an imperial Ottoman symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies and catalogues a group of ottoman swords decorated with dragon and fish emblems on their hilts. Both animals were associated to the imperial power according the oriental traditon.

    Este trabajo estudia y cataloga un grupo de espadas otomanas decoradas con dragones y peces en sus empuñaduras. Estos animales fueron asociados con el poder imperial según la tradición oriental.

  3. La autobiografia conventual colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Navallo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone una aproximación al relato autobiográfico conventual de fines del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII en Hispanoamérica. La lectura crítica del texto escrito por la monja clarisa Úrsula Suárez, en Santiago de Chile, nos permite repensar el lugar de la escritura religiosa femenina durante el período colonial en respuesta a un orden hegemónico que autoriza este tipo de narración, dentro del marco discursivo de los relatos de vida edificante. En este sentido, Relación Autobiográfica se considera el resultado de una práctica de escritura emergente del orden colonial. Mandada a escribir por su director espiritual, la narración autobiográfica implica tanto la delegación de la palabra a la religiosa como el resultado de un mecanismo institucionalizado de selección dentro de la comunidad conventual. Desde el momento en que toma posesión de la escritura, Úrsula se decide a presentar momentos de su historia personal elegidos para configurar la historia de su santidad. La concreción de la labor se expresa mediante una serie de recursos que sirven como un modo de autofiguración en el texto, constituyendo una forma de autoinvención. De allí que la selección de anécdotas, las reiteraciones y omisiones sirvan, por un lado, para ubicar la responsabilidad de la escritura tanto fuera de ella misma como en Dios; por otro, como la expresión de narrar la experiencia mística hispanoamericana de una manera diferente a la tradición peninsular.

  4. Centralização versus descentralização: a política monetária e fiscal do governo central Imperial e a Província de São Paulo, 1850-1889 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i3.437 Centralization versus decentralization: monetary and fiscal policy of the central Imperial government and the Province of São Paulo, 1850-1889 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i3.437 Centralización versus descentralización: la política monetaria y fiscal del gobierno central Imperial y la Provincia de São Paulo, 1850-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur José Renda Vitorino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo focaliza o fato de que no período do Segundo Reinado os monarquistas conservadores realizaram uma articulação entre a dimensão econômica (a lógica do capital mercantil e a dimensão política (a política monetária e fiscal, o que converteu a corte imperial do Rio de Janeiro no verdadeiro centro da economia colonial. Neste contexto, somente com o surgimento de novas áreas de expansão econômica na província de São Paulo, especialmente com a produção de café na região denominada “Oeste Paulista”, foram criadas as condições materiais para essa província se desligar das amarras político-financeiras construídas pelo governo central imperial e montar um projeto político contrário aos interesses da corte imperial.We shall focus on the fact that during the Second Reign period, Conservative Monarchists undertook a arbitration between the economic realm (the logic of mercantile capital and the political realm (monetary and fiscal policy, which turned the imperial court in Rio de Janeiro into the true center of the colonial economy. Thus, it was only the emergence of new areas of economic expansion in the de Province of São Paulo, especially coffee production in the region named “Oeste Paulista”, that created the material conditions for this province to come free from the political financial shackles set by the central imperial government, and seek a political project contrary to the interests of the imperial court.En este estudio, enfocaremos que durante el período del II Reinado, los Monárquicos Conservadores realizaron una articulación entre la dimensión económica (la lógica del capital mercantil y la dimensión política (la política monetaria y fiscal, convirtiendo a la Corte imperial de Río de Janeiro en el verdadero centro de la economía colonial. Así, fue sólo con el surgimiento de nuevas áreas de expansión económica en la Provincia de San Pablo, en especial con la producción de caf

  5. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  6. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  7. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  8. Ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, Trevor D.; Wilson, Linda J.; Theobald, Mark R.; Milford, Celia; Nemitz, Eiko; Bull, Jennifer; Bacon, Philip J.; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah; Sutton, Mark A.

    2007-05-01

    Ammonia emissions were measured from two entire seabird colonies with contrasting species assemblages, to ascertain the ammonia volatilisation potentials among seabird species in relation to their nesting behaviour. Emissions were calculated from downwind plume measurements of ammonia concentration using both inverse dispersion and tracer ratio methods. Measured colony emissions ranged 1-90 kg NH3 hour-1, and equated to 16 and 36% volatilization of excreted nitrogen for colonies dominated by ground/burrow nesting and bare rock nesting birds, respectively. The results were applied in a bioenergetics model with a global seabird database. Seabird colonies are found to represent the largest point sources of ammonia globally (up to ~6 Gg NH3 colony-1 year-1). Moreover the largest emissions occur mainly in remote environments with otherwise low NH3 emissions. These ammonia ``hot spots'' explain significant perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in these regions and add ~20% to oceanic ammonia emissions south of latitude 45°S.

  9. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie Brown, C.

    2010-06-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

  10. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  11. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  12. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  13. Jejak-jejak Imperial dalam Beragam Nasionalisme Asia Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010, xiii + 248 pages.Reid has long been widely known as a senior historian with a specialty in the history of Aceh, Sumatra, and the Indonesian revolution. Recently, he has begun to write about the history of Southeast Asia. Inspired by French historian Fernand Braudel, this work presents what Reid calls a “total history” of this region. In this approach wars, royal dynasties, and foreign traders are not prioritized over the diets, health, and pastimes of ordinary people. Through this work, Reid has begun to strengthen the study of Southeast Asia. As one of the pioneers and masters of the study of Asia and the Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, Reid is uniquely positioned to offer new insights about this region’s history. In this book, Reid offers a new understanding of the historical data collected on the link between ethnic identity, nationalism, and history of Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.516

  14. El Águila Imperial Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrer Baena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Á guila Imperial Ibérica es una de las aves más amenazadas de extinción del mundo. Actualmente, la población mundial de la especie está estimada en un poco más de 200 parejas. Todas ellas se encuentran en territorio peninsular español, en los bosques mediterráneos del cuadrante suroccidental, repartidas en una serie de subpoblaciones de pequeño tamaño (menos de 30 parejas con un nivel de intercambio medio‐bajo, estando algunas de ellas claramente aisladas. Este tipo de distribución es típicamente inestable y paso previo habitual de los procesos de extinción. Entre las principales amenazas a la especie se encuentran la disminución de las poblaciones de conejo, que constituye su principal presa, y la mortalidad por electrocución en tendidos eléctricos.

  15. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  16. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  17. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  18. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity.

  19. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bratu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermal analysis. The painting materials employed by popular artists were determined by FTIR and XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as gypsum, calcite (rear background, lead white (Archangel Clothes, lead-minium (Archangel Clothes, leaf, iron oxide (Imperial Gate frame, malachite (green, Prussian blue (blue, orpiment (yellow, aliphatic, ester, and protein (probably egg yolk degradation products. Using similar colors as in the original artwork (resulting from the scientific investigation of the pigments a 3D reconstruction has been performed. The restored Imperial Gates are placed in the old Nicula wooden church, being included into a tourist and religious circuit.

  20. [The history of smallpox vaccination in the Imperial Moscow foster house].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, S A

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the history of vaccination against natural smallpox which is directly connected to the Imperial Moscow foster house which became one of smallpox vaccination centers in Russia of XIX century. In 1801, when variolations were substituted by more safe cowpox vaccinations, in Russia the first vaccination using the method of Jenner was made exactly in in the Imperial Moscow foster house. From 1805, the smallpox vaccination received the status of force of law, the Imperial Moscow foster house began to produce and to distribute the smallpox vaccine all over the country and apply the smallpox vaccination not only to its foster children but to all turned to and, besides that, to train the smallpox vaccination. In 1857, the Imperial Moscow foster house became the first establishment in Russia where the revaccination was applied. In 1980, the WHO proclaimed that the implementation of the global program of smallpox irradiation resulted in the natural smallpox elimination on Earth. The smallpox became the first communicable disease defeated due to mass vaccination. One third of Earth population was vaccinated by the Soviet vaccine, which originated mainly because of the activities of physicians of the Imperial Moscow foster house.

  1. O nascimento da América portuguesa no contexto imperial lusitano: considerações teóricas a partir das diferenças entre a historiografia recente e o ensino de História The birth of Portuguese America in the context of imperial lusitania: theoretical considerations regarding differences between recent historiography and History teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Siqueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estrutura-se sobre a comparação entre o que é trazido pela produção historiográfica recente e o que os livros didáticos e o ensino de História do Brasil oferecem acerca do início de nosso período colonial. Os temas aqui tratados são a formação da monarquia e do Estado em Portugal, os antecedentes e as causas da expansão marítima, o significado da viagem de Cabral e, por fim, a dinâmica imperial lusitana até a metade do século XVI. Os fenômenos e processos históricos discutidos servem como indício de uma concepção histórica que está como pano de fundo na maneira de tratar a história do Brasil e de estruturar os livros didáticos.This article deals with the comparison between what is discussed by recent historiographical production and what History textbooks offer concerning Brazil's Colonial Period. The themes include the formation of the Monarchy and the State in Portugal, the antecedents and causes of overseas expansion, the significance of Cabral's travels and, lastly, the Portuguese Imperial dynamics up to the mid-16th century. The historical phenomena and processes brought up here can be considered as pointing toward a historical conception which works as a backdrop to the way in which the history of Brazil is dealt with and how textbooks are organized.

  2. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  3. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  4. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  5. Neoliberalismo: neo-imperialismo Neoliberalism: neo-imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Duménil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O neoliberalismo é uma nova fase do capitalismo, que se impôs a partir do começo dos anos 1980. Considerando seus traços mais gerais nos países do Centro, como nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, destacam-se três características: uma dinâmica mais favorável da mudança tecnológica e da rentabilidade, a criação de rendas a favor das classes mais abastadas, e a redução da taxa de acumulação. O imperialismo na era neoliberal pode se caracterizar pela hegemonia dos Estados Unidos, que drenam fluxos enormes de renda do resto do mundo. Mas esse domínio é solapado pelos desequilíbrios externos crescentes do país, a expressão de uma onda extraordinária de consumo por parte das famílias.Neoliberalism is a new phase of capitalism which was asserted at the beginning of the 1980s. Considering its more general features as in the United States and Europe, it can be characterized by: a more favorable dynamic of technical change and profitability, the creation of income flows to the benefit of the most accommodated classes of the population, and diminished rates of accumulation. A central feature of imperialism in the neoliberal era is U.S. hegemony, a country which is draining huge flows of income from the rest of the world. This domination is, however, undermined by increasing external disequilibria, the expression of an extraordinary wave of consumption from households.

  6. Characterization of elements in trace amounts in imperial topaz through neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacao de elementos em teores de traco em topazio imperial atraves da analise por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ester Figueiredo de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sabioni, Antonio C. S. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept de Fisica; Ferreira, Cesar M. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the mineral characterization of the elements in trace amounts of imperial topaz, original form Mina Capao da Lama, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, through the neutron activation analysis. Recent results have permitted to quantify Cr, Cs, Mn, Na, Ga, Sb and Au. The main goal of this study is the contribution to the mineral and gemological research of the imperial topaz.

  7. Letter to the editor: Genetics and the archaeology of ancient Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Aaron J; King, Roy J

    2013-12-01

    This letter is a call for DNA testing on ancient skeletal materials from the southern Levant to begin a database of genetic information of the inhabitants of this crossroads region. In this region, during the Iron I period traditionally dated to circa 1200-1000 BCE, archaeologists and biblical historians view the earliest presence of a group that called itself Israel. They lived in villages in the varied hill countries of the region, contemporary with urban settlements in the coastal plains, inland valleys, and central hill country attributed to varied indigenous groups collectively called Canaanite. The remnants of Egyptian imperial presence in the region lasted until around 1150 BCE, postdating the arrival of an immigrant group from the Aegean called the Philistines circa 1175 BCE. The period that follows in the southern Levant is marked by the development of territorial states throughout the region, circa 1000-800 BCE. These patrimonial kingdoms, including the United Kingdom of Israel and the divided kingdoms of northern Israel and Judah, coalesced varied peoples under central leadership and newly founded administrative and religious bureaucracies. Ancient DNA testing will give us a further refined understanding of the individuals who peopled the region of the southern Levant throughout its varied archaeological and historic periods and provide scientific data that will support, refute, or nuance our sociohistoric reconstruction of ancient group identities. These social identities may or may not map onto genetic data, but without sampling of ancient DNA we may never know. A database of ancient DNA will also allow for comparisons with modern DNA samples collected throughout the greater region and the Mediterranean littoral, giving a more robust understanding of the long historical trajectories of regional human genetics and the genetics of varied ancestral groups of today's Jewish populations and other cultural groups in the modern Middle East and Mediterranean.

  8. Cooperative geochemical investigation of geothermal resources in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, T.B.

    1973-10-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that the Imperial Valley has a large geothermal potential. In order to delineate additional geothermal systems a chemical and isotopic investigation of samples from water wells, springs, and geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley and Yuma areas was conducted. Na, K, and Ca concentrations of nearly 200 well water, spring water, hot spring, and geothermal fluid samples from the Imperial Valley area were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fournier and Truesdell's function was determined for each water sample. Suspected geothermal areas are identified. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope abundances were determined in order to determine and to identify the source of the water in the Mesa geothermal system. (JGB)

  9. De la res publica al Imperium: Poder y subjetividad en la Roma Imperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Barrassús Herrero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende caracterizar la forma de poder imperial romano y las formas de subjetividad que aparecen tras la irrupción de un poder absoluto e irresistible propio del Principado. Trataremos de identificar los elementos de continuidad y discontinuidad que se dan en el ámbito del pensamiento político y de la subjetividad en el período republicano así como en el imperial. Los textos claves para comprender tal paso se encuentran tanto en los escritos de los últimos republicanos ‘convencidos’ así como en una literatura política de la primera época imperial que mira al pasado republicano con nostalgia y veneración, al tiempo que trata de ajustar cuentas con el presente mediante la narración de su corrupción

  10. 78 FR 37845 - Meeting of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) Subgroup of the California Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Meeting of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) Subgroup of the... 92-463 and 94-579, that the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Subgroup of the California...

  11. 75 FR 14623 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area... Plan (RAMP)/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area... Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS are available in the El ] Centro Field Office at the above address and at the...

  12. YAKUTSKAYA OBLAST IN ALL-IMPERIAL SPACE (BASING ON GOVERNORS’ ALL-NATIONAL REPORTS (LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena I. Arkhipova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers governors’ reports in terms of imperial narrative presence. The author attempts to show Yakutskaya Oblast Governors V.N. Skrypitsyn and I.I. Kraft’s attitude towards non-Russian inhabitants, their views of region further development and its place in all-Imperial space.

  13. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  14. Geotechnical environmental aspects of geothermal power generation at Herber, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source was assessed. Here, the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California were investigated. Geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence are discussed in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. Estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds, are discussed.

  15. COZINHEIRO IMPERIAL - Ou a nova arte do cozimento e do copeiro em todos os seus ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pereira de Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Cozinheiro Imperial Ou Nova Arte Do Cozinheiro E Do Copeiro Em Todos Os Seus Ramos é uma referencia tanto na culinária como na bibliografia brasileira, por tratar-se do primeiro livro de receitas editado no Brasil. De autor anônimo, foi reeditado em 1996 pela Best Seller. A Universidade de São Paulo digitalizou os originais, que hoje são parte de sua Coleção Brasiliana. Pela importância cultural do material, ele é destacado nesta edição de RRV. Palavras chave: Gastronomia. Cultura Brasileira. Cozinheiro Imperial

  16. Description of Imperial Valley, California for the assessment of impacts of geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.; Ermak, D.

    1976-08-26

    Impending geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California has raised concern over the possible impacts of such development. As an initial step in impact assessment of geothermal projects, relevant features of the valley's physical and human environments are described. Particular attention is placed on features that may either influence development or be affected by it. Major areas of consideration include the valley's physical resources (i.e., land, air, water, and biological resources), economic, fiscal, and social characteristics of Imperial County, and geothermal laws.

  17. 编年史视角下的日本在华鸦片贸易%"Imperial Japanese"Drug Trafficking in China:Historiographic Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    若林正(加拿大); 王山峰(译)

    2014-01-01

    This historiographic study places "imperial Japanese"opium operations -largely run through Chi-nese collaborator regimes-in the context of postwar Japanese scholarly debates on World War Two in Asia .This approach may seem circuitous and convoluted .Why not just describe the opium operations directly .Three factors necessitate this tactical detour .First, not all "imperial Japanese"were ethnic Japanese;colonial peoples such as Koreans and Taiwanese also plied the drug trade in their capacity as Japanese imperial subjects .Second , this topic suffers acute neglect in Japan today owing to a form of postwar political correctness that warrants as much attention as the wartime opium operations themselves .Third, such ideological constraints on historical scholarship warp our understanding of Japanese aggression in China -including the role played by colonial subjects .Below, I briefly out-line the geopolitical contours of "imperial Japanese"opium operations on the Asian continent from 1895 to 1945 , and then tackle the prickly issue of why academic historians in postwar Japan feel a need to portray Chinese and Ko -reans solely as victims of a "Fifteen-Year War"between 1931 and 1945 .In other words , it is hoped that this study of Japanese drug trafficking will also unlock other doors .%二战期间日本在华的毒品走私,很大程度上是通过日本在华的协作者,即汉奸政权开展的,这也是绝大多数日本学者在战后讨论此问题时一个大的语境,这一研究路径看起来似乎有些迂回复杂。为什么不直接研究鸦片贸易呢?有三个方面的因素证明迂回研究的必要性。第一,并非所有的“日本人”都是种族上的日本人,日本殖民下的朝鲜人和台湾人也充当了日本在华鸦片走私的工具。第二,这一问题在战后政治正确的框架下未获得研究许可并被严重忽略了。第三,正因为有上述意识形态方面的强制,历史学者对于日本侵

  18. The colonial identity of wine: the "Leakey Affair" and the Franco-Algerian order of things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the 1905 crisis of French and Algerian viticulture that came to be known as the "Leakey Affair." It explains why metropolitan French observers reacted so strongly to Leakey's contract and subsequent advertising of Algerian wine on the British market, first from a socio-economic perspective, and second by reference to the importance of wine in French culture and identity. The final section of the article explains the response of Algeria's colonists to their metropolitan critics. Throughout, wine is used as a prism through which to explore the nature of identity in modern France and the complex colonial relationship in which the wine industry played such a major role. The Leakey Affair revealed the fragility of colonial cultural formations and the importance of wine as a conduit of ideas, and a symbol for fierce wrangling over identity, belonging, and the nature of empire. What was at stake was no less than the intellectual ownership of a mainstay of France's cultural mythology -- wine -- and the relationship between an imperial power and its colonial world.

  19. One Film, or Many?: The Multiple Texts of the Colonial Korean Film "Volunteer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekil Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, studies on films from colonial Korea in the Japanese empire had to rely primarily on secondary texts, such as memoirs, journal and newspaper articles, and film reviews. The recent discovery of original film texts from archives in Japan, China, Russia, and elsewhere and their availability on DVD format, prompted an important turning point in the scholarship. However, juxtaposing these newly released DVD versions with other archival sources exposes significant differences among the existing versions of texts. For instance, a newly discovered script reveals that important segments are missing in the recently released DVD version of the propaganda film "Volunteer." There also exist important discrepancies in the dialogue among the original film script, the actual film version, the synopsis, and the Japanese subtitles. Some of the Korean-language dialogue, which might be interpreted as exhibiting some ambivalence toward Japanese imperial policies, was completely silenced through strategic omissions in the Japanese-language subtitles targeting Japanese audiences. Some Japanese-language translations of the script also exhibit drastic changes from the original Korean-language dialogue. Piecing together such fragmented and fraught linguistic dissonance found in the colonial archives, we can conjecture that viewers from the colony and the metropole of "Volunteer" may have consumed very different versions of the film. This article aims to examine the significance of such dissonance, which has only recently become audible in so-called films of transcolonial coproduction.

  20. Recently Exposed Fumarole Fields Near Mullet Island, Imperial County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K.; Adams, P.; Bernstein, L.

    2011-12-01

    New field observations, lidar measurements, aerial imaging and preliminary laboratory measurements of mud samples are reported of three formerly submerged fumarole fields in the Salton Trough near Mullet Island in southeastern California, USA. The fumarole fields have recently been exposed as the Salton Sea level has dropped. The largest of the three fields visited in January 2011 is irregular in outline with a marked northeast elongation. It is roughly 400 meters long and 120 meters wide. The field consists of approximately one hundred warm to boiling hot (100° C) mud volcanoes (0.1 - 2 m in height), several hundred mud pots, and countless CO2 gas vents. Unusual shaped mud volcanoes in the form of vertical tubes with central vents were observed in many places. Lidar measurements were obtained in the time period Nov 9-13, 2010 using an Optech Orion 200M lidar from an elevation 800 m AGL. They reveal that the terrain immediately surrounding the two fields that are above water level reside on a low (~0.5 m high) gently sloping mound about 500 m across that shows no evidence of lineaments indicative of surface faulting. With other geothermal features, the fumaroles define a well-defined line marking the probable trace of the Calipatria fault. Although the precise locations is uncertain, it appears to define a straight line 4 km long between the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes and Mullet Island. Mullet Island is one of five late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanic necks in the immediate area of the fumaroles. The Calipatria fault is subparallel to the San Andreas and Imperial faults and only one of many verified or suspected faults (including cross faults) in the complex tectonic setting of the Salton Trough. Mud from several volcanoes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). One sample contained boussingaultite, (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2.6(H2O), a rare mineral that is known to sublime under fumarolic conditions, possibly by

  1. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the design in the construction of maps of colonial baroque in the creation and graphic composition. Given the importance of aesthetics in the visual language manuals maples ornaments of the cathedral with a look from the pedagogy and education in studies of iconography Erwin Panofsky in understanding the phenomenon of space. 

  2. Evaluating Gismondi's Representation of Portus, the Port of Imperial Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme P. Earl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Portus Project, an inter-disciplinary collaborative fieldwork project focussed on the ancient port of Rome. It demonstrates the use that is being made of a plaster model of the port produced by Italo Gismondi in 1937, initially as a means for focussing re-evaluations of the various illustrative and other data available relating to the port’s topography, and then as a source for background and comparative digital geometric data within the project’s work to remodel the entire site. The Portus Project employs three-dimensional computer graphics throughout the data gathering, analysis, modelling and representation phases and the paper considers the role that Gismondi’s model is playing in the development and evaluation of such a process.

  3. Entre o altar e o trono: iniciativas de escolarização na capital imperial - Between the altar and throne: initiatives of schooling in imperial capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Morais Limeira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ao reconhecer que a produção da forma escolar moderna se efetivou por intermediações de forças distintas, investigamos iniciativas particulares de educação promovidas pela Igreja Católica. A partir das propagandas do Almanak Laemmert e de diversas informações do jornal O Apóstolo, foi possível localizar vestígios acerca da estrutura física, planos de estudos e valores propostos por alguns colégios particulares na Corte Imperial. O recorte cronológico abrange as décadas de 1870 e 1880, que compreendem a época da reforma Leôncio de Carvalho (1879. Também procuramos refletir acerca das relações estabelecidas entre o Estado Imperial e a Igreja Católica, e observar imbricações entre poderes públicos e privados, fenômeno que ultrapassa a sociedade oitocentista.Palavras-chave: ensino primário, colégios religiosos, Corte Imperial. BETWEEN THE ALTAR AND THRONE: INITIATIVES OF SCHOOLING IN IMPERIAL CAPITALAbstractRecognizing that adherence to the way modern school was made by different forces, we investigate private education initiatives promoted by the Catholic Church in the Imperial Court. From the advertisements that circulated Almanak Laemmert and O Apóstolo the newspaper was unable to locate information about the physical structure, curricula and amounts charged for those colleges. Establishing the chronological cut the 1870s and 1880s, which comprise the time of Reformation Leôncio de Carvalho (1879, we also reflect on the relationships established between the Imperial State and the Catholic Church an expression of the imbrications of public and private, a brandsociety in the nineteenth century.Key-words: primary education, religious colleges, the Imperial Court. ENTRE EL ALTAR Y EL TRONO: INICIATIVAS INSTRUCCIÓN EN IMPERIAL CAPITALResumenReconociendo que la construcción de forma de la escuela moderna fue dado por el área de fuerzas distintas, investigar iniciativas privadas de educación promovidos por la Iglesia

  4. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  5. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau).

  6. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  7. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  8. FREE TRADE AND THE ROOTS OF MODERN IMPERIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Calance

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his work, „Nation, State, and Economy” (1919, Ludwig von Mises claims that the idea of liberalism starts with the freedom of the individual and it rejects all rules of some persons over others. This paper aims to illustrate an opposite direction, deprecating the 18th century colonial practices which have gradually tainted the pacifistic principle of liberalism with the oppressive, imperialistic goals, of the most powerful states. We focus on the British East India Company, which dominated the East Indies. We find that, under the cover of free trading, the British Superpower has often used military intrusion to acquire territories, to rule resources and, through this, to exercise power over the native population.

  9. 76 FR 28453 - Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study-Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... site for NPS Planning, Environment and Public Comment, and will be advertised in a newsletter which... National Park Service Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study--Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles..., Stanislaus, Tulare and Ventura Counties, CA, and Maricopa and Yuma Counties, AZ AGENCY: National Park...

  10. 77 FR 72968 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Placer County and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... County and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control...

  11. 76 FR 12280 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Kern County, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... County, and Ventura County; Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District...

  12. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan...

  13. 76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... pollution sources. We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action....

  14. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

  15. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action. DATES: Any...

  16. The Garden and the Jungle: Burnett, Kipling and the Nature of Imperial Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Imperial British India is the point of origin for protagonists in both Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden" (1911) and Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Books" (1894-1895), two influential children's stories in which late Victorian notions of childhood education and nature converge with those of national and imperial…

  17. Jane Austen and Imperialism--A Rereading of "Pride and Prejudice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…

  18. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  19. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  20. Review - China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Entenmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yingcong Dai. 2009. The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. xiv+368. Maps, notes, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-2959-8951-8 (hardcover, 80USD, 978-0-2959-8952-5 (paperback, 30USD. and Xiuyu Wang. 2011. China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. xv+291. Notes, tables, glossary of Chinese characters, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-7391-6809-7 (hardcover, 80USD 978-0-7391-6810-3 (ebook, 79.99USD. Until recently, historians have not paid much attention to Qing China's Tibetan frontier, but two excellent new studies address this neglect. One is Yingcong Dai's The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet: Imperial Strategy in the Early Qing, which examines the Qing conquest of the Khams region up to the end of the eighteenth century and its effect on Sichuan. The other is China's Last Imperial Frontier: Late Qing Expansion in Sichuan's Tibetan Borderlands by Xiuyu Wang, in which he describes Qing efforts to impose direct administration on the Khams region in the last years of the dynasty. The Qing annexation of eastern Khams was part of the regime's attempt to secure military control of Tibet and deny it to the Zunghar Mongols. As Dai shows, Tibet's strategic importance to the Qing directly shaped Sichuan's development. Although Sichuan was long an integral part of China, its demographic collapse during the ...

  1. "In Defence of Cricket": The Imperial Games Ethic in Victorian English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how societies can be judged by the athletic games they play through presentation of an exchange of letters appearing in the 1872 issues of the Upper Canada College newspaper. Shows how cricket, representing imperial society and muscular Christianity, was threatened by the Yankees and "American baseball." (LS)

  2. A Friction of Cultural Values and Characteristics of Imperial Mosque in Ternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad tayeb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has many religious culture that should be preserved one of  which is the imperial mosque. Most of the imperial mosque has its own characteristics in carrying out activities both religious and cultural. Sultanate of Ternate is the largest sultanates in eastern Indonesia which would give other peculiarities that need to be raised as a typical Indonesian culture. The purpose of this study is to identify the type of tradition in doing at the mosque sultanate by people of Ternate and changes in cultural values of the people of Ternate in the imperial mosque. In this study found the phenomenon characteristic changes in cultural values by linking changes in the physical aspect and non-physical. To determine the effect of these factors, the method used is the method of observation of physical traces. This method is expected to be able to explain the effect of the change occurred. Based on the results of the study indicate compliance is still customary rules of religious traditions in the imperial mosque although some traditions that formerly taboo has been done, the progress of the times, increase knowledge, and make the implementation of the reform and renewal of cultural values carried by the community for various reasons theTernate.

  3. Greene/Feizi - U of Penn; Imperial College | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Investigator: Mark Greene, MD, PhDInstitution: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Subcontract Principal Investigator: Ten Feizi, MD, FmedSciInstitution: Imperial College London Former Principal Investigator: Minoru Fukuda, PhD (retired)Institution: Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA |

  4. Imperial scientists lead the way in preparation for the biggest experiment on earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Reeves, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    "An international team of over 2'000 scientist, led by Professor Tejinder Virdee from Imperial College London's Departement of Physics is stepping up preparations for the world's largest ever physics experiment, starting next year at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  5. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  6. Linguistic Globalization and the Call Center Industry: Imperialism, Hegemony or Cosmopolitanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Selma K.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism, linguistic hegemony and linguistic cosmopolitanism are broad and contrasting conceptualizations of linguistic globalization that are frequently, if implicitly, invoked in the literature, both academic and non-academic, on language practices and perceptions in the call center industry. I begin with outlining each of these…

  7. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and...

  8. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  9. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  10. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2015-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a

  11. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  12. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a

  13. Post-breeding movements of Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus family groups, subsequent migration of adults and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yuriko; Wilson, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    Increased shipping in British Columbia (BC) waters poses risks for marine birds from marine oil spills. Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus), small marine diving birds of which half of the world’s population breeds in BC, are especially susceptible to oiling immediately after departing from their breeding colonies, as their offspring are flightless, constraining their parents to remain with them. In 2014 we deployed geolocator loggers on Ancient Murrelets at four breeding colonies, two on the east and two on the west coast of Haida Gwaii to investigate patterns of post-breeding dispersal and subsequent migratory movements. Birds from east coast colonies moved south and east after leaving their colonies, remaining in Queen Charlotte Sound and adjacent waters for 4–6 weeks, whereas those from west coast colonies moved steadily north and west, so that they left BC waters earlier than those from east coast colonies. These movements were consistent with being driven by surface currents. In June, all birds moved rapidly to the eastern Aleutians, SE Bering Sea, and waters off Kamchatka, where they probably moulted. In August, most moved north, some passing through Bering Straits into the Chukchi Sea. In October-November some birds returned to waters off western N America (33%) and the remainder carried on westwards to waters off Japan, Korea and NE China. For the former group the movement to the Bering Sea in June constituted a moult migration and, as such, is the first described for an auk. Those birds wintering in Asia began moving east in February and arrived off BC in March, when observations at colonies show that burrow visits begin in Haida Gwaii. Our data suggest that, immediately after colony departure, birds from the east coast colonies (about half the population of Haida Gwaii) are at higher risk from potential oil spills in northern British Columbia waters than those breeding on the west coast. PMID:28235033

  14. Temperature and precipitation effects on agrarian economy in late imperial China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Li, Guodong; Forêt, Philippe; Lee, Harry F.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been statistically proven to substantially influence the economy of early modern Europe, particularly in the long term. However, a detailed analysis of climate change and the economy of historical China remains lacking, particularly from a large-scale and quantitative perspective. This study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China (AD 1600-1840) at the national level. This study also compares the findings on the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China with those in early modern Europe. Results of multivariate regression and Granger causality analyses indicate that (1) climate change induces economic fluctuations in late imperial China, particularly in the long term; (2) given that the economic center is located in South China during the study period, temperature has a greater influence on the economy than precipitation; (3) the population of China is statistically proven to primarily act as consumers in the long term; and (4) given the long-term role of the Chinese population, the economic vulnerability in late imperial China under climate change is further increased and is higher than that in early modern Europe, whose population mainly acts as producers in the long term. In conclusion, the late imperial Chinese society has a high economic vulnerability to climate change. These findings revisit Malthusian theory and ‘Great Divergence’ theory by including the perspective of economic vulnerability under climate change during the study period. The role of the population must be investigated further to address the socioeconomic vulnerabilities under climate change.

  15. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  16. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  17. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  18. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  19. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woo...

  20. A Huge Ancient Schwannoma of the Epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jo Heon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis is extremely rare. The authors report the first case of a patient with a huge ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis. Clinicians should consider the possibility that ancient schwannoma may originate in the epiglottis mimicking the other more frequently observed lesions.

  1. Ant colony optimization in continuous problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; LIU Kang; LI Kaishi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the basic ant colony optimization and optimum problem in a continuous space,an ant colony optimization (ACO) for continuous problem is constructed and discussed. The algorithm is efficient and beneficial to the study of the ant colony optimization in a continuous space.

  2. Imperialism, ANZAC nationalism and the Aboriginal experience of warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic John Gibson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal protest played a key role in undermining the celebratory settler-nationalism of the bicentennial in 1988. In the lead up to another major nationalist mobilisation, the centenary of the Gallipoli invasion on ANZAC Day 2015, extensive official efforts are being made to incorporate Aboriginal experiences into the day, through celebration of the role of Aboriginal people who served in Australia’s armed forces.   This article provides a critical analysis of the 2014 NAIDOC theme as a way of exploring some of the tensions in this process. The NAIDOC theme, ‘Serving Country: Centenary and Beyond’, presented a continuity between Aboriginal soldiers in WW1 and Aboriginal warriors who fought in defence of their land during the 19th Century Frontier Wars.   In contrast, this article argues that the real historical continuity is between the massacres on the frontier, which often involved Aboriginal troopers fighting for the colonial powers, and the invasions undertaken by Australian soldiers in WW1. New research documenting the horrific scale on which Aboriginal people were killed by Native Police in Queensland in the second half of the 19th Century is integrated with studies of the political economy of Australian settler-capitalism in this period. This analysis is used to demonstrate how capitalist class interests drove both the Frontier Wars and the development of an Australian regional empire, which was consolidated by the mobilisation of Australian troops in WW1.

  3. One Kilogram Interstellar Colony Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, A.

    Small interstellar colony probes based on nanotechnology will become possible long before giant multi-generation ships become affordable. A beam generator and magnetic sail can accelerate a one kg probe to .1 c, braking via the interstellar field can decelerate it, and the field in a distant solar system can allow it to maneuver to an extrasolar planet. A heat shield is used for landing and nanobots emerge to build ever-larger robots and construct colony infrastructure. Humans can then be generated from genomes stored as data in computer memory. Technology is evolving towards these capabilities and should reach the required level in fifty years. The plan appears to be affordable, with the principal cost being the beam generator, estimated at $17 billion.

  4. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  5. Professional 'imperialism' and resistance: Social Work in the Filippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jem Price

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sociology of professions has traditionally attempted to increase our understanding of categorisations of different occupations by reference to taxonomic hierarchies, as well as the identification and exploration of characteristics that warrant 'professional status'. In may cases, this explorations take the forms of historical accounts of professional activity. Rarely, however, has the literature on professions explored processes of professionalization in devoliping, post-colonial contexts. This article contributes to this body of literature in the study of professions in a number of ways. Firstly, it 'maps' the growth of social work in the Filippines, placing this account within a broader discussions of social work as an internationality activity (Harrison & Melville, 2010; Lyons, 2006 and identifying some of the key forms and features of social work in the Filippines. Consideration is given to the degree of professionalisation of social work within the country by exploring professional organisation, regulation and education.  In doing this, the article offers a critical overview of the nature and preoccupations of social work in the Filippines and celebrates the invaluable contributions it makes to the country and its people. The article argue that the forms social work takes and the settings in wich it happens reflect both contemporay societal and environmental factors as well as the global development of social work.  In this sense, the article considers the impact of Roman Catholicism as well as the orientation of social work in relation to some enduring tensions and debates around the profession's purpose and potential. Key to the professional forms that social work takes in the Filippines is the contribution of 'indigenous' social work knowledge base wich is explored, alongside a comentary on social work education and training in the country. 

  6. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  7. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  8. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  9. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  10. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  11. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  12. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  13. Judicial processes and legal authority in pre-colonial Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Creese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Law codes with their origins in Indic-influenced Old Javanese systems of knowledge comprise an important genre in the Balinese textual record. Written in Kawi – a term encompassing Old Javanese, Middle Javanese and High Balinese – the legal corpus forms a complex and overlapping web of indigenous legal texts and traditions that encompass the codification and administration of civil and criminal justice as well as concepts of morality and right conduct. The most significant codes include the Adhigama, Ku??ram?nawa, P?rw?dhigama, S?rasamuccaya, Swarajambu, Dew?gama (also called Kr?topapati and Dewadanda. Each of these law codes belongs to a shared tradition of legal thought and practice that is linked to Sanskrit M?navadharma??stra traditions. Manu’s code, most notably the a??ada?awyawah?ra section detailing the eighteen grounds for litigation, was adopted as the model of legal textual principle in the early stages of contact between ancient India and the Indonesian archipelago. Over the course of many centuries, this model informed legal and juridical practice and was adapted and modified to suit indigenous needs. The law codes remained in use in Java until the advent of Islam towards the end of the fifteenth century, and in Bali until the colonial period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Balinese legal textual corpus comprises dozens of interrelated manuscripts, some complete and some fragmentary. They provide significant insights in to pre-colonial judicial practices and forms of government. This article provides a survey of the corpus of legal texts and explores the nature of law in pre-colonial Bali.

  14. Old Javanese legal traditions in pre-colonial Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Creese

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Law codes with their origins in Indic-influenced Old Javanese systems of knowledge comprise an important genre in the Balinese textual record. Written in Kawi—a term encompassing Old Javanese, Middle Javanese and High Balinese—the legal corpus forms a complex and overlapping web of indigenous legal texts and traditions that encompass the codification and administration of civil and criminal justice as well as concepts of morality and right conduct. The most significant codes include the Adhigama, Ku??ram?nawa, P?rw?dhigama, S?rasamuccaya, Swarajambu, Dew?gama (also called Kr?topapati and Dewadanda. Each of these law codes belongs to a shared tradition of legal thought and practice that is linked to Sanskrit M?navadharma??stra traditions. Manu’s code, most notably the a??ada?awyawah?ra section detailing the eighteen grounds for litigation, was adopted as the model of legal textual principle in the early stages of contact between ancient India and the Indonesian archipelago. Over the course of many centuries, this model informed legal and juridical practice and was adapted and modified to suit indigenous needs. The law codes remained in use in Java until the advent of Islam towards the end of the fifteenth century, and in Bali until the colonial period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Balinese legal textual corpus comprises dozens of interrelated manuscripts, some complete and some fragmentary. They provide significant insights in to pre-colonial judicial practices and forms of government. This article provides a survey of the corpus of legal texts and explores the nature of law in pre-colonial Bali.

  15. Motivations and experiences of museum visitors: The case of the Imperial War Museum, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Kokkranikal, Jithendran

    2015-01-01

    This study explores motivations of visitors to the Imperial War Museum (North and South), United Kingdom, with a view to understanding why people visit museums associated with conflicts. Though museums are part of the education and leisure industry, the distinction between education and leisure is often blurred. There are a number of reasons why people visit museums. Motives of museum visitors can be grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study analysed the extent to which museum ...

  16. THE ROLE OF BRAZIL IN LATIN AMERICA: A BRIEF REFLECTION OF THE BRAZILIAN SUB IMPERIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Teixeira Coutinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we intend to raise some conceptual propositions that help us understand the Brazilian role in Latin America and, start a debate on the contemporary Brazilian foreign policy and its practical applications in geopolitics inserted into the world economy. For that, we aim to explain the concept of “multiterritorialidade”, using the sub-imperialism thesis, by Ruy Mauro Marini, creating a dialogue with the concept of semi-periphery, formulated by Immanuel Wallerstein.

  17. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  18. Reflection of reading Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    The author Spivak examines three women’s texts: Jane Eyre, Wide Sargasso Sea and Frankenstein. After comparison of these three texts, we will find that there is something common in these three works——something unspoken. In Spivak’s point of view, it is not only about the theme of western culture, but also about the imperialism imposed upon the third world.

  19. The Colonial and Transnational Production of "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" and "Love and the Vow"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article places two Japan-Korea collaboration films produced during the Pacific War—"Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" (Bōrō no kesshitai, 1943 and "Love and the Vow" (Ai to chikai, 1945—within the broader colonial and transnational context of filmmaking. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship of these films to the careers of their co-directors, Imai Tadashi (1912–1991 and Ch’oe In-gyu (1911–1950?. At the same time, the article shows how cinematic and cultural conventions such as the bildungsroman and the “Victorian empire film,” which are more commonly associated with cultural production in the modern West, can, with appropriate adjustments, be fruitfully used to understand the power and entertainment value of these films. "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" portrays a joint Japanese-Korean police squad controlling the border between Manchuria and Korea and its service to the Japanese empire; "Love and the Vow" is a story about a Korean orphan boy who, after interviewing the family of a kamikaze pilot, is inspired to become an imperial soldier himself. These two films were joint projects between Tōhō Film in Japan, where Imai was employed, and the Korean Motion Picture Production Corporation, the only film production company in colonial Korea (and the company into which all Korean film production companies had been absorbed during the war.

  20. El papel de la colonia de Caesarugusta en el contexto imperial augústeo. El testimonio histórico de la numismática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Barreiro, Marta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of the colony of Caesaraugusta takes place during the imperial policy earned out by Augustus. A most controversial subject amongst historians has been the date of its foundation, which has received many different proposals. Each proposal involves the revision of a number of facts. The most widely supported theory nowadays is that Caesaraugusta was founded in the year 15 B.C., an idea which affects the historical character and several aspects of the issues. Its coins give clear proofs of the relationship between Caesaraugusta and some specific legions, i.e. IIII, VI and X. This work presents the key numismatic document in order to understand the role of this colony with regard to the army settled in the north-west of Spain.La fundación de la colonia de Caesaraugusta se integra dentro de la politica imperiai de colonización que llevó a cabo Augusto siguiendo las líneas marcadas por César. Uno de los temas más controvertidos en la historia de esta ciudad es la fecha de su fundación, que ha recibido muy variadas proposiciones vinculadas a diferentes argumentos. Dichas propuestas conllevan la revisión de otros tantos hechos y la fecha que ahora recibe más apoyos (c l5 a.C. hace reordenar diferentes aspectos de sus acuñaciones y, de forma más global, de su carácter histórico. La relación de la ciudad con las legiones IIII, VI y X se evidencia gráficamente en sus monedas, y presentamos aquí el documento numismático para intentar comprender el papel de esta colonia en relación con el ejército asentado en el noroeste hispano.

  1. Um ideólogo da brasilidade em sala de aula: Justiniano da Rocha, o primeiro professor de geografia do Imperial Collegio de Pedro II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ferreira Nery Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma construção interpretativa sobre como a inclusão do ensino de geografia no currículo escolar brasileiro se deu num contexto singular, o da formação do Estado Imperial durante o século XIX. A descrição e análise de particularidades históricas corroboram para a coerência de algumas proposições teóricas acerca da formação do território brasileiro, especificamente àquelas que assinalam as peculiaridades dos Estados territoriais, de passado colonial. Assim, àquilo que parece ser apenas uma descrição ou análise biográfica e biobibliográfica de uma personalidade do passado torna-se elemento de reflexão para a compreensão do verdadeiro sentido depositado no ensino de Geografia no contexto do Brasil Oitocentista.

  2. 林则徐与科举%Lin Zexu And Imperial Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Lin Zexu plays a decisive role in modern history, and in the imperial examinations, he also occupies a space. As the examination official, he reformed some of the disadvantages in imperial examination, and made some achievements. By the study of the relationship between Lin Zexu and the imperial examination , we can get some enlightenment.%林则徐是中国近代史上举足轻重的人物,在科举史上同样占有一席之地。在家庭以及社会的影响下林则徐走上了科举之路,并最终金榜题名。作为科考试官他公正衡文、选拔真才,并在江南乡试期间改革科场弊端,取得了一定成效。林则徐提倡“经世致用”,并且贯彻于书院教育和科举考试之中,以期士子能关注社会现实,解决社会实际问题。通过考察林则徐与科举的关系,试图从中得到一些启示。

  3. Religious Education in Russia: Inter-Faith Harmony or Neo-Imperial Toleration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisovskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.

  4. Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H. (ed.)

    1976-12-17

    This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working Groups addressed the ecological problems. Water resource management problems include forces on water use, irrigation methods and water use for crops, water production, and water allocation. Agricultural problems are the contamination of edible crops and the reclamation of soil. A strategy is discussed for predevelopment baseline data and for identification of source term tracers. Wildlife resources might be threatened by habitat destruction, powerline impacts, noise and disturbance effects, gas emissions, and secondary impacts such as population pressure. Aquatic ecosystems in both the Salton Sea and fresh waters have potential hazards of salinity and trace metal effects, as well as existing stresses; baseline and bioassay studies are discussed. Problems from air pollution resulting from geothermal resource development might occur, particularly to vegetation and pollinator insects. Conversion of injury data to predicted economic damage isneeded. Finally, Imperial Valley desert ecosystems might be threatened by destruction of habitat and the possible effects on community structure such as those resulting from brine spills.

  5. Imperi coloniali da Oriente a Occidente: immagini dell’Altro da Tacito a David Malouf, da Salman Rushdie a Michael Ondaatje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Gòdono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many centuries before Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1902 and Rudyard Kipling’s Kim (1901 were published, the East and West were still divided, as in Tacito’s De Germania, by a limes also visible in David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life (1978, in which the poet Ovid exiled at Tomi, is friends with the savage Child, of animal nature in a human body, similar to the metamorphic migrants of Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses (1988, which hides the magnificent and ancient East of Mahābhārata and Rāmāyana in many Western identities, lost in diabolic European cities. This chaotic antithesis in Michael Ondaatje’s pages lets Sri Lanka’s childish ghosts float amidst stories of peregrination and in search of a Promised Land. In the Skin of a Lion (1987 includes an epigraph from the ancient poem of Gilgamesh, an Eastern echo in a novel profoundly important for many Western studies that often focus on the theory of the canon or on postmodern literature. These categories are discussed with the prospect of broadening cultural and post-colonial studies, in order to merge theory of genres and thematic criticism with anthropology, mythology, and ethnology. Multiple citations expand the original object of research, adding the colonial prophecy present in North American myths, as demonstrated by Margaret Atwood, Margaret Laurence or Lévi-Strauss. Incessantly moving from one space to another, authors give voice to the native cry from multiple perspectives, narrating – like all colonial empires founded on human cruelty– the beast’s nature that has shown its worst aspect.

  6. El pesebre del Museo Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jaramillo de Zuleta

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Lo primero que se observa al recorrer nuestro patrimonio artístico del período colonial, es la abrumadora mayoría del temario religioso; al punto de que muchos -desde luego, los no profesionales- identifican confusamente la colonia con una época entregada a las prácticas piadosas y al culto de las imágenes y productora, por lo tanto, de un arte basado exclusivamente en la representación de estos personajes celestiales.

  7. A Post-Colonial Perspective on Jane Eyre Again%《简爱》的后殖民主义视角再解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符海平; 刘向辉

    2012-01-01

    Jane Eyre shows us the good image of theprotagonist who is full of passion, fantasy, resistance, unremitting spirit and desire for the happiness and freedom of the world. But with the development of the theory of post-colonialism, the "crazy woman" of the text also gradually become the focus. "Crazy woman" is set to a silent subject, a others who loss of the right of speaking, it fully reveal a kind of a ideology of imperialism premeditated violence of the knowledge. under the view of post-colonialism, This article is to interpret Jane Eyre again, trying to dig in the imperialism discourse which are hidden in the works, and know that imperialism ideology is penetrating in the literature works.%《简爱》给我们展示了一个富有激情、幻想、反抗、坚持不懈精神以及对人间自由幸福的渴望的主人公的美好形象。但是随着后殖民主义理论的发展,作品中的“疯女人”也逐渐受到关注。“疯女人”被设定为一个沉默的主体、丧失话语权的他者,这充分彰显了一种帝国主义有预谋的知识暴力的意识形态。本文在后殖民主义视角下对《简爱》进行重新解读,旨在挖掘隐藏在作品内部的帝国主义话语,进而认识帝国主义意识形态在文学作品中的渗透。

  8. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  9. Resultados paleomagnéticos preliminares en las sedimentitas neo-paleozoicas de la Formación El Imperial, bloque de San Rafael, Mendoza Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Carboniferous-Permian El Imperial Formation sedimentary rocks in the San Rafael Block, Mendoza province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Tomezzoli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante el Pérmico Temprano se desarrolló, en el margen sudoccidental del Gondwana, una extensa faja de deformación contraccional conocida con el nombre de cordón de las Gondwánides. En el extremo occidental de esta faja se instaló, durante el Carbonífero Tardío-Pérmico Temprano, una cuenca de antepaís cuyo relleno se encuentra representado por las sedimentitas de la Formación El Imperial aflorante en el bloque de San Rafael. Esta unidad presenta una sección superior que registra una inversión de las paleopendientes, la cual ha sido interpretada como la primera evidencia de la migración del frente de deformación hacia el antepaís. Se ha encarado un estudio paleomagnético de esta unidad en busca de elementos que permitan acotar la deformación en el tiempo para poder evaluar así el posible carácter diacrónico de la misma. Se presentan y discuten los primeros resultados paleomagnéticos obtenidos en sedimentitas del miembro inferior (Represa Agua del Toro y superior (Puesto La Josefa de la Formación El Imperial. Estas rocas son portadoras de magnetizaciones remanentes reversas portadas principalmente por hematita, de posible edad pérmica. Las posiciones paleopolares obtenidas en ambas localidades no coinciden con las esperadas según la edad de estas rocas, lo que se podría explicar o bien por que no se ha cancelado correctamente la variación secular, por rotaciones según ejes verticales en los bloques de las localidades de muestreo, o bien por la combinación de algunos o de todos estos factores.During the Early Permian an extensive deformation belt well-known as Gondwánides developed in the southwest Gondwana margin. A foreland basin has been settled during the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian in the western end of this strip, and is represented by the El Imperial Formation, which crops out in the San Rafael Block. The upper section of this unit records an inversion of the ancient slopes, which has been interpreted as

  10. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  11. Colony life history and lifetime reproductive success of red harvester ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Krista K; Pilko, Anna; Heer, Jeffrey; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-05-01

    1. We estimate colony reproductive success, in numbers of offspring colonies arising from a colony's daughter queens, of colonies of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. 2. A measure of lifetime reproductive success is essential to understand the relation of ecological factors, phenotype and fitness in a natural population. This was possible for the first time in a natural population of ant colonies using data from long-term study of a population of colonies in south-eastern Arizona, for which ages of all colonies are known from census data collected since 1985. 3. Parentage analyses of microsatellite data from 5 highly polymorphic loci were used to assign offspring colonies to maternal parent colonies in a population of about 265 colonies, ages 1-28 years, sampled in 2010. 4. The estimated population growth rate Ro was 1.69 and generation time was 7.8 years. There was considerable variation among colonies in reproductive success: of 199 possible parent colonies, only 49 (˜ 25%) had offspring colonies on the site. The mean number of offspring colonies per maternal parent colony was 2.94 and ranged from 1 to 8. A parent was identified for the queen of 146 of 247 offspring colonies. There was no evidence for reproductive senescence; fecundity was about the same throughout the 25-30 year lifespan of a colony. 5. There were no trends in the distance or direction of the dispersal of an offspring relative to its maternal parent colony. There was no relationship between the number of gynes produced by a colony in 1 year and the number of offspring colonies subsequently founded by its daughter reproductive females. The results provide the first estimate of a life table for a population of ant colonies and the first estimate of the female component of colony lifetime reproductive success. 6. The results suggest that commonly used measures of reproductive output may not be correlated with realized reproductive success. This is the starting point for future

  12. ‘In the City of Blinding Lights’: Indigeneity, Cultural Studies and the Errants of Colonial Nostalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A. Byrd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available US-based cultural studies often prioritises issues of race, class, and gender within popular representations of the ‘other’ at the expense of undertheorising, especially within its own settler colonial history, issues of indigeneity, colonialism, and imperialism. This essay takes as a case study the US 2008 Democratic presidential primary cycle in which Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama ran for their party’s nomination by claiming that their success would fulfil either the promises of the civil rights movement or second-wave feminism. Through the course of the primary season, each of these movements was framed within the larger US national myth of Manifest Destiny with its nostalgic struggles against an ‘unforgiving wilderness’. Indigenous critical theory, as it engages US cultural studies and theories of resistance, recentres issues of colonialism within the historical and material cultural productions of the nation and challenges the political discourse of liberatory inclusion and freedom to acknowledge the colonisation of indigenous peoples upon which ‘inclusion’ and ‘freedom’ are built.

  13. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  14. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  15. Connecting the Empire: New Research Perspectives on Infrastructures and the Environment in the (Post)Colonial World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straeten, Jonas; Hasenöhrl, Ute

    2017-03-01

    In the academic debate on infrastructures in the Global South, there is a broad consensus that (post)colonial legacies present a major challenge for a transition towards more inclusive, sustainable and adapted modes of providing services. Yet, relatively little is known about the emergence and evolution of infrastructures in former colonies. Until a decade ago, most historical studies followed Daniel Headrick's (1981) "tools of empire" thesis, painting-with broad brush strokes-a picture of infrastructures as instruments for advancing the colonial project of exploitation and subordination of non-European peoples and environments. This paper explores new research perspectives beyond this straightforward, 'diffusionist' perspective on technology transfer. In order to do so, it presents and discusses more recent studies which focus on interactive transfer processes as well as mechanisms of appropriation, and which increasingly combine approaches from imperial history, environmental history, and history of technology.There is much to gain from unpacking the changing motives and ideologies behind technology transfer; tracing the often contested and negotiated flows of ideas, technologies and knowledge within multilayered global networks; investigating the manifold ways in which infrastructures reflected and (re)produced colonial spaces and identities; critically reflecting on the utility of large (socio)technical systems (LTS) for the Global South; and approaching infrastructures in the (post)colonial world through entangled histories of technology and the environment. Following David Arnold's (2005) plea for a "more interactive, culturally-nuanced, multi-sited debate" on technology in the non-Western world, the paper offers fresh insights for a broader debate about how infrastructures work within specific parameters of time, place and culture.

  16. GRID SCHEDULING USING ENHANCED ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing used to solve larger scale computational demands. Task scheduling is a major issue in grid computing systems. Scheduling of tasks is the NP hard problem. The heuristic approach provides optimal solution for NP hard problems .The ant colony algorithm provides optimal solution. The existing ant colony algorithm takes more time to schedule the tasks. In this paper ant colony algorithm improved by enhancing pheromone updating rule such that it schedules the tasks efficiently and better resource utilization. The simulation results prove that proposed method reduces the execution time of tasks compared to existing ant colony algorithm.

  17. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  18. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  19. Blasting the Language of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette

    2016-01-01

    exceptions, such as the documentary photographs and films of Jette Bang, the visual image transmitted through photography was highly stereotypical: ice and wild nature, peopled by tough sealers and hunters. Documen tary photography and art in general, from Greenland as well as Denmark, usually confirmed......Throughout the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries, photography was among the main tools for communicating knowledge about Greenland to the rest of the world, not least to the Danish public. Photography was originally used by Arctic explorers as well as by the colonial system. With few...... this image. Recently, however, new narratives have begun emerging among contemporary artists, many of whom use photography in radically new ways to construct an alter native ‘ethno - aesthetics’, to use Pia Arke’s term. This article discusses three photography books, published almost simultaneously: Pia Arke...

  20. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test th

  1. FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS EN LA AMPURIAS ROMANA DE ÉPOCA ALTO-IMPERIAL (Economic fluctuations in Roman Ampurias during early imperial times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis del gasto funerario en la Ampurias romana de época alto-imperial, ha evidenciado la enorme utilidad de esta herramienta en la reconstrucción económica y social del pasado de esta ciudad. Se han aislado las diversas fluctuaciones económicas registradas en los ajuares de las tumbas, desde la época de Augusto hasta la primera mitad del siglo II de nuestra era, confirmando lo que ya apuntaban las fuentes literarias y arrojando más luz sobre la naturaleza de tales cambios. También se han detectado crisis tan relevantes como la de tiempos de Tiberio y oscilaciones monetarias. Todo ello viene a probar la extraordinaria importancia de esta metodología para ampliar nuestro conocimiento objetivo de la sociedad romana y de muchas otras civilizaciones y pueblos de la antigüedad. ENGLISH: The application of a contextual appraisal method to the analysis of funerary expense in early imperial Roman Ampurias, has shown the enormous utility of this tool for the economic and social reconstruction of the history of this city. Various economic fluctuations have been documented in the record of grave goods, from the time of Augustus to the first half of the second century AD, confirming information already indicated by literary sources and shedding more light on the nature of these changes. Economic crises were identified, including some as significant as those experienced during the Tiberius period, as well as currency fluctuations. This serves to demonstrate the extraordinary importance of the contextual approach to expand not only our knowledge of Roman society, but also of many other civilizations and peoples of antiquity.

  2. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  3. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  4. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  5. Print, Newspapers and Audiences in Colonial Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2011-01-01

    in newspapers. They depended on voluntary and political associations and anti-colonial struggles in Kenya and on links to nationalists in India and the passive resistance movement in South Africa. They sidestepped the European-dominated print culture and created an anti-colonial counter-voice. Editors insisted...

  6. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  7. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  8. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  9. Improving Emergency Management by Modeling Ant Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    brood. The brood stages include the egg, the larval, and the pupa.27 The brood is dependent on the colony for nourishment and warmth until fully...night for rest and to relocate the colony. The bivouac is what is created when army ants huddle together in a ball instead of building a physical nest

  10. [Academic presentation of neurology and psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University at annual meetings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Keijo Imperial University, Medical School, Psychiatry course, and presentation at the Annual Meetings of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology were investigated from its establishment to 1945. Keijo was the name used for the capital city of Korea, Seoul, when Korea was under Japanese rule. We believe the Keijo Imperial University evolved out of the Governor-General of Korea Hospital and Keijo Medical Professional School. The first Professor at the University was Shinji Suitsu, who studied under Shuzo Kure. He visited Shizuoka prefecture when he collaborated in Kure's "Actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients" (1918). This was confirmed by photographic materials from this time. The year after the visit to Shizuoka, Suitsu was sent to the Korean Peninsula. In 1913, Suitsu established the Department of Psychiatry at the Governor-General of Korea Hospital, and the institution had 500 tsubo (approximately 1,650 m2) of land within Keijo (Seoul), with floor space of 160 tsubo (approximately 528 m2) and 24 beds. Treatments were performed by Suitsu, an assistant, and 8-9 nurses. The number of hospitalized patients was 30-50 patients per year. Cells had floor heating. Keijo Imperial University was established in 1924, and was called Jodai. In 1925, Suitsu retired from his Professorship of Psychiatry at Keijo Medical Professional School. Suitsu was from Kyoto Imperial University, and had studied abroad. In 1925, Suitsu's father-in-law, and a long-time friend of Shuzo Kure, Seiji Yamane, passed away. The professor who took up the position after Suitsu was Kiyoji Kubo, who was originally supposed to go to Hokkaido Imperial University. When the medical school was established at Keijo Imperial University in 1926, Kubo was offered a professorship there. Jodai was under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Korea, and not the Ministry of Education. Later

  11. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  12. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  14. Los edificios deportivos de la Roma Antigua Sportive buildings in the ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela TEJA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La educación física y el deporte retrocedió —en la Roma antigua— respecto a los ideales físico-corporales griegos. Por contra, se fomentó una notable cultura de espectáculos y divertimentos, especialmente durante la época imperial. A fin de dar cobijo a los diversos espectáculos se construyeron en la ciudad de Roma —y por mimetismo en todas las urbes del Imperio— sofisticados edificios. En efecto, además de una importante red de circos —el más emblemático de los cuales fue el circo Máximo—, se levantaron anfiteatros y termas, amén del estadio de Dominiciano. La autora pasa revista a las distintas instalaciones «deportivas» de la Roma antigua, así como a los espectáculos que albergaban: las carreras del circo, los combates de gladiadores, las cacerías de fieras, las naumaquias, sin olvidar las competiciones del estadio y la pasión romana por las termas.Sport and physical education —in Ancient Rome-, looked back to the physical ideals of the Greeks. In contrast, there was also a specific encouragement of spectacles and performance or general entertainment during the Imperial Era. In order to cater for the diverse shows, sophisticated buildings were constructed in Rome, and reproduced in all the built-up areas throughout the Empire. In fact, besides the important circus network, the most emblematic of these being Maximo's Circus, amphitheatres, arenas and spa resorts were constructed, in addition to the Dominitian Stadium. The author studies the different types of «sporting» installations in Ancient Rome, considering the entertainments which took place in them: chariot races, gladiatorial combat, the hunting of wild beasts, naval combats, the stadium sports and, of course, the Roman passion for spas and hot baths.

  15. Your name is not good enough: introducing the ORCID researcher identifier at Imperial College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ORCID researcher identifier ensures that research outputs can always reliably be traced back to their authors. ORCID also makes it possible to automate the sharing of research information, thereby increasing data quality, reducing duplication of effort for academics and saving institutions money. In 2014, Imperial College London created ORCID identifiers (iDs for academic and research staff. This article discusses the implementation project in the context of the role of ORCID in the global scholarly communications system. It shows how ORCID can be used to automate reporting, help with research data publication and support open access (OA.

  16. The Entangled Sovereignties of Air Police: Mapping the Boundary of the International and the Imperial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary proliferation of drones and other forms of aerial interventions herald the (re)emergence of air policing as the principal modality for the fabrication of order in the global periphery. Air policing is predomi- nantly framed by international legal analysis as merely ‘killing from...... above,’ yet this designation obfuscates the concomitant occupation of airspaces entailed by drones and other aerial technologies. Such occupations constitute an assertion of jurisdiction in nominally sovereign airspaces authorised by latent imperial legality. The history of air policing reveals...

  17. Patterns of geothermal lease acquisition in the Imperial Valley: 1958--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.; McDougal, S.; Van Huntley, F.

    1974-08-01

    Patterns for the development of geothermal resources in the Imperial Valley are analyzed, with particular consideration of corporate behavior in geothermal development. Actions of the companies were examined over a period of time to discover patterns of involvement, investment, and likelihood of further development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: research organization; legal aspects; characteristics of development; location of geothermal leases; analysis of major leaseholders; and findings and conclusions. The addendum is entitled Federal Land Lease Sales: An analysis in terms of Lease Acquisition Patterns. The three appendices are: research methodology; a methodological note on the maps; and exploratory drilling sites. (JGB)

  18. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  19. Study of the influential leaders, power structure, community decisions, and geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E.W.; Hall, C.H.; Pick, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The economy of Imperial County, California, is now dominated by agriculture, but economic studies indicate that the emerging geothermal sector could grow to a size comparable to that of agriculture. The purpose of this study is to discover the kind of power structure operating in Imperial County, the influential leaders, the source of their power, their probable reactions to geothermal development, and the possible effects geothermal development will have on the power structure. Several social science research methods are used to identify the influential leaders and to describe the power structure in Imperial County. An analysis of the opinions of leadership and the public shows the likely response to geothermal development. The power structure analysis, combined with forecasts of the economic effects of geothermal development, indicates the ways in which the power structure itself may change.

  20. [Anomalous pregnancies in ancient medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Greek medicine female physiology is determined by a particular state of non-steady equilibrium, largely based on pregnancy and lactation, presented as the only balanced and healthy periods in women's life. Nonetheless, pregnancy can be also a pathological moment, in particular referring to specific alterations of its 'normal time' ('seven-months', 'eight-months' and 'ten-months' children). The article analyzes the well-known case of myle, an abnormal pregnancy developing in three and sometimes four years, non resolving in a normal delivery, but often in a dramatic haemorrhagic flux. The author compares Hippocratic and Aristotelic testimonies about myle and abnormal pregnancies with the evidence fournished by the historical-religious recent studies about Hera and her parthenogenetic, monstrous children.

  1. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  2. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  3. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  4. Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, L

    1999-01-01

    In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy.

  5. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'.

  6. subyacentes en la sociedad colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Díaz Pardo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las epidemias y los aspectos vinculados a la salud de ciudades y comunidades históricas habían sido objeto de análisis por parte de disciplinas como la historia de la medicina y la epidemiología hasta épocas recientes. Pero en la actualidad ha ocurrido un amalgamiento y una confluencia de intereses académicos con estudios históricos y arqueológicos dado el gran potencial para develar respuestas similares transculturales y los orígenes de reacciones mas idiosincrásicas ante la presencia de fenómenos parecidos en el mundo contemporáneo. La ciudad de Cartagena de Indias se constituye en un lugar privilegiado ya que es un microcosmos donde se integraron o se encontraron los elementos humanos que materializaban la sociedad caribeña colonial y donde las epidemias, la salud pública y las respuestas culturales a estos eventos pueden ser analizados bajo nuevas perspectivas que tomen en cuenta las raíces culturales de los diferentes grupos afectados.

  7. Bioindicators from Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Sampled from the Imperial Valley in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge (SSNWR) is located 64 km north of the Mexican border at the southern end of the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. Freshwater ponds and managed habitats at the SSNWR, Calipatria, Calif. are supplied with Colorado River water that carries compounds from upstream sources. Components include municipal and industrial discharges, agricultural drainage, and sewage plant inputs. Aquatic animals in these ecosystems are continuously exposed to multiple constituents, several of which have been demonstrated to be associated with hormonal disturbances. We investigated possible endocrine impacts to fish in the Imperial Valley, Calif., by addressing the null hypothesis that aquatic species in impacted sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those from nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the condition of the animals in their ecosystems for the minimization of potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and for the maximization of available water resources.

  8. Geotechnical Environmental Aspects of Geothermal Power Generation at Heber, Imperial Valley, California. Topical report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-01

    This report presents a portion of the results from a one-year feasibility study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to assess the feasibility of constructing a 25-50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluid as the energy source. The impact of power generation from hydrothermal resources on subsurface water flow, seismicity and subsidence are of acute interest in the determination of the environmental acceptance of geothermal energy. At the same time, the experience and data bases in these areas are very limited. The objective of the project was to assess the technical, geotechnical, environmental and economic feasibility of producing electricity from hydrothermal resources like those known to exist in the US. The objective of this part of the study was to investigate the geotechnical aspects of geothermal power generation and their relationship to environmental impacts in the Imperial Valley of California. This report discusses geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, seismicity and subsidence in terms of the availability of data, state-of-the-art analytical techniques, historical and technical background and interpretation of current data. it also discusses estimates of the impact of these geotechnical factors on the environment in the Imperial Valley, if geothermal development proceeds.

  9. The Imperial Visual Propaganda in the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1461

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Bardashova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the visual propaganda employed in the Empire of Trebizond to convey a sense of the greatness and power of the imperial dynasty of the Grand Komnenoi. The emperors of Trebizond traced their lineage directly back to the famed Komnenian dynasty and saw themselves as the only legitimate successors to Byzantium after its temporary falling-apart, in 1204, as a consequence of the Fourth Crusade. Though only very few images of the emperors of the Grand Komnenoi have been preserved (on chrysobulls, seals, coins, icons, manuscripts, the evidence provided by Medieval authors (Constantine Loukites and Bessarion as well as European travelers and scientists of the 17th-20th centuries (J. Bordier, J.P. Fallmerayer, G. Finlay, F.I. Uspenskij, A. Bryer etc. allows conclusions about the existence of propagandistic portrait images of Trebizond emperors and members of their families in the imperial palace as well as in the most important churches. On the basis of this one may suggest that visual propaganda played an equally important role in Trebizond as in Byzantium. This could be connected with the intention of the Grand Komnenoi to claim their right to the high title of Emperor which, according to the official ideology of Byzantium, only the ruler whose permanent place of residence was Constantinople could possess.

  10. Staying Home While Studying Abroad: Anti-Imperial Praxis for Globalizing Feminist Visions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Roshanravan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper hinges on the recognition that when study-abroad opportunities are presented and perceived as a means of access to global perspectives on women and gender, they reduce the problem of US-centrism in Women's Studies to a geographic rather than an epistemic limitation. According to this logic, physical travel away from the United States can serve as an effective method for overcoming US-centrism and attending to the "global," a curricular strategy that Chandra Mohanty and M. Jacqui Alexander call "the cartographic rule of the transnational as always 'elsewhere'" (Mohanty and Alexander 2010, 33. This cartographic rule reinforces hegemonic representations of the United States as a unified "modern" white/Anglo nation against which the culturally Other terrain of the "global" becomes understandable. As such, the study-abroad approach to internationalizing US Women's Studies relies on the re-erasure of US Women of Color genealogies and epistemologies that disrupt the white/Anglo cultural assumptions grounding the field's central category of "woman/women." If challenging US-centrism in US Women's Studies is meant to dismantle the white/Anglo monocultural perspective of US imperialism, I argue that the geographic travel imperative of "study abroad" must be tempered by a re-inhabitation of the field through the radical genealogies and epistemologies of US Women of Color, a strategy I call the anti-imperial feminist praxis of "staying home."

  11. Pink bollworm moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) catches in the Imperial Valley, California from 1989 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; ERIC T.NATWICK; RAUL LE(O)N L(O)PEZ; JOLENE R.DESSERT; THOMAS J.HENNEBERRY

    2006-01-01

    We examined the patterns of male pink bollworm (PBW),Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders),moth catches in gossyplure-baited traps over a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003 in the Imperial Valley,California,USA. Monitoring was conducted during periods when different pink bollworm areawide control strategies were being used. Numbers of male pink bollworm moths caught in gossyplure-baited traps progressively decreased each year from 1990 to 1994 during short-season cotton production. High numbers of male moths caught in traps from 1995 to 1997 may have been related to moth migrations from the large cotton acreages grown in the Mexicali Valley bordering the Imperial Valley. Transgenic Bollgard(R) (Bt) cotton was planted in 3% of the cotton area in 1996 and thereafter in 80%-94% of the cotton area from 1997 to 2003. Pink bollworm moth trap catches were significantly lower from 1998 to 2003 than catches in 1995 to 1997,except for 1999. The trapping results suggested that Bt cotton had significant input on reduction of pink bollworm populations,confirming results of other investigators and providing additional documentation on the benefits of the Bt cotton culture.

  12. Criticism :On English Imperialism%英语帝国主义论批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱立中

    2012-01-01

    英语帝国主义一般指英语霸权地位。语言帝国主义的论调和"世界英语"研究者的思维逻辑大相径庭。由于英语全球化,除了带来英语的变体增多以外,还带来另外一种声音,就是要遏制英语的霸权,保护语言生态。而这种英语扩展的现象并非帝国主义阴谋,语言死亡的责任也非英语全球化带来的结果。%English imperialism refers to English hegemony The viewpoint of English imperialism stands in stark contrast to the theory of World Englishes. The spread of English language world wide brings about severe criticism as well as addition to English varieties. Some scholars condemn the Language hegemony to protect language ecology. The author of the present essay argues that the globalization of English isn't the result of conspiracy of imperialist countries, and that it doesn't inevitably lead to the death of other languages.

  13. Evolutional Ant Colony Method Using PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou

    The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.

  14. Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, M; Gambardella, L M

    1997-01-01

    We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions to both symmetric and asymmetric instances of the TSP. The method is an example, like simulated annealing, neural networks and evolutionary computation, of the successful use of a natural metaphor to design an optimization algorithm.

  15. The Sign of Four as Colonial Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静芳

    2010-01-01

    The Sign of Four is a detective novel which tells a story about questing the lost treasure and murderer.But now,the colonial ideas which scatter in the text are arousing readers' attention.Reading and analyzing the text closely,the author of this paper draws a conclusion that the novel is a colonial discourse,which implies 'England's colonial govern in India,especially the plunder of wealth and the Englishmen's prejudice towards the India,its people,and the uprising in 1857.

  16. gargammel: a sequence simulator for ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Hanghøj, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-29

    Ancient DNA has emerged as a remarkable tool to infer the history of extinct species and past populations. However, many of its characteristics, such as extensive fragmentation, damage and contamination, can influence downstream analyses. To help investigators measure how these could impact their analyses in silico, we have developed gargammel, a package that simulates ancient DNA fragments given a set of known reference genomes. Our package simulates the entire molecular process from post-mortem DNA fragmentation and DNA damage to experimental sequencing errors, and reproduces most common bias observed in ancient DNA datasets.

  17. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for...

  18. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  19. Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2013-01-01

    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

  20. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  1. Feeding, Swimming and Navigation of Colonial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Julius; Bouillant, Ambre; Marron, Alan; Leptos, Kyriacos; Goldstein, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Animals are multicellular in nature, but evolved from unicellular organisms. In the closest relatives of animals, the choanoflagellates, the unicellular species Salpincgoeca rosetta has the ability to form colonies, resembling true multicellularity. In this work we use a combination of experiments, theory, and simulations to understand the physical differences that arise from feeding, swimming and navigating as colonies instead of as single cells. We show that the feeding efficiency decreases with colony size for distinct reasons in the small and large Péclet number limits, and we find that swimming as a colony changes the conventional active random walks of microorganism to stochastic helices, but that this does not hinder effective navigation towards chemoattractants.

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  3. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... and Latin texts and the term ‘scholars’ is used to describe readers of these documents (e.g. papyrologists, epigraphers, palaeographers). However, the results from this research can be applicable to many other texts ranging from Nordic runes to 18th Century love letters. In order to develop an appropriate...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  4. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  5. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  6. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.

  7. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Camilo; Bagga, Manish; Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists.

  8. Linguistic Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    This book explores the contemporary phenomenon of English as a world language and sets out to analyze how and why it became so dominant. It looks at the spread of English historically in order to ascertain whether the language has been promoted actively as an instrument of the foreign policy of the major English-speaking states. The book examines…

  9. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  10. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  11. Geodetic observations of fault creep in the Imperial Valley: hidden faults, earthquake hazard and implications for frictional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, E. O.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present new observations of the pattern of fault creep and interseismic deformation in the Imperial Valley, California using a combination of multiple InSAR viewing geometries and survey-mode GPS. We combine more than 100 survey-mode GPS velocities (Crowell et al., 2013) with Envisat InSAR observations from descending tracks 84 and 356 and ascending tracks 77 and 306 (149 total acquisitions), processed using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) package (Hooper et al., 2007). The result is a dense map of surface velocities across the Imperial fault and surrounding areas. The data suggest that a previously little-known extension of the Superstition Hills fault through the town of El Centro may accommodate a significant portion of the slip previously attributed to the Imperial Fault. We investigate a suite of possible models for the transfer of this slip to the Imperial and Cerro Prieto faults to the south, yielding a range of plausible hazard scenarios. Finally, we compare the geodetic data to models of earthquake cycles with rate- and state-dependent friction to assess the implications for creep depth, moment accumulation rate, and recurrence interval of large events on these faults.

  12. Is Linguistic Identity Becoming a Problem Facing English Linguistic Imperialism--Seen from the Development and History of English language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiliang; Tan Zhuxiu

    2015-01-01

    English language has undergone a long-term development and now it has become an international language. The wide spread of English contributes greatly to its status as an internationally dominating language which results in the linguistic imperialism and the loss of linguistic identity for many people speaking other languages.Their linguistic identity is becoming a problem now.

  13. Insights from paleomicrobiology into the indigenous peoples of pre-colonial America - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie I Darling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This review investigates ancient infectious diseases in the Americas dated to the pre-colonial period and considers what these findings can tell us about the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It gives an overview, but focuses on four microbial pathogens from this period: Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Coccidioides immitis, which cause stomach ulceration and gastric cancer, tuberculosis, Chagas disease and valley fever, respectively. These pathogens were selected as H. pylori can give insight into ancient human migrations into the Americas, M. tuberculosis is associated with population density and urban development, T. cruzi can elucidate human living conditions and C. immitis can indicate agricultural development. A range of methods are used to diagnose infectious disease in ancient human remains, with DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction one of the most reliable, provided strict precautions are taken against cross contamination. The review concludes with a brief summary of the changes that took place after European exploration and colonisation.

  14. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  15. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 11666-11669. A pair of Adélie Penguins with their well-fed chick.

  16. Para-paradisi. “Colonial agency”, paradisi postcoloniali e invenzione dell’altro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the issue of colonial agency and aiming at a revision of Homi Bhabha’s notion of third space, this essay considers two novels roughly based on a dystopian pattern and actually showing two similar interpretations of the Other. The first one, Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle (1963, was written as a political and fictional response to the US bombing of Hiroshima and is set in the Republic of San Lorenzo, a Carribbean island whose history has developed through the struggle between a naïf and ruthless dictator, ‘Papa’ Monzano, and a religious leader, Bokonon, who’s made an outlaw though the religion he predicates is professed by almost everyone. The second, Will Self’s The Butt (2008, develops the story of a tourist, Tom Brodzinki, in a tropical island conceived as something of a cross between Australia and Iraq. In both cases, the main focus is the relationship between the Westerner – ex-colonizer and naïf traveller – and the native, that appears to be more ambiguous than it seemed at first sight. The Imperial legacy produces a definite notion of exotic Paradise that is finally reversed in the colonizer’s Hell.

  17. Blurring boundaries, distant companions: non-kin female caregivers for children in colonial India (nineteenth and twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Swapna M

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of child-care by non-kin, “non-family” members and their representations in colonial India. It focuses primarily on Bengal and relies on several genres of literary documents. Bengal harboured the seat of the British imperial capital in the city of Calcutta until 1911 and its culture was shaped in unique ways compared with other Indian cities. Based on a reading of select literary documents such as European advice manuals and Bengali personal narratives, the paper argues that the relationship between caregivers and children in colonial households attests to the building of new ties and deep ambiguous, multi-dimensional relationships with non-kin members thereby revealing the plasticity of Indian families where sociocultural boundaries were blurred and intimate relationships forged. Beginning with the literary representation of a wet-nurse in Mahasweta Devi's short story Breast-Giver, the paper delves into the world of European and Indian accounts to recuperate the history of the caregivers. It demonstrates that despite the emphasis of recent scholars that the construction of a respectable middle-class identity was based on a sharp distinction from lower social groups, such as working women and prostitutes, the history of child-care by hired domestics reveals the sharing of a common world by different caste-class groups and the interpenetration of the two domains of culture.

  18. Dismantling the Prison-House of Colonial History in a Selection of Michelle Cliff’s Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Larbi Labidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most, if not all, writings by Jamaican writer Michelle Cliff are connected by a subterranean desire to re-write Afro-Caribbean history from new untold perspectives in reaction to the immense loss and/or distortions that marked the region’s history for entire centuries. In this paper, I meticulously read four of Cliff’s texts--Abeng (1984, its sequel No Telephone to Heaven (1987, Claiming an Identity They Taught Me to Despise (1980 and The Land of Look Behind (1985--to look at how Cliff retrieves her black ancestors’ submerged history and erased past. I particularly explore the methods Cliff deploys to re-center a history deliberately erased/or distorted by what she ironically calls “the official version” (Free Enterprise, 1994, p. 138 in allusion to the Eurocentric narratives about the twin imperial projects of slavery and colonialism. Finally, I investigate the wealth of possibilities offered by fiction, unrecorded memory, oral story-telling and imagination to out-tell Eurocentric historiography and re-write Afro-Caribbean history from the victims’ perspective: slaves, colonial subjects, marginalized female figures, black Diasporic characters, etc. Keywords: Michelle Cliff, “official” history, history re-writing, memory, fiction

  19. A medicina no Brasil imperial: fundamentos da autoridade profissional e da legitimidade científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Edler, Flavio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts a fresh analysis of the supposed ornamental nature of medical institutions in Imperial Brazil (1822-1889. The institutions in question were active in the production and validation of scientific knowledge relating to health both public and private in the Empire. In contrast to interpretations which explain medical and hygienic thinking in terms of the immediate interests of dominant elites —forging a medical conscience “from the outside”— the article seeks to highlight the socio-professional dynamics mobilised for the validation and control of medical knowledge according to the same standards of proof prevailing in European hygienic and anatoclinical thought. It is argued that the social position occupied by the Imperial Academy of Medicine was built on meritocratic criteria. It was not the titled nobility which accredited scientific opinion or evidence, but rather the ability to reason in accordance with established scientific standards.

    Pretendemos rever la creencia en un supuesto carácter ornamental de las instituciones médicas del Imperio Brasileño (1822-1889. Dichas instituciones estuvieron comprometidas con la producción y la validación de los conocimientos científicos sobre los problemas relativos a la salud pública y privada de los habitantes del imperio. En lugar de las interpretaciones que traducen el pensamiento médico e higienista elaborado por los intereses inmediatos de las élites dominantes —forjando la conciencia médica “desde fuera”— procuraremos subrayar las dinámicas socioprofesionales dirigidas hacia la producción, validación y control del saber médico, según las reglas mismas de la cientificidad adoptadas por la medicina higienista y anatómico-clínica europea, entonces vigentes. El lugar social ocupado por la Academia Imperial de Medicina suponía la existencia de criterios meritocráticos en ese microcosmo. No era la titularidad nobiliaria la que acreditaba la

  20. 汉代太学与古代高等教育%Han Dynasty Imperial College and Ancient times' Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙喆; 吴育华

    2006-01-01

    论文首先对我国各个历史时期的教育进行了简单描述,在此基础上重点论述了我国古代最早的大学模式-汉代太学.最后对我国古代高等教育的产生和发展进行了分析.

  1. Geometry and mechanics of growing bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhihong; Pearce, Daniel; Sengupta, Anupam; Giomi, Luca

    Bacterial colonies are abundant on living and non-living surfaces, and are known to mediate a broad range of processes in ecology, medicine and industry. Although extensively researched - from single cells up to the population levels - a comprehensive biophysical picture, highlighting the cell-to-colony dynamics, is still lacking. Here, using numerical and analytical models, we study the mechanics of self-organization leading to the colony morphology of cells growing on a substrate with free boundary. We consider hard rods to mimic the growth of rod-shaped non-motile cells, and show that the colony, as a whole, does not form an ordered nematic phase, nor does it result in a purely disordered (isotropic) phase. Instead, different sizes of domains, in which cells are highly aligned at specific orientations, are found. The distribution of the domain sizes follows an exponential relation - indicating the existence of a characteristic length scale that determines the domain size relative to that of the colony. A continuum theory, based on the hydrodynamics of liquid crystals, is built to account for these phenomena, and is applied to describe the buckling transition from a planar to three-dimensional (3D) colony. The theory supports preliminary experiments conducted with different strains of rod shaped bacterial cells, and reveals that the buckling transition can be regulated by varying the cell stiffness and aspect ratio. This work proposes that, in addition to biochemical pathways, the spatio-temporal organization in microbial colonies is significantly tuned by the biomechanical and geometric properties of the microbes in consideration.

  2. Ludus de Antichristo e o drama da escatologia imperial no século XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cesar Dreger de Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buscamos neste texto analisar as imbricações entre o texto teatral germânico do século XII, o Ludus de Antichristo, e o seu contexto político-cultural, particularmente em relação às personagens do Anticristo e do Último Imperador Romano, seus protagonistas, com a Escatologia Imperial encontrada no período. Nosso artigo contém um detalhado resumo da peça, estudos relacionados às tradições e documentos que levaram à sua concepção e seu enquadramento nos debates políticos e religiosos do século XII.

  3. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  4. The main Differences of the Roman Administrative Organization in the Republican and the Imperial Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guzmán-Brito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “public administration” of the Roman Republican era was characterized by its adaptation to the following rules: limited periods in the exercise of public office, popular election of their holders, gratuity for their performance, plurality of holders for the same office and collegiality among them, lack of hierarchy and autonomy and independence of each holder, and personal responsibility for expenses incurred in the exercise of public office. The imperial regime introduced rules which were exactly the opposite. If we bear in mind that these contrary rules continue to govern the administrative organization of modern States, it follows that the foundations of modern Public Administration thus derive from the Roman Empire.

  5. Investigation of ecosystems impacts from geothermal development in Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Ireland, R.R.; Kercher, J.R.; Koranda, J.J.; Tompkins, G.A.

    1979-07-13

    A summary of three years of field ecological investigation in Imperial Valley Environmental Program is presented. The potential terrestrial habitat impacts of geothermal development are discussed for shorebirds and waterfowl habitat, the endangered clapper rail, powerline corridors, noise effects, animal trace element burdens, and the desert community. Aquatic habitats are discussed in terms of Salton Sea salinity, effects of geothermal brine discharges to the Salton Sea, trace element baselines, and potential toxicity of brine spills in freshwater. Studies of impacts on agriculture involved brine movement in soil, release of trace metals, trace element baselines in soil and plants, water requirements of crops, and H{sub 2}S effects on crop production in the presence of CO{sub 2} and ozone.

  6. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  7. Vicente Ignacio Imperial Digueri y Trejo : ingeniero militar, marino, urbanista y arquitecto del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Torrejón Chaves

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en Oran el 28 de junio de 1745, fueron sus padres Ignacio Imperial Digueri, oriundo de Cartagena y destinado, a la sazón, como oficial en el Regimiento de Infantería de esta plaza norteafricana, donde alcanzó el grado de comandante de su segundo batallón —puesto que desempeñaba cuando ocurrió su muerte, el 5 de junio de 1769—, y Paula Trejo Monroy y Salcedo, natural de Badajoz, quien falleció con posterioridad a mayo de 1781, posiblemente en la ciudad de Cartagena. Otros hijos del matrimonio fueron: Antonio, Juan Bautista —que se ordenó sacerdote del Orden de Mínimos de San Francisco de Paula—, Manuel, Luisa y Teresa.

  8. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  9. Globalization and new colonialities legitimization. Eight essential issues for debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rulli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection. The article proposes a signaling point of the core issues of social structure that left extractivism in our region. The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection.

  10. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  11. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  12. Sintomas visuais de deficiência de macronutrientes e de boro em abacaxizeiro 'imperial' Visual symptons of macronutrients and boron deficiency in 'imperial' pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Mota Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiências de macronutrientes e de boro no abacaxizeiro 'Imperial', e associá-los à diagnose foliar. Os tratamentos: Completo, - N, - P, - K, -Ca, - Mg, - S e - B foram aplicados como soluções nutritivas, em vasos plásticos com 14 kg de areia de praia purificada e uma muda de abacaxi, como unidade experimental. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados completos, com seis repetições. Os sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional foram fotografados e descritos durante todo o processo de crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Avaliaram-se, também, as concentrações foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B na folha 'D', aos cinco, sete, nove e 12 meses após o plantio. A deficiência de N causou amarelecimento das folhas da planta e da coroa dos frutos e descoramento da polpa do fruto; a de P, folhas novas vermelho-arroxeadas e frutos com a casca avermelhada; a de K, necrose do ápice das folhas mais velhas e escurecimento da polpa do fruto; a de Mg, necrose na base das folhas da coroa do fruto, e na deficiência de B, frutos com cortiça e rachadura nos frutilhos e entre eles. Apesar dos baixos teores foliares de S e de Ca, na época da colheita dos frutos, não foram observados sintomas visuais de deficiência nos frutos. Os teores foliares no início dos sintomas de deficiência e na época da colheita dos frutos foram, respectivamente: N = 8,7 e 6,8; P = 0,70 e 0,32; K = 11,6 e 3,2; Mg = 0,73 e 0,54 g kg-1, e B = 5,8 e 5,5 mg kg-1.The objective of this study was to characterize the visual symptoms of macronutrients and boron deficiencies in the pineapple 'Imperial', and involve them in the foliar diagnosis. The full treatment, - N, - P - K, - Ca, - Mg, - and S - B was applied as nutrient solutions in plastic pots with 14 kg of purified sand beach and a seedling of pineapple, as an experimental unit . The design was a randomized complete block with six replicates. The

  13. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  14. A educação (pós-imperial de V. S. Naipaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Maria Matos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se uma análise de alguns dos sentidos da palavra educação que se revelam de especial interesse para o percurso de V. S. Naipaul como escritor. Assim, consideram-se em primeiro lugar os efeitos (previsíveis e imprevisíveis da típica educação colonial que o autor recebeu em Trinidad e que o transformaram ao mesmo tempo num “bom” e num “mau” súbdito colonial. Discute‑se também o modo como Naipaul, posteriormente, teve de se educar para a vida num mundo pós-colonial, e a forma como foi enfrentando a condição híbrida e desterritorializada do sujeito pós‑colonial. Finalmente, argumenta-se que Naipaul se situa deliberadamente nessas “áreas de escuridão” que elegeu como tema central da sua obra, e ocupa a “zona de interdição” que o discurso colonial pretende manter entre colonizador e colonizado, aí situando o seu próprio discurso.

  15. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  16. [Epidemics and colonial medicine in West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C; Collignon, R

    1998-01-01

    We studied colonial medical practices and health policies in West Africa, which has faced endemics and epidemics that have affected entire societies. We found that attempts to centralize the organization of colonial medicine, which began in the late 19th Century, were limited until the end of World War I. Research and control programs expanded after 1920, concentrating on epidemics, but largely ignoring many major health problems, such as measles, whooping cough and malnutrition, the importance of which were not recognized until after World War II. This appraisal of colonial medicine highlights the difficulties of introducing modern medicine and its ideas into African societies. There have been various social reactions, resulting in the current duality in which traditional and modern medicine coexist.

  17. Vivir en los márgenes. Fronteras porosas y circulación de población en la Nueva Vizcaya tardo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ortelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la conformación multiétnica de pueblos de indios y misiones en la frontera norte de Nueva España –específicamente, en la provincia de Nueva Vizcaya– y la circulación de población entre espacios sociales y geográficos controlados y no controlados por el Estado colonial. Esta frontera porosa y permeable fue el escenario de una dinámica social que cuestionaba los postulados de segregación y control que habían intentado imponer las autoridades desde los primeros tiempos de la colonización y que trataron de reforzar durante el siglo XVIII, en el contexto del programa de afianzamiento del poder imperial conocido como reformas borbónicas.

  18. Statement of Michael J. Spear on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Kofa/Havasu/Imperial/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given by...

  19. Statement of John F. Turner on H.R. 2571 : Wilderness designations on National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona [Havasu/Imperial/Kofa/Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a statement on congressional bills meant to create a wilderness areas within the Kofa NWR, Imperial NWR, Havasu NWR, and Cabeza Prieta NWR. Given by...

  20. 试论明代国子监与朝鲜王朝成均馆之异同%The similarities and differences between the Ming dynasty imperial academy and North Korea dynasty Chengjun pavilion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晶晶

    2015-01-01

    古代中国和朝鲜半岛都通过官学对知识分子进行儒化教育,二者同根同源。本文主要是对中国和朝鲜半岛的儒学教育机构进行比较,选取了明代的国子监和李朝成均馆作为考察对象,希图通过对其教育目标、学生和学官情况、开设课程等方面的比较以启迪现代教育。%Both ancient China and the Korean peninsula through the authority of intellectuals to Confucian education, the same roots. This article mainly Confucianism education institutions of China and the Korean peninsula, selection of the Ming dynasty imperial academy and Li Chaocheng pavilion as investigation object, attempts through to the education goal, the students and learning situation, courses comparison to enlightenment to modern education.

  1. Primary study of Gu Dingfang, an imperial doctor of the Ming dynasty and his funerary objects%明代御医顾定芳及其随葬品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高毓秋

    2001-01-01

    Through researching textually the name, alias, life story, family tree, and medical thought, medical activities and unearthed culture relics etc. of an imperial doctor, Gu Dingfang, his remarkable contribution to the reservation of ancient classic medical editions and the reality of a new creative theory on psychological therapy put forward by him are shown. His outstanding achievements not only complement the blank of medical history of the Ming dynasty, but also occupy a position in the world's medical history.%考证御医顾定芳的姓名字号、身世谱系、生平事迹、医学思想、医学活动、医学文物等内容,发掘出他在保存古代经典医学版本方面的卓越贡献和他提出的心理治疗方面的独创性论述事实,不仅可补充明代医学史的一项空白,而且当在世界医学史上占有一席之地。

  2. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  3. Colony location algorithm for assignment problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingwei WANG

    2004-01-01

    A novel algorithm called Colony Location Algorithm (CLA) is proposed. It mimics the phenomena in biotic conmunity that colonies of species could be located in the places most suitable to their growth. The factors working on the species location such as the nutrient of soil, resource competition between species, growth and decline process, and effect on environment were considered in CLA via the nutrient function, growth and decline rates, environment evaluation and fertilization strategy.CLA was applied to solve the classical assignment problems. The computation results show that CLA can achieve the optimal solution with higher possibility and shorter running time.

  4. Impacts of Colonialism: A Research Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziltener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.

  5. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  6. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture....

  7. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  8. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  9. The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N

    1994-06-15

    The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and 'Magic' preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4 micrograms/g of bone to below detectable limits. Fulvic acid was shown to interfere with the quantification of DNA derived from ancient human skeletal material one hundred to over seven thousand years old. Scanning UV in the 300 to 230 nm range is a simple and sensitive technique for documenting fulvic acid contamination in ancient bone extracts.

  10. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges. PMID:27583438

  11. Pectus excavatum in mummies from ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the common congenital anomalies, yet there seems to be a suspicious absence of any cases or descriptions of this deformity from antiquity. This could represent a real change in disease prevalence but is more likely just due to an inadequate reporting in medico-historical literature. The current study reviews reports of computed tomography (CT) scans of 217 ancient Egyptian mummies, revealing 3 presumed cases of this deformity. Therefore, pectus excavatum was in fact present already in ancient times, with prevalence roughly similar to the modern one.

  12. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  13. Automatic indexing and reformulation of ancient dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel; Turcan, Isabelle; Pierrel, Jean-Marie; Belaïd, Yolande; Rangoni, Yves; Hadjamar, Hassen

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper is related to automatic indexing and reformu-lation of ancient dictionaries. The objective is to make easy the access to ancient printed documents from XVI to XIX century for a diversified public (historians, scien-tists, librarians, etc.). Since the facsimile mode is insuffi-cient, the aim is to look further for the use of the index-ing based on the formal structure representative of some contents in order to optimize their exploration. Starting from a firs...

  14. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  15. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  16. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  17. A dominação colonial e o sabir cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bourdieu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A política francesa de "reassentamento" dos camponeses argelinos, planejada para minar o apoio popular à guerra de libertação nacional (1954-1962, levou ao deslocamento de um quarto da população nativa da Argélia em 1960. Disciplinando o espaço e reorganizando rigidamente a vida dos fellahin, os militares franceses esperavam domesticar um povo, mas isso apenas completou o que a primeira política colonial e a generalização das trocas monetárias já começara: a "descamponeização" de comunidades agrárias despojadas dos meios sociais e culturais para dar sentido ao seu presente e para controlar o seu futuro. Assim, a guerra cumpriu a intenção latente da política colonial, que é desintegrar a ordem social local com o objetivo de subordiná-la, seja sob a bandeira da segregação, seja sob a bandeira da assimilação. Mas a dominação imperial também produz um novo tipo de sujeito que contém em si as contradições nascidas do choque de civilizações: os padrões de comportamento e de ethos econômico importados pela colonização coexistem dentro do camponês argelino expulso de sua terra com aqueles que foram herdados da tradição ancestral, originando condutas, expectativas e aspirações antinômicas. Esta dupla dimensão da realidade, objetiva e subjetiva, ameaçava minar os esforços para socializar a agricultura depois da independência, enquanto que a lógica da descolonização induzia a pequena-burguesia letrada dos burocratas a negar magicamente as contradições da realidade como fantasmas vergonhosos de um passado colonial morto.

  18. Differentiation in colonies of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin Chucrel, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this Thesis was to study genome-wide gene expression in colonies of A. niger and to relate this to nutrient availability, growth, and secretion. Maltose and xylose were chosen as carbon sources for this study. These compounds result in different sets of extracellular enzymes. In Chapter 2

  19. Colonial Newspaper Reaction to the Somerset Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Patricia

    To examine colonial American press coverage of the British court decision to free American slave James Somerset, a study was conducted to clarify why the decision worked as a victory for British abolitionists but was usually cited even in post-Revolution America in the passage of increasingly oppressive slave legislation. Twenty-three of the…

  20. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  1. Teacher and school in Brazilian colonial time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Jordão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to rescue and to search in time the forms and methods used by teachers of Brazilia colonial time. How the province men viewed education and what their main objectives were. It also focuses on teachers’ struggle for worthy eduaction and job.

  2. Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.

    This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…

  3. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  4. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  5. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  6. [First medical museum of Russia (150-anniversary of the Surgical museum of the Imperial Medical-Surgery Academy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budko, A A; Gribovskaia, G A; Zhuravlev, D A

    2013-03-01

    The opening in 1863 of the Surgical museum of the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy was the sign of a new age in the development of medical science. It became the first medical museum in our country. It was the period when similar museums appeared in Europe and America. Thus all over the world were formed the first museums that amassed their collections, the later basis of modem medical museums.

  7. Europa y el pensamiento político del Imperio. Hacia una crítica del modernismo imperial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wagner

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo sugiere que cierta forma de pensamiento ha alcanzado una posición central en la filosofía política contemporánea —una combinación de liberalismo individualista y racionalismo instrumental—. Aeste pensamiento lo denomino modernismo imperial porque se basa en una interpretación concreta del compromiso moderno con la autonomía, sesgado hacia la hegemonía. Desde ese planteamiento se procura mostrar que ésta no es la única interpretación sostenible de la modernidad y que puede estar surgiendo una auto-comprensión normativa concreta de la modernidad europea que se diferencie del modernismo imperial. El texto intenta elucidar esta tesis en dos pasos. Primero, ofrece una comparación algo esquemática del pensamiento social y político en Europa y EE.UU., muestra los rasgos básicos del modernismo imperial e indica algunas razones —históricas y contingentes— de su predominio en EE.UU., pese a que sus fuentes estén en Europa. Dado que este paso muestra que el individualismo y el instrumentalismo son los rasgos clave del modernismo imperial, el segundo paso discutirá las consecuencias de una posible futura hegemonía de ese pensamiento explorando en particular cómo la cuestión de lo común se ha vuelto problemática en la filosofía política desde el ascenso del liberalismo individualista.

  8. “It is Necessary to Create a New Suitably Positive Past”: Boris Mironov in Russian Imperial Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Kerov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the contemporary historiography of Russia as an empire from the 18th to the 20th centuries, the history of Russian “imperium.” This analysis is based on criticism of Boris Mironov’s monograph “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” The history of world empires is an important area of contemporary world historiography, which has the greatest relevance in current international relations. In Mironov’s multifaceted work, both the author’s own research and the historiographical results of the last two decades are used. The results of the analysis of the new social history of Russia (the history of the peasantry, urban groups, bureaucracies, intellectuals, businessmen, etc. are given, as well as the new history of the state and law. Ethno-confessional politics and the “history of expansion” seem to be the central themes of modern imperial historiography. Mironov convincingly refutes the myth of Russia as a “prison of nations.” Confessional policy is also considered. The questions of heterogeneity and the endogenous character of revolutionary crises in Russia became the focus of the discussion within “new imperial history.” Here supporters of various historiographical orientations, despite formal differences, agree that the imperial system in Russia experienced crises caused by rapid modernization, and was followed by the new “imperial” (or quasi-imperial period characterized by significant features and many common trends. An important feature of the modern “imperial” historiography and the history of Russia in general, according to the considered works, is the ideological approach of contemporary national scientific and historical discourse.

  9. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  10. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  11. Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerula Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.

  12. Images of Indonesia in the Dutch press 1950-1962 : Characteristics of an Imperial Hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Johannes

    1993-01-01

    Cartoons in Dutch newspapers and magazines in the decade after the Indonesian decolonisation until the end of the New Guinea dispute in 1962 illustrate the deteriorating relationship between the Netherlands and its former colony from Dutch perspective in all its different shades. They represent the

  13. Cultural Nationalism, Orientalism, Imperial Ambivalence: The Colored American Magazine and Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Cho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay examines African American novelist Pauline Hopkins’s deployment of the trope of respectable domesticity to contest black disenfranchisement in the context of African Americans’ ambivalent relationship to late-nineteenth-century US imperial expansion in the Asia Pacific. This essay analyzes Contending Forces (1900 in relation to two crucial yet underexplored contexts: first, Hopkins’s commentaries on international race relations; second, African American intellectuals’ commentaries on US imperial ventures in the Asia Pacific and on Chinese immigration in the Colored American Magazine, where Hopkins’s fictional works were serialized. Situated within these contexts of comparative racialization, Hopkins’s works offer critical responses to the masculine nationalist representations of black–Asian relations, illuminating the divisive effects of nationalist identification on differentially racialized subjects, the uneven effects of marriage on the black community, and this institution’s structural ties to imperialism and to the color-based class hierarchy within the imagined black community—all of which call for radical reimagining of race relations beyond the nation form.

  14. Collections of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in the State Museum of the History of Religion (Saint-Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Chumakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the main problems of formation’s history and exploration of the collections of Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Community (Russia. Its Community in Russia from the moment of its creation (1882 not only engaged in the organization of pilgrimages in Holy Land, but its deals with the organization of systematic archaeological excavations and scientific expeditions in Near East. One of the important but few mentioned aspects of this scientific and cultural activity is the creation of two unique collections – the library’s collection and the photo archive. This research is based on the materials collection’s of The Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Community, which is saved as a part of the collections of the State Museum of the History of Religion and archive materials that not published yet. The book’s and photo’s compositions that preserved in the collections of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Community reflects not only intellectual inquiries and preferences of Russian scientists but the history of Palestinian science’s development in Russia at the end of the XIX – at the beginning of XX centuries as a whole.

  15. Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Bērziņa

    2011-01-01

    Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect Doctoral thesis deals with the study of essential linguistic features of the Ancient Greek dialogue as an important ancient prose genre. The goal of the thesis is to disclose the specific linguistic characteristics of the genre of Ancient Greek dialogue on the basis of comparative analysis of the linguistic structure (on all levels as well as in style) of the texts of three most prominent authors (Plato, Xenoph...

  16. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  17. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  18. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  19. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  20. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  1. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  2. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  3. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  4. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  5. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  6. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  7. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  8. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  9. Case report 872. "Ancient" schwannoma (degenerated neurilemoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, E; Sapan, M R; McHeffey-Atkinson, B; Naidich, J B; Arlen, M

    1994-10-01

    A case of an ancient schwannoma was presented. The rare occurrence of this tumor has resulted in only a few reported cases with descriptions of its features on imaging. Our patient's tumor, like one previously reported case, demonstrated calcification on the plain film - a finding not associated with other histologic types of schwannomas. Angiography revealed the tumor to be hypervascular. Evaluation by MRI demonstrated a lobulated, encapsulated soft tissue mass containing several cystic areas that corresponded histologically to areas of necrosis. Hypertrophied blood vessels were seen in the periphery of the tumoral mass. Too few ancient schwannomas have been reported to conclude whether or not radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification is characteristic of this histologically distinctive subtype of schwannoma. However, since calcification is seen histologically as part of the degenerating process, its presence on plain films could be a feature of this tumor. Furthermore, the presence of cystic areas on MRI is not surprising given the pathological changes that occur in this tumor. We suggest that a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma be considered when a patient presents with a hypervascular soft tissue mass containing amorphous calcification on plain films and cystic areas on MRI. Despite the nonspecificity of these imaging findings, this point is relevant because each of these features suggests the presence of a malignant mass. Awareness of the possibility of a benign ancient schwannoma could obviate unnecessary radical surgery.

  10. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  11. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  12. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  13. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  14. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  15. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  16. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages an

  17. Preliminary catalog of seabird colonies and photographic mapping of seabird colonies: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This preliminary catalog identifies 339 seabird colonies lying along the North Pacific coast of Alaska between Cape Fairweather and Unimak Pass. Information is given...

  18. Oswaldo Costa, Antropofagia, y la crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui, Carlos A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oswaldo Costa was a key member of the Brazilian modernist Antropofagia (Anthropophagy movement of the late 1920s, yet he has been largely forgotten by critics and marginalized from national cultural history. Costa articulated —as no other member of the movement did, including his famous leader Oswald de Andrade— an Antropofagia intellectually engaged in what we call a cannibal critique of colonial modernity and Occidentalism. Costa’s Antropofagia cannibalized the historical archive, reading against the grain of a triumphant Western imperial history. Throughout his contributions to the Revista de Antropofagia, he questioned Brazil’s cultural allegiance to Europe, pointed out the existence of asynchronous temporalities within Brazil, and defied Eurocentric notions of civilization and progress that ideologically structure Brazilian nationalism in the ninetieth and twentieth centuries. He also enacted an anthropophagous re-reading of Brazilian historiography against its celebration of colonialism and proposed the necessity of a cultural decolonization. This article analyzes Costa’s principal contributions to Antropofagia and rescues his hitherto overlooked countercolonial thought from the oblivion of collective forgetting. Moreover, it examines Costa’s significant view of Brazilian modernity as a perfidious armistice with other barbarous temporalities, and of the Westernization of Brazil as a deceptive appearance that hides ever-present colonial antagonisms.Oswaldo Costa fue un miembro fundamental del movimiento modernista Antropofagia de finales de la década de 1920. Pese al olvido crítico de su obra y a su exclusión de la historia cultural brasileña, Costa articuló —como acaso ningún otro miembro del movimiento, incluyendo a su famoso líder Oswald de Andrade— una Antropofagia-otra, intelectualmente trabada en lo que denominamos una crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial y del Occidentalismo. A diferencia de la mayor

  19. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  20. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  1. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  2. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  3. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  4. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  5. The Imperialism of Historical Arrogance: Where Is the Past in the DSM's Idea of Sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhill, Simon

    2015-07-01

    This article questions the historical awareness of the DSM-5 by investigating first the treatment of prostitution from the Victorian period to today as a means of medicalizing desire; and second, by looking at the category of hebephilia, where modern medicalizing classifications are criticized for ignoring ancient evidence. By this comparative method, the article shows how ignoring historical evidence allows the social and ideological elements in the work of defining psychological sexual diseases to remain concealed.

  6. Hilasterion and imperial ideology: A new reading of Romans 3:25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul uses the hapax legomenon  ίλαστήριον in Romans 3:25. Pauline scholars have discussed the background for Paul’s use of the word, whether from the LXX, Second Temple practice or pagan inscriptions. Two altars were found in the Asian city of Metropolis in the early 1990s with the dedication Καίσαρος ἱλαστηρίου. This article discusses their discovery, the history of Metropolis and the possible relationship of Paul to the city. It explores the date of the erection of the altars by establishing a viable sitz im leben early in the reign of Augustus. It then traces the semantic history of the  ίλαστήριον and attempts to establish its possible meaning within Pauline theology. Finally, the question whether ίλαστήριον should be added to the vocabulary of imperial ideology in Paul’s writings is addressed.

  7. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  8. Un «thoracatus» imperial en Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis ROMERO NOVELLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre el hallazgo de un conjunto de fragmentos escultóricos recuperados en contexto de amortización secundario en el foro de la ciudad romana de Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza durante el verano de 2013. Este conjunto de piezas realizadas en mármol de Carrara incluye la parte inferior y central de una coraza profusamente decorada con escenas de spolia hostium, así como las piernas y zona de la cintura de una estatua junto a otros elementos pertenecientes a la misma –hombro, mano y fragmentos de las pterykes y del paludamentum–. Se plantea la probable adscripción de los fragmentos presentados a una única thoracata imperial probablemente –a juzgar por diversos detalles iconográficos de la coraza y formales del resto de la pieza– de fecha domicianea. Además se pone a la thoracata en relación con lo que sabemos de este singular municipio flavio del convento Cesaraugustano planteando, incluso, una hipótesis sobre la ubicación primaria del monumento en una de las scholae del pórtico occidental del foro de Los Bañales.

  9. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed.

  10. From Artaxerxes to Abu Ghraib: on religion and the pornography of imperial violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lincoln

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of September 11, 2001, much has been written about religious groups commonly called ‘terrorist’, building on an older literature whose equally tendentious buzzwords were ‘cult’ and ‘fundamentalism’. In general, the conclusions advanced within such works tilt sometimes in the direction of alarm, and sometimes in that of reassurance. The amount of academic attention devoted to a given threat ought reflect its seriousness, based on calculations of the likelihood that threat will be realized and the destruction it can unleash. Among the most dangerous of situations is that in which an extremely powerful state bent on conquest finds and deploys religious arguments that encourage its aggressive tendencies and imperial ambitions. Believing that it may be useful to consider data sufficiently removed from the present to afford some critical distance, I have devoted much of my research in recent years to the role played by religion in Achaemenid Persia (550–330 bce, the largest, wealthiest, most powerful empire of antiquity before the emergence of Rome. As a convenient summary of that research, I propose to discuss two Achaemenian data, each of which can assume emblematic status. Only after that exercise will I return to contemporary materials and issues.

  11. Benevolence for Obedience: Policies on Muslims in Late Imperial and Modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Frankel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In telling the story of Islam in China, scholars have tended to depict the historical encounter of China’s Muslim population with the social, political and cultural forces of Chinese state and society in terms of either “conflict or concord.” This generalization, which reduces a complex and nuanced history to a simple binary, is flawed not because it is completely untrue, but rather because its truth is incomplete. Chinese Muslims’ responses to the social and cultural context in which they live have been diverse and multifaceted, and the phenomenon of Islam in China is no more a monolith than either of the two great, multifaceted civilizations that lend it its name. In late imperial China, within the same century, albeit at different ends of the Empire, examples of both types of Muslim response to Chinese hegemony were witnessed: intellectual rapprochement and armed rebellion. In between those extremes, however, we see varying degrees of Muslim assimilation to the norms of Chinese society and a variety of positions adopted by the imperium and officialdom vis-à-vis the Empire’s Muslim subjects. In many ways, this pattern is repeated in the People’s Republic of China (PRC today.

  12. Formation of Medical Units in Response to Epidemics in the Australian Imperial Force in Palestine 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. G Dennis Shanks MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the closing days of the First World War, British cavalry operations defeated the Turkish Armies in Palestine. Australian Light Horse Regiments as part of the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF were prominent in the capture of Amman, Beirut and Damascus. Epidemic infectious diseases were part of the severe desert environment faced by soldiers in the Middle East. Cholera and dysentery epidemics required reformation of medical units to emphasize mobility in an austere environment. A large epidemic of falciparum malaria coinciding with pandemic influenza shut down military operations and caused many deaths in late 1918. Three separate military medical units were formed in Egypt to address epidemic infectious diseases during mobile operations in the desert: ANZAC Field Laboratory, 5th Malaria Diagnosis Station and 7th Mobile Sanitary Section. Laboratory and preventive medicine units were critical to the military’s ability to conduct operations in the Middle East in 1918 and are likely to become vital for future missions in developing countries. As was the case in 1918, military medical units may have to be acutely restructured to control infectious disease outbreaks

  13. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  14. Geothermal Loan Guarantee Program: Westmorland Development Project, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by DOE to finance geothermal exploration, development, and testing by Mapco Geothermal, Inc. and Republic Geothermal, Inc. in the Westmorland area of Imperial County, California. Initial drilling and flow testing of up to three production wells will occur in the exploratory phase. Exploration is proposed for either or both of two portions of the leasehold area. If exploration confirms the presence of a viable resource in the Sweetwater area, the preferred site based on limited temperature data, then up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested there in preparation for the construction of a 55-MW double-flash electric power plant. If, however, the Sweetwater resource proves infeasible, further exploration and possible full-field development may occur instead at the Dearborn-Kalin-Landers area. At this site, up to 19 new production wells and three new injection wells may be drilled and tested, with six existing wells also used for injection. This environmental assessment chiefly addresses effects of the drilling and testing program. In summary, this paper discusses the proposed action, describes the existing environment and discusses the potential environmental impacts. 75 refs. (LSP)

  15. Ancient cults of the sun (German Title: Antike Sonnenkulte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    In ancient astronomy, the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos did not meet universal approval. Contrary to that, the cult of the sun gained immense importance in the Roman Empire. Relics of this significance we still find e.g. in the meaning of the Sunday in the week and in the date of Christmas. The rise of the sun cults is characterised by the merging of different gods from various cultures. Already in classical Greece the god of the sun, Helios, almagated with the god of light, Apollo. The resulting entity was regarded as the harmonic guide of the visible universe, symbolized by Apoll. As well as he plays the lyre, he conducts the cosmos harmonically as the sun. Plato recommends to politicians to study musical harmonics and astronomy in order to get a feeling of the right way to rule the state. In consequence to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Babylonian star religion was mingled with Greek cosmology and the concept of transmigration of souls. The astrology resulting therefrom spread out over the whole Hellenistic world and was very common in the Roman Empire. The calendar with its religious division of time as the days of the week, following the principle of the gods of the planets governing the hour, was well known. The god of the sun was graded up by the adoption of the calendar of the sun from Egypt by Caesar. Augustus chose Apoll as his guardian god and built with “his” sundial a symbol of the god of the sun, which was visible from a long distance. Augustus used more astral symbols as propaganda of leadership. During the competition with the Parthians, another large empire, for world domination the focus fell on an Iranian god: the Iranian god of light and contract - Mithras. Shortly before 100 A.D., a new cult of mysteries arose in the Roman Empire, called cult of Mithras, and spread quickly. It combined the attributes of a classical sun-god with a religion of salvation, guaranteed by baptism, communion and seven degrees to be passed

  16. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  17. Kif Tebbi, the colonial archive, between sedimentation and connective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Kif Tebbi, a colonial novel by Luciano Zuccoli, in theoretical and interpretative perspective of the colonial archive. The aim is to problematize and deconstruct the colonial discourse of this writing from the cultural memories' point of view. In particular, the article will discuss two different forms of memory: the sedimentation and connective memory.

  18. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  19. French colonial medicine in Cambodia: reflections of governmentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trankell, Ing-Britt; Ovesen, Jan

    2004-04-01

    Studies of colonial medicine, mostly from former British colonies, have shown that colonial medical interventions mostly benefited the European colonisers and often had very little positive effects on the health of the native populations at large. A common assumption is that this was also the case for French colonial medicine in general, and for colonial medicine in Cambodia in particular, and that the unsatisfactory contemporary state of the medical services in the country may be partly explained by its colonial past. As a way to test this assumption, this paper presents an ethnography of colonial medicine in Cambodia in the first decades of the twentieth century. Documents in the Cambodian National Archives provided the primary sources, and their significance was assessed against the background of the authors' experience of medical anthropological research in contemporary Cambodia. Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality is used as the interpretative frame. Elements of colonial governmentality in the medical field included the promotion of modern medicine through the free dispensing of medicines and medical treatment and rudimentary medical training of members of the local population, as well as compulsory vaccinations and surveillance of the colonial subjects. It is concluded that both the idea of medicine as a 'tool of empire' and that of the colonial physician as a humanitarian hero are equally incomplete as general descriptions, and that specific ethnographies of medical policies and practices should be undertaken for particular colonial settings. This paper provides the first anthropological account of colonial medicine in Cambodia.

  20. Medicine, Empires, and Ethics in Colonial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Helen

    2016-07-01

    This essay examines the history of European empire building and health work in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on four patterns that shed light on the ethics of outside interventions: (1) the epidemiological and bodily harms caused by conquest and economic development; (2) the uneven and inadequate health infrastructures established during the colonial era, including certain iatrogenic consequences; (3) the ethical ambiguities and transgressions of colonial research and treatment campaigns; and (4) the concerted and inadvertent efforts to undermine African healing practices, which were not always commensurable with introduced medical techniques. This kind of historical analysis helps us home in on different kinds of ethical problems that have grown out of past asymmetries of power-between people, professions, states, and institutions-that shape the nature of international health systems to this day.

  1. Regulaciones de la vida urbana colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Núñez Sánchez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza ciertas normas dictadas por la Corona con el propósito de regular la vida urbana a lo largo del período colonial. El artículo centra su estudio en algunas disposiciones que buscaban refrenar el desorden público y mantener el orden y las normas del "buen vivir". Bajo esta perspectiva, se analizan algunas prácticas culturales que se apartaban de estas regulaciones, entre las que se incluyeron los albazos y carnavales. Muchas de estas manifestaciones fueron percibidas por el poder colonial como muestras de primitivismo latente. No obstante, el juego de carnaval, entre otras prácticas, se mantuvo reacio a acatar estas regulaciones.

  2. Studying Colonialism in Spanish History Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    in classrooms in the 19th Century has aimed at transmitting a shared past in order to encourage subjects to identify with their nation. In psychology different studies have focused on history textbooks as cultural tools for memory and identity, drawing attention to their role in conveying a social......The interwoven dynamics underpinning national identity and collective memory have received growing interest from different disciplines in light of an increasingly globalized and multicultural world. In this context, history textbooks play an important role inasmuch as the introduction of history...... representation of the nation’s historical past. Along these lines, this paper aims to examine the representation of an especially controversial past, such as colonialism, in Spanish secondary history textbooks in two different periods, in late 70’-early 80’ (just after the loss of the last Spanish colonies...

  3. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  4. Polyethism in a colony of artificial ants

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We explore self-organizing strategies for role assignment in a foraging task carried out by a colony of artificial agents. Our strategies are inspired by various mechanisms of division of labor (polyethism) observed in eusocial insects like ants, termites, or bees. Specifically we instantiate models of caste polyethism and age or temporal polyethism to evaluated the benefits to foraging in a dynamic environment. Our experiment is directly related to the exploration/exploitation trade of in machine learning.

  5. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  6. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Petterson

    2012-01-01

    Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to b...

  7. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  8. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  9. The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, D. J.

    The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

  10. Does genetic diversity hinder parasite evolution in social insect colonies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impac...... hinder the ability of parasites to adapt while cycling within social insect colonies.......Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impact...

  11. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  12. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... solving other scientifically interesting questions. Still in its childhood, ancient environmental DNA research has a large potential for still developing, improving and discovering its possibilities and limitations in different environments and for identifying various organisms, both in terms...... of the sampling methods and strategies (taphonomic processes), the more fundamental molecular methodologies (e.g. extraction and sequencing) and eventually the bioinformatic processing. In the enclosed studies we have tried to take some principal steps towards improving this, firstly by reviewing previous...

  13. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-02-05

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  14. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  15. Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G

    2007-06-01

    Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified.

  16. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  17. Segmentation of Ancient Telugu Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao A.V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OCR of ancient document images remains a challenging task till date. Scanning process itself introduces deformation of document images. Cleaning process of these document images will result in information loss. Segmentation contributes an invariance process in OCR. Complex scripts, like derivatives of Brahmi, encounter many problems in the segmentation process. Segmentation of meaningful units, (instead of isolated patterns, revealed interesting trends. A segmentation technique for the ancient Telugu document image into meaningful units is proposed. The topological features of the meaningful units within the script line are adopted as a basis, while segmenting the text line. Horizontal profile pattern is convolved with Gaussian kernel. The statistical properties of meaningful units are explored by extensively analyzing the geometrical patterns of the meaningful unit. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm involving segmentation process is found to be 73.5% for the case of uncleaned document images.

  18. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J

    2008-01-01

    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  19. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  20. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  1. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  2. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona

    2010-01-01

    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  3. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Søvik, Eirik; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-03-17

    Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience.

  4. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  5. The politics of gender and medicine in colonial India: the Countess of Dufferin's Fund, 1885-1888.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of gender issues and the practice of medicine in the context of colonialism as revealed through an analysis of the Dufferin Fund in India. Early private efforts to deliver Western health care in India were confined to combatting disease among the military and to the work of a few missionaries. The Dufferin Fund was created by Queen Victoria to provide health services to Indian women by training women physicians and personnel, establishing medical facilities, and providing female nurses and midwives. Fund-raising subscriptions were largely supported by wealthy Indians. British perceptions about Indian society and the nature of colonial rule were reflected by the Fund which responded to the misguided notion that Indian women would only accept the services of female physicians. In contrast with British officialdom, however, the Fund accepted the existence of purdah although the multifaceted nature of this social institution was ignored or misunderstood. These positions buttressed arguments to promote the medical training of English women (who would be shipped out of the way to India). The positions also assigned blame for the poor condition of Indian women to Indian men who were, nonetheless, expected to support the work of the Fund. British opposition to traditional forms of medicine were evident by the Fund's vociferous criticisms of Indian midwives. The Fund was criticized in turn for relying on trained Western women instead of training native women. When Lord Dufferin's stint as Viceroy was over, praise was lavished upon the departing Lady Dufferin as a proxy used by the Indian press for expressing a desire for a more humanitarian style of colonial rule. From the colonial point of view, Lady Dufferin set an example for the good works of the future vicereines. However, any accomplishments of the Fund were adopted by the imperial government as its own, and insufficient funding and inactivity led to a loss in the Fund's ability

  6. Integrated Modeling of Water Policy Futures in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelland, M. K.; Forster, C. B.; Grant, W. E.; Collins, K.

    2004-12-01

    Divided by an international border, the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) are linked by shared history, natural resources, culture and economy. This region is experiencing changes driven by policy makers both within and outside the IMVs. The largest external decision, the Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003, opens the door to a laboratory for studying the consequences of a massive transfer of agricultural water to municipal users. Two irrigation districts, two urban water agencies and the State of California have agreed to a 75 year of more than 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from agricultural to urban use. Although Imperial Valley farmers will be compensated for water conservation and land fallowing, the economic, environmental and social consequences are unclear. Farmers who fallow will likely cause a greater impact on local businesses and government than those choosing on-field water conservation. Reduced agricultural water use causes reduced flow of irrigation runoff, at higher salinity than before, to the Salton Sea that, in turn, impacts the population dynamics of Ichthyan and Avian species at the Salton Sea. Municipal wastewater discharged into the New River by Mexicali, Mexico is also an important source of inflow to the Salton Sea that will be reduce by plans to reclaim the wastewater for various uses, including cooling water for two new power plants in the Mexicali. A restoration program is funded to produce a Sea with much reduced surface area. But this approach may, in turn, lead to increases in windblown dust from the dry lakebed that will contribute to an air basin already designated as a federal nonattainment area for particulate emissions. Additional water will be conserved by lining the All American and Coachella canals. But, eliminating seepage from the All American canal reduces groundwater recharge to aquifers used by Mexican farmers. A complex interplay of water-related issues must be accounted for if

  7. Épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala ' Application timing of prohexadione calcium on vegetative growth control of 'Imperial Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo é fundamental na cultura da macieira, a fim de aumentar a eficiência produtiva e a qualidade dos frutos produzidos. O desenvolvimento dos ramos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de substâncias inibidoras da biossíntese de giberelinas, como o proexadione cálcio, sendo a resposta deste fitorregulador dependente do padrão sazonal do crescimento da parte aérea. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes épocas de aplicação de proexadione cálcio no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo de macieiras 'Imperial Gala', nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil. No ciclo de 2008/2009, foram avaliadas seis épocas de aplicação de 330 g ha-1 de proexadione cálcio (28; 58; 88; 118; 148 e 178 dias após a plena floração - DAPF e sete épocas de aplicação em 2009/2010 (20; 50; 80; 110; 140, 170 e 200 DAPF, além do tratamento-testemunha. Aplicações de proexadione cálcio a 330 g ha-1, realizadas aos 20 a 28 dias após a plena floração reduzem o comprimento médio e a massa fresca média dos ramos podados em macieiras 'Imperial Gala'.The control of vegetative growth is crucial in apple orchards in order to increase production efficiency and fruit quality. The shoot development may be reduced by inhibitors of gibberellins synthesis, as prohexadione calcium, and the response of this plant growth regulator depends on the seasonal pattern of shoot growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different application timing of prohexadione calcium on vegetative growth control of 'Imperial Gala' apple trees, in the climatic conditions of Southern Brazil. In 2008/2009 growing season, the following application timings of prohexadione calcium at 330 g ha-1 were evaluated: 28, 58, 88, 118, 148 and 178 days after full bloom - DAFB, and in 2009/2010 growing season, the application timings were: 20, 50, 80, 110, 140, 170 and 200 DAFB, and a control treatment. Applications of

  8. La Calidad de las Aguas en los Ríos Cautín e Imperial, IX Región-Chile Water Quality in the Cautín and Imperial Rivers, IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la calidad descriptiva de agua de los ríos Cautín e Imperial que conforman la cuenca hidrográfica del río Imperial ubicada en la IX Región de la Araucanía-Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando diez estaciones de muestreo. Los resultados muestran que las aguas de estos ríos no presentan problemas fisicoquímicos, de acuerdo a las normas chilenas oficiales. En la parte microbiológica se encontró un recuento alto de bacterias coliformes totales en algunas estaciones de muestreo, lo cual les da el carácter de no aptas para actividades con contacto directo y para el riego de verduras y frutas que se desarrollan a ras de suelo. Se puede predecir que una disminución del caudal de los ríos en el estiaje, provocará la mayor modificación del ecosistema, situación que se hace más crítica por la falta de un plan de manejo integral adecuadoThe objective of this work was to establish the descriptive water quality of the Cautín and Imperial rivers which form the Imperial River hydrographic basin in the IX Region of Araucanía, Chile. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were made at ten sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters measured in these rivers did not exceed the legally established Chilean water criteria. Microbiological testing showed high counts of coliform bacteria at some stations, exceeding water quality criteria for use in direct contact activities as well as for watering fruits and vegetables that develop at ground level. It can be predicted that reductions in river flow volume during dry periods will produce further modifications in this environment, which at present is not regulated by an appropriate integral management plan

  9. Alois Riegl, ‘Lovers of art, ancient and modern’ , Translated with an introduction by Karl Johns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Riegl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was originally given as a lecture to the Wiener Kunstfreunde and posthumously published as ‘Über antike und moderne Kunstfreunde Vortrag gehalten in der Gesellschaft der Wiener Kunstfreunde,’ Kunstgeschichtliches Jahrbuch der K. K. Zentral-Kommission zur Erforschung und Erhaltung der kunst- und historischen Denkmale, Volume 1, 1907, Beiblatt für Denkmalpflege, column 1-14, reprinted in Alois Riegl, Gesammelte Aufsätze, Augsburg Vienna: Filser, 1929, 194-206. It defines ‘art lovers’ as collectors/consumers of old art and includes contemporary practicing artists as potential members of that group. The lecture examines the role of the art lover in history, extending from antiquity to the present day. A crux occurred at the end of the nineteenth century when the art of earlier periods is honoured as a temple constructed as an end in itself and not a model for further practice. The emergence Impressionism went hand in hand with the appearance of art lovers as admirers of earlier art on the basis of its age alone. This optical subjectivism is present in the art of the Roman imperial period as well as in modern art. This leads to the question of how optical subjectivism succeeds in arousing, indeed provoking, interest in ancient art. In its effect of conjuring a mood, the contemporary art lovers’ contemplation of earlier art coincides directly with the modern artistic goals of optical subjectivism.

  10. 中日古代避讳试析%A Study on Taboo between Ancient China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李肖蕊; 卜朝晖

    2012-01-01

    对人名称谓的“避讳”是中国古代突出的文化现象,日本在古代也同样存在这样的:L-IL~L象,虽然两国的避讳在起源上是一致的,但在其表达的具体方面却存在较大差异。其差异主要体现在避讳对象、避讳方式、触讳惩罚以及避讳对讳者名字的影响等方面,其原因应与两国民众思维方式、对于皇权态度的不同,以及两国对于汉字使用的地位不同有关。%The taboo of using the names of emperors or elders is prominent cultural phenomenon in both ancient China and Japan. Although their origins are the same, there are still many differences in other aspects. The main differences can be reflected by the objects, the ways, the penalty methods to those who have violated taboo, and influence of taboo on the names. The main reasons lie in the different thinking ways, the different attitudes towards imperial power, and the different status of Chinese characters.

  11. Carbon uptake, microbial community structure, and mineralization of layered mats from Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woycheese, K. M.; Grabenstatter, J.; Haddad, A.; Ricci, J. N.; Johnson, H.; Berelson, W.; Spear, J. R.; Caporaso, J. G.; International Geobiology Course 2011

    2011-12-01

    Layered microbial mats provide an analog for early microbial communities, and remain one of the few microbiological structures consistently preserved in the geologic record. Despite this, growth rates, metabolic capabilities, and methods of mineralization in modern communities are poorly understood. Imperial Geyser, an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, provides a useful setting to study these parameters. Mat and water samples (T = 64-40 °C) were collected for 13C analysis and 13C-spiked bicarbonate and acetate incubation experiments. Carbon isotopes were measured for the stream water, pore water and biomass. We experimentally determined rates of bicarbonate uptake, acetate uptake and mineral content. Bicarbonate uptake rates ranged from 0 - 0.4% per day, while acetate uptake rates ranged from 0 - 2.0% per day. These results indicate that the mat biomass is capable of turnover in about 300 days resulting in potential growth rates of 1-2 cm/year. Organic carbon content (% dry weight) ranged from 2 to 16%, and decreased with depth in the mat. The mineral content of these mats is predominantly amorphous SiO2. An inverse correlation between mineral percent and bicarbonate uptake rate was observed, suggesting that there may be a link between metabolism and the prevention of mineralization. Comparing the 13C and carbon uptake rates with 16S rDNA pyrosequencing data we were able to hypothesize the carbon fixation pathways and heterotrophic interactions occurring in this environment. In general, two patterns of 13C values were observed. The first pattern was characterized by increased heterotrophy with depth. In the other, preliminary evidence supporting a photoheterotrophic lifestyle for Roseiflexus spp. was found.

  12. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions.

  13. ENGLISH AS A MEANS OF SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION: LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM OR INTERLINGUA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Popova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the process of globalisation has strengthened the position of the English language as a means of communication in all spheres of life, including scientific communication. The expansion of one language not only necessitates changes in the status of other national languages and the emergence of a hierarchical relationship between them, but also significantly affects the political and economic balance of power in the world. The global dominance of English in science not only confers distinct advantages on its native speakers but also discriminates against scholars from non-Anglophone societies. As a result, a threat arises concerning the loss to humanity of unique, culture-specific ways of understanding reality. Materials and Methods: on the basis of an analysis of modern trends and literature review, such mani¬festations of linguistic imperialism in the field of academic communication as the IMRaD format, CLIL teaching technologies and English academic writing centres are revealed. Subsequently, these phenomena are investigated using empirical sociological methods: in-depth expert interviews, participant observation and the content study of chemistry papers indexed in Scopus. Results: it is demonstrated that the Anglophone societies use the global distribution of the English language to advance their competitive advantage in the field of science. The implementation of English language instruction in higher education and Anglophone communicative patterns in scholarly communication – particularly with regard to the representation of research results – might have a negative effect both on the development of researchers’ competencies and their future effectiveness in advancing science. Discussion and Conclusions: it is concluded that an increased awareness of potential threats caused by the dominance of the English language in scientific communication is needed among all the participants of scientific communication, including

  14. Political aspects of geographical information technologies with examples from imperial and post-independence India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Graham David

    The goal of this research is to examine some of the political dimensions of digital geographical information technologies in order to allow better assessment of their increasing use. Although the conclusions and recommendations are applicable to many regions of the world where these technologies are being introduced, this research derives most of its examples from India. Since at least the early days of British imperialism, decisions regarding land use in India have been informed by various types of information, including cartographic ones. In this thesis it is argued that this information was neither neutral nor objective but rather formed political and ideological statements concerning social relations with the landscape. These statements were reflected both in the nature of the data which were collected and in the ways in which these data were presented. By examining the historical evolution of geographical information technologies in British India and attendant social and environmental impacts, the stage is set for critical speculation on the possible impacts resulting from the introduction of digital geographical information technologies such as remote sensing and geographical information systems. This research draws heavily from the work of historian of cartography Brian Harley. Harley's work is extended to include consideration of the ways in which human-environment relationships are reflected and altered by geographic information technologies. This discussion of possible political and environment implications is influenced by recent literature in the areas of political ecology and the history of cartography. It is concluded that although there are many obstacles including unequal access to the technology, unequal access to information, and issues of control over information creation, which may reinforce and intensify existing social and political inequities, there is cause for some cautious optimism about the potential beneficial outcomes of the use of

  15. The Restoration of Paintings at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century in the Imperial Gallery

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    Alice Hoppe-Harnoncourt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les tableaux de la collection impériale à Vienne ont subi différentes phases de restauration. Dans la plupart des cas, celles-ci sont en rapport avec des évènements dans l´histoire de la galerie. Autour de l´année 1800, les traitements avaient généralement pour fonction d’adapter les peintures au goût du jour : beaucoup de changements de formats peuvent être retracés jusqu’à cette date ou les années précédentes. En revanche, après les guerres napoléoniennes, les interventions étaient de nature différente : la plupart des tableaux sur bois de la galerie ont été parquetés durant cette période. Appliquée systématiquement, cette méthode était apparemment considérée comme une solution de conservation à long terme.The paintings in the Imperial collection in Vienna underwent several phases of restoration treatments. In most cases they can be linked to events in the history of the picture gallery. In the years around 1800 the treatments seemed to be caused mainly by aesthetical aspects: many changes to the format of the paintings can be traced to that time. However, the treatments after the era of the Napoleonic wars were different: Most of the gallery’s panel paintings were cradled at that time. Since this method was applied systematically, it was probably considered as solution for a long lasting conservation.

  16. Vaccination policy against smallpox, 1835-1914: a comparison of England with Prussia and Imperial Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennock, E P

    1998-04-01

    There are three identifiable phases in comparing vaccination policy in England, Prussia and Imperial Germany. (1) Prior to the 1870's the tradition of medical police in Prussia resulted in the vaccination of the population being treated as a State responsibility earlier than in England and provided an appropriate administrative framework. The administrative pressure that could be exerted persuaded the Prussian authorities that legislation to make vaccination compulsory was unnecessary. In contrast, England and Wales lacked both the tradition and administrative structures of a medical police. Legislation (1840, 1853) for free and universal infant vaccination was followed by radical ideological and administrative innovation. (2) From 1875 to 1889 both countries provided free and compulsory vaccination for all. In England this was limited to infants; in Germany including Prussia, it included the re-vaccination of children. (3) After 1889 England and Germany began to diverge more sharply. In England vaccination rates fell and after 1898 conscientious objectors were excused from having to have their children vaccinated. Germany retained compulsory vaccination and rates in the two countries increasingly diverged. England came to rely on the local public health administration for the surveillance and containment of smallpox, including selective vaccination of contacts. Despite these differences smallpox mortality dropped sharply in both countries, although in Germany somewhat earlier. The English reliance on surveillance and containment prefigures that of the WHO in the eradication of smallpox in the Third World. It suggests that the emphasis on the importance of high levels of mass vaccination in the German literature should perhaps be revised.

  17. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  18. The Characteristics of Korea’s Eugenic Movement in the Colonial Period Represented in the Bulletin, Woosaeng

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    SHIN Young-Jeon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world, was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well

  19. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena

    2004-11-15

    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism.

  20. Reconstructing Ancient History-- Historiographical Review of the Ancient History of Korea, 1950s-2000s

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    Stella Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ancient history of Korea has been one of the most controversial and difficult phases to incorporate into an East Asian history survey class, not only because there are indeed quite a number of contested issues, but also because very few updated materials are available in English. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of research on the topic of Korean ancient history in the past six decades (mainly in South Korea, so that the ancient history of Korea can be understood first within the broader frame of East Asian history, and then in relation to the intellectual and ideological evolution which has significantly impacted historical interpretations in South Korea.