WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient greek myths

  1. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period.

  2. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementi Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  3. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  4. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  5. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  6. Ancient Greek and Indian theatres: their origin in choral dances, which represent old myths by means of mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Adrados

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the subject of the origin of Greek theatre, especially of tragedy, the author insists in defending the theory already published by him in several occasions, according to which it would have been originated in choral, religious dances, which represent myths by means of an old mimesis. Aristotle suggested choral lyric as its origin, but he did it in a superficial manner. The author develops his theory in detail and speaks of the necessity of using information found in Greek theatre plays themselves: lyric unities and their organization as theatre plays, adding the recitation of the choreutae to choral passages. He proves all this with parallel facts found in Indian theatre by Prof. Gupt, from New Delhi, as well as with the correlation that the author sets between these evidences and the Greek ones: mimetic dance, rite and myth.

  7. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  8. Ancient Greek Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  9. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  10. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  11. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represent...

  12. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  13. [Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analysed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  14. From ancient Greek Logos to European rationality

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOLOPOULOU GEORGIA

    2016-01-01

    Because of history, culture, and politics, European identity has its archetypical elements in ancient Greek culture. Ancient Greek philosophy brought Logos to fore and defined it as the crucial problem and the postulate of the human. We translate the Greek term Logos in English as reason or rationality. These terms, however, do not cover the semantic field of Logos since this includes, among other things, order of being, ground, language, argument etc. The juxtaposition of Logos (reason) to m...

  15. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  16. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  17. Attitudes to Ancient Greek in Three Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This study comes in response to recent changes in UK policy, whereby Ancient Greek and Latin have been included alongside modern languages as part of the curriculum at Key Stage 2. It aims to understand how Ancient Greek is surviving and thriving in three different types of schools. After a short overview of the history of Greek teaching in the…

  18. [Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, J

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The

  19. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  20. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  1. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  2. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  3. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine.

  4. Myth and Philosophy in ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ ŞTEFAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available nto mythological horizon, universe is thinking in relation to the primordial deities. Doesn't exist a specialized concept, or a term for thinking the universe. What is important is the sacrifice originating mytholigical horizon, the first primordial deities. These gods must "die" at the birth of the universe; and this is the primordial sacrifice. Theme of the original sacrifice will survive until today. Into the philosophical horizon the Universe is thought through the concept. The first concept is the original concept of the anaximandrian infinity which is called apeiron.

  5. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  6. A Comparative Study on the Stages of Myths Where Nature Appears Sympathetic in Greek & Persian Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam Gerdabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During a mythical quest, a typical hero undergoes certain ordeals to achieve the heroic goal which sets him/her on the path of adventure in the first place. Facing the difficulties, the narrator offers help not only through the internal powers of the hero’s soul but also through a variety of external forces (natural/supernatural. In Greek and Persian mythology, heroes sometimes receive help from nature as a source of independent power which can bring about changes. The current study aims to hold out a few cases of natural changes in legendary quests that take ordinary natural phenomena out of their path affecting the quest results. Joseph Campbell’s list of stages of a myth is to be used for juxtaposing the natural phenomena in the myths in order to decide about the part of the legend where nature leaves a mark. The result of the study is expected to categorize different types of heroes that appear in Greek and Persian myths. Furthermore, the relationship between heroes and nature will be examined; as the Persian hero receives the natural interference during the ongoing stages of their quest as help, while the Greek hero receives the effect of nature after their death. All these are supposed to reveal the reward mechanism and how it reflects on the type of measures taken by nature. Keywords: Archetypes, Mythical Hero, Structure of Myths, Reward, Persian Hero, Greek Hero

  7. Pharmacology and psychiatry at the origins of Greek medicine: The myth of Melampus and the madness of the Proetides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Matteo F; Marzari, Francesca; Kesel, Andreas J; Bonalume, Laura; Saettini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders. The discussion aims at examining the rational aspects of the treatment of mental conditions in Greco-Roman antiquity.

  8. Book of Greek Myths. A Yearling Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aulaire, Ingri; d'Aulaire, Edgar Parin

    This oversized, illustrated book discusses the gods, goddesses, and legendary figures of ancient Greece in a relaxed and humorous tone to entertain, enlighten, and educate young people. The first section of the book discusses the "olden times," Gaea, and the Titans. The second section tells the story of Zeus and his family, with sections…

  9. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantha Zarmakoupi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC research project (1963–77 of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodological parameters of the ensuing 22 monographs with case studies — as well as 12 unpublished manuscripts, and through international conferences initiated a wider dialogue on ancient cities beyond the classical Greek world. It was the first interdisciplinary study that attempted to tackle the environmental factors, together with the social and economic ones, underpinning the creation, development and operation of ancient Greek cities. Doxiadis’s innovative approach to the analysis of the ancient city was indebted to his practice as an architect and town planner and was informed by his theory of Ekistics. His purpose was to identify the urban planning principles of ancient Greek settlements in order to employ them in his projects. This paper examines the concept and methodology of the AGC project as well as the ways in which Doxiadis used the study of ancient cities in relation to his contemporary urban/architectural agendas, and explains this important moment in the historiography of ancient Greek urbanism.

  10. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  11. The Change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric (pre-800 B.C.) and Hellenistic (ca. 100 A.D.) periods, as well as an intermediate period (ca. 450 B.C.), delineating the evolution from a subject-object-verb (SOV) to a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. (49 references) (MDM)

  12. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  13. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  14. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  15. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  16. A Narrative Review of Greek Myths as Interpretative Metaphors in Educational Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cano, Antonio; Torralbo, Manuel; Vallejo, Monica; Fernandez-Guerrero, Ines M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a series of Greek myths put forward as cultural narratives that could be used as metaphors or interpretative similes for explanatory and evaluative purposes in educational research and evaluation. These myths have been used in educational research literature, and most of them were found by carrying out an exhaustive search of…

  17. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice.

  18. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...

  19. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  20. Astrology in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with astrology in Greek and Roman culture. It considers astrology's theoretical background, technical basis, interpretative conventions, social functions, religious and political uses, and theory of fate, as well as critiques of it. Astrology is the name given to a series of diverse practices based in the idea that the stars, planets, and other celestial phenomena possess significance and meaning for events on Earth. It assumes a link between Earth and sky in which all existence—spiritual, psychological, and physical—is interconnected. Most premodern cultures practiced a form of astrology. A particularly complex variety of it evolved in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BCE from where it was imported into the Hellenistic world from the early 4th century BCE onward. There it became attached to three philosophical schools: those pioneered by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics, all of which shared the assumption that the cosmos is a single, living, integrated whole. Hellenistic astrology also drew on Egyptian temple culture, especially the belief that the soul could ascend to the stars. By the 1st century CE the belief in the close link between humanity and the stars had become democratized and diversified into a series of practices and schools of thought that ranged across Greek and Roman culture. It was practiced at the imperial court and in the street. It could be used to predict individual destiny, avert undesirable events, and arrange auspicious moments to launch new enterprises. It could advise on financial fortunes or the condition of one's soul. It was conceived of as natural science and justified by physical influences, or considered to be divination, concerned with communication with the gods and goddesses. In some versions the planets were neither influences nor causes of events on Earth, but timing devices, which indicated the ebb and flow of human affairs, like the hands on a modern clock. Astrology had a radical view of

  1. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative.

  2. Maths meets myths quantitative approaches to ancient narratives

    CERN Document Server

    MacCarron, Máirín; MacCarron, Pádraig

    2017-01-01

    With an emphasis on exploring measurable aspects of ancient narratives, Maths Meets Myths sets out to investigate age-old material with new techniques. This book collects, for the first time, novel quantitative approaches to studying sources from the past, such as chronicles, epics, folktales, and myths. It contributes significantly to recent efforts in bringing together natural scientists and humanities scholars in investigations aimed at achieving greater understanding of our cultural inheritance. Accordingly, each contribution reports on a modern quantitative approach applicable to narrative sources from the past, or describes those which would be amenable to such treatment and why they are important. This volume is a unique state-of-the-art compendium on an emerging research field which also addresses anyone with interests in quantitative approaches to humanities.

  3. Mental health and sexual activity according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, Μ-Ι; Karamanou, Μ; Sgantzos, Μ; Androutsos, G

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches

  4. [Conversations with the Sphinx. Images of Greek myth in Freud's collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Janine

    2006-01-01

    In Freud's art collection, the myth of Oedipus, a central tenet of psychoanalysis, is represented by several Greek statues and vases, as well as a reproduction of Ingres' painting. Originally a protective male Egyptian deity, in Greek myth, the Sphinx was female and associated with death. In addition, Freud had sculptures of Medusa the Gorgon, a terrifying winged female, and of provocative Baubo, both also figuring in his writings. By describing these works of art and some of their mythological ramifications, the author suggests that they represented aspects of feminity not really covered by Freud's theories.

  5. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Ploumpidis, D

    2013-12-01

    We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shaping the pain: Ancient Greek lament and its therapeutic aspect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Đurđina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, which is the first part of a wider research, I focus on different aspects of ancient Greek lament. One of its most important aspects is the therapeutic aspect: by verbalizing, revealing the pain and by sharing it with others, the pain itself is becoming more bearable both for the woman that laments and for the bereaved family. Related to this therapeutic is the creative aspect of lament: the woman that mourns has to lament in order to make it easier for herself and others; but while lamenting, she is creating something. In spite of this constructive, let us call it creative-therapeutic potential, the lament carries in itself a different, rather dark and gloomy potential, if it calls for vengeance, not reconciling with the fact of someone dear’s death. Deeply rooted in funeral ritual, a lament respects certain ritual rules, and yet it is a spontaneous expression of pain. Examining these mutually dependent aspects of lament, I will turn attention to the position of lament in Greek rites and tragedy, that summit Greek art and literature. Ritual lament within ancient tragedy is, as always when it comes to Greek culture, an inexhaustible topic. Although tragedy belongs to literary tradition, it is a trustworthy source for ancient Greek ritual practice; lament within tragedy is thus a ritual lament, and not only a literary one. Characters of many tragedies will mention the therapeutic aspect of lament, examined in this paper: they consider tears, wails and words directed to the deceased as joyful service, enjoyment, music, song precious and indispensable. This paper has its supplement, shaping the pain in few case studies. Inspired by laments of Montenegrin women, those that I have heard or read, I am re-reading Euripides’ Electra and Electra by Danilo Kiš (in which both Euripides’ drama and Montenegrin folklore is reflected, I am watching the Michalis Kakojannis’ movie Electra. Electra’s pain for loss, the one that through

  7. The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2009-06-01

    term has an ancient Greek root but it does not exist in the vocabulary of ancient Greek language. Although ancient Greeks did not have a conscious concept of utopia, they, however, dreamt, wrote, proposed – with different aims - what we would call now ( paradoxically using a ‘modern’ term ‘utopic’ worlds. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture. Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias.

  8. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Santacroce

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of “κόσμος” (world knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a “divine God” until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology, Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity. Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus’ theories, refusing extensively

  9. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking) and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of “κόσμος” (world) knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a “divine God” until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology), Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity). Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus’ theories, refusing extensively the Hippocratic

  10. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros

    2017-12-12

    Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking) and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of "κόσμος" (world) knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a "divine God" until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology), Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity). Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus' theories, refusing extensively the Hippocratic ideas that

  11. Greek Myths: 8 Short Plays for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, John

    Noting that myths are a powerful classroom tool, this book presents 8 short plays (in a readers' theater format) for grades 4-8. After an introduction that discusses getting started and using the book, plays in the book are: (1) "The Gods Must Be Crazy: The Story of Cupid and Psyche"; (2) "The Sound of Music Goes Underground: The…

  12. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design for pow...

  13. Perseus Project: Interactive Teaching and Research Tools for Ancient Greek Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Gregory; Harward, V. Judson

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Perseus Project, an educational program utilizing computer technology to study ancient Greek civilization. Including approximately 10 percent of all ancient literature and visual information on architecture, sculpture, ceramics, topography, and archaeology, the project spans a range of disciplines. States that Perseus fuels student…

  14. The Mythology of the Night Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide to the Ancient Greek and Roman Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Falkner, David E

    2011-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer can easily recognize most of the constellations, but how many of us know the story behind them? What myths did the Ancient Greeks weave around the mighty hunter Orion that places him so prominently in the sky? Did you know that this mythical being was said to have been killed by Diana, herself a hunter, while he was exhausted by his fight with Scorpius? The constellation of Scorpius, the giant scorpion, is dominated by the red supergiant Antares and hangs in the sky opposite Orion. Yet there is no constellation of Diana to be found! The Mythology of the Night Sky strikes a balance between backyard astronomy and ancient mythology. Organized by seasons, this book describes Ptolemy's 48 constellations with location and description in detail, while also telling the mythological tales in full. Along with the named constellations, this title also incorporates the lore behind the christening of the planets and their satellites. Readers discover the importance of the ancient characters, why...

  15. A sustained survival: elements and mythical motifs in ancient Greek philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Saco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Other aspects of historical nature, the distinction between nomos-physis, operated in the archaic Greek world, meant that socio-cultural structures will be intrinsic to the world, to be conventional and imposed to the natural order, a fact which broke the traditional mythical discourse (nature and culture correlations, and began to distinguish between humanity and the world. Despite this twist, the myth did not disappear nor was it entirely overcome or forgotten. In this sense, the proposal offered in this work is theoretical observation of the conduct and influence of the myth in what has conceptualized as «philosophical» in Greece antiquity.

  16. The Greek myth of Pleiades in the archaeology of natural disasters. Decoding, dating and enviromental interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoupi, A.

    The strong multi-symbolic archetype of the Pleiades functions as a worldwide astromythological system going back to Upper Palaeolithic Era. The Greek version of the myth seems to embody a wide range of environmental symbolism, as it incorporates various information and very archaic elements about: a) the periodicity of the solstices and the equinoxes, b) the fluctuations on the biochemical structure of Earth's atmosphere related to the global hydro -climatic phenomenon of ENSO, c) probable past observations of brightening of a star (nova) in the cluster of Pleiades, d) the primordial elements of the mythological nucleus of Atlantis' legend and e) the remnants of Palaeolithic 'proto-European' moon culture.

  17. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  18. Ancient astronomy an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggles, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Long before astronomy was a science, humans used the stars to mark time, navigate, organize planting and dramatize myths. This encyclopaedia draws on archaeological evidence and oral traditions to reveal how prehistoric humans perceived the skies and celestial phenomena.

  19. A Guide to Post-Classical Works of Art, Literature, and Music Based on Myths of the Greeks and Romans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron

    The approximately 650 works listed in this guide have as their focus the myths of the Greeks and Romans. Titles were chosen as being (1) interesting treatments of the subject matter, (2) representative of a variety of types, styles, and time periods, and (3) available in some way. Entries are listed in one of four categories--art, literature,…

  20. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K; Pavlides, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki

    2016-01-01

    Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services.

  1. Space on the move: the travel of narratology to Ancient Greek lyric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heirman, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I to investigate the possibility of applying narratology (primarily with regard to ‘space’) to ancient Greek lyric poetry (7th-5th C. B.C.). Narratology has initially been developed for the analysis of modern novels and has only recently been applied to other fields, for instance to

  2. Symbolic 'Lived Spaces' in Ancient Greek Lyric and the Heterotopia of the Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heirman, J.; Heirman, J.; Klooster, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the presentation of space in ancient Greek lyric poetry of the seventh through the fifth century BCE and its ideological function in the cultural-historical context. This poetry, by authors including Sappho, Solon and Pindar, comes after the Homeric epics about Troy and Odysseus

  3. Greek Tragedy and Ancient Healing: Poems as Theater and Asclepian Temple in Miniature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Explores the healing processes at work in poetry therapy by examining two healing traditions that were contemporary in Athens of the fifth century B.C.: the tragic drama and the Asclepian healing procedure. Suggests that poetry therapy unites the powerful healing forces inherent in these ancient Greek practices, which accounts for some of its…

  4. Ritualizing the Use of Coins in Ancient Greek Sanctuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The article explores aspects of the monetization of the Greek sanctuaries, more specifically how space was created to accommodate coins as objects and their use within the sacred sphere. Except in a limited number of cases, our understanding is still quite fragmented. Where most research has...

  5. Sailors and sanctuaries of the ancient Greek world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Johnston

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The many small maritime sanctuaries where Greek sailors left offerings to the gods are much less well known than such great cult centres as Delphi and Olympia on the mainland. UCL archaeologists have been contributing to the study of these widely scattered but significant sites for over a century, a tradition that continues today.

  6. Ritualizing the Use of Coins in Ancient Greek Sanctuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The article explores aspects of the monetization of the Greek sanctuaries, more specifically how space was created to accommodate coins as objects and their use within the sacred sphere. Except in a limited number of cases, our understanding is still quite fragmented. Where most research has...... of coins and in extension to develop an understanding of the possible changes in human behavior in the sanctuaries based on this evidence....

  7. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  8. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerden, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or

  9. Teaching Ancient Greek History in Greek Compulsory Education: Textual and Ideological Continuities and Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Konstantina

    2017-01-01

    The reality of Greek education presents a dissension in relation to the global trends regarding the existence and use of a single textbook per school subject. This reality also influences the orientation of education research. Thus, the international trend to study how textbooks affect the uptake of knowledge by the student, which is followed by…

  10. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived "a" Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.

  12. Eloquent Alogia: Animal Narrators in Ancient Greek Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical Greek literature presents a variety of speaking animals. These are not, of course, the actual voices of animals but human projections. In a culture that aligns verbal mastery with social standing, verbal animals present a conundrum that speaks to an anxiety about human communication. I argue that the earliest examples of speaking animals, in Homer, Hesiod and Archilochus, show a fundamental connection with Golden Age tales. Later authors, such as Plutarch and Lucian, look back on such cases from a perspective that does not easily accept notions of divine causation that would permit such fanciful modes of communication. I argue that Plutarch uses a talking pig to challenge philosophical categories, and that Lucian transforms a sham-philosopher of a talking-cock to undermine the very pretense of philosophical virtue.

  13. Tracing the roots of European bioethics back to the Ancient Greek philosophersphysicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kalokairinou, Eleni M.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...

  14. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  15. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H

    2010-09-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology.

  16. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  18. Comments on three-dimensional modeling in ancient greek and roman architecture: Herodotus, Aristotle and Vitruvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rozestraten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Herodotus' and Aristotle's text's extracts refered on specific bibliography as proofs of the use of architectural scale models in greek ancient architect's design process. This review of the original texts reveals mistaken traductions over whom insustainable historical perspectives have been built. The historical documents review extends to the roman world and analizes Vitruvius' text's extracts. This study aims, by relating textual documents and objects gattered by archaeology, to build new interpretations on the subject of representation and design process in Antiquity.

  19. A comparison of Ancient Greek and Roman Sports Diets with Modern Day Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian; Bartels, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    potential. In reality, nothing has changed between the ancient and modern athletes. To be optimal, a sports diet should be nutritionally balanced, whilst accommodating the genetic and environmental requirements, the gender and age needs, the demands of the sports discipline, as well as addressing any......With the preparations for the Olympics 2016 in Rio came a series of demands to the sports world in terms of attaining optimal physical performance for the many disciplines represented at today’s Olympics. In the light of this, we have focused on the dietary and physiological requirements...... of a modern Olympic athlete and contrast these with those of ancient Greek and Roman athletes. Our particular emphasis has been on the source of nutrients, historical dietary trends, and the search for the optimal sports diet, that is to say a diet that will ensure the attainment of an athlete’s full...

  20. On the Contribution of Slovenian Linguistics to the History of the Ancient Greek Perfect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An important contribution to the history of the Ancient Greek perfect is the study of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec, The Disappearance of the Perfect in Late Greek (La disparition du parfait dans le grec de la basse époque. In terms of theory and content, her study continues the work of Pierre Chantraine, but somewhat diverges from her predecessor’s views on the issue of the merger between the aorist and the perfect, identifying examples of the use of the perfect even in an – according to Pierre Chantraine – relatively late period.  Some years after the publication of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec’s book, the question of when the aorist and the perfect may have merged was raised again, to be addressed by McKay in a number of articles. Today, the views on the subject are strongly divided.   As argued by the author of this paper, one of the setbacks in examining the merger between the aorist and the perfect concerns the methodology, since researchers have tended to rely exclusively on their sense of language. A possible new approach is offered in the framework of the Slovenian theory of Natural Syntax, which has from the start paid considerable attention to English sentences of the I believe her to be intelligent type. The paper describes similar sentences in New Testament Greek, terming them “sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type”. In New Testament Greek, they display a tendency to use the present infinitive of stative verbs; relatively frequent is also the perfect infinitive (of non-stative verbs, while, as already noted in other studies, these sentences – at least in New Testament Greek – avoid the aorist infinitive. Such sentences thus bear witness to the fact that the aorist and the perfect were not fully interchangeable in New Testament Greek; the status of the aorist and perfect infinitives in sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type should also be taken into

  1. How angry was the ancient Greek god Poseidon in 141/142 A.D.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2017-04-01

    Poseidon, also known as "God of Sea" or "Earth-Shaker", was one of the Olympian's Gods in the Greek mythology. It was a common belief that Poseidon shows his rage by tsunamis and earthquakes. So, the how angry Poseidon in 141/142 A.D.? According to the historical records, the whole area including Lycian cities and Rhodes was affected by a destructive earthquake and a following tsunami in 141/142. After these events the emperor of Greeks made donations to the Lycian cities and Rhodes for their recovery with relative to the damage and importance of the city. 141/142 earthquake had a considerable amount of damage on 28 ancient cities. With respect to the historical catalogues, this earthquake had at least 9-10 intensity and caused a tsunami in Rhodes and harbour of the ancient city of Patara. In this study, we try to restrict the magnitude of the event by using PGA (peak ground acceleration), MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity), tsunami modelling and amount of aids. Our preliminary results suggest that this event has to be bigger or equal magnitude 8.

  2. Sirius in Ancient Greek and Roman Literature: From the Orphic Argonautics to the Astronomical Tables of Georgios Chrysococca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Peter Z.

    2011-11-01

    The brightest star of the night sky, is Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). Due to its intense brightness, Sirius had one of the dominant positions in ancient mythology, legends and traditions. In this paper the references of the many ancient classical Greek and Roman authors and poets who wrote about Sirius are examined, and the problem of its 'red' color reported in some of these references is discussed.

  3. Empathy as a Tool for Historical Understanding: An Evaluative Approach of the Ancient Greek Primary History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarakou, Elisabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the ancient Greek history curriculum and the corresponding textbook as they are implemented in the fourth grade of primary school in an aim to determine whether and to what extent empathy is recognized as a fundamental tool for historical understanding. A close examination of the curriculum revealed that empathy is not…

  4. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  5. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  6. Colchicum genus in the writings of ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Papaioannou, Theodoros; Panayiotakopoulos, George; Saridaki, Zenia; Vrachatis, Dimitrios A; Karamanou, Marianna

    2018-01-14

    The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen. Our article discusses them, while at the same time presents the most notable authorities who have used Colchicum plants in herbal medicine and toxicology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Mapping the Words: Experimental visualizations of translation structures between Ancient Greek and Classical Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Roeder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with presentation forms of linguistic transformation processes from ancient Greek sources that were translated into classical Arabic from the 9th to 11th century AD. Various examples demonstrate how visualizations support the interpretation of corpus structures, lexical differentiation, grammatical transformation and translation processes for single lexemes in the database project Glossarium Graeco-Arabicum. The database contains about 100,000 manually collected word pairs (still growing from 76 texts and their translations. The article discusses how the project utilizes Sankey diagrams, tree maps, balloon charts, data grids and classical coordinate systems to point out specific aspects of the data. Visualizations not only help beginners to understand the corpus structure, they also help editors and specialized users to identify specific phenomena. A well-documented interface design is crucial both for usability and interpretative work.

  8. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The art of providing resuscitation in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Samonis, George

    2014-12-01

    We reviewed Greek mythology to accumulate tales of resuscitation and we explored whether these tales could be viewed as indirect evidence that ancient Greeks considered resuscitation strategies similar to those currently used. Three compendia of Greek mythology: The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, The Greek Myths by Robert Graves, and Greek Mythology by Ioannis Kakridis were used to find potentially relevant narratives. Thirteen myths that may suggest resuscitation (including 1 case of autoresuscitation) were identified. Methods to attempt mythological resuscitation included use of hands (which may correlate with basic life support procedures), a kiss on the mouth (similar to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), application of burning torches (which might recall contemporary use of external defibrillators), and administration of drugs (a possible analogy to advanced life support procedures). A careful assessment of relevant myths demonstrated that interpretations other than medical might be more credible. Although several narratives of Greek mythology might suggest modern resuscitation techniques, they do not clearly indicate that ancient Greeks presaged scientific methods of resuscitation. Nevertheless, these elegant tales reflect humankind's optimism that a dying human might be restored to life if the appropriate procedures were implemented. Without this optimism, scientific improvement in the field of resuscitation might not have been achieved.

  10. Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frog

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Myth has become a fundamental frame of reference for Western thinking. This paper explores the term and category “myth” from the perspective of folklore studies, with concern for the use of myth as a tool in research. The ways in which myth has been used in both academic and popular discourses are discussed. These are viewed in a historical perspective against the backdrop of the origins of the modern term. Attention is given to how historical patterns of use have encoded “myth” with evaluative stance-taking, building an opposition of “us” versus “them” into myth as something “other people” have, in contrast to us, who know better. Discussion then turns to approaching myth as a type of story. The consequences of such a definition are explored in terms of what it does or does not include; the question of whether, as has often been supposed, myth is a text-type genre, is also considered. Discussion advances to aesthetic evaluation at the root of modern discussions of myth and how this background informs the inclination to identify myth as a type of story on the one hand while inhibiting the extension of the concept to, for example, historical events or theories about the world or its origins, on the other. Approaching myth as a type of modeling system is briefly reviewed—an approach that can be coupled to viewing myth as a type of story. Finally, discussion turns to the more recent trend of approaching mythology through mythic discourse, and the consequences as well as the benefits of such an approach for understanding myth in society or religion. There are many different ways to define myth. The present article explores how different approaches are linked to one another and have been shaped over time, how our definition of myth and the way we frame the concept shape our thinking, and can, in remarkably subtle ways, inhibit the reflexive application of the concept as a tool to better understand ourselves.

  11. Validation of the Greek Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression (AMMSA Scale: Examining Its Relationships with Sexist and Conservative Political Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hantzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.

  12. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947 is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979 and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003. Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Renaissance poetry and music (Petrarch, Caccini, Monteverdi; 2. modality, which has proved its vitality through long periods of the history of European music, beginning with ancient Greek modes, reaching its high point in the 16th century, and re-emerging at the beginning of the 20th century in different hybrid forms. Trajković is seen as a composer who has shaped his creative identity by exploring the rich musical heritage of the Latin European nations, especially the contributions of Debussy and Ravel.

  13. Ancient Greek Legend in Modern Japanese Literature: “Run, Melos!” by Dazai Osamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lija GANTAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dazai Osamu (1909-1948, a modern Japanese writer, wrote “Run, Melos!” in 1940. The short story is a rework of an Ancient Greek legend of Damon and Pythias from the 4th century B.C., which was introduced to Dazai through Schiller’s version of the legend, “The Hostage”. The legend, based on a true event, represents the perfect friendship and was reworked a number of times by different antique writers. After having been forgotten for a while, it reappeared in the Middle Ages as a fictional story and has gotten many new adaptations from then on. One of them was Schiller’s ballad in 1798, which – alongside an anecdote from Dazai’s own life – represented the basis for Dazai’s story. Even though “Run, Melos!” is not an autobiographical work, Dazai managed to pass his own feelings onto the characters, add some biblical elements, and included a never-before-employed dark twist in the story, thus making his version more realistic than the preceding ones. Despite the distance in time and place between him and the legend, with “Run, Melos!”, Dazai managed to retell a Western literature story, making it a part of the Japanese literature as well, adding motifs and themes influenced by his own life, time, and place.

  14. ACCURATE 3D SCANNING OF DAMAGED ANCIENT GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FOR REVEALING WEATHERED LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Papadaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and ”hidden” letters.

  15. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  16. Analysis of the dative in impersonal constructions: the concepts of subject and semi-subject in ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Conti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Impersonal constructions holding a complement both in dative and genitive are attested in Greek with a few verbs, which share the property of expressing the interests or the needs of human beings. These constructions, which occur in several ancient Indo- European languages, are documented in the post- Homeric period in the case of Greek. In the opposite, personal constructions, which appear more recently in other languages, are already documented in Greek since Homer’s times. The dative in the impersonal construction refers to human entities, codes the Experiencer and it is also the topic. These properties, which are close to those of the prototypical subject, seem to allow the dative to show some subject-like syntactic behaviour. In fact, we will argue that the dative in the impersonal construction behaves as a semi-subject, i. e. a verbal complement which, regardless of its coding, does have a set of properties that are typically associated with the subject in Greek. As well as the complement in dative, the complement in genitive in the impersonal construction exhibits a syntactic behaviour similar to the subject. However, the genitive does not follow the same patterns the dative does in the impersonal construction.

  17. The Ancient Greek Way of Life and the Consequences of the Dominance of the Appetitive Part of the Soul in Mankind Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiorgo N. Maniatis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the healthy ancient Greek way of life by contrast to the unhealthy way of life of contemporary man, who at the greatest percentage is homo economicus. First, I examine the ancient Greek philosophical perceptions of the soul, with emphasis on the great psychological theory of Plato, aiming to show the healthy way that the ancient Greeks perceived the soul and the homologous ethical way that they lived their life in accordance with its nature in order to live as much eudaimonically as possible. Next, in comparison, I examine the new contemporary man, homo economicus, in whom the appetitive part of the soul dominates, and investigate those catastrophic consequences that this dominance of the inferior part of the human soul have brought in our global era, in sectors such as the economy, education and politics, resulting to the decadence of life.

  18. Achilles in the age of steel: Greek Myth in modern popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cavallini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available From the Sixties until today, the presence of Greek Mythology in so-called “popular music” appears to be far more frequent and significant than one could imagine. Nevertheless, at the beginning such references are rather generic, loose and even ironical; on the other side, in the Eighties and afterwards, particularly in the framework of certain music genres, entire concept albums are inspired to the deeds of Achilles and Odysseus, or by the tragic vicissitudes of the house of Atreus. Special attention is dedicated to the character of Achilles, who, as a prototype of the modern “super hero”, is somehow close to the sensibility and the expectations of contemporary youth cultures and their associated media.

  19. Rhetoric Tradition and Democracy: Isocrates’ Role in Ancient Greek Political Idea. Start Point of Western Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Political participation and the public education that have always been deployed to support the incipient progress of the civic life are revived in the modern political discourses. It has been believed that the age of pre-Socrates was the age of the Sophists whose acrid fallacy works occupied the political sphere, a malaise in government. However, speaking non-traditionally in the modern pedagogical system, there were some pre-Socratic thinkers and political philosophers/orators who’s works are the backbone of modern discourse on this matter. It will be examined whether any part of the classical rhetoric apparatus can be recovered and put to a good practice in the modern education and modern political participation. This point will be illustrated, furthermore, in this paper by alleging the importance of rhetoric, its role in Ancient Greek Democracy, and its influence on the modern concepts of power and democracy, as a continual element in a historical-political life. The further consideration is whether there was any democratic Polis existed in Ancient Athens and then, if there was, what characteristics it consisted of. Moreover, whether such concept can or should be considered in modern political discourses. In this sense, the liberal, non-dogmatic strain of the sophistry of Isocrates tradition urges us to indicate that the findings of this educational principles are, if not necessary, but adjutant complementary metes to our modern political knowledge of the states. In the end, it is inquired to see comparatively that how the tradition of rhetorical art and the concept of power in the Ancient Greek society have pertained to the modern democratic elements and whether we are able to empower this influential element in modern states.

  20. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  1. The Beliefs, Myths, and Reality Surrounding the Word Hema (Blood) from Homer to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, John; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema (blood) on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion. The Hellenes (Greeks) especially have always known hema as the well-known red fluid of the human body. Greek scientific considerations about blood date from Homeric times. The ancient Greeks considered hema as synonymous with life. In Greek myths and historical works, one finds the first references to the uninterrupted vascular circulation of blood, the differences between venous and arterial blood, and the bone marrow as the site of blood production. The Greeks also speculated about mechanisms of blood coagulation and the use of blood transfusion to save life. PMID:21490910

  2. The Beliefs, Myths, and Reality Surrounding the Word Hema (Blood from Homer to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meletis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema (blood on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion. The Hellenes (Greeks especially have always known hema as the well-known red fluid of the human body. Greek scientific considerations about blood date from Homeric times. The ancient Greeks considered hema as synonymous with life. In Greek myths and historical works, one finds the first references to the uninterrupted vascular circulation of blood, the differences between venous and arterial blood, and the bone marrow as the site of blood production. The Greeks also speculated about mechanisms of blood coagulation and the use of blood transfusion to save life.

  3. 'Rewrite this ancient end!' Staging transition in post-apartheid South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weyenberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aeschylus based his Oresteia, the only full trilogy of Greek tragedies known to us today, on the ancient myth of the house of Atreus and set it in the aftermath of the Trojan War. Nonetheless, the trilogy arguably held great contemporary relevance when it was first performed at the Dionysia festival

  4. The theory of «basic myth» as a structural method in the study of ancient pagan and Slavic mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Usenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of structural analysis of the Soviet Union was first used philologists, linguists V.V. Ivanov and V.N. Toporov for the study of ancient Russian mythology. It was developed by them in 60-70 years. Then it was tested in the study of Slavic mythology and the ancient Russian paganism. The name of this scientific approach it is the Theory of «basic myth. It has become something of a free zone from Marxist methodology. It was dominated in France. French structural anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss created this method. In Russian historiography there was the influence of the old «mythological» school (A.N Afanas’ev etc.. Thus, the authors of this theory draw huge source material – folklore (fairy tales, myths, legends, proverbs, signs, epic, Vedic hymns etc. «Basic myth» proposed by scientists, was the reconstruction that based on mythological reconstructions. The basis of the reconstruction was the story about struggle between snake and Peru. With this opposition correlate all others: light-dark, top-bottom and others. This «basic myth» has been designed by researchers based on a comparison of the Vedic myth of the fight of Indra with Vritroyu, Baltic mythology and stories about Perkunas and Velnyase. Authors identified the snake-demon Vrytra with Valo and then with Veles (Volos. It was antagonist of Thunder (Perun. The authors of this theory considered that «basic myth» was the basis for the mythology of Indo-European population. The «basic myth» was reflected in East tales of struggle heroes of the dragon – the authors conducted a parallel between Ilya Muromets, Ilya the Prophet and between Perun and Veles and Gorynych-Snake. The author of the article presents the situation historiographical discourse emerged against the background of the existence of the theory of «basic myth», presented by followers’ motivations of and its opponents. The main feature of representatives of structural school is the concentration

  5. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  6. The human skin: a meeting ground for the ideas about macrocosm and microcosm in ancient and Medieval and Greek literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A A; Goudas, P; Diamandopoulos, A H

    2001-12-01

    We have been interested in the cleansing capacity of skin during the recent years. In a paper of ours (1) we presented a few references to Hippocrates' and Galen's ideas on the subject, while the main body of the article was based on the 17th-20th centuries' relative practices. In a second paper (2), we were mainly testing the ancient and Medieval Greek ideas on skin catharsis against some clinical work of ours. In this paper we now present the ideas of the pagan and Byzantine Greek authors (5th cent. BC - 10th cent. AD) on the relationship of the human body to the natural and man-made world. Special emphasis is given to the relationship between purification through the skin and world purification. Based on the similarity of the Empedokles' concept of the four elements and Hippocrates' thesis concerning the four humours, the Earth itself was personified and became a living organism that felt cold, perspired and became dry. Man started to seek a natural explanation for his diseases and alterations of his body functions. Hence, perspiration, fever, urination, headache, stroke, were explained in cosmological terms. Extracts from many medical and non-medical writers, like Empedocles, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, the Fathers of the Church, Meletius latrosophista, Theophilus Protospatharius, Michael Psellus and other sources are presented, in order to show the close relationship between an abundance of diseases and an array of natural phenomena.

  7. Space, myth and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen

    2016-12-01

    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV - New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  8. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.

  9. The Greek medical texts and the sexual ethos of ancient Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuls, E C

    1995-01-01

    After at least a century of institutionalized pederasty Athenian society developed legal and moral sanctions against this practice at the end of the fifth century BC as the indirect result of the introduction of medicine. Viewing the sex drive as a bodily need, analogous to hunger and thirst, it cast a disparaging light on the role played by the passive partner. It is here argued that the principal catalyst of the transformation of biology into prescriptive ethics was Democritus of Abdera, whose preoccupation with medicine is known. Democritus probably influenced Aristotle, who articulated the harshest condemnation of pederasty found in Greek texts.

  10. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Miller

    2017-01-01

    A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)

  11. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  12. Human or superhuman: The concept of hero in ancient Greek religion and/in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god. On the other hand, the hero stands for great and brave warrior who is ready to give his life in order to gain immortal glory, and continue to live in the social sphere, in the memory of his descendants. Exactly this epic narrative survived and was exploited many times, as a very convenient and useful pattern in con strutting the ideal of brave warrior, ready to die for his country when necessary. I am going to requisition the relation between two meanings of the word hero, in order to get deeper insight in the meaning of this twofold term in the social and cultural context in which it appears, as a religious concept or as a narrative in war propaganda.

  13. Looks of Love and Loathing: Cultural Models of Vision and Emotion in Ancient Greek Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Cairns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the intersection of cultural models of emotion, specifically love and envy, with folk and scientific models of vision in Greek antiquity. Though the role of the eyes in the expression of these emotions can intersect with widespread beliefs in vision as a 'haptic', material process, analogous to touch, none the less the emotional concepts resist absorption into a single over-arching theory of the physical effects of seeing and being seen. The specific cultural models of vision ('active', 'passive', and 'interactive' are enlisted in support of cultural models of emotion where they fit, modified where they fit less well, and ignored when they do not fit at all.

  14. The influence of ancient Greek thought on fifteenth century anatomy: Galenic influence and Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Richard Isaiah; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-06-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) can be called one of the earliest contributors to the history of anatomy and, by extension, the study of medicine. He may have even overshadowed Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the so-called founder of human anatomy, if his works had been published within his lifetime. While some of the best illustrations of their time, with our modern knowledge of anatomy, it is clear that many of da Vinci's depictions of human anatomy are inaccurate. However, he also made significant discoveries in anatomy and remarkable predictions of facts he could not yet discover with the technology available to him. Additionally, da Vinci was largely influenced by Greek anatomists, as indicated from his ideas about anatomical structure. In this historical review, we describe da Vinci's history, influences, and discoveries in anatomical research and his depictions and errors with regards to the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and other organs.

  15. Cannibalism in Latin-Greek sources: its references in mythology and ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo F. Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and comment on the greater amount of references regarding the phenomenon of cannibalism that there exists in Greek and Latin literary tradition. After reviewing many of the sources, it is possible to distinguish the different ways in which this tradition approached such phenomenon and to discover a common intention: starting from the mythology or the Homeric epic, going through the different philosophical trends and schools of thought, we will begin to realize and conclude that in many occasions there is a use of the concept of cannibalism to negatively define «the other», the outcast or foreigner, opening thus a topic that still survives nowadays.

  16. From Hades to Hel and from Elysium to Valhǫll : A Comparative Research about Death and Afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society

    OpenAIRE

    Karagianni, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is a comparative research about death and afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society making use of both literary sources such as the Eddas and the Homeric epic poems and archaeological evidence including ship burials, rune stones, grave steles and vase paintings. I start applying the subject of death and afterlife individually on each civilization and for this purpose the two first chapters consist of two parts; the first part deals with beliefs about death and afterlife...

  17. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  18. Greek Gods and Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter Schoon,; Sander Paarlberg,

    2001-01-01

    Many famous en less famous myths and historic events from Greek antiquity painted by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 16th and 17th century. For the first time a broad selection of paintings and prints with subjects from Greek mythology and history are exposed. Famous painters like Rembrandt,

  19. Application of INAA to archaeometry: Provenance determination of ancient Greek and Roman white marble artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.J.; Roos, P.G.; De Paepe, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years a large scale project was set up to develop a method to determine the provenance of ancient sculptures made of white marble. The problem was solved by applying three different methods of analysis to the material: INAA and EAAS for the determination of minor- and trace-elements, mass spectrometry measuring the relative abundance of the stable O- and C-isotopes and finally petrography. It was found that these three methods yield complementary information. The role of INAA is of capital importance since it allows one to determine the concentration of a large number of elements in a single sample. In addition the application of multi-variate statistical analysis was indispensable to extract the useful information from the data set. After the analysis of hundreds of quarry samples and the setting up of a reference data base, the method was applied to the provenance determination of about a hundred Green and Roman sculptures from several museums in Europe and the US

  20. Through the Lens of Sigfried Giedion. Exploring Modernism and the Greek Vernacular in Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Kousidi, Stamatina

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on Sigfried Giedion's initial visit to Greece, in the scope of CIAM IV, this study explores his approach to the myth of the Mediterranean as a germ of Western modernist architecture. Through a closer look at Giedion's photographic and literary lenses, it mainly considers his appreciation of early manifestations of modernity in the extended area of Athens, namely the Villa Fakidis (1932-1933) and Kalisperi Primary School (1931). Their apposition to the ancient and vernacular Greek arc...

  1. The mousiké téchne in Greek Myth. 'Listen' to the Music Through Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Pala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw a synthesis-frame of the musical scenes found on Attic pottery, with particular reference to those representing a mythical subject. A careful selection of the iconographic evidence on the myths of Orpheus, Amphion, Marsyas and Thamyris, suitably integrated with the references from the literary sources, will allow to understand the role played by the mousiké téchne in specific contexts and its effects (prodigious, emotional and psycagogical ones on the audience.

  2. Goethe among the Ancients: Nature and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rubio Garrido

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During his trip to Sicily, a striking triad influenced Goethe. In the first place, a certain mythological predisposition presides over his descriptions. Second, he includes in his narration digressions about geology, geography, and botany. Finally, he dwells on detailed allusions to his artistic experiences, which include principally those related to architecture. As a result, Goethe combined in Sicily the experience of the ancient myth with the intimate conviction that feeling the natural and the Greek, as far as architecture is concerned, joins him to a meaning with validity in his time.

  3. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

  4. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Azarfaza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological change from θεσμός to νόμος reflects a profound change in Athenian political thought. Considering the fact that language mirrors thinking, this change in terminology may reflect a change in Athenian thinking. Hence, through philological analysis, this article aims to expound how ancient Greek political thought altered. Attempting to redefine the unit of Greek political life, πόλις, according to new meaning of the law, this paper is a contribution to the ancient Greek political philosophy.

  5. For the benefit of the Greek “Great Idea ”: the excavations during the Asia Minor campaign (1919 - 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliope Pavli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U pon the landing of t he Greek troops in Smyrna on May 1919 , that inaugura ted a 3 - years military campaign , the Greek Government sent archaeologists to excavate some of the most famous archaeological sites of the western coast , while the Greek Army also participated by gathering artifacts on its way to Ankara . The researches attempted to “ prove ” the “since ever pure ” and “solid” Greekness of Asia Minor by d iminish ing, on the other hand, the role of other ancient people into the creation of the Aegean and Anatolian civilization ; e ven the Islamic monuments were built by Greeks, according to Greek scholars and to the racial classification of people and their abilities. T he Greek campaign hadn’t been simply a matter of historical (misinterpretation ; t he Greek ruling class never hid e that their ultimate goal was the raw materials of Anatolia even if the ethno - historical myths history and the archeological interpretations added a widely accepted gloss in the war . T his paper aims to introduce the predetermined archaeological assessment s in relation to the necessity of the Greek government to become more effective ideologically, especially on realizing that the campaign was no more politically and militarily tenable .

  6. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R. F.; Aronowitz, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20 t h century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  7. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in theX-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Manisha; /Norfolk State U.

    2006-08-24

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation.

  8. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in the X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Manisha; Norfolk State U.

    2006-01-01

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation

  9. The ERATO project and its contribution to our understanding of the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    the acoustics of the open air theatres and compare to the smaller, originally roofed theatres, also called odea (from Greek: Odeion, a hall for song and declamation with music). The method has been to make computer models of the spaces, first as the exist today, and adjust the acoustical data for surface...... of the spaces. The acoustical simulations have given a lot of interesting information about the acoustical qualities, mainly in the Roman theatres, but the earlier Greek theatre has also been studied in one case (Syracusa in Italy). It is found that the Roman open-air theatres had very high clarity of sound......, but the sound strength was quite low. In contrast, the odea had reverberation time like a concert hall, relatively low clarity, and high sound strength. Thus, the acoustical properties reflect the original different purposes of the buildings, the theatre intended mainly for plays (speech) and the Odeon mainly...

  10. Improving the Raster Scanning Methods used with X-ray Fluorescence to See the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes (SULI Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Isabella B.; /Norfolk State U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-04

    X-ray fluorescence is being used to detect the ancient Greek copy of Archimedes work. The copy of Archimedes text was erased with a weak acid and written over to make a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ancient parchment, made of goat skin, has on it some of Archimedes most valuable writings. The ink in the text contains iron which will fluoresce under x-ray radiation. My research project deals with the scanning and imaging process. The palimpsest is put in a stage that moves in a raster format. As the beam hits the parchment, a germanium detector detects the iron atoms and discriminates against other elements. Since the computer scans in both forwards and backwards directions, it is imperative that each row of data lines up exactly on top of the next row. There are several parameters to consider when scanning the parchment. These parameters include: speed, count time, shutter time, x-number of points, and acceleration. Formulas were made to relate these parameters together. During the actual beam time of this project, the scanning was very slow going; it took 30 hours to scan 1/2 of a page. Using the formulas, the scientists doubled distance and speed to scan the parchment faster; however, the grey scaled data was not lined up properly causing the images to look blurred. My project was is to find out why doubling the parameters caused blurred images, and to fix the problem if it is fixable.

  11. Asclepius’ Myths and Healing Narratives: Counter-Intuitive Concepts and Cultural Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Panagiotidou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a bio-cultural approach to the Asclepius cult in order to explore the attractiveness and memorability of the religious ideas, myths, and narratives about the divine healer. The transformation of Asclepius from a mortal doctor to a divine physician is traced in mythical sagas developed in Greek antiquity. The interference of local religious, political and financial interests in the formation of myths are briefly presented. Then, the focus is shifted to the inner features that were embedded in the myths and attracted people’s attention. Following Guthrie’s theory (1992, it is suggested that the anthropomorphic perception of the ancient Greek gods was projected onto Asclepius. Boyer’s theory (1996, 2001 of counter-intuitive concepts of religious ideas is applied to the myths of Asclepius. It is suggested that his actions, rather than the portrayal of his figure and character, are what violated human-intuitive expectations about the world, grabbing the attention of supplicants and becoming conserved in memory. Further, the correlation of intuitive ontological expectations and mundane knowledge acquired through cultural conditioning is examined. The healing inscriptions from the asclepieia seem to support the findings of research conducted by Porubanova-Norquist and her colleagues (2013, 2014, according to which violations of cultural expectations have similar effects in attention and memory processes as the counter-intuitive concepts. It is further suggested that the activity of Asclepius violated cultural expectations shared by people of the ancient Greek world. This activity was particularly salient because it pertained to human experiences of illness and disease, and revealed Asclepius’ willingness to help the sick.

  12. Using Greek Mythology as a Metaphor To Enhance Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carol A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews some uses of myths and stories in counselor education and supervision. Notes that collaborative supervision is especially relevant to the exploration of alternative views of supervisee growth that may be mirrored in myths and stories and in their multiple interpretations. The interpretation of the Greek myth of Psyche is examined as a…

  13. Time and myth: the Argonauts in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez Tarrío

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This papers gives a breif overview of research in its initial phases, which examines, from the perspective of the construction of national identity, the traditional theme of the enduring and timeless nature of Classical myths and in particular the ancient myth, which is the subject of Borges’s sharp irony in his short-story “The immortal”. The reception of the Argonauts myth in Slovenian culture, initiated by the work of Janez Vajkard or Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor (1641–1693, offers a significant case-study, which also highlights the relevance of Humanist and Baroque culture in the critical history of European nationalism. Writing before the emergence in Europe of the Hegelian conception of “Volkgeist”, the polymath writer applied a humanistic approach to patriotic themes, revealing Slovene culture, hybrid from its origins, to the wider world. A characteristic feature of his approach was the fusion of earlier textual tradition with contemporary oral material. Both in Slovenia and in the rest of Europe the comparison of the nineteenth century treatment of material dealing with national identity with its earlier treatment and transmission by humanist writers highlights the importance of the 16th and 17th centuries in the configuration of the different national faces of Europe as well as the significant role of common Greek and Latin roots. As a result, the myth of the Argonauts in Ljubljana, against the backdrop of idealistic or essentialist nationalist faiths, has the not inconsiderable virtue of underscoring the contaminatio that is characteristic of the construction of national identity.

  14. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  15. Greek theories on eugenics.

    OpenAIRE

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works...

  16. MYTHS--LITERATURE CURRICULUM I, STUDENT VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITZHABER, ALBERT

    PRESENTED HERE WAS A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENT USE IN A SEVENTH-GRADE LITERATURE CURRICULUM. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL WAS PRESENTED ON GREEK MYTHS, NORSE MYTHOLOGY, AND AMERICAN INDIAN MYTHOLOGY. STUDY QUESTIONS, SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES, AND A REFERENCE BOOK OF MYTHS WERE PRESENTED. AN ACCOMPANYING GUIDE WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHERS (ED 010 140). (WN)

  17. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  18. Penelope and the feminism. The reinterpretation of a myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Pérez Miranda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We try to analyze the figure of Penelope in Greek mythology, and how she has become one of the mythological prominent figures more reinterpreted throughout the times, with enormous influence in the art and the present culture. rom certain feminist positions it has been wanted to see in Penelope role many characteristics that they would give us a supposition about the existence of a matriarchy, which was previous to the arrival of the patriarchy order. Nevertheless, we considered that the analysis of the sources demonstrate that powerful women such as Penelope, Areté,Yocasta or Níobe, had not the power by themselves, neither they have the character to be considered into the matriarchy parameters. The myth can transform itself to adapt to the new times, and it can serve to redefine the feminine gender and our current culture, but it must lead us neither to misinterpreting in an anachronistic way the past, nor to judging the ancient myths from a set of moral current values Key words: Penelope, Feminism, Classic Tradition, Myth, Gender.

  19. Look and Do Ancient Greece. Teacher's Manual: Primary Program, Greek Art & Architecture [and] Workbook: The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece [and] K-4 Videotape. History through Art and Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Ann Campbell

    This resource, containing a teacher's manual, reproducible student workbook, and a color teaching poster, is designed to accompany a 21-minute videotape program, but may be adapted for independent use. Part 1 of the program, "Greek Architecture," looks at elements of architectural construction as applied to Greek structures, and…

  20. Myths, Mummies and Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Greek mythology, Egyptian mummies, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City are the focus of a one-semester course given at the Sea Girt (New Jersey) Elementary School. It is an interdisciplinary program wherein students (grade 8) study ancient civilizations and do projects related to their studies. (KC)

  1. “The root of all evil”: Frank McGuinness’ Translations of Greek Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Salis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether in political propaganda or in creative the myths of ancient Greece have long attracted scholars, writers and audiences from Ireland. Over the past forty years, a wealth of adaptations of plays by Sophocles and Euripides have been produced, which bring back to life ancient tales of heroes and heroines, in settings at times distinctively local and contemporary, at times deliberately universal. Field Day’s contributions represent a typical instance of the former approach to the classics, while other Irish playwrights have used Greek myths to reflect upon questions that are not exclusively Irish. Their plays may have an Irish echo, and some are even set in Ireland, but their main preoccupation lies beyond geographical borders. Frank McGuinness belongs to this second group of playwrights. To date, he has reworked and staged five Greek plays with great audience and critical acclaim. This paper locates his translations of Sophocles and Euripides within the tradition of classical tragedy use in Ireland at the crossroads between the local and the global and at the search of what he calls ‘the root of all evil’ with special attention to his Oedipus (2008 and Helen (2009.

  2. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty.

  3. Ritual, Myth and Tragedy: Origins of Theatre in Dionysian Rites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Berberovic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the deep, dark forests and in the lush green valleys, worshippers of Dionysus celebrated the eternal cycles of death and rebirth, symbolized in the sacred mask of the wild god. Drunk and intoxicated, wearing the mask of Dionysus, the actor is at once the shaman and the priest. Channeling the presence of the fearsome divinity, he drinks the sacred wine and eats the raw flesh of his prey. In this eternal moment, he becomes one with the god and the beast residing inside of him. Within Ancient Greek culture, the sacred rites of Dionysus have been appropriated and transformed to theatre performances. The shaman became the actor, the participants became the audience, the sacred altar became the stage. From myth as a ritual performance emerged the theatre of tragedy, in which the undying spirit of Dionysus, majestic and terrifying, speaks to us even today.

  4. Divine Love: The Reception of Leda and the Swan Myth in Works by Jewish and Arab Israeli Artists - Contexts and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Sevilla Sadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motif of the abduction of a woman is one of the most frequent in Ancient Greek and Roman art. Abductions in mythology are generally portrayed as carried out by a god disguised as a human or an animal, such as Zeus who, in the form of a bull, golden rain or a swan, seduces a beautiful young maiden. These myths have been interpreted from different viewpoints, such as gender, social, political and philosophical. One of the most frequent myths of abduction is that of Leda and the Swan, which appears in both Greek and Roman painting and sculpture. This theme has found many echoes in contemporary Israeli art, and constitutes the case study for this discussion, which belongs to the field of Classical Reception studies. The interpretations of this myth are diverse, ranging from a socio-gender context, to post-colonialism and its relevance to the local situation; to subversives, concerning tradition versus contemporary culture; to emotionality and romantic suffering; and to love as phantasmagoria. These varied interpretations will be examined in the following analysis in light of both ancient concepts and contemporary outlooks, based on literary and philosophical sources.

  5. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  6. Greek theories on eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  7. Alzheimer's Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home. Myth 3: Only older people can get Alzheimer's Reality: Alzheimer's can strike people in their 30s, ... Myth 7: Silver dental fillings increase risk of Alzheimer's disease Reality: According to the best available scientific ...

  8. Greek paideia and terms of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leon Parada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses three aspects of the conceptual framework for a doctoral dissertation research in process in the field of Mathematics Education, in particular, in the subfield of teaching and learning basic concepts of Probability Theory at the College level. It intends to contrast, sustain and elucidate the central statement that the meanings of some of these basic terms used in Probability Theory were not formally defined by any specific theory but relate to primordial ideas developed in Western culture from Ancient Greek myths. The first aspect deals with the notion of uncertainty, with that Greek thinkers described several archaic gods and goddesses of Destiny, like Parcas and Moiras, often personified in the goddess Tyche—Fortuna for the Romans—, as regarded in Werner Jaeger’s “Paideia”. The second aspect treats the idea of hazard from two different approaches: the first approach deals with hazard, denoted by Plato with the already demythologized term ‘tyche’ from the viewpoint of innate knowledge, as Jaeger points out. The second approach deals with hazard from a perspective that could be called “phenomenological”, from which Aristotle attempted to articulate uncertainty with a discourse based on the hypothesis of causality. The term ‘causal’ was opposed both to ‘casual’ and to ‘spontaneous’ (as used in the expression “spontaneous generation”, attributing uncertainty to ignorance of the future, thus respecting causal flow. The third aspect treated in the paper refers to some definitions and etymologies of some other modern words that have become technical terms in current Probability Theory, confirming the above-mentioned main proposition of this paper.

  9. Connecting the Greeks : Festival networks in the Hellenistic world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, Christina; van Nijf, Onno; Mann, Christian; Remijssen, Sophie; Scharff, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Panhellenic festivals were central to the ancient Greek world since archaic times, with places such as Delphi and Olympia defining the essence of a Greek ‘imagined community’. In the Hellenistic period, several Greek cities began to organize large-scale festivals of their own at their main

  10. Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

    1977-01-01

    This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

  11. Myth and One-Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A striking difference between the folk-narrative genres of legend and folktale is how the human characters respond to supernatural, otherworldly, or uncanny beings such as ghosts, gods, dwarves, giants, trolls, talking animals, witches, and fairies. In legend the human actors respond with fear and awe, whereas in folktale they treat such beings as if they were ordinary and unremarkable. Since folktale humans treat all characters as belonging to a single realm, folklorists have described the world of the folktale as one-dimensional, in contrast to the two-dimensionality of the legend. The present investigation examines dimensionality in the third major genre of folk narrative: myth. Using the Greek and Hebrew myths of primordial paradise as sample narratives, the present essay finds—surprisingly—that the humans in these stories respond to the otherworldly one-dimensionally, as folktale characters do, and suggests an explanation for their behavior that is peculiar to the world of myth.

  12. Genetics and Psychiatry: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Giada; Juli, Rebecca; Juli, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Greek mythology and philosophical speculations were the first human productions on madness and psychiatry. Likewise, the origins of genetics sink their roots in a very remote and difficult time. This work tries to give an idea of the relationship between genetics and psychiatry through the myth and reality.

  13. The Ordinary and the Fabulous: An Introduction to Myths, Legends, and Fairy Tales for Teachers and Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth

    Written for teachers, librarians, students, parents, and other storytellers, this book emphasizes the value and enchantment which children can find in the fabulous stories of four main European traditions--Greek myths and legends, Northern myths and legends, Arthurian Romances, and fairy tales. The four chapters contain (1) discussions of myths,…

  14. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient coins: The case of Greek silver drachmae from the Emporion site in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarch, A.; Queralt, I.

    2010-01-01

    Greek colonizers arrived at the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. and founded a small colony known as Emporion in north-east Spain. By the fifth century B.C., this colony became a small polis with a well-organized administrative structure. In this context, the necessity of coinage was a fact and the first coins were minted. Some of these coins were characterized by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment. The analytical study focused on the elemental characterization of the coins minted from the fourth century to the first century B.C. and their compositional evolution during this period. The investigation has pointed out a very high fineness of the alloys throughout the time, with an average silver content around 98.32%, and the feasibility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a screening tool for the characterization of the alloys.

  15. Through the Lens of Sigfried Giedion. Exploring Modernism and the Greek Vernacular in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousidi, Matina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on Sigfried Giedion's initial visit to Greece, in the scope of CIAM IV, this study explores his approach to the myth of the Mediterranean as a germ of Western modernist architecture. Through a closer look at Giedion's photographic and literary lenses, it mainly considers his appreciation of early manifestations of modernity in the extended area of Athens, namely the Villa Fakidis (1932-1933 and Kalisperi Primary School (1931. Their apposition to the ancient and vernacular Greek architecture generates a dynamic discourse between areas and eras, while serving as a pivotal catalyst for the discussion of contextualization, immutability and identity – areas that are also comprised by the Modern Movement. This article thus discusses Giedion's reflection on a reciprocal relationship between Greece and the Western world, at a time when the former was striving to define its architectural identity.

  16. Diabetes Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Diabetes Myths On behalf of the millions of Americans ... or obese, you will eventually develop type 2 diabetes. Fact: Being overweight is a risk factor for ...

  17. The Myth and Magic of "Star Wars": A Jungian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice

    The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…

  18. Greek and roman calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  19. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  20. USE OF MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING OF OLD GREEK FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav M. Shovkovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to determination of sphere of the use of modern information technologies in the process of teaching the ancient Greek language for students of higher educational establishments. The necessity of the use of electronic dictionaries and internet-resources is grounded during teaching of normative course of grammar of ancient Greek language, ancient Greek textual criticism, and also disciplines of extralinguistic block. An electronic dictionary and internet-resources is able to provide mobility, plenitude of information. Theoretical positions of the article must be fixed in basis of development of site which will have complete information about a culture and way of life of ancient greeks.

  1. The art of alleviating pain in greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türe, Hatice; Türe, Uğur; Göğüş, F Yilmaz; Valavanis, Anton; Yaşargil, M Gazi

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed many of the essential Greek myths to identify the methods used at that time to relieve the pain of both illness and surgery, and we discovered many pioneering methods. Both gods and demigods implemented these methods to ease pain, to conduct surgery, and, on occasion, to kill mythological beings. The myths describe the three most common components of anesthesia: hypnosis, amnesia, and (an)algesia. Drugs and music-aided hypnosis were two of the most common methods use to treat emotional and surgical pain. This article identifies highlights in the development of concepts to treat pain in Greek mythology. The examples found in the Greek myths remind us of the historical significance of pain treatment.

  2. Brave new world: Myth and migration in recent Asian-Australian picture books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Ommundsen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From Exodus to the American Dream, from Terra Nullius to the Yellow Peril to multicultural harmony, migration has provided a rich source of myth throughout human history. It engenders dreams, fears and memories in both migrant and resident populations; giving rise to hope for a new start and a bright future, feelings of exile and alienation, nostalgia for lost homelands, dreams of belonging and entitlement, fears of invasion, dispossession and cultural extinction. It has inspired artists and writers from the time of the Ancient Testament to the contemporary age of globalisation and mass migration and it has exercised the minds of politicians from Greek and Roman times to our era of detention centres and temporary visas. This reading of Asian-Australian picture books will focus on immigrants’ perception of the ‘new worlds’ of America and Australia. The Peasant Prince, a picture-book version of Li Cunxin’s best-selling autobiography Mao’s Last Dancer, sets up tensions between individual ambition and belonging, illustrated by contrasts between the Chinese story ‘The Frog in the Well’ and the Western fairy-tale of Cinderella, to which Li Cunxin’s own trajectory from poor peasant boy in a Chinese village to international ballet star is explicitly related. Shaun Tan’s The Lost Thing and The Arrival trace the journey from alienation to belonging by means of fantasy worlds encompassing both utopic and dystopic visions. By way of a conclusion, the paper considers the nature of myth as evoked and dramatised in these texts, contrasting the idea of myth as eternal truth with Roland Barthes’ insistence that myth is a mechanism which transforms history into nature.

  3. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  4. Klein's archaic Oedipus complex and its possible relationship to the myth of the labyrinth: notes on the origin of courage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotstein, J S

    1997-10-01

    The ancient Greek myth linking the images of the labyrinth and the Minotaur provides an allegory for Melanie Klein's conception of the archaic Oedipus complex as well as a vivid illustration of Winnicott's notions of object usage and the 'subjective object'. The labyrinth is suggestive of mother's body as the first area for an infant's exploration and putative sadistic conquest. The Minotaur, in turn, suggests the infant's unconscious phantasies about the content of mother's body, namely such projective identifications onto that body as the paternal penis and the 'internal babies'. Further, the heroic dynamic personified by Theseus in the myth of the labyrinth metaphorically signifies what is here proposed as a developmental line that involves the courage to do a number of things, including to become, to create, to seek, to explore, to do, to challenge, to undertake risks, to accept, to rescue, to initiate, to think, to know and to realize. The Minotaur can thus be thought to serve as a universal subjective signifier for an 'Object of Challenge', which, if not successfully dealt with by the ego-development of the infant, transforms that default into the 'Object of Nemesis'. Ultimately, this myth of mastery speaks to the psychoanalytic process itself as well as casting light on the transformative aspects of sexual intercourse as a personal healing ritual.

  5. Problem-oriented approach to Ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berstov, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Igor Berestov and Marina Wolf of the Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, discuss various methodological difficulties typical of studies in the history of Ancient Greek philosophy and try to develop their own problem-oriented approach.

  6. Greek Mythology: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to Greek mythology. The authors suggest that the selections be presented by the teacher as lively and imaginative stories; the more abstract aspects of the myths should be largely ignored until students reach the junior high school level. In addition to the myths themselves,…

  7. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  8. Myth Dispelled

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-20

    Dr. Adam Possner, an assistant professor of general internal medicine at George Washington University, reads and discusses his poem, "Myth Dispelled.".  Created: 3/20/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  9. Myth in María Zambrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Díaz del Real

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in Greece that Jose Ortega y Gasset and María Zambrano share is clear and demonstrable even if a reader is only a little familiar with these authors. Less similar is the approach they take to myth as a specific subject in their writings. Unlike Ortega's relative indifference - if one dares think anything could be indifferent to him - Zambrano takes myth as what Duch calls an "in-wording" element by linking it with autobiographical forms of writing, such as her characteristic deliriums. She re-envisions mythical figures in an intimate way, as in her play La tumba de Antígona. This article examines some of the key relationships of Greek myth with the "razón poética" in Zambrano's writing, focusing primarily on El hombre y lo divino (1955.

  10. De héroes, naciones milenarias y guerras fratricidas. Tres mitos fundacionales en tres relatos historiográficos de la nación mexicana About heroes, ancient nations and fratricidal wars: Three foundational myths in three Mexican nation's historiographic stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Linares Londoño

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La interpretación canónica de la independencia de México explica los hechos que van de 1810 a 1821 como la emancipación de la nación mexicana, pueblo milenario que remonta su identidad nacional a los mexicas, habitantes del Valle de México, antes de la llegada de los españoles. Por trescientos años el pueblo fue oprimido bajo el yugo español, y logra su independencia gracias al movimiento nacionalista de sus héroes. Esta interpretación construida por los relatos historiográficos del siglo XIX, está basada en lo que llamaré los mitos fundacionales de la nación: el mito de la nación milenaria, el mito de los héroes y el mito de la pugna irreconciliable entre criollos y españoles. La historiografía decimonónica difundirá estos mitos con la firme intención de legitimar el movimiento independentista y de dotar de un relato homogéneo a la naciente nación.The canonical interpretation of the independence of Mexico explains the facts that go from 1810 to 1821 as the emancipation of the Mexican nation, ancient nation that traced back its national identity to the Mexican people, inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico before the Spanish arrived. Oppressed for three hundred years under Spanish rule, the Mexican nation achieves its independence through nationalist movement of its heroes. This interpretation, built by the nineteenth-century historiographical tales, is based on what we call the nation founding myths: the myth of the ancient nation, the myth of the heroes, and the myth of irreconcilable conflict between Creoles and Spanish people. Nineteenth-century historiography will spread these myths with the firm intention of legitimizing the independence movement and give a consistent story to the emerging nation.

  11. Myth & Bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Recently museums are re-discussing traditional practices, as they became concerned with visitors' experience and learning. In this study communication is found to be mono-directional, especially towards captive audiences, like primary school children. The diachronic perspective seems neglected...... design of a new interactive installation, conducted with 8-10 years old children. Field study and initial evaluation show that introduction of notions related to human life-cycle and myth may further enrich learning from children's perspective....

  12. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  13. HOSIOS. A semantic study of Greek piety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to understand the meaning and usage of the Ancient Greek lexeme hosios and its cognates in the period from Homer until the end of the 5th century B.C. The adjective hosios was an evaluation relating to what humans must do to please the gods; it is often translated as

  14. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  15. New Readings in Greek Mathematics: Sources, Problems, Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Wilbur R.

    1990-01-01

    The field of ancient Greek mathematics is discussed in terms of how representative is the surviving corpus of the ancient achievement in mathematics, the patterns of thought by which they were discovered, and the construction of mathematics during this period. The research being done in this field is described. (KR)

  16. HE GATES OF HORN AND IVORY: A GEOGRAPHICAL MYTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schulte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles proposes a new interpretation of the Homeric myth of the gates of horn and ivory that occurs in Book 19 of the Odyssey. It first argues that horn (the material of the southern gate in neoplatonic commentaries can be found in the sign of Capricornus. More complex is the argument that also ivory (the material of the northern gate in neoplatonic commentaries is derived from astronomical myths: the myths discussed are the myth of Adonis (beginning with the story about the ivory statue carved by Pygmalion, the myths of the Erymanthian, Studia Litterarum. Vol. 1, no 3–4 Jörg Schulte 83 the Calydonian, and the Ephesian boars, the myth of Orion, and the myth of the constellation ursa major. An enquiry into the occurance of ivory in Greek mythology leads to the hypothesis that the constellation ursa major was identified with a boar (with ivory tusks. The hypothesis implies that the gates of horn and ivory were already at the times of Homer understood as an astronomical myth that described the northernmost and southernmost points of the sky.

  17. The Table of Chords and Greek Trigonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Buscherini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigonometry was born due to the need of ancient astronomy to calculate and to predict the movement of the heavenly bodies. However it is hard to know who the founder of this mathematical branch was: it is likely that its origins date back to Hipparchus of Nicaea who compiled the first table of chords, which are the forerunners of the modern trigonometric function “sine”. Nevertheless the most ancient existing work on trigonometry is the Almagest of Ptolemy in which the author describes the mathematical steps that are necessary for the compilation of the table of chords. These steps are based on more ancient theories and for this reason one gets the impression that they could be the result of a preparatory study. This article is not only a brief survey of Greek trigonometry but it also analyzes the Greek numeration system, the sexagesimal fractions and the arithmetical operations which were used in the calculation of the chords.

  18. The Salpinx in Greek Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullög Nordquist

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The salpinx is not often treated by scholars of ancient Greek music, because it was mainly a military instrument. The instrument was usually not used for musical purposes, only for giving signals. In Greece the salpinx is known from the 8th century onwards. The Greek salpinx was an aerophone, usually made of bronze, and consisted of an 80 to 120 cm long, straight, tube with cylindrical bore, and with a conical or more often bell-shaped final, kodon, which could be made of bone. The bone had to be fired in order to get the right acoustic qualities, according to Aristotle. Salpinx is usually translated as "trumpet", but the type of sound generator it may have had has been discussed.

  19. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  20. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  1. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  2. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  3. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  4. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  5. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  6. The nature of water: Greek thought from Homer to Acusilaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, Rosa Maria; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Pollastro, Rosa Maria; Raiola, Ilaria; De Santo, Luca Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Greek philosophy finds its roots in the myth of Homer's and Hesiod's poems and especially in Orphism which introduced the concept of a soul separated from the body with an independent principle, psiche (soul), to be rewarded or punished after death. Orphism was an important step in Greek culture. It introduced the divine into man, the soul which does not die with the body and reincarnates. From Orphism started the need of rituals capable of separating the spirit from the body. From Homer to Acusilaos, water was a very important element which connected humans and gods, long before Thales of Miletus defined it the arche.

  7. Further Mythological Evidence for Ancient Knowledge of Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Stephen R.

    1999-10-01

    I suggest that the variability of Betelgeuse (alpha Orionis) was known in pre-classical Greece, and that this knowldge is reflected in the myths associated with Orion and other figures in Greek mythology. There is corroboration in parallelmyths from other cultures.

  8. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  9. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  10. An Evaluation of the Historical Importance of Fertility and Its Reflection in Ancient Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mahmoodzadeh, Homa; Hosseini, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Myths are reflective of human concerns and needs during ancient times. By reviewing them, it turns out that many human problems today, have a historical background. Among the main themes of ancient mythologies, fertility and reproduction have various representations in ancient civilizations. The purpose of this paper was to review myths and common symbols of fertility and reproduction in ancient civilizations and evaluate the reasons of their continuous importance in different cultures. The data in this review study was obtained by scrutinizing the related literature. The gathered data indicated the multiplicity and variety of fertility symbols in ancient myths. Most ancient fertility symbols were inspired by the nature and some of them like earth and water were common in mythology of different civilizations. Therefore, the symbols consolidate the concept of conformity between human reproductive concerns and the nature's necessities.

  11. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    convey better Serbian nationalist message. Serbian texts were full with myths27 and tales of heroic martyrs who killed or died for Serbia and Kosova...maintaining it support for Albanian integration into the EU, makes maximum efforts to achieve its policy objectives found in the infamous Megali...lands. To satisfy their demands, Greek, and Serbian elites, created infamous platforms and plans against other peoples’ in the region and in

  12. Seven Myths about Beginners' Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Karen; Kirkebæk, Mads Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors have selected seven myths about beginners’ language for discussion, reflection and possible rejection. These are (1) the myth about the necessity of mastering the system before being able to speak the language, (2) the myth about limited capacity on the ‘hard disc’, (3......) the myth about ‘the only thing’ (the method), (4) the myth about “we tried that before”, (5) the myth about “one people and one teaching method, (6) the myth about easy and difficult languages, and (7) the myth about students with no competences and a worthless past. The article suggests language teachers...

  13. The Cost of Living in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Morales Harley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the most relevant economic aspects of Ancient Greece, more specifically, 5th century BC Athens. It explores the Greek notion of economy, the monetary system, the financial administration and the labor market, in order to contextualize the cost of living. The examples on this matter take into account the products’ costs and the people’s wages.

  14. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam and globalizat....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  15. The Oedipus Cycle: Developmental Mythology, Greek Tragedy, and the Sociology of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datan, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    Considers Greek myth of Oedipus and proposes an Oedipus cycle, in contrast to Freud's Oedipus complex, which represents not the unconscious passions of a small boy, but rather the awareness of the life cycle in the larger context of the succession of the generations and their mutual interdependence. (Author/NB)

  16. The Ordinary and the Fabulous: An Introduction to Myths, Legends and Fairy Tales. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth

    Written for teachers, for students who intend to be teachers or librarians, and for storytellers in general, this book interprets the familiar legends and tales (Greek, Scandinavian, German, and Celtic myths and legends; Arthurian romances; the Old Testament; and fairy tales) and describes how they can best be told to children. Parallel accounts…

  17. Shaping space: facial asymmetries in fifth-century Greek sculpture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochscheid, H.; Hamel, R.; Wootton, W.; Russell, B.; Libonati, E.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of optical correction in Classical Greek sculpture has been attested by both ancient authors and modern scholars. Despite the apparent normalcy of optical correction in sculpture, however, there are no obvious reasons for it and how such correction worked in statues is a question

  18. The Imperfect Unbound : A Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Greek Aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.; Bentein, Klaas; Janse, Mark; Soltic, Jorie

    2017-01-01

    In Ancient Greek narrative, the imperfect typically presents the state of affairs as ongoing in order to serve as a temporal framework for the occurrence of one or more other states of affairs. However, in narrative we also find a considerable number of imperfects (especially with verbs of motion

  19. Greek management and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the Greek management context from various perspectives such as the national culture distinctive characteristics (i.e., dominant societal values) and the findings of research conducted on the Greek management context since the early 1980s. The overall conclusion is that Greek management is influenced by both the European/global business environment and the national/local distinctive characteristics and societal values. Based on the existing literature, it was found that unt...

  20. Accounting as Myth Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Rudkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting is not only a technical apparatus, but also manifests a societal dimension. Thispaper proposes that accounting is a protean and complex form of myth making, and as suchforms a cohesive tenet in societies. It is argued that there are intrinsic parallels between thetheoretical attributes of myth and accounting practice, and that these mythicalcharacteristics sustain the existence and acceptance of accounting and its consequences insocieties over time. A theoretical exploration of accounting as a form of myth revealsaccounting as pluralistic and culturally sensitive. Such an analysis challenges theoreticalexplanations of accounting that are presented as a “grand narrative” universalunderstanding of accounting. Manifestations of the attributes of myth are described in thecalculus and artefacts of accounting practice to demonstrate how accounting stories andbeliefs are used as a form of myth by individuals to inform and construe their worldpicture.

  1. The Greek Concept of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point of my paper is the general recognition of the importance of Ancient Greek democracy and Greek political philosophy for modern democracy and for the assessment of political activity today. Here I draw on the studies by Castoriadis and Hansen. With regard to the ancient definitions of the state, Aristotle’s distinctive feature is that he takes into account the topographical and political-administrative aspects, while Plato’s definitions are – predictably –characterised by the notion that a politician is one who administers state affairs on the basis of his knowledge. The discussion of the entry polis in theEtymologicum Magnum is accompanied by a brief survey of the more recent etymological explanations from the perspective of semantics. Language issues are further addressed in the section on synonyms for the polis, such as ἀκρόπολις, ἄστυ, χώρα, ἄνθρωποι, δῆμος, κοινωνία, πατρίς, ἔθνος. Describing the basic characteristics of the concept of the state, the paper begins with the territory or space, which is often merely touched upon in political theory as the latter prefers to concentrate on the functioning of the political system. According to Aristotle, the territory or space is, like the climate, an external condition of the state, but at the same time a basic one, determined by Nature, φύσις, herself. The discussion of the populace from a political perspective dwells on the Greek vocabulary referring to citizens, male and female. Among the characteristics of the Greek concept of the state, particular emphasis is placed on the religious and mythological foundation of its politics, which is evident in the worship of gods/goddesses as the tutelary deities of cities (such as Zeus, Athena, Hera, Apollo, etc., with their temples, in the cult of the hearth goddess Hestia, and in the Tholos as the Prytaneum building. A further essential quality of the ancient Greek

  2. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  3. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... our Union. Through two World Wars and a long Cold War, America and Greece stood as allies in the... United States of America A Proclamation Two hundred and thirty-six years ago, a new American Nation was... ancient Hellas, where Greeks brought forth the world's first democracy and kindled a philosophical...

  4. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field.......The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were...... obtained. As a result of various methodological developments, including the introduction of high-throughput sequencing techniques, the total number of ancient mitogenome sequences has increased rapidly over the past few years. In this review, we present a brief history of ancient mitogenomics and describe...

  5. Sobre verdad y falsedad en el mito griego: Pistas desde la filosofía para concebir un modo de verdad presente en el mito On truth and falsity in greek myth: Philosophical suggestions to conceive a sort of truth present in myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Madrid Meneses

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El discurso filosófico, a lo largo de su historia y específicamente para referirse a sus comienzos, se ha puesto en relación al discurso mítico en términos de ruptura, liberación o superación. Con ello, se han sentado las bases para atribuir el carácter de falsedad de este último. Dicho carácter ha sido mantenido y es utilizado de manera cotidiana en el plano coloquial y académico investigativo. Así, nuestro trabajo, en primer lugar, pondrá de manifiesto esta relación de oposición entre discurso mítico y discurso filosófico. En segundo lugar, se dará a la tarea de exponer de la mano de los planteamientos de Hans-Georg Gadamer, cómo fue que el discurso mítico adquirió el carácter de falsedad a lo largo de la historia, puesto que en los griegos no lo tendría. Y, finalmente, con Nietzsche consideramos que el modo de verdad de la ciencia, por el cual medimos el discurso mítico, está lejos de ser el único y el más asertivo. Con ello, pensamos, se abre la posibilidad de considerar cierto modo de verdad presente en el discurso mítico.The philosophical discourse, throughout its history, and specifically to refer to its beginnings, has become legendary in relation to the discourse in terms of rupture, release or improvement. This has provided the basis for attributing a false nature to the latter. This characteristic has been maintained and is used on a daily basis at the conversational and academic research. Thus, firstly our work will highlight this relationship of opposition between mythic and philosophical discourse. Secondly, it will show, following the approaches of Hans-Georg Gadamer, how mythical discourse acquired this false characteristic throughout history, as the Greeks would not have it. And lastly, with Nietzsche we believe that the true mode of science, by which we measure the mythical discourse, is far from being the only and most assertive one. This, we think, opens the possibility of considering some sort of

  6. ‘PERCY JACKSON AND THE OLYMPIANS’: MYTH, LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolyna Ribeiro Cardoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Myths are primordial ancient stories and they always transform people’s lives, but they have even a stronger effect in children and teenagers. This essay main objective is to establish analogies between the myth of Perseus and two of its updated versions: the young adult novel Percy Jackson and the Olympians by Rick Riordan and its homonym film version, using the theoretical concepts from Eliade, Campbell and Meletínski.

  7. ‘PERCY JACKSON AND THE OLYMPIANS’: MYTH, LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Carolyna Ribeiro Cardoso; Sueli Maria de Regino

    2016-01-01

    Myths are primordial ancient stories and they always transform people’s lives, but they have even a stronger effect in children and teenagers. This essay main objective is to establish analogies between the myth of Perseus and two of its updated versions: the young adult novel Percy Jackson and the Olympians by Rick Riordan and its homonym film version, using the theoretical concepts from Eliade, Campbell and Meletínski.

  8. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  9. Ancient Resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The investigation of the resistome of ancient bacteria is a recent and emerging field of research, and technological advancements such as next-generation sequencing will further contribute to its growth. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this research will help us to better understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes and will also be used in drug design as a proactive measure against antibiotic resistance.

  10. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  11. Freedom from nuclear energy myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonsik

    2001-09-01

    This book generalizes the history of nuclear energy with lots of myths. The contents of this book are a fundamental problem of nuclear power generation, the myth that nuclear energy is infinite energy, the myth that nuclear energy overcomes the crisis of oil, the myth that nuclear energy is cheap, safe and clean, the myth that nuclear fuel can be recycled, the myth that nuclear technology is superior and the future and present of nuclear energy problem related radiation waste and surplus of plutonium.

  12. [The myth of the good savage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampey, N

    1994-09-01

    The conquest of the New World gave way to the myth of the Good Savage. For the Renaissance intellectuals, the ancient ideas about the Golden Age (an ideal society promising an unending bliss) seemed to be brought back to life at last. Sharply contrasting with the European exacerbated unrest of the time, America stood for a redeeming hope, a symbol of a better future. The myth of the Good Savage assumes people to be naturally good, but civilization has led them into the realm of violence, hatred, and cruelty. Besides being naturally good, nice-minded people, "good savages" were also useful, obedient people, most likely to be easily exploited by Europeans--a source for the historical drama to come. On the verge of freeing itself from the Spanish rule, Latin America--fighting its way toward independence, had three enlightened mentors: Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. There, again, another deep contrast arose between the abstract characteristics of Latin American aims to perfection, and people's actual behaviors. The former "good savage" became the modern "Latin American" embodying an utopia as well as a hope in his eagerness for setting up a plural, and humanized culture. The myth of the Good Savage represents a deep longing for an objectivation of the ego-ideal: it has been used, so to speak, in collective mobilizations as well as dogmatic crystallizations, to escape from ignominous realities or to project alternatives for a better socially-shared life.

  13. Archaeology and Developmental Psychology: A Brief Survey of Ancient Athenian Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Maria; Sommer, Dion

    2017-01-01

    The authors note that ancient Athens, in important ways, connected children, toys, and play. But they also find the scholarship of toys sparse and scattered. They discuss obstacles that can skew our modern view of the Greek mind, and they caution that modern eyes should not see play where the Greeks saw ritual and religious devotion. With these…

  14. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  15. Silver sources of archaic Greek coinage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, W.; Mueller, O.; Wagner, G.A.; Gale, N.H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report on new chemical and lead isotopic results and interpretations of archaic Greek silver coins from the Asyut hoard which was buried around 475 B.C. Aeginetan coins were of central interest in this study. Possible ancient silver mines were explored in the Aegean region in the course of several geologic expeditions, and chemically and isotopically investigated. Some of the silver sources in Greece were traced by combination of the analytical methods and questions of provenance were solved. In addition, processes of silver smelting and refining were studied. Results and implications of this work are summarized in the final section on Conclusions. (orig.) [de

  16. Andronikos I Komnenos: A Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. MAGOULIAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Annals of Niketas Choniates depict Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185 in certain aspects of his lifestyle as a mirror image of his first cousin, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180. The life and death of Andronikos I Komnenos provide us with a window into the aesthetic, moral, intellectual, religious, economic and emotional world of Byzantine society in the 12th century. It was thanks to the Byzantine empire that the ancient texts were preserved and transmitted. Ancient Greek culture and reason, in particular, continued to inform Christian values while, at the same time, both could be in radical conflict. The tragic reign of Andronikos as presented by Niketas Choniates conforms to Aristotle's principles of classical drama, but there is a fundamental disagreement between the author of the Poetics and the historian as to what constitutes tragedy, which underlines this conflict.

  17. The Handicapped Worker: Seven Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rick A.; Caudill, Donald W.

    1987-01-01

    Refutes seven myths that keep employers from welcoming disabled persons into the workplace. Myths include higher turnover, lower productivity, greater safety risk, higher cost, more demanding, embarrassment, and incompatibility. Makes recommendations for managers. (CH)

  18. Greek architecture now

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete

    2006-01-01

    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas.......With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  19. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  20. Renaissance Science and Literature: Benedetti, Ovid and the Transformations of Phaeton's Myth after Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodeo, Pietro Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at showing the close ties between Renaissance literature and science as emerge from the use and the transformation, in a post-Copernican context, of the myth of Phaeton--according to Greek mythology: the boy who tried to conduct the chariot of the Sun and died in this attempt. G.B. Benedetti's analysis and criticism of…

  1. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  2. More on the Greek fable and its origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Adrados

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some years have passed since the publication of Adrados’ book History of the Graeco-Latin Fable, it is convenient to add some novelties. First of all, a mention must be added to books by Jedrkiewicz, van Dijk and also by Adrados. Then, a reference is needed also to Sumerian, Acadian and Egyptian fables which have left some motives in the greek Fable. In particular, are important some myths related to the creation of men and animals: their original nature must be preserved, if not bad consequences originate. That is the old wisdom of proverbs and fables, nature does nor change. Some omnipresent examples are presented.

  3. Gaze and power. A post-structuralist interpretation on Perseus’ myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya Fernández Guerrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaze hierarchizes, manages and labels reality. Then, according to Foucault, gaze can be understood as a practice of power. This paper is inspired by his theories, and it applies them to one of the most powerful symbolic spheres of Western culture: Greek Myths. Notions such as visibility, invisibility and panopticism bring new light into the story of Perseus and Medusa, and they enable a re-reading of this Myth focused on the different ways of power that emerge from the gaze.

  4. Renaissance Science and Literature: Benedetti, Ovid and the Transformations of Phaeton's Myth after Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodeo, Pietro Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This paper aims at showing the close ties between Renaissance literature and science as emerge from the use and the transformation, in a post-Copernican context, of the myth of Phaeton—according to Greek mythology: the boy who tried to conduct the chariot of the Sun and died in this attempt. G.B. Benedetti's analysis and criticism of Ovid's Metamorphoses, book two, provides an insight into this literary and scientific issue. Astronomical poems and variations of Phaeton's myth by other illustrious Renaissance men—including T. Brahe and King James of Scotland and England—are taken into account, as well.

  5. Reconstruction of the ancient Greeks’ psychological portrait in the Classic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuteinikov A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the dependence of the psychological structure of the living on conditions of people in the appropriate age; considers the dominance of specific character traits and values of the ancient Greeks of the classical period; describes the worldview and mentality of the Greeks in the specified period. The concept of collective responsibility. Paris as a collective image of the ancient Greeks. Respect for labour. The cult of beauty of the naked body. Gradual disclaimer out the offerings. Tolerance of homosexuality. The humane attitude to slaves. Intelligent competitiveness.

  6. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  7. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds), Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still...

  8. Greek mathematical thought and the origin of algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Important study focuses on the revival and assimilation of ancient Greek mathematics in the 13th-16th centuries, via Arabic science, and the 16th-century development of symbolic algebra. This brought about the crucial change in the concept of number that made possible modern science - in which the symbolic ""form"" of a mathematical statement is completely inseparable from its ""content"" of physical meaning. Includes a translation of Vieta's Introduction to the Analytical Art. 1968 edition. Bibliography.

  9. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  10. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  11. Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Karlen

    Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

  12. New Interpretations of the History of Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Achilles

    1977-01-01

    The author critically examines the most significant interpretations and reinterpretations of ancient Greek history of interest to secondary teachers. Discussed are the history of Mycenaeans, Athenians, and Persians, military history, Alexander, and the role of the centuries 800 B.C.-500 B.C. in preparing for classical times. (Author/RM)

  13. Myths of Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    confirms that the theme of exile in the Hebrew Bible should not be viewed as an echo of a single traumatic historical event, but rather as a literary motif that is repeatedly reworked by biblical authors. Myths of Exile challenges the traditional understanding of ‘the Exile’ as a monolithic historical...

  14. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  15. Myth, Metaphors, and Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Judith W.

    In post-medieval times, art became sacrosanct rather than special as it had been regarded in previous cultures. This notion still drives art education and prevents the inclusion of entire cultures in contemporary curricula in art education. The myths that any society lives with, whether religious, political, or economic, are embedded in that…

  16. The Myths of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  17. Men, Myth, and Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue on gender and the media contains the following (1) "Home, Home on the Remote"; (2) "Dads Through the Decades" (Mark Crispin Miller); (3) "The New Man: That's Entertainment!" (John Lehrer); (4) "Singing Men's Songs" (Kerry Skorlich); (5) "Media Myths and Men's Work" (Ian Harris); (6) "Why Are There No Asian Male Anchors?" (Ben…

  18. Between myth and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    with the librarian at FG to get background information and information on pupils’ behavior as experienced by her. The interview data were recorded on tape and transcribed. It was found that the information behaviour of secondary school pupils to a large extent confirm the negative myths of the Google Generation...

  19. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  20. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  1. Geological myths and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  2. Was the myth of Narcissus misinterpreted by Freud? Narcissus, a model for schizoid-histrionic, not narcissistic, personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash

    2006-03-01

    Gods and heroes of Greek myths have been of interest to psychoanalysts, who find them as symbols of human intrapsychic life, evolution, and conflicts. Many of these gods and heroes, like Oedipus, Electra, Eros, and Narcissus, have had their names given to psychological situations, conflicts, and diseases. Freud picked the myth of Narcissus as a symbol of a self-absorbed person whose libido is invested in the ego itself, rather than in other people. The term narcissistic personality disorder, also taken from the myth, describes a self-loving character with grandiose feelings of uniqueness. In this article, I reevaluate the myth of Narcissus and present a different psychoanalytic concept for this story. I view Narcissus as a symbol of a youth who seeks the image of anima or a feminine mental image in interpersonal love relationships, an image that can never be found in the real external world. This misguided quest for an imaginary love object only results in solitude.

  3. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  4. Translation of recipes of gods for the ancient myths of Iraq to the Book of Genesis in the Bible ترجمة صفات الآلهة من أساطير العراق القديم إلى سفر التكوين في التوراة

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soudad Jaafar م. م. علي سداد جعفر

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jew religion had been deeply affected by the idolatrous Babylonian rituals. It had not been aberrant until they had occurred in the times of writing the Old Testament after loosing of the religious tablets in the Babylonian Captivity. That time had been the representative of the initial stages of Jew religion. The oneness of God had remained dominant although these times had witnessed periods of polytheism among many Jews as in the deity of the Calf by the Samaritan during the days of the prophet Moses. The Jew Religion had been a kind of a mixture taken from Babylonian, Egyptian and Canaanite religious rituals. After being captivated, the general tendency of the Jew Religion had been towards materializing, likening and polytheism. This had been apparent in all the historical stages of the Jews. This tendency could be understood as a result of being affected by religious Babylonian thought. The issue of whether the deity is for one god or more had not been so deep in their beliefs since the materialistic and pragmatic method of life had been more important for the Jews. Judaism pays more attention for secular matters than to the matters of faith. The faith in the unseen and metaphysical issues has not been the main focus for this religion since it only focuses on the present materialistic reality. Historically speaking, the social life of the Jews had been drastically affected by the religious teachings taken from the rituals. These rituals had been put by the rabbis who were affected by the polytheistic religious thought. It is well-known fact that most of the ancient world’s myths are but stories about gods, and the main theme of its events is about their attributes and their supernatural deeds. Some of the scholars believe that the myths are a kind of spiritual achievements and the writers of these myths have been gifted persons with deep insights whereas some other scholars believe that the myths are closely connected with the

  5. The uses of myth for scientific education: The case of cosmology and mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, Theodore Cooke

    The questions that cosmology seeks to answer are those same questions about the mysteries of the universe that myths have spoken about since antiquity. The basic desire to understand the origin of the universe is equally fundamental in the earliest astronomical, philosophical, and mythic narratives. This work shows how mythic stories can be used as a tool for educating nontechnical audiences. By means of a re-mythologizing of the relationship between Western science and myth, the shared philosophical legacy of both becomes apparent. This review of the history of science, philosophy, and mythology thereby presents a perspective that is pro-myth and pro-science at the same time. By differentiating the mythic perspective and the scientific perspective, the reality of the non-oppositional intimate relationship one has with the other is clarified. Cosmologists have long known that 96% of the universe is invisible to human sensing apparatus. They call this unseen visible element, the stuff that holds the universe together, "dark matter." Coining the phrase "the speed of dark," this dissertation metaphorically illustrates the power of myth, like the power of dark matter, to inform and direct human inquiry into the origins and destiny of the universe. Myth is imagined psychologically to operate at the speed of dark, faster than the speed of light. The unseen visible aspect of myth is shown as the desire of humans to know the origins of creation and the ultimate destiny of the universe. This work examines the rich legacy inherited by contemporary scientists from ancient mythic philosophical traditions. Traces of Aristotle and Thales are seen clearly in the questions that current cosmologists explore today. The variety of answers to these questions displays the equal influence of myth on ancient inquiry and contemporary scientific theoretical development. By examining what myth does, rather than what myth is, the work weaves together a story of mystery and discovery that is

  6. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  7. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  8. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  9. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness.

  10. Reconsiderations about Greek homosexualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, William Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Focusing his analysis on (mostly Athenian) vase paintings of the sixth- and early fifth-century and on a handful of texts from the late fifth- and early fourth-century (again Athenian), Dover depicted the pederastic relationship of erastes (age 20 to 30) and eromenos (age 12-18) as defined by sexual roles, active and passive, respectively. This dichotomy he connected to other sexual and social phenomena, in which the active/ penetrating role was considered proper for a male adult Athenian citizen, while the passive/penetrated role was denigrated, ridiculed, and even punished. Constructing various social and psychological theories, Foucault and Halperin, along with a host of others, have extended his analysis, but at the core has remained the Dover dogma of sexual-role dichotomization. Penetration has become such a focal point in the scholarship that anything unable to be analyzed in terms of domination is downplayed or ignored. To reduce homosexuality or same-sex behaviors to the purely physical or sexual does an injustice to the complex phenomena of the Greek male experience. From Sparta to Athens to Thebes and beyond, the Greek world incorporated pederasty into their educational systems. Pederasty became a way to lead a boy into manhood and full participation in the polis, which meant not just participation in politics but primarily the ability to benefit the city in a wide range of potential ways. Thus the education, training, and even inspiration provided in the pederastic relationship released creative forces that led to what has been called the Greek 'miracle.' From around 630 BCE we find the institution of Greek pederasty informing the art and literature to a degree yet to be fully appreciated. Moreover, this influence not only extends to the 'higher' realms of culture, but also can be seen stimulating society at all levels, from the military to athletic games, from philosophy to historiography. An understanding of sexual practices-useful, even essential, to

  11. New Measurements of the Azimuthal Alignments of Greek Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.; Boyd, T. W.

    1998-12-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces north-south, are always noted in the handbooks, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations. Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken two field seasons in Greece to make preliminary measurements for a number of temples associated with Athena, Apollo, and Zeus. These temples were chosen for a number of reasons. The structures have to be well enough preserved to allow determination of the orientation of foundations, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues etc. By focusing on these three gods, we may be able to discover patterns in the orientation and placement for specific divinities. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence, such as the work of the Greek travel writer, Pausanias. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our two field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with proposed applications. Research supported by the Denison University Research Foundation.

  12. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  13. Adolescence: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, A

    1995-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological growth between childhood and adulthood. The author is a practicing obstetrician and gynecologist in New Delhi. Over the course of her medical career, she has identified many myths and misconceptions about adolescents and adolescence. With regard to male adolescents, masturbation-related myths may be the most frequently harbored. Male adolescents have a hormone-driven need to have sexual intercourse, frequently. Masturbation is a healthy, no-cost way to relieve sexual tension. There is neither need to pay a prostitute nor fear of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. A young man can masturbate virtually whenever he wants. Despite the guilt and misinformation implanted by adults that masturbation causes weakness, boys masturbate rather frequently. Also contrary to popular myth, the nocturnal emissions which may result in growing boys as a result of sexual excitement during a dream are completely normal and no reason for concern. Further, boys should not worry about penis size, for, when erect, they all work just fine. People grow at different rates. Menstruation starts when 17% of a woman's body weight is fat. The onset of menstruation may therefore start earlier in well-fed girls compared to in girls who are more lean. The frequency and duration of menses are not constant. Menstrual irregularity therefore does not necessarily mean that a young woman is pregnant or that professional medical treatment is required. Breasts, like penises, serve their intended function irrespective of size. The hymen is a membrane at the opening of the vagina. It may have a hole in the center or the side for the escape of menstrual blood. There are myths that an intact hymen is indicative of virginity, the hymen should be intact until marriage, and the first sexual experience should be painful for a woman. The hymen is elastic and even some prostitutes have been found to have intact hymens. The hymen also may tear due to a

  14. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  15. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  16. The Market Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Björkman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Market can be understood as a self-organizing system that is constantly evolving. Like all social institutions, it is governed by principles and rules created by society, not by any universal laws of nature. If it does not work the way we want it to, we have the power and freedom to change its rules. However, prevailing notions about the market are veiled in myth. Many have argued that there is a vast gap between economic models of how the market is assumed to work and how it actually functions, but there is also a gap between the way it now functions and alternative possible ways it could be structured to more effectively promote social welfare and equity. ‘Unveiling the myth’ is therefore necessary to alter its enduring influence on us, for the betterment of humanity. Some have referred to this myth as ‘neoliberalism’, but this is not the emphasis here. The point, rather, is to show that understanding theories and models of the market in terms of the seven myths discussed in this article allows us to change the constitutive rules of the market and radically improve the pre-distribution of social benefits while preserving the dynamic freedom of the market, thus limiting the need for regulating rules.

  17. Prostatitis: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, J C

    1998-03-01

    To explore the myths surrounding the enigmatic syndrome that the urologic community has labeled as prostatitis and to determine the actual realities associated with this disease. A critical evaluation of the syndrome of prostatitis based on examination of the recent world literature, undisputed scientific facts, solid hypotheses, common sense, and the author's personal opinion. The most common myths surrounding the importance, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and treatment of prostatitis are in fact merely myths. Recent research has led to a new awareness of the importance of prostatitis, new insights into its pathogenesis, improved disease classification and symptom assessment, and will ultimately lead to more rational diagnostic and treatment strategies. The introduction of a new more rational classification system, the development and validation of reliable symptom assessment instruments, new funding initiatives by granting agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, and an awakening appeal for intellectual examination of this common prostate disease by academic urologists guarantees that prostatitis will find an important place on the urologic agenda as we enter the next millennium.

  18. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

    1999-08-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.

  19. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  20. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopakis, E. P.; Hellings, P. W.; Velegrakis, G. A.; Kawauchi, H.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is

  1. Intertextuality in Ancient Greek Tragedy: The Case of Euripidean Orestes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Zabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of intertextuality in understanding Euripides’ Orestes, beginning with an overview of intertextuality theories, especially those from the domain of structuralism, i.e. by Julia Kristeva (and Mikhail Bakhtin, Roland Barthes, Michael Riffaterre, and Gérard Genette. The second part of the paper discusses the theoretical implications of intertextuality for classical philology and provides a literature review of intertextuality in Orestes. The concluding part presents three possible objections to Zeitlin’s argument about the intertextuality of Orestes. A discussion of the social context of the tragedy is followed by an account of the structuralists’ understanding of language and rounded off with speculations on the possibility of intertextuality in oral literature.

  2. A neutron diffraction study of ancient Greek ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siouris, I.M.; Walter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron diffraction studies were performed on three 2nd-century BC archaeological pottery fragments from the excavation site of Neos Scopos, Serres, in North Greece. In all the 273 K diagrams quartz and feldspars phase fractions are dominant. Diopside and iron oxide phases were also identifiable. The diopside content is found to decrease with increasing quartz-feldspar compositions. Iron oxides containing minerals were found to be present and the phase compositions reflect upon the coloring of the samples. However, the different content compositions of the phases may suggest different regions of the original clay materials as well as different preparation techniques. The firing temperatures were determined to be in the range of 900-1000 deg. C

  3. Radiocarbon dating of mortars from ancient Greek palaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouridakis, N.; Saliege, J.F.; Person, A.; Filippakis, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with radiocarbon dating of lime mortars which were used as supports for Mycenaean and Minoan paintings. The 14 C dates are, on the whole, compatible with the historical data, and thus show that a large proportion of the Mycenaean surficial coatings can be dated by the radiocarbon method. However, in order to determine the age of the mortars accurately, it is necessary to evaluate the amount of sedimentary carbonate which may have been added to them. It is shown here that the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of lime mortars are significant indicators that such a mixing actually took place. (author)

  4. Radiocarbon dating of mortars from ancient Greek palaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouridakis, N.; Saliege, J.F.; Person, A.; Filippakis, S.E.

    1987-02-01

    The study deals with radiocarbon dating of lime mortars which were used as supports for Mycenaean and Minoan paintings. The /sup 14/C dates are, on the whole, compatible with the historical data, and thus show that a large proportion of the Mycenaean surficial coatings can be dated by the radiocarbon method. However, in order to determine the age of the mortars accurately, it is necessary to evaluate the amount of sedimentary carbonate which may have been added to them. It is shown here that the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of lime mortars are significant indicators that such a mixing actually took place.

  5. Debunking the Myths of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability, which affects reading in as many as one in five people. Many children go without proper interventions because of ineffective teaching strategies, and common myths associated with this disability. The purpose of this study was to test how deeply ingrained some myths might be, and decipher where educators…

  6. Myth, Method and International News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Jack

    Defining myth as a cultural narrative in symbolic form that articulates a world view and offers consensus with that view, this paper uses a brief "New York Times" report on the Soviet shooting down of South Korean airline flight 007 as the basis for comparison of international news and myth. Following a review of the literature on myth…

  7. The problem of defining myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Honko

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available The first thing that one realises in trying to grasp the semantic implications of myth is that myth can cover an extremely wide field. The way in which the term myth is commonly used reveals, too, that the word is loaded with emotional overtones. These overtones creep not only into common parlance but also, somewhat surprisingly, into scientific usage. That myth does, in fact, carry emotional overtones in this way is perhaps most easily seen if we think of terms such as prayer, liturgy, ritual drama, spell: they are all used for different religious genres but would seem to be more neutral than myth. It appears to be difficult for many scholars to discuss myth simply as a form of religious communication, as one genre among other genres. If one differentiates between four levels, namely, form, content, function and context, it is much easier to encounter the varied uses which the concept has acquired in scientific literature. By this it is possible to delimit and yet be flexible at the same time. There is no need to welcome with open arms just any traditions into the fold of myth research: but nor is it necessary to exclude, for example, studies of myth where the context criterion, i.e. a context of ritual, is not fulfilled. The degree of flexibility that can be achieved is dependent on the approach that the scholar has chosen.

  8. The value of ancient architecture for educational program of masters of architectural space design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchepa Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of archaeological sites of ancient Greek colony-towns and medieval fortresses gives a real insight into the interaction of all spheres of human activity in ancient times. Ancient Greek Emporium is a vivid example of the architecture, art, archaeology and urban planning synthesis. Archaeological excavations provide an opportunity to study the artefacts of the ancient world belonging to several fields, such as sculpture, decorative arts, fashion design and household. Studying history of archaeology right on the place of excavation of an ancient city masters can imagine the scale of buildings, streets layout and location of business, administrative and residential buildings. It allows students to form professional way of thinking in a short period in order to gather the material and work on the master thesis.

  9. Myths and Truths from Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…

  10. [The representation of physical pain in art and the Greek escultural group of the Laocoonte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué, M H; Ruival, C; Roqué, C M

    2006-01-01

    It makes reference to the symptoms and signs of external pain and internal man suffering, masterly represented on marble by greek sculptors of Ancient Greece. A demonstration of the importance of literature and sculpture as an humanistic complement for teaching History of Medicine.

  11. My Temple with a Frieze: Learning from the Greeks and Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Both Greeks and Romans placed the building of temples and sanctuaries high on their list of architectural priorities, as these structures were a source of public pride. The temples were built as shrines for the all-important gods and goddesses of the ancient world. The Parthenon is a great example of this. The frieze on the Parthenon shows scenes…

  12. Cyclopia: from Greek antiquity to medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, George C; Tsiamis, Costas B; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie L

    2013-01-01

    Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature.

  13. Maths Meets Myths: Network Investigations of Ancient Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Ralph; Mac Carron, Pádraig

    2016-02-01

    Three years ago, we initiated a programme of research in which ideas and tools from statistical physics and network theory were applied to the field of comparative mythology. The eclecticism of the work, together with the perspectives it delivered, led to widespread media coverage and academic discussion. Here we review some aspects of the project, contextualised with a brief history of the long relationship between science and the humanities. We focus in particular on an Irish epic, summarising some of the outcomes of our quantitative investigation. We also describe the emergence of a new sub-discipline and our hopes for its future.

  14. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  15. Transition of Greek art song from the national school to modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontossi Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the different ways in which two Greek composers, Leonidas Zoras and Jani Christou, viewed modernism. The songs of Zoras are typical example of the gradual withdrawal from the aesthetic framework of the National School which dominated during the first decades of the twentieth century. In contrast, Jani Christou, who spent his childhood in Alexandria and received an exclusively Western-type education, remained untouched by Greek traditional music or the Greek National School. His work was moulded by the ancient Greek philosophical belief in the elation of the listener through the transcendental power of Art. By his Six T. S. Eliot Songs Christou offered some of the best examples of twentieth-century expressionistic vocal music.

  16. Baikal: Myth and Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Baikal is not only one of the greatest lakes of the world. Baikal is a system of myths and images which has been formed for many centuries. The analysis of old maps shows that only 200-300 years ago the existence of Baikal was the subject of wild speculations. Today the image of Baikal is a world brand. However citizens of Irkutsk and other towns located around Baikal can hardly make any profit on it. The reason is the absence of specialists who would be able to work with such a complex and strong image as Baikal.

  17. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  18. Digital Study and Web-based Documentation of the Colour and Gilding on Ancient Marble Artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Siotto, Eliana; Palma, Gianpaolo; Potenziani, Marco; Scopigno, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Greek and Roman marble artworks have been deeply studied from a typological and stylistic point of view, while there is still a limited knowledge on the pigments, dyes, binders and technical expedients used by Roman artists. In a renewed scientific interest towards the ancient polychromy (colour and gilding), a digital methodological and multidisciplinary approach can provide valuable information to better investigate and understand this fundamental aspect and to get a complete sense on Greek...

  19. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  20. Suicide and parasuicide in ancient personal testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1993-01-01

    Attitudes toward suicide have not always been the same as they are today, and understanding the ideas of other cultures and times could enable us to reexamine contemporary conceptions of self-killing. Greek and Roman personal testimonies were examined to investigate the thesis that ancients did not see suicide as caused by psychic or emotional forces. Indeed, though the documents of antiquity give us a closer look into personal motives, they demonstrate that even would-be self-killers themselves wished to regard suicide as a rational act of volition.

  1. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  2. MYTH. OTHERNESS DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. VOȘ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to explain the concept of otherness as a mythical dimension of the man as a creator in the context of contemporary drama. The approach is a hermeneutics one, but the intention is to extend the analysis towards an interdisciplinary approach due to the multiple ways that otherness reveals on the background of the insular space of the theater as interface of cultural and social. We wish to draw attention to the mythical-symbolic elements that catalyzes the relation between drama and its putting on stage . In our point of view the importance of the drama is the revealing the way that a prototype lives in everyone and the myth is a generating center of identities and otherness in a World of correlations. Mythical models are bringing the imaginary and objectivity into a manageable collaboration that resonate a sense of reality in order to make seen the unseen by ritual as a link between myth and culture.

  3. Myths in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M

    2016-11-01

    To clarify misconceptions about the feasibility and risks of peritoneal dialysis that unnecessarily limit peritoneal dialysis uptake or continuation in patients for whom peritoneal dialysis is the preferred dialysis modality. The inappropriate choice of haemodialysis as a result of these misconceptions contributes to low peritoneal dialysis penetrance, increases transfer from peritoneal dialysis to haemodialysis, increases expenditure on haemodialysis and compromises quality of life for these patients. Peritoneal dialysis is an excellent renal replacement modality that is simple, cost-effective and provides comparable clinical outcomes to conventional in-centre haemodialysis. Unfortunately, many patients are deemed unsuitable to start or continue peritoneal dialysis because of false or inaccurate beliefs about peritoneal dialysis. Here, we examine some of these 'myths' and critically review the evidence for and against each of them. We review the feasibility and risk of peritoneal dialysis in patients with prior surgery, ostomies, obesity and mesh hernia repairs. We examine the fear of mediastinitis with peritoneal dialysis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and the belief that the use of hypertonic glucose dialysate causes peritoneal membrane failure. By clarifying common myths about peritoneal dialysis, we hope to reduce overly cautious practices surrounding this therapy.

  4. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  5. Maths meets myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Ralph; Mac Carron, Pádraig

    2016-06-01

    Scholars have long debated whether the Sagas of Icelanders - ancient narratives set in the Viking Age - are fact or fiction. Ralph Kenna and Pádraig Mac Carron analysed the structures of the saga societies to shed light on this question.

  6. The Myth of Danaë in El curioso impertinente: Cervantes, Terence and Titian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A. de Armas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the classical myths that are present in Cervantes’ interpolated tale of El curioso impertinente, the rape of Danaë, has not receive much critical attention.. The many visual images in the cervantine tale recall the use of ekphrasis to portray the myth in Terence’s Eunuch, where the painting is one of the causes of Pánfila’s rape. The cervantine tale evokes the controversy triggered by the ancient play, starting with Saint Augustine and continuing into the Spanish Golden Age, with writers such as Juan de Mariana and Juan de Pineda. This study of Terence’s comedy along with the painting of Danae, sent by Titian to Philip II, serves to the underline the structural and thematic importance of the myth in Cervantes’ tale. Through the story of Danaë, Cervantes enters into the debate on the impact of the visual arts at the time of the Counterreformation.

  7. Ricoeur on myth and demythologising

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Jul 8, 2016 ... smart phone or mobile device .... using the Religionsgeschichtliche definition of myth and applying .... demythologising is only valid in relation to this second .... The sense of being in time remains problematic, more like a.

  8. Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George

    2016-03-01

    Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.

  9. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  10. Open Access Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The first editorial of EKS volume 18 retakes a recurrent theme in this journal: the Open Access, in this case to reflect on some of the myths that are still very ingrained in the scientific community.

  11. Early Greek Typography in Milan: A Historical Note on a New Greek Typeface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallraff, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of Greek typography, focusing on the first book to be entirely printed in Greek in 1476 and the series of new typefaces that resulted. Cites Milan as a center of Greek printing in the early history of Greek typography. Describes a revival of one of these typefaces created under the name of Milan Greek. (PA)

  12. Ten myths about work addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD; Demetrovics, Z; Atroszko, PA

    2018-01-01

    Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods: This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psycho...

  13. Newton’s apple and other myths about science

    CERN Document Server

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...

  14. The Architecture of Physical Culture in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Debevec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interaction between the culture of the body and architectural creativity in Ancient Greece. This interaction is rooted in a concern for personal and group security, the basis of which was physical fitness, as well as in the immersion of Greek reality in religion, which depicted gods and goddesses in perfect human bodies. Together with a developed feeling for the community, these two aspects stimulated the design of a special architecture devoted to physical culture. Baths, gymnasiums, palaestras, stadiums, hippodromes and theatres are original flashes of Greek architectural genius. They are golden ‘vessels’ devoted to the admiration of beauty, agility and the expressive power of the body – virtues which paved the way to a godlike semblance for every Greek.

  15. Mitología grecolatina y rock. El mito de Prometeo en letras de Extremoduro, Tierra Santa y Kutxi Romero & Ja ta Ja / Greek-latin mythology and rock. The myth of Prometheus in lyrics of Extremoduro, Tierra Santa and Kutxi Romero & Ja ta Ja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    http://iesgtballester.juntaextremadura.net/web/profesores/tejuelo/vinculos/articulos/r17/04.pdf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A pesar de la creencia de que las letras de la música rock española actual están llenas de mensajes vacíos y de tópicos repetidos, podemos encontrar grupos y solistas cuyas composiciones se alejan de ese cliché para servir de vehículo de transmisión de cuestiones culturales como pueda ser la mitología clásica. Además, esta transmisión no siempre se queda en la mera anécdota de la cita culturalista, sino que en ocasiones va más allá, haciendo que el mito sirva como elemento de comparación o, incluso, recreándolo.Las siguientes páginas pasarán revista a la aparición del mito de Prometeo en las letras de tres grupos de rock nacional contemporáneos: Extremoduro, Tierra Santa y la colaboración entre el cantante y letrista de Marea, Kutxi Romero, con Ja ta Ja.Abstract: In spite of the belief that the lyrics of current Spanish rock music are full of empty messages and repeated topics, we can find groups and soloist whose compositions move away from that chiclé to serve as a transmission vehicle of cultural questions such as classical mythology. Besides, this transmission is not always just a mere anecdote of the culturalist quote, but on some occasions it goes further, making the myth an element of comparison, or even recreating it.The following pages will review the appearance of the Prometheus myth in the lyrics of three contemporary national rock groups: Extremoduro, Tierra Santa and the collaboration between the singer and composer of Marea, Kutxi Romero, with Ja ta Ja.

  16. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  17. Assessment of the lower ESR dating range in Greek speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiakos, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Pilot ESR dating studies on geologically young calcitic sinters were carried out, aiming at assessment of the lower ESR dating range in characteristic Greek speleoenvironments. Five stalactites were dated, coming from an ancient mining gallery, idle for the last 2,500 years, found on Siphnos island (Aegean). The calculated ages range between 1,7-2,0 ka. Medium to low measured external dose rates (aprox. 900 μGy/a) and very low measured radioelement concentration in samples are very usual in the Mediterranean environments. The study concludes that ESR dating of speleothems younger than two millenia is practically unattainable. Some geoarchaeological implications of the obtained ages are discussed. (author)

  18. Greek marbles: determination of provenance by isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H; Craig, V

    1972-04-28

    A study has been made of carbon-13 and oxygen-18 variations in Greek marbles from the ancient quarry localities of Naxos, Paros, Mount Hymettus, and Mount Pentelikon. Parian, Hymettian, and Pentelic marbles can be clearly distinguished by the isotopic relationships; Naxian marbles fall into two groups characterized by different oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratios. Ten archeological samples were also analyzed; the isotopic data indicate that the "Theseion" is made of Pentelic marble and a block in the Treasury of Siphnos at Delphi is probably Parian marble.

  19. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds, Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still in its infancy, but the papers delivered at a conference held in Frankfurt in 2008, reviewed here, provide a general introduction to the subject and to a wide range of work in progress.

  20. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  1. Liberating Interdisciplinarity from Myth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in information studies suggests that the tradition of seeing the discipline as weak is still alive and kicking. This is a problem because the discourse of the weak discipline creates conceptual confusion in relation to interdisciplinarity. Considering the growth of the iSchools an......Recent research in information studies suggests that the tradition of seeing the discipline as weak is still alive and kicking. This is a problem because the discourse of the weak discipline creates conceptual confusion in relation to interdisciplinarity. Considering the growth of the i......Schools and what is assumed to be a major institutional redrawing of boundaries, there is a pressing need to conceptualize interdisciplinary practices and boundary work. This paper explores the “weak” discipline through a discourse analytical lens and identifies a myth. Perceiving the discipline as weak is part...

  2. Myths About Press Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarle Nordenstreng

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to rectify three popular beliefs related to press freedom: (1 that the idea of a free marketplace of ideas with a self-righting truth belongs to original liberalism, (2 that UNESCO’s primary mission is to promote freedom of information, and (3 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides legal safeguards for the media. These beliefs are shown, on the basis of the legacy of liberalism and documents of the international community, to be misleading myths. Instead of accurate readings of the idea of freedom, they serve as ideological positions which are harmful to democracy. The Millennium Declaration provides further proof that the international community has a much more balanced view of freedom of information than that typically held by media professionals. Therefore it is important to liberate the concept of press freedom from its ideological baggage.

  3. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  4. Malaria, a journey in time: in search of the lost myths and forgotten stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana Maria; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2010-12-01

    The saga of malaria parasites precedes the history of humans. Malaria has always been part of the rising and decline of nations, of wars and of upheavals. People of ancient times attributed the malarial manifestations to supernatural influences. Myths about demons responsible for fevers and efforts to bring them under control were often mentioned in ancient articles and attested archaeologically. More than 4 millennia were required until malaria was finally demystified. From the ancient Chinese Canon of Medicine to Ronald Ross' milestone discovery, the humanity struggled to face one of the most debilitating diseases of mankind. This essay assesses the history of malaria from ancient mysteries until it was demystified. Its sections describe the attempts of humans from different times to understand and defeat malaria through supernatural practices, religious rites and medicine, and also their efforts mirrored in art and literary masterpieces.

  5. Notes on the Presence of the Greek Tragedy in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Romero Rey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancient world and, in particular that of Greek tragedy, is present in Colombia under various masks. This article takes on a journey through the presence of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides in different artistic manifestations. From poetry and narrative, to cinema and the visual arts, ancient tragedy has served as a metaphor to reflect on the situation of extreme violence in this South American country and the ways in which a possible utopia of reconciliation can be built. At the same time, it focuses on the different scenic models, from their praxis on the stage where the “illustrative” versions stand out, to the transformations in the representation conventions or the use of fables as triggers in much more ambitious creative immersions. The following paper in English was the starting point for Encounters with Classical Antiquity in Latin America. A Humanities / Humanity Workshop at Yale University in October 2017, presented by its author.

  6. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  7. Out of that hole: Reflections of the Demetrian myth in six contemporary poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Tatjana P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the most revisited ancient mother-daughter myth, that of Demeter and Persephone, the paper engages with some of Demeter-centered appropriations of the myth in contemporary poetry written by women. Through continual reworkings of the archetypal story about the strongest primary bond between two biologically related females and their forced separation due to male intervention, women poets are increasingly addressing the qualities of Demeter's new-era powers to regain her progeny and restore abundance. While concerned with possibilities of revival and regeneration, contemporary poetic renditions of the mythic framework offer a whole array of plots and images that tend to both perpetuate and challenge original versions of the myth by reassessing the dynamics of mother-daughter disengagement and reunion. The aim of the paper is to examine and juxtapose the strategies of performing the Demeter-Persephone myth in six contemporary Demetrian poems in which their authors extend the mythic space to incorporate other benevolent female characters and their journeys (Fainlight, situate their speakers and Persephones within a national tradition or a familiar setting (Boland, celebrate the birth of a new Persephone (Duffy, embrace the era of contradictions and its impacts on the female body (Ostriker, and fragmenting the myth through the use of various discourses to simulate instant yet profound interplays of deaths and revivals (O'Rourke.

  8. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe. Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  9. Urban Myths about Learning and Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hulshof, Casper

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the most common popular myths relating to learning and education are discussed with respect to whether there is any truth in the myth and what good educational and psychological research has to say about them. Examples of such myths range from: learning styles to neuromyths such as

  10. The Origins of Greek Civilization: From the Bronze Age to the Polis ca. 2500-600 B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmell, Rhoda; And Others

    This document consists of three units in which students study and compare the two civilizations of ancient Greece, that of the Greek kingdoms of the second millennium B.C. and the city states of historical Greece, and learn how historians use archaeological evidence to reconstruct the history of Mycenaean Greece. Suggestions are included for…

  11. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  12. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, V G; Bebbington, P E

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a comparison of the rates of psychiatric disorder from three general population surveys in which the PSE-ID-CATEGO system was used for case-definition. These surveys were of an English sample in Camberwell, London, and of two Greek samples, the first in Athens, the second of Greek Cypriot immigrants living in Camberwell. The results show that the rates of psychiatric disorders in both Greek samples were somewhat higher than those of the Camberwell population, the differences being accounted for by higher rates of anxiety disorders, especially in women. Comparisons in terms of syndrome profiles showed that Greeks reported more symptoms of generalized anxiety than their English counterparts who, in their turn, reported higher rates of obsessive symptoms, and symptoms of social anxiety. The higher rates in the Greek samples were possibly due to an increased frequency of non-specific neurotic symptoms like worrying and tension. The results of other European community surveys with the PSE suggest that there might be a genuine and general North-South difference in the expression of psychological distress. Cultural differences in terms of personality traits and culturally sanctioned child rearing practices might account for the findings.

  13. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  14. Orion in Homer: is it a Terrestrial, an Astral or an Astronomical Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    In Greek literature the subjects that relate to stars and constellations are very complex. Various studies are involved in this field of investigation, such as those of astronomy, astrology, mythology, astral-metereology and philology; the situation becomes even more complicated when we attempt to reconstruct a picture of the knowledge of the stars and the relative degree of consciousness of this matter existent during the Homeric age. In this brief report we shall look at the constellation of Orion. The discussed arguments will point out the sharp differences that exist between terrestrial, astronomical and astral myths.

  15. Pour une anthropologie historique des mythes grecs: Formes poétiques et pragmatique rituelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Calame

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to any fiction in the usual sense of the term, the huge narrative domain now marked off as (Greek ‘mythology’ deserves no charter of semantic independence or of structural(ist closure. Coupled with the perspective of social and cultural anthropology required by the construction of possible worlds depending on cultural representations and by the poetic forms they assume in collective and ritual performances, our reading of (Greek myths requires a pragmatic opening-up: it takes into account the specific ritual situations they are accommodated to, with their aesthetic creativity and their poetic polysemy, in a broader social, religious, and cultural context. This can be demonstrated through the example of a fragmentary cultic poem by Sappho introduced by an address to Hera and staging a particular version of the nostos of the Atreidai.

  16. Structure du mythe The Structure of Myth Estructura del mito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hubner

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette analyse structurale du mythe littéraire s'appuie sur les travaux de Claude Lévi-Strauss et montre la tension productive entre les notions de structure et de mythe littéraire, tension qui devient la source abondante de signifiants polyphoniques.This in-depth analysis of the structural law which shapes the literary myth is based on Claude Lévi-Strauss’s works, and shows that there exists a fruitful tension between the notions of structure and literary myth, a tension which becomes an abundant source of polyphonic meanings.Con la ayuda de los trabajos de C. Lévi-Strauss, G. Durand y J. Rousset, se intenta dar una brillante análisis de la ley estructural del mito literario. La noción de estructura y la de mito literario mantienen entre sí una tensión fecunda, fuente inagotable de la riqueza polifónica de los significados.

  17. Health status and occupational risk factors in Greek small fisheries workers

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fishing is an extremely dangerous occupational activity that predisposes to occupational diseases and accidents. Greece, with about 16,000 km of coastline and its unique morphological characteristics with small islands and peninsulas, represents a strong proof of its great tradition in the fisheries sector since ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine the health status and the health risk factors present in Greek fishery workers, by exploring their working environment, ...

  18. The Greek public debt problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Nikiforos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the issue of the Greek public debt. After providing a historical discussion, we show that the austerity of the last six years has been unsuccessful in stabilizing the debt while, at the same time, it has taken a heavy toll on the economy and society. The recent experience shows that the public debt is unsustainable and therefore a restructuring is needed. An insistence on the current policies is not justifiable either on pragmatic or on moral or any other grounds. The experience of Germany in the early post-WWII period provides some useful hints for the way forward. A solution to the public debt problem is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the solution of the Greek and European crisis. A wider agenda that deals with the malaises of the Greek economy and the structural imbalances of the Eurozone is of vital importance.

  19. Genetic concepts in Greek literature from the eighth to the fourth century B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    1992-03-01

    A review of the concepts of genetics found in epic, historical and dramatic ancient Greek writings from the eighth to the fourth centuries B.C., is presented. The derived data suggest that the development of genetical concepts and ideas started with the praise of the heroes' divine or noble origin in Homer's epic poems (eighth century B.C.). It continued in the tracing of the descent and vicissitudes of the families of the Greek gods and the common ancestry of the Greek tribes as described in Hesiod's genealogical poems (around 700 B.C.), in the statement of descent and dual parenthood of leaders and kings in the books of Herodotus and Xenophon (fifth and fourth centuries B.C.), and in the concern about the lineage of the tragic figures in Greek drama (fifth century B.C.). The genetical concepts expressed in these writings most probably reflected popular notions of that time. They must, therefore, have been the basis of the perceptions and theories on heredity and procreation expressed by the ancient physicians and philosophers in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., which in turn influenced the development of genetics for many centuries.

  20. Antikos tradicijos ir naujos tendencijos Bizantijos rašytinėje kalboje | Traditions of Antiquity and New Tendencies in Written Greek of the Byzantine Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Svarevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Byzantine period, the norms of written Greek were primarily rooted in the ancient Greek literary tradition and not in the native linguistic competence. The article touches upon the questions linked to the role of rhetorical theory and techniques reinforced by the Greek educational system and the Byzantine Atticism. Particular attention is paid to the different written registers – low, middle, and high –, different styles according to genre and period, and the lack of consistency in writing at all levels.

  1. Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...

  2. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  3. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  4. A myth for special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    A 'myth' for the special theory of relativity is presented as a series of questions and explanations of them. For example: Why can't one travel faster than light. The reason is that one can't go slower. There is only one speed. Everything is always moving at the speed of light; even if one is at rest in a chair. This is because one is moving through time. Other questions include; Why do clocks moving through space seem to run slower and slower as they travel faster and faster. If a spacecraft is moving through space at half the speed of light how fast would it be perceived moving through time. Why are there three space dimensions but only one time dimension. Why can movement be forward and backwards in space but only forward in time. Myths must explain what is found in nature and what is logically deduced from the myth must be found in nature. Supposing that the myth of special relativity is true makes calculations easier to do and the world easier to understand. (U.K.)

  5. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  6. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  7. Special Operations - Myths and facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    The brief addresses some of the myths, which have induced an institutional resistance at the political and military decision levels against understanding and considering special operations as a valuable strategic tool in contemporary and future conflict prevention, crisis management, and conflict...

  8. Romanian Post‑Revolution Electoral Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bulai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some of the political and electoral myths of the post-communist transition, myths that have occupied the political agenda and the public debate throughout this period. Myths are seen as simple or complex narratives that have an explanatory and justificatory function in relation to social life, focused on Romanian society’s problems. They define and legitimizes a certain way to solve them and guides the development of society on the basis of some axiomatic principles. The article analyzes such myths, older or more recent, such as the myth of changing the electoral system, the myth of renewing the political class, the myth of the fundamental power of the referendum, the myth of the reform of the state, or of the constitutional amendments. The proposed analysis highlights the negative effects of using myths as instruments of the political and social changing on public policies and more generally on governance, and also the long-term harmful effects of the use of myths in defining political vision and Romania’s governmental development strategies.

  9. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...

  10. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  11. Mathematics: Number Systems around the World [and] Reading/Language Arts: The Little Red Hen [and] Use Book-Making, Art, Research, Word-Processing Skills, and Language Arts Skills to Create Original "Ancient Greek" Myths [and] Electronic Author Studies [and] Science: Inspecting the Wide World of Insects on the Web [and] Social Studies: Civil War Letters [and] Pizarro and the Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Provides seven fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in mathematics, reading and language arts, science, and social studies for elementary and secondary education. Library media skills, objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, evaluation, and follow-up are described for…

  12. AIDS Myths and Myths about AIDS Myths : A Study about AIDS-related Perceptions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sivelä, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have be...

  13. Mything out on sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W.E. [British Columbia Univ., BC (Canada). School of Community and Regional Planning

    2000-12-01

    Two myths are deeply ingrained in our modern psyche, that of unlimited growth and technology efficiency. In that context, it becomes increasingly difficult to define sustainability. The first factor helping us define the meaning of sustainability is that there are no inherent conflicts between continuous economic growth and the environment. The second factor contradicts the first: the economy is a subsystem, fully-contained within a materially closed, non-growing biosphere/ecosphere, or better yet, that the economy is parasitic on nature. In this light, society is prevented from consuming renewable resources faster than their production rate, nor can it use those non-renewable resources faster than technology can find renewable substitutes, and finally cannot produce wastes faster than their assimilation by the biosphere. It is obvious that our society consumes resources faster than they can be produced, as evidenced by deforestation, soil degradation, falling water tables, etc. Wastes production also is faster than assimilation by the biosphere, proved by climate change, smog, air, water, and land pollution, etc. It is widely believed that the knowledge industries contribute to reducing harm to the environment, but this is not true, as the manufacturing of products is shifted to countries with less stringent environmental standards that are poorly enforced. The author emphasized the point that gains from energy efficiency lead to lower prices and higher incomes, as history demonstrated. A number of factors have an impact: (1) savings in energy efficiency might prompt consumers to use more of the goods in question, (2) efficiency-induced savings realized by individuals might lead to alternative forms of consumption which consume more energy, and (3) energy efficiency leads to higher incomes, which prompt increased levels of consumption. A reference was made to a report produced by the World Resources Institute in 1997. The report focused on the economies of Germany

  14. Antické inšpirácie pre hermeneutiku smrti (Ancient Inspirations for Hermeneutics of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper investigates ancient understanding of death. There are three interesting problems in ancient thinking. First one, that Greek word sema means a sign but a tombstone, too. It is related to problem of a human memory (a Greek anamnesis. Second one that death is primarily darkening for ancient people. Thanatos – god of death – appears only as a fragment of goddess Night, his mother. Third one, that a fire (or light is import for life of human being. But a fire has symbolical function and it is related to an eternity. There is a light nearby intelligence in ancient world. Desire of philosophers to immortality refers to desire to an eternal intellectual thinking.

  15. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  16. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  17. Greek Hepatoscopy and its Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2016), s. 139-164 ISSN 0033-4987 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : divination * liver * signs * divinatory treatises * Greek religion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.libraweb.net/articoli.php?chiave=201606401&rivista=64

  18. Jews and Greeks in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Klun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of contacts and cultural exchange between the Jews and the Greeks in early and late antiquity, especially relevant not only for historians and philologists, but also for those interested in Hellenistic philosophy and the origins of Christianity, having its roots into a very complex fusion of Jewish and Greek tradition. Metropolitan city of Alexandria in Ptolemaic Egypt provided a very fruitfull milieu for this kind of cultural contact just from the time the group of seventy-two translators arrived to the city to translate the Hebrew Scripture for the famous library in the time of Ptolemy II (285-247 BCE and his librarian Demetrius of Phalerum. For the genealogy of contacts between two nations that both contributed so much to the Western thought, we may, of course, go back to the history and relevant sources. The City of Jerusalem, for instance, is mentioned for the first time in the old Egyptian Tell el-Amarna correspondence (XIV. century BCE, while the Jews (though often named as the Syrians of Palestine are referred to by many Greek authors (poet Alcaius from Lesbos, Herodotus, Theophrastus, Hecataeus of Abdera, an Egyptian priest in Heliopolis Manetho, Polybius, Menander, and many others. The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh on the other hand, provides an interesting source of records of contacts between the old Israelites and the Greek speaking tribes (from the Ionian isles, Crete, Cyprus etc, back to the reign of king David and king Solomon (X. century BCE, which both allegedly enrolled Greek soldiers and officials in their armies (cf. 2 Samuel 20, 23; 1 Kings 1, 38. The Bible also reports about trade contacts between Palestine and Greek lsles (cf. Ezekiel 27, 7; Joel 4.6, and also about Greek settlers in the 'Holly land' (cf. Deuteronomy 2, 23; Jeremiah 47, 4; Zephaniah 2, 5. The period after Alexander the Great is also very important for relations between Greeks and Jews. When his diadochoi came to Palestine, they

  19. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  20. Le soleil devient un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Lőrinszky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’une phrase énigmatique datant de 1858 et puisée dans la Correspondance de Flaubert, cet article s’interroge sur la relation entre soleil et mythe, qui constituera l’un des éléments clefs de la dimension mythologique de Salammbô. Il se propose d’examiner la façon dont cette question apparaît dans deux ouvrages représentatifs des études mythographiques : d’une part, L’Origine de tous les cultes de Charles-François Dupuis, d’autre part, Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., publié sous les noms de Frédéric Creuzer et de son adaptateur français, Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. La version française de la grande synthèse de Creuzer, assortie d’une série importante de planches, a été richement exploitée par Flaubert au cours de la genèse du roman carthaginois. Dans Salammbô, le mythe apparaît sous de multiples formes. L’analyse de ce texte peut nous amener à réfléchir sur le « bon usage » du mythe auquel chaque créateur (et chaque lecteur se trouve nécessairement confronté.Starting from an enigmatic phrase in Flaubert’s correspondence, dating from 1858, this article examines the relation between the Sun and myth, which constitutes one of the key elements of the mythological dimension of Salammbô. It especially focuses on the treatment of this question in two representative works of mythographic studies, The Origin of All Religious Worship by Charles-François Dupuis, and Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., the French adaptation of Frédéric Creuzer’s Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker by Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. The French version of Creuzer’s great synthesis, supplied with a remarkable set of prints, was abundantly consulted by Flaubert when writing his Carthaginian novel. In Salammbô, myth takes on various forms. Analyzing this text might lead one to reconsider “the right way” to use myths — a problem all writers (and readers find themselves confronted with.

  1. Esoteric Egyptology, Seed Science and the Myth of Mummy Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Mummy wheat’ allegedly grown from seeds found in the tombs or wrappings of Egyptian mummies became a scientific sensation in 1840s Britain. At a time of considerable popular interest in Ancient Egypt, mummy wheat was exhibited at the Royal Institution and the British Archaeological Association, cultivated by aristocracy and royalty, and discussed by Darwin, Faraday and others. However, the first controlled experiments on mummy wheat in the 1840s were unsuccessful, as were studies by the British Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens and other scientific bodies in the 1890s and 1930s. Despite this growing scepticism amongst plant biologists and professional Egyptologists, belief in mummy wheat endured well into the twentieth century. This article traces the myth of mummy wheat in Britain in its intellectual and cultural contexts from its early Victorian emergence through to its mid-twentieth century decline. It focuses in particular efforts by British Museum Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge to debunk the myth by a variety of means, including crowd-sourcing experimental data.

  2. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  3. Ancient Ephesus: Processions as Media of Religious and Secular Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Portefaix

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.

  4. Construction Management--Exploding Some Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluenker, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Construction management on educational facility projects provides boards of education with documentation showing the project is on track. Eight "myths" surrounding construction management are explained. (MLF)

  5. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  6. TECHNIQUES DE MYSTIFICATION DU SACRÉ DANS LA LITTÉRATURE MYTHOLOGISANTE DE LA GRÈCE ANTIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Maria-Luiza Oancea (Dumitru)

    2008-01-01

    This paper entails the sacred mytification motif, a subject hardly debated, but extremely challenging, that we can identify in several myths and episodes of the ancient Greek mythology literature (Thanatos-Sisyphus myth, Sirens-Odysseus or Sirens-Orpheus myth, Polifem-Odysseus myth, Gorgo Medusa-Perseus myth, etc.). Our essay starts from the general thesis that a direct confrontation with the Sacred is essentially impossible, making the Sacred almost always manipulated (cf. R. Caillois, R. Gi...

  7. Traces of the Gods: Ancient Astronauts as a Vision of Our Future

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Ancient astronaut speculation (also called paleo-SETI), often labeled pseudoscience or modern myth, still awaits in-depth research. Focusing on Erich von Däniken and reconstructing his views on god and cosmology from scattered statements throughout his books, this article analyzes his attitudes toward science and religion as well as his concepts of god and creation. In this regard, his pantheistic combination of the big bang theory with a model of god as supercomputer is of special interest. ...

  8. Asthma myths, controversies, and dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-03-01

    Although the symptom complex we call asthma has been well described since antiquity, our understanding of the causes and therapy of asthma has evolved. Even with this evolution in our understanding, there are persistent myths (widely held but false beliefs) and dogma (entrenched beliefs) regarding the causes, classification, and therapy of asthma. It is sobering that some of the knowledge we hold dear today, will become the mythology of tomorrow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Faith healers, myths and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, Harihar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Science and myth have been closely linked and argued upon by philosophers, educationalists, scientists, enthusiasts and the general public. Faith healing, when added as an adjuvant or alternative aid to medical science, will not necessarily be confined to mere arguments and debates but may also give rise to series of complications, medical emergencies and even result in death. We present an unusual case where reliance on faith healing led to the death of a young man. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Ten myths about subprime mortgages

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Demyanyk

    2009-01-01

    On close inspection many of the most popular explanations for the subprime crisis turn out to be myths. Empirical research shows that the causes of the subprime mortgage crisis and its magnitude were more complicated than mortgage interest rate resets, declining underwriting standards, or declining home values. Nor were its causes unlike other crises of the past. The subprime crisis was building for years before showing any signs and was fed by lending, securitization, leveraging, and housing...

  11. Ten myths about work addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Atroszko, Paweł A

    2018-02-07

    Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.

  12. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.; Roy, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  13. Archaeological, art-historical, and artistic approaches to classical antiquity. Viccy Coltman (ed., Making Sense of Greek Art, University of Exeter Press, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol C. Mattusch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Making sense of Greek Art is a Festschrift in memory of John Betts containing papers by ten of his students and colleagues. Their papers on Greek, Etruscan, Roman, and nineteenth-century topics reveal a wide range of methodologies. Two papers focus on subjects that might be covered in a course on Greek art and archaeology: one evaluates votive offerings in the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia at Sparta (Nicki Waugh; and the other compares archaeological and art-historical approaches to the study of Greek vases (Zosia Archibald. Three are concerned with Etruscan and Roman works: an Etruscan reinterpretation of a Greek myth (Vedia Izzet; Hellenistic and Roman versions of Aphrodite holding a mirror (Shelley Hales; and early Augustan uses of Archaistic art (Christopher H. Hallett. The other five papers illustrate the uses of classical artefacts during the nineteenth century: classical elements in Jacques-Louis David’s paintings (Ed Lilley; display of antiquities in the library of an English country house (Viccy Coltman; Tanagra figurines in paintings by Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Jean-Léon Gérôme (Genevieve Liveley; Alma-Tadema’s drawings for a theatrical production of Hypatia (Michael Liversidge; and plaster casts of the Elgin marbles exhibited in the Greek court of the Crystal Palace (Kate Nichols.

  14. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  15. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  16. Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

  17. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  18. The Myth of Religious Experience Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangwill Nick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article replies to Manuel Fasko’s “The Demystification of Nick Zangwill’s ‘Myth of Religious Experience’” (2017, showing how author’s argument against the possibility of religious experience presented in “The Myth of Religious Experience” (2004 remains in tact.

  19. World Hunger: Ten Myths. Fourth Edition, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph

    Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…

  20. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from...... of the transparency myth....

  1. The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually…

  2. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  3. The Creation of Inequality: Myths of Potential and Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Danny; Tomlinson, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The old myth about the ability and variability of potential in children is a comforting myth, for those who are uneasy with the degree of inequality they see and would rather seek to justify it than confront it. The myth of inherent potential helps some explain to themselves why they are privileged. Extend the myth to believe in inherited ability…

  4. Exploring classical Greek construction problems with interactive geometry software

    CERN Document Server

    Meskens, Ad

    2017-01-01

    In this book the classical Greek construction problems are explored in a didactical, enquiry based fashion using Interactive Geometry Software. The book traces the history of these problems, stating them in modern terminology. By focusing on constructions and the use of GeoGebra the reader is confronted with the same problems that ancient mathematicians once faced. The reader can step into the footsteps of Euclid, Viète and Cusanus amongst others and then by experimenting and discovering geometric relationships far exceed their accomplishments. Exploring these problems with the neusis-method lets him discover a class of interesting curves. By experimenting he will gain a deeper understanding of how mathematics is created. More than 100 exercises guide him through methods which were developed to try and solve the problems. The exercises are at the level of undergraduate students and only require knowledge of elementary Euclidean geometry and pre-calculus algebra. It is especially well-suited for those student...

  5. Showroom10: Greek designers showroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeneiadou, E.

    2017-10-01

    Showroom10 is the first exclusive Greek designer’s showroom. It represents established and upcoming Greek designers in Greece and Cyprus. The mission and main task is to successfully place the designer’s collections in the Greek, European and worldwide market. The purpose of the showroom is to put a collection in front of the appropriate buyer accelerate its revenue growth and create brand awareness. The search for new collections is one of the most important tasks and challenge of a showroom’s business. Market research, travels and fashion trade shows are some ways to stand before an interested brand. Each collection must first be selected in terms of authenticity, clear brand DNA as we call it in fashion. Secondly, must be competitive in terms of materials, designs and prices. But, are all the above enough for the global fashion market? This paper describes a case study (Showroom 10), showing a general overview about the most important phases of “designer’s road” in Greece.

  6. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS GREEK-TURKISH CRISES SINCE 1955. IMPLICATIONS FOR GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by...EU, WEU) have only to gain from a Greek-Turkish rapprochement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS GrEek-Turkish RElATiONS, CRiSiS MANAgEMENT, CONfLICT management 15...crises, because the intended outcome of mediation attempts has been regional stability instead of Greek-Turkish conflict management . Power mediation

  7. Photo Albums as the Instrumentality of building a popular Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ćalović

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the popular myth production. The popular myth is seen as the result of a popular production that uses the material of metalanguage as a secondary semiological system. Unlike the mytification of the myth (Barthes, or the popular use of myth (in the manner of John Fiske, popular myth develops by popular use of the potentials of metalanguage. Popular myth uses the mechanisms of meaning production, that metalanguage develops, to transform its forms into empty signifiers. In that way, the popular myth neutralize the effects of metalanguage, inaugurating an era in which weakens the potentials of ideological textual production.

  8. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  9. The Relation of Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHEE Kee-Bag

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to deal with two questions concerning the relation of philosophy and medicine in ancient greece  (1 Which influences had philosophy on medicine? (2 Whom did attack the author of On the ancient medicine? And (3 was his criticism right? (1 Philosophy’s influences was twofold  (a As early Greek philosophers had explained natural phenomena by natural elements without recourse to any supernatural god  so authors of Hippocratic Works also had sought to explain diseases  They had replaced magical and religious medicine with rational medicine by virtue of rational explanation  This seems to have represented medicine’s debt to philosophy  (b Many medical authors primarily had studied the nature of human  i e  the basic constituents of the body  since they had thought the very same to be causes of diseases  This aspect shows the conspicuous influence of philosophy  Because it was the nature of cosmos  i e  the source or basic constituent that early Greek philosophers had searched to explain cosmos and all natural phenomena in it  (2 On the other hand the author of On the ancient medicine attacks physicians that are influenced by cosmology of early Greek philosophers  The point of his criticism in Chapter 1 is that ‘philosophical physicians’ postulate one or two constituents of the body as the primary cause of men’s diseases  Then are physicians that postulate various constituents free from the author’s criticism? At least according to Chapter 20 it is not so  He seems to criticize physicians in general who proceed by the hypothetical method  He contrasts this method with the method of trial and error  and asserts that this is of medicine  but that is of philosophy  (3 Although this methodological separation was right in a sense  at least the opinion of the author seems to be extreme  Because medicine can’t be science  if it does not make use of any hypothesis

  10. Resistance to change in Greek higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Kremmyda, Stamatia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study of resistance to the changes in Greek higher education that were implemented within the framework of the 1999 Bologna Agreement of the European Union in the period 2007-2008. The changes that occurred were of great significance for Greece’s education system as they introduced important changes in the structure and function of Greek higher education. This thesis argues that the organisational culture that had been created throughout the history of Greek higher education ...

  11. Long Memory in the Greek Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Barkoulas; Christopher F. Baum; Nickolaos Travlos

    1996-01-01

    We test for stochastic long memory in the Greek stock market, an emerging capital market. The fractional differencing parameter is estimated using the spectral regression method. Contrary to findings for major capital markets, significant and robust evidence of positive long-term persistence is found in the Greek stock market. As compared to benchmark linear models, the estimated fractional models provide improved out-of-sample forecasting accuracy for the Greek stock returns series over long...

  12. Death in the Modern Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pentaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Each culture recognizes and identifies death, dying and bereavement in unique ways. Commonly, a culture may be seen through the lens of death rituals; how those are shaped, interpreted and used by the society. This paper aims to look at the Modern Greek culture and depict its ‘visualization’ of death, as well as capture the rituals that mostly identify this specific culture. The Greek culture in overall is strongly influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church. Hence, the experiences of death, dyin...

  13. Greek Monk Theodore as the first Primate of Canterbury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Warsonofiusz (Doroszkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The theological climate of the young Church of Anglo-Saxon Christians was determined by Irish and Welsh monks maintaining the tradition of the Egyptian desert. The Angles and Saxons had a particular vision of the natural world, of the eternal world, a particular comprehension of sin and repentance. Rome in its missionary work used them to attach the British Christians the see of St Peter. Britain had no original link with the culture and tradition of the classical Church. It has been particularly established and enforced in VII and VIII, when England received a great dose of classical learning and theology due to the activity of archbishop of Canterbury Theodore and monk Hadrian. The formerly Greek monk Theodore – well learned in the Holy Scripture as well as Greek and Latin classics – was named the archbishop of Canterbury by pope Vitalian under the condition that he should notintroduce any typically Greek customs. Theodore named Hadrian the abbot of the Canterbury monastery of St Peter. There and in York young English could pursue classical studies of the Holy Scriptures, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. It resulted in significant literary development in Britain, of which venerable Bede is an example.Theodore introduced in Canterbury proto-byzantine canonical law, during two famous synods established doctrinal and ecclesiastical foundations of English Christianity based on ancient orthodox tradition of Eastern part of the Mediterranean region. At the Synod of Hatfield,with the other bishops, Theodore confirmed the Nicean Creed, fiveformer ecumenical councils and the generally accepted Church Fathers. They worked also on practical church unity, that is established: common date of Easter with other parts of Christian world, non-intervention ofbishops in other dioceses, canonical laws regulating the attitude of bishops towards monastic communities and the decrees against monophysismonks coming from Persia.

  14. Dating implications from solar bleaching of thermoluminescence of ancient marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liritzis, I.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of Thermoluminescence (TL) from Greek marble quarried at Paros, Naxos, Pendeli, Hymitos, Thassos, which have been known since ancient time are presented. The results concern i) the solar bleaching of TL, ii) the solar transmission through marble thicknesses up to 16 mm, and iii) the implications for potential dating of ancient carbed marble monuments/objects. The bleaching rate for marbles is very fast during the first hour of exposure. The solar penetration is at least 35 mm for long exposures. Beyond the 2 mm marble slab for exposure times 90-120 hours of sunshine, the residual bleached TL level is not reached. The bleached TL reaches a plateau which serves as the 'zero time' upon which the archaeological TL dose subsequently builds up and gives the age of a marble monument. (author)

  15. The Greek Archer Evolution in the Greek Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory of the bow in the History of Greece is associated with the transformation that was originated inside of the military environment. The poor prominence that for many centuries was granted to the archers in the warlike context, was going to give an unexpected draft with the explosion of the Persian Wars. Later, the playwright Euripides was going to turn Herakles, one of the most famous archer of the hellenic world, into the spokesman of the change that was going to bring with it the acceptance and the definitive incorporation of these soldiers as contingent of considerable value inside the greek armies.

  16. Nuclear power : exploding the myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.

    2001-01-01

    A critique of the Canadian government's unaccountability in terms of nuclear decisions was presented. The federal government has spent more than $13 billion building dozens of nuclear facilities, and spreading Canadian nuclear technology to India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Korea, Argentina and Romania. The author argued that this was done without any public consultation or public debate. In addition, the federal government announced in 1996 that it will play a role in nuclear disarmament and would accept tonnes of leftover plutonium from dismantled nuclear warheads to be used as fuel in CANDU reactors. Samples of weapons plutonium fuels from Russia and the United States are currently being tested in a reactor at Chalk River, Ontario. In addition, China received a $1.5 billion loan from the Treasury of Canada to help finance a CANDU reactor. It was the largest loan in Canadian history, yet had no procedure to obtain taxpayer's permission. Turkey was promised an equal amount if it would build a CANDU reactor. Despite this activity, the nuclear industry is in a dying state. No reactors have been ordered in North America for the past 25 years and there are no future prospects. Nuclear expansion has also ground to a halt in western Europe, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and France. The author discussed the association of nuclear energy with nuclear weapons and dispelled the myth that the nuclear energy programs have nothing to do with nuclear weapons. He also dispelled the myth that plutonium extracted from dismantled warheads can be destroyed by burning it as fuel in civilian reactors. The author emphasized that nuclear warheads are rendered useless when their plutonium cores are removed, but there is no method for destroying the plutonium, which constitutes a serious danger. The third myth which he dispelled was that nuclear power can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Studies show that each dollar invested in energy efficiency saves 5 to 7 times as much carbon

  17. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Greek Talented Students' Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbainos, Dimitrios; Kyritsi, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents one of the few recent attempts to investigate aspects of motivation of Greek gifted students. This effort is particularly challenging since gifted education in Greece is a nonexistent concept, and any study of Greek gifted students has to overcome obstacles related to definition, location and identification of gifted…

  19. Contagion during the Greek sovereign debt crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, M.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the impact of news about Greece and news about a Greek bailout on bank stock prices in 2010 using data for 48 European banks. We identify the twenty days with extreme returns on Greek sovereign bonds and categorise the news events during those days into news about Greece and news about

  20. Learning the Greek Language via Greeklish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Karakos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning Greek as a second or foreign language has drawn the attention of many researchers throughout time. A dictionary is amongst the first things a foreign language student uses. Reading comprehension is significantly improved by the use of a dictionary, especially when this includes the way words are pronounced. We developed a assistance software for learning the Greek Language via Greeklish. Since, the basic vocabulary of a language is the basis of understanding the language itself, the dictionary proposed aims to make the basic Greek words easier to pronounce as well as to give the explanation of the word in English. The aim of this software is to provide a useful tool to learn the Greek language individually. Moreover, it aims to be involved, as an assistance tool for learning Greek as a second or foreign language.

  1. The invention of infertility in the classical Greek world: medicine, divinity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when "infertility," understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented.

  2. Cicerono santykis su graikais ir jų kultūra | Cicero’s attitude to Greeks and their culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article certain aspects of the following problems are discussed: Cicero’s controversial attitude to the Greeks; the traits of the Greek national character as portrayed in Cicero’s works, as well as Cicero’s ambivalent appreciation of the Greek art and literature.The principle of odi et amo clearly shows itself in Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks, both his contemporaries and the ancients, their art and literature. Cicero felt he owed an enormous debt to his Greek education, considering himself as an inheritor of their culture, and yet he denounced it at every opportunity and tried to emphasise the superiority of the Roman ancestors against the Greeks. He greatly appreciated Greek literature and yet he wished he could manage without it, because the Greek literary standards made him aware of what Roman literature should be.The main national traits ascribed to the Greeks in Cicero’s speeches ant letters are the lack of trustworthiness (fides, unreliability (levitas, and vanity (vanitas as opposed to the Roman dignity (dignitas and gravity (gravitas.We argue that in evaluating Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks it is especially important to take into account the genre of those Cicero’s works from which we derive our knowledge about his views. His speeches as well as his treatises are intended for the public audience, so the author tries to portray himself in accordance with the public expectations, while his private correspondence, especially the letters to Atticus, reveals his personal views, not restricted by the public opinion. As we have shown in this article, in his speeches Cicero tries to conceal his expertise in the Greek art and literature, as this would not fit his Roman dignity. On the other hand, in his private life, as it appears from his letters to Atticus, he eagerly seeks pieces of Greek art to decorate his villas.This seeming inconsistency of Cicero’s views, however, can be partly explained as follows. It is to be

  3. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  4. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  6. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  8. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  9. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  10. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kale vitamin D—cereals or soy-based beverages Myth: “Going vegetarian” will help you lose weight and be healthier. Some research shows that a healthy vegetarian eating plan may be linked to lower obesity levels. ...

  11. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do ... Healthy This content was last reviewed July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  12. The Myth of "Pop Warner": Carlisle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Reet A; Howell, Maxwell L.

    1978-01-01

    The myth of Pop Warner's sterling character hides the distasteful story behind the closure of Warner's Carlisle School for Indians on the grounds of moral corruption and misuse of athletic funds. (LH)

  13. Isaac Newton: Man, Myth, and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickey, V. Frederick

    1987-01-01

    This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)

  14. Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

  15. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and a...

  16. BADUY PLURALISM: FROM MYTH TO REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Misno Bambang Prawiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a land of many tribes, with each tribe having different customs. However they have a bond in the form of the state motto, Bhineka Tunggal Ika. This motto is based on a philosophy embraced by every tribe in the form of the teachings passed down from the ancestors such as pantun (Malay poetic form, rhyme, guguritan (Sundanese literary works, history and myths. Myths here are stories about things that happened in the past in the form of the history of the origins of man and nature, or the origin of a nation. Myths as a local wisdom are believed to be the truth by every member of the tribe applied in everyday life. This includes the myth that tells about human cultural diversity (plurality, and the community will implement its content. What about the Baduy community in Banten, do they have myths and apply the myths that deal with pluralism in their life? The Baduy are one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia who have myths about the creation of the universe, human origins, and even myths about the events that will occur. The myth about the origin of humans in the Baduy community begins with the creation of Adam as the first human, and then he had children that gave birth to the whole nation in the world. Because every human in the world is the great-grandsons of Adam, the Baduy believe that all humanity is dulur (brother despite differences in customs and religion. The reality of social life of the Baduy community, either Baduy Dalam (inner baduy or Baduy Luar (outer baduy is that they greatly respect all mankind despite the different cultures and religions. Prohibition to enter the Baduy traditional village for foreigners is because of historical factors, namely the agreement made by their ancestors with the Dutch. This research concluded that the Baduy society is a society that understands the plurality of cultures; it is based on a myth that they believe and apply in their life about tolerance of other religions. Key Word: Pluralism

  17. A tulajdonnév funkciója a görög mitológiában. [The function of names in Greek mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slíz, Mariann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the mythological function of names in Greek myths, emphasizing though that most of the observed functions are not typical in mythology in general. Names were collected from the general work “Görög mitológia [Greek Mythology]” (1977/1997 by KÁROLY KERÉNYI, a scholarly book paying attention even to the different versions of the myths, and, occasionally, from the popular work “Görög regék [Greek Tales]” (1976 by IMRE TRENCSÉNYI-WALDAPFEL. The research focuses rather on the overall mythological function of names and name types, and also on the interrelations of names than on the etymologies of names. Topics presented in the paper include the specific transitionary state of mythological names between common and proper nouns and the frequent changes between these two categories; the synonymity of names (e.g. in connection with the several names of a god; names compressing the storyline of a myth; the appearance of a new name as a linguistic manifestation of the change in one’s mythological role; pseudonyms as indicators of temporary mythological roles; and the magic function of names.

  18. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  19. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past?  As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back

  20. A Study of Formulaic Language in Traditional Greek Tales and Its Cultural Implications in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaragda PAPADOPOULOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study we examine teaching mother tongue through faire and folk tales from the perspectives of recognizing clichés in fairy tales and myths, idiomatic phrases which work as morals, proverbs and very specific phrases of traditional tales’. We suggest that formulaic language can be involved in children’s language games at school and become a methodological tool for innovative approaches in Language and Teaching especially at the primary education. We search the sources from Greek traditional tales that could serve as teaching material for this option of teaching formulaic language in mother tongue. Cultural and geographical implications of the examples applied are noted as a suggestion for further discussion.

  1. The Myth of Bourgeois Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller; Stahl, Rune Møller

    representative democracy - not abolish it. Third, we highlight how Leninists and liberals have unknowingly colluded to sustain the myth that parliamentary democracy is essentially liberal. Finally, turning our attention to the current neoliberal conjuncture, we argue that Badiou’s and Žižek’s notion......This paper argues that the Left should move beyond the commonplace understanding – upheld by Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek - that parliamentary democracy is essentially of a bourgeois nature. We show first how the introduction of parliamentary democracy – defined as constitutionalization of state...... power under a legislative body, with regular elections and universal suffrage – was everywhere a result of the pressure of social movements from below against the aspirations of both conservatives and liberals. Second, we reread Marx on the Paris Commune to discover how Marx wanted to radicalize...

  2. [Administration: practices, myths and ideologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Administration in the social field is examined based on an analysis of its practices, the rationalist myth and its ideological dimensions. In this way, the article discusses the most frequently utilized concepts (administration, management, gerencia, gestión) and their etymologies; the limitations of teaching administration; the complexity of a practice marked by the dimensions of science, art and the social game; and the ideological question underlying the great thought factory that the general theory of administration has been since the start of the 19th century. The article reflects upon the need to construct a theory based in practice contextualized in the global south that goes beyond the classic frames of reference and, above all, to transform administration into a problem to be discussed outside of the knowledge that recognizes it as a technical practice.

  3. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J. [Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: alberto@cqf.co.cu

    2005-07-15

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  4. Antioxidant therapy: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Selles, Alberto J.

    2005-01-01

    New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)

  5. The Odiousness of Greek Debt in Light of the Findings of the Greek Debt Truth Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Bantekas, I; Vivien, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the popular narrative, which suggests that the Greek debt crisis was the result of lavish spending, this article demonstrates that the ‘crisis’ was generated by a transformation of purely private debt into public debt. This finding is supported by the preliminary report of the Greek Parliamentary Committee on the Truth of the Greek Debt, which clearly demonstrated the exponential increase of private debt in Greece risked the collapse of the private financial institutions exposed to it,...

  6. Combining Ricoeur and Bultmann on myth and demythologising

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Jul 8, 2016 ... importance, saying that such discussions distracted attention from ... and Bultmann's views on myth and demythologisation can be merged in order to gain a broader .... myth means any anonymously composed storytelling of.

  7. PLEIADES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Verderame, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will analyse the different features of the Pleiades in the astronomical, astrological, and calendrical interpretation as well as their mythical and cultural background in ancient Mesopotamia. According to cuneiform sources, the Pleiades are among the most important stars. They are simply known in Sumerian as ―the Stars‖ (MUL.MUL), while their Akkadian name, ―the Bristle‖ (zappu), links them to the imagery and the cultural context of the ―Bull of Heaven‖ constellation (Taurus),...

  8. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  9. Isaac Vossius’ Sylloge of Greek Technopaegnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Galán-Vioque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracing the sources that Vossius (1618–1689 used in compiling his anthology of Greek technopaegnia (Leiden ms. Vossius misc. 13 illuminates both his research methods and the evolution of his dispute with Salmasius.

  10. 'The Greek Fall: Simulacral Thanatotourism in Europe'

    OpenAIRE

    Tzanelli, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the socio-cultural dynamics of Greek demonstrations in 2011, suggesting that their function exceeds that of social movements as we know them. A form of what I term ‘simulacral thanatotourism’, including marches and demonstrations to Greek cities in protest for austerity measures, actualised in this context a form of mourning about the end of Greece’s place in European polity. This mourning, which places Greece at the centre of a withering European democratic cosmos, inspire...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  12. Demography in the United States: Some Twentieth Century Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Robert L.

    Five demographic myths related to education pose dangers to educational planning and thinking. The first myth says the return of service personnel after World War II caused the baby boom. Actually the baby boom began in 1939 and was not related to service personnel. The second myth claims the Great Depression decreased the birth and fertility…

  13. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  14. Sport and medicine in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelboom, T; Rouffin, C; Fierens, E

    1988-01-01

    Sport and medicine in ancient Greece were the result of a widespread tradition of liberty, which was at the heart of one of the most brilliant civilizations in history. Whereas war encouraged the development of surgical knowledge springing out of medical experience on the battlefield, peace promoted the burgeoning of sport as an integral part of Greek upbringing, allowing the channeling of young people's aggressiveness into physical competition. Medicine was magical and mythological, especially in the time of Homer (9th century BC); Aesculapius, the mythical god of healing, was its reference point. With Hippocrates (5th century BC), the body of medical experience was to be codified and built up, and was to undergo a novel evolution based on the theory of the balance of the four humors. The athlete's mentality, faced with trauma in the sports ground, underwent a change; injury was no longer considered a punishment by the gods. At the same time, temple offerings tendered in the hope of victory gave way to the athlete's personal preparation based on a specifically modified lifestyle, diet, and training. The resulting progress in medicine and public health, especially from the 5th century BC onward, was not only to favor athletic performances of high quality but also surgical techniques that were very advanced for their time. Thus it can be seen that the medical knowledge associated with the practice of sport progressed during antiquity because of its obligation to follow the warrior and then the athlete.

  15. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Imitating the Myth in the Gorgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efren A. Alverio II

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of logical positivism contributed to the sharp definitional demarcation between what we consider mythical (mythos and what we take to be a true account (logos. This essay attempts to go back to one of the sources of such a supposed distinction. By analyzing the Gorgias, I will show that even Plato did not make such a distinction. In fact, Plato even constructed a theory of justice that made use of myth as its medium. The Platonic Myth in the Gorgias was used as true logos in order to justify Socrates' use of the myth as the paradigm of a life that is philosophical in contrast to that of his accusers who espoused mere sophistry. By using the concept of historia in relation with the concept of mythos, Plato regarded the futuristic afterlife in the myth as a sufficient condition to live a just life. This sufficient condition exemplified by the Myth in the Gorgias is a measuring rod by which we can compare our present system of justice.

  17. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  18. SOCIOLOGIC EXAMINATION OF HELLENISTIC ART IN THE LIGHT OF ANCIENT ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aslıhan OZTURK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the emergence of Hellenistic Art, historical and social background that constitutive it, important features that put it forward and important artworks in the light of Ancient Era Society and Art general framework will be examined. Hellenistic Art as an Ancient Era Art was existed blending Greek culture and art which are dominant elements of the empire and cultures of conquered lands, progressed as a mixed culture. On the wide geography that Alexander the Great conquered, in time differences showed up in the direction of the beliefs, social structure and sense of art of this region and powerful and effective artworks were revealed taking form of this differences with a common understanding. In this reseach, Hellenistic Art that showed a common understanding belongs to almost whole known World in Ancient Era and its sociologic Fundamentals will be analyzed.

  19. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  20. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  1. Myths, symbols and legends of solar system bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This book is an amateur astronomer’s guide to the mythology and symbolism associated with the celestial bodies in the Solar System, and even includes some of the legendary tales of people who had or have a connection with these objects. It explores different cultures (for example, the Greco-Roman and the Norse) and different times and how stories were used to explain the worlds they saw above them. You’d be amazed how much of our world today reflects the myths and stories of these cultures!  Most amateur astronomers are familiar with the various Solar System objects, but they will be only peripherally aware of what ancient cultures thought of these other worlds. In fact, the mythology of the planets challenges many twenty-first century concepts and beliefs There are other books available on astromythology, but this one focuses mostly on our own Solar System, as opposed to the constellations and deep sky objects.  Alexander offers a new angle on timeless subjects and is exciting, informative and dramatic...

  2. Dispelling some myths about condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Condoms are an effective contraceptive and disease prevention device used correctly and consistently by millions of people around the world. That condoms do not work, HIV can pass through them, and condoms frequently break are simply myths. Condom efficacy is directly related to their correct and consistent usage. Condoms are therefore very effective when properly used. While HIV is only 0.1 micron wide and the head of a human sperm cell is 3 microns wide, scanning electron microscopy has shown latex condoms to block the passage of both. Most condom breakage is due to incorrect usage rather than poor condom quality. Prolonged exposure to heat and/or sunlight and the use of oil-based lubricants such as Vaseline can weaken condoms and cause them to break during use. Opening the condom pack with teeth or sharp fingernails can also damage a condom. Finally, a condom should not be used if its expiration date has passed or if it is more than 5 years from the manufacturing date.

  3. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2014-11-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  4. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  5. Tele-ICU "myth busters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Angelo; Ronk, Chanda; Kopenhaver, Tracey; Fetterman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tele-intensive care unit (ICU) technology has been proven to bridge the gap between available resources and quality care for many health care systems across the country. Tele-ICUs allow the standardization of care and provide a second set of eyes traditionally not available in the ICU. A growing body of literature supports the use of tele-ICUs based on improved outcomes and reduction in errors. To date, the literature has not effectively outlined the limitations of this technology related to response to changes in patient care, interventions, and interaction with the care team. This information can potentially have a profound impact on service expectations. Some misconceptions about tele-ICU technology include the following: tele-ICU is "watching" 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; tele-ICU is a telemetry unit; tele-ICU is a stand-alone crisis intervention tool; tele-ICU decreases staffing at the bedside; tele-ICU clinical roles are clearly defined and understood; and tele-ICUs are not cost-effective to operate. This article outlines the purpose of tele-ICU technology, reviews outcomes, and "busts" myths about tele-ICU technology.

  6. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  7. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  8. Hippolyte et le Minotaure dans les réécritures du mythe de Phèdre, fin XXe – début XXIe siècle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafteberg, Alexandre Planque

    2013-01-01

    In the rewritings of the myth of Phaedra which have been published since the 1980s, the sea monster which causes the death of Hippolytus, the son of Theseus, is absent. This article therefore attempts to show how the disappearance of the wonderful monster strengthens and renews the scandalous...... nature of the other characters, especially of Hippolytus, who is strangely reminiscent of the Minotaur, and of Theseus, a hero in Ancient Greece, who has today become the symbol of a fragmented society. Dans les réécritures du mythe de Phèdre qui ont paru depuis les années 1980, le monstre marin qui...

  9. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  10. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  11. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  12. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  13. Exploring the emotional appeal of green and social Europe myths among pan-European Union organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    : (1) pan-EU NGOs are receptive to political myths, including in the short term; (2) pan-EU NGOs contribute to the reproduction of myths, especially already-institutionalised myths and myths that resonate with their sectoral activities; and (3) pan-EU NGOs strategically use political myths to justify...

  14. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  15. LA NAISSANCE DU MONDE: UN MYTHE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgeaud, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of some cosmogonic myths that explicitly raise the question of the beginnings in terms of enigma. Mud, light, desire, dream, illusion, such are some of the disturbing ways to begin a persuasive story. Something has to be said, a story to be made, and these myths are working in the same way as the story of the big bang addressed today to those who cannot understand it. But these stories are offering, still and always, a serious reflection on what is most simply human.

  16. Seven Myths of Global Talent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Collings, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with managing talent on a global scale are greater than those faced by organisations operating on a domestic scale. We believe that the former relate to the fact that a number of key myths regarding talent management may undermine talent management's contribution...... to multinational corporation effectiveness and retard the development of management practice in this regard. Our aim is to unpack some of those myths and offer some suggestions for advancing the practice of talent management on the basis of insights from both practice and academic thinking in this area....

  17. Detecting Ancient Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Gernaey

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases have played a more significant role in human development than others. Here we describe the results of a trial to diagnose ancient tuberculosis using chemical methods. Palaeo-epidemiological studies of the disease are compromised, but it has become apparent that tuberculosis (TB is a 'population-density dependent' disease. From modern studies, it is also apparent that the prevalence of TB can be used as an indicator of the level of poverty within the studied population. Mid-shaft rib samples from articulated individuals recovered from the former Newcastle Infirmary Burial Ground (1753-1845 AD were examined for mycolic acids that are species-specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The 24% of ribs positive for mycolic acids correlated with the documented 27% tuberculosis prevalence. Mycolic acid biomarkers have the potential to provide an accurate trace of the palaeo-epidemiology of tuberculosis in ancient populations, thereby providing an indication of the overall level of poverty - a useful adjunct for archaeology.

  18. Agnieszka, Antigone: The Antigone Myth in Andrzej Wajda’s Katyn and in Dominik Smole’s Antigona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja N. Inkret

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two modern works which employ the Antigone myth. The Polish film director Andrzej Wajda included several implicit allusions to the myth in his Katyn (2007,a film about the mass murder of Polish officers and intelligentsia – a Soviet crime which remained a taboo for almost half a century. On the other hand, Dominik Smole, a Slovenian playwright, wrote a play about Antigone (1960, which is set from beginning to end in ancient Thebes. It has been suggested that his play indirectly calls attention to the Slovenian post-war killings of the Slovenian Home Guard members, which were likewise long tabooed. Inquiring how the two works relate to Sophocles’ Antigone, the article points out that Andrzej Wajda seems inspired not only by Sophocles’ ideas but also by his dramatic techniques. A scene that seems especially interesting in this respect presents Agnieszka (Antigone going to the theatre to sell her hair in order to buy a tombstone for her dead brother Piotr (Polyneikes. The action in the theatre is so full of metaphors and subtle imagery that it can be compared to one of the most compelling scenes in Sophocles’ Antigone (801—943. In the latter, Sophocles employs a popular ancient dramatic technique, incorporating ritual elements in the dramatic action in order to create an atmosphere rich in meanings and connotations. While Wajda’s film includes at least two other scenes which seem directly inspired by the dramaturgical composition of Sophocles’ tragedy, Dominik Smole does not appear to make much use of Sophoclean techniques. To both authors, however, Sophocles is a key reference for their characters, situations, and dilemmas; both the film and the play refer to the ancient tragedy either through similarities or differences established in relation to the ancient Antigone. With regard to the differences, Smole’s only new persona dramatis, the page who survives Antigone as her devoted follower, appears to be

  19. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  20. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  1. Osobnosť gréckych hrdinov z pohľadu modernej psychológie (Personality of Greek Heroes from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Porubjak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Homer’s Iliad, the article focuses on characters of ancient Greek heroes and relates them to personality psychology. First, it discusses what major personality characteristics have been identified by modern psychological research and how they can be measured. In the next part, the authors summarize how they attempted to verify the historical and intercultural validity of outlined personality models using theIliad and present the results of their analysis. Concluding that ancient Greek accounts testify to the universality of human nature throughout ages and cultures, the article also provides the expected personality profiles of major heroes—Achilles and Agamemnon. Even more interestingly, the authors discuss how and why their motives and behavioral tendencies might cause clashes in their interaction, and also what occupational options they would probably face nowadays. Interdisciplinary in its nature, the paper concludes with implications of the results for philosophy.

  2. The Fall of the Tektōn and The Rise of the Architect: On The Greek Origins of Architectural Craftsmanship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Holst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The origins of architectural craftsmanship in ancient Greece are to be found in the archaic arts of tectonics. The first Greek architects, appearing under that name around the 6th century BC, rose out of and based their work on this age-old tectonic tradition, which semantically underwent a transformation during the time from Homer to Plato, the latter relegating the tektones to a lower rank in the order of craftsmanship. Through a detailed reading of the ancient Greek testimonies of the tectonic tradition, the paper demonstrates that in the Homeric tradition the tektones were hailed as versatile, first-rate craftsmen who created wonders out of matter, but in classical times they fell from their high status of old. In Plato’s writings tectonics ends up at the lower end of the epistemological and ontological scale.

  3. Health behavior and college students: does Greek affiliation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a students' risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1,595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1,330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed.

  4. The language of modern medicine: it's all Greek to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristopher N

    2004-01-01

    The Greek language has shaped and formed the lexicon of modern medicine. Although medical terminology may seem complex and difficult to master, the clarity and functionality of this language owe a great debt to the tongue of the classical Greeks.

  5. Greek-English Word Processing on the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusten, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the complete Greek-English word processing system of the Apple Macintosh computer. Describes the features of its operating system, shows how the Greek fonts look and work, and enumerates both the advantages and drawbacks of the Macintosh. (SED)

  6. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  7. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  8. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  9. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  10. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  11. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indicate that relative constructions in the Greek New Testament have a variety of features, all of which have counterparts in some modern (or other ancient languages, despite the differences. The relative sentence in the Greek New Testament is mostly postnominal, and the relative pronoun-type is used in those cases for encoding the role of the coreferential element in the relative sentence. Phrases expressing a variety of syntactic functions in a sentence (e.g. subject, direct object, etc. are accessible to relativisation, that is, they can be represented by relative pronouns. Nominal elements serve mostly as antecedents of relative sentences, although sentences appear in that function as well.A variety of syntactic types of relative sentences can be distinguished, including the prenominal participial, postnominal finite/participial, circumnominal, free relative, adverbial, prejoined, postjoined, sentential and conjoined types. These can be linked in a systematic way to the four functions of relative sentences in the New Testament, i.e. identifying, appositive, adverbial and continuative.Relative sentences also play a role in communicative strategies. Prejoined relative sentences, for example, are most suitable for exposition and theme-building, especially in the correlative diptych construction.

  12. Greek women and broken nerves in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, P

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, I examine the importance of class, ethnicity and gender in the causation and meaning of somatization for Greek women in Montreal. I argue that nevra--a form of psychosocial distress experienced by many of the women--is a phenomenon of the poor working conditions, low wages and gender relations in the Greek community. Data is based on interviews with 100 Greek families in Montreal and 45 patients in two different clinical settings. Comparing results with material on nervios and nerves from Latin America and the United States, I concur with Low (1985) that nerves should be viewed as a 'culturally-interpreted symptom' rather than a 'culture bound syndrome'. It is further suggested that the importance of social and material conditions and gender relations in mediating the cultural interpretation must be stressed. Failure to do so often results in the medicalization of nevra and the creation of a chronic sick role for the patient.

  13. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavounou, E; Economou-Petersen, E; Karadima, G; Panas, M; Avramopoulos, D; Varsou, A; Vassilopoulos, D; Petersen, M B

    1997-10-01

    The APOE gene is located on chromosome 19, and the three common alleles are designated epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4. The epsilon4 allele is associated with increased plasma cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and decreased longevity. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of APOE alleles in the Greek population by DNA analysis. The material consisted of 216 voluntary, healthy Greek blood donors (146 males/70 females). The APOE allele frequencies were epsilon2: 5.3%, epsilon3: 88.2%, epsilon4: 6.5%. The epsilon4 allele frequency of 6.5% in the Greek population is, together with the frequency in the Chinese population, among the lowest in the world.

  14. Earthquake Archaeology: a case study from Ancient Cnidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I. S.; Altunel, E.; Piccardi, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical practices and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. The ancient Greek/Roman city of Cnidus in southwestern Turkey records all three. A spectacular exposed fault plane cliff bordering the northern edge of the city appears to have been an important revered site, bearing votive niches carved into the near-vertical slip plane and associated with a Sanctuary of Demeter that implies a connection to the underworld. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquake faulting can be found in the form of a destruction horizon of contorted soil, relics and human remains exposed in the original excavations of the Sanctuary of Demeter by Sir Charles Newton (1857-58) and in a destruction horizon of burnt soil and bone uncovered by the ongoing excavation of a colonnaded street. Structural damage to constructions is widespread across the site, with warped and offset walls in the Sanctuary of Demeter, collapsed buildings in several places, and a parallel arrangement of fallen columns in the colonnaded street. The most remarkable structural evidence for fault activity, however, is the rupture of the ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite, whose podium reveals a history of damage and which is unambiguously displaced across a bedrock fault. While these phenomena are equivocal when viewed in isolation, collectively they imply at least two damaging earthquakes at the site, one (possibly both) of which ruptured along the fault on which the city is found. The Cnidus case study highlights how reliable identification of archaeoseismic damage relies on compiling an assemblage of indicators rather than the discovery of a diagnostic "smoking gun".

  15. [An outline of odontoiatry and odontology in the ancient world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musitelli, S

    1996-01-01

    Dentistry was surely practiced in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Etruria, Greece and Rome, but odontology arose only with the dawn of Greek science. One may find the first references to a rational odontology only in the fragments of the Pre-socratic philosophers and in the Corpus Hippocraticum. Aristotle was the first to treat odontology under a comparative anatomo-physiological point of view. Celsus and Scribonius Largus got their matter from Hippocrates, Aristotle, the Hellenistic anatomists as well as from folk-traditions, but payed attention rather to dentistry than to odontology. Finally Galen gathered all the knowledge about odontology and dentistry from Hippocrates up to the Hellenistic anatomists and organized all the matter in his monumental teleologic and theological system, that was inherited by both the so called iatrosophists and the Byzantine physicians.

  16. Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.

    1998-02-01

    In the sky-map of ancient Babylon, constellations had two different roles, and thus developed into two overlapping traditions. One set of constellations represented the gods and their symbols; the other set represented rustic activities and provided a farming calendar. Many constellations were shared by the two traditions, but in some regions of sky there were alternative divine and rustic figures. These figures developed in stages from ~3200 BC to ~500 BC. Of the divine set, the most important (although the last to be finalised) were the twelve zodiacal signs, plus several associated animals (the serpent, crow, eagle, and fish), which were all transmitted to the classical Greek sky-map that we still use today. Conversely, the rustic constellations of workers and tools and animals were not transmitted to the West. However, a few of them may have survived in Bedouin Arab sky-maps of the first millennium AD.

  17. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties......Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states...... abilities in terms of drug delivery, which could be transferred to modern medicine. Indeed, this may lead to a better choice of morphine use and controlled management in individual patient cases, taking both pain relief and anti-inflammatory aspects into account....

  18. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  19. Elements for the Theory of Value in Ancient Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivlampie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although axiology is a new philosophical discipline (the second half of the 19th century, we can talk about both a prehistory and a protohistory of axiology. The most important aspect of axiology belongs to its prehistory. Examining the doctrines of ancient philosophers one can conclude that, although no Greek thinker had the distinct conscience of a specific realm of values, yet each generation had intuitions proper to the axiological perspective. Their intuitions regarded the human act of founding the world of values (the Sophists, or the argumentation in favour of the general character of values (Plato and Aristotle or a hierarchy of values as a model of human education and formation.

  20. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  1. Myths and Realities for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.

    1980-01-01

    The author examines seven myths, such as: divorce is preferable to an unhappy home; children anticipate divorce; turmoil ends with separation; and divorce damages children. She concludes that divorce initiates a prolonged and often difficult transition for children, which may benefit or harm them depending on how parents handle it. (SJL)

  2. Cystic fibrosis: myths. mistakes, and dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2014-03-01

    As a student I recall being told that half of what we would learn in medical school would be proven to be wrong. The challenges were to identify the incorrect half and, often more challenging, be willing to give up our entrenched ideas. Myths have been defined as traditional concepts or practice with no basis in fact. A misunderstanding is a mistaken approach or incomplete knowledge that can be resolved with better evidence, while firmly established misunderstandings can become dogma; a point of view put forth as authoritative without basis in fact. In this paper, I explore a number of myths, mistakes, and dogma related to cystic fibrosis disease and care. Many of these are myths that have long been vanquished and even forgotten, while others are controversial. In the future, many things taken as either fact or "clinical experience" today will be proven wrong. Let us examine these myths with an open mind and willingness to change our beliefs when justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  4. "The Scientific Method" as Myth and Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    "The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is…

  5. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  6. 4 Myths about Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging 4 Myths About Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Is dry mouth a natural part of the aging process? Is tooth decay just kid stuff? Separate ...

  7. Columbus and the Flat Earth Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the resilient myth that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. It is widely known that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. However, Thomas Kuhn in "The Copernican Revolution" showed clearly in 1957 that the idea of a flat…

  8. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  9. 78 FR 18455 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... celebrates Greek Independence Day to strengthen the bonds between the birthplace of democracy and the world's... National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy. I call upon the people of the United States to...

  10. The influence of Greek drama on Matthew's Gospel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... This article presents the Greek influence on the genre of Matthew's text. Greek and Roman .... Matthew's Gospel, it is necessary to examine the basic make- up of Greek .... purpose of the chorus was to depict the reaction of the people in the audience. ..... in Knowing Jesus and his friends better, viewed 18 ...

  11. The influence of Greek drama on Matthew's Gospel | Warner | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the Greek influence on the genre of Matthew's text. Greek and Roman tragedy is examined, from which the five basic elements of tragedy are identified. A brief examination of the characters in the Matthean text is done to identify Greek cultural influences on the structuring of the Gospel. This study offers ...

  12. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós school term (egkíklios. The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosophers, the paper analyzes a single dictum attributed to three different philosophers: Gorgias, Aristippus and Bion. The subject of the dictum is a comparison between, on the one hand, philosophy and Penelope, and, on the other hand, the other disciplines of the syllabus and Penelope’s servants. Concerning the Hellenistic diffusion, the paper deals with Filo, Quintilian and Clement of Alexandria. Regarding these writers, the paper aims to show an overturn: among the Greeks, philosophy used to be the master (the déspoina; later, it became the servant (the doulís

  13. Agalmatophilia. The love for the statues in the Ancient World: the Cnidian Aphrodite and the case of Pygmalion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ferrari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The sexual attraction to statues, also known as 'agalmatophilia', seems to be prevalent in the Ancient World: the case of the Cnidian Aphrodite is of particular interest. According to multiples ancient sources, this statue, made by Praxiteles was able to arouse the erotic desire in the observer. However, this case must be contextualised in the ancient Greece, where different powers were ascribed to the divinities and great importance was given to Mimesis. The literary case of Pygmalion, recorded by Ovid in the Metamorphoses, plays a key role in this context as well. Here, the power of poetry allows the achievement of a happy end through the transformation of the statue into a real woman. Hereof we underline the analogies between the sculpture moulded by Pygmalion and the doll, which allow us to perceive in this myth a sort of conceptual bridge towards a contemporary form of agalmatophilia, the one that employs sex dolls.

  14. Albanians in the Greek informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droukas, E

    1998-04-01

    "This article addresses the issue of Albanian immigration to Greece, underlines its special character and discusses the problems arising from the Greek immigration policy which, so far, has focused on short-term, inefficient and sometimes conflicting solutions. This article also delineates the current situation of Albanian immigrants, who constitute the largest group amongst all immigrants in Greece and who are largely undocumented. It examines the controversial issue of Albanian criminality, and the social construction of negative stereotypes through prejudicial representations of Albanians by the Greek media." excerpt

  15. A Greek physician's portrait in Windsor Castle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsocas, Christos S

    2017-01-01

    To the visitor to Windsor Castle, the Thomas Lawrence portraits in the Waterloo Chamber represent the most important contributors to the military defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, by British, Prussian, Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Waterloo. Nevertheless, only few individuals realise that a Greek physician, Count Ioannis Capodistrias, a native of the island of Corfu, stands among these leading personalities as a diplomat, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who contributed remarkably to European unity in the early nineteenth century and as a statesman ('Governor' of Greece) with a tragic end to his life, after establishing a Greek State practically from ruins.

  16. Making a Voluntary Greek Debt Exchange Work

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Mitu; Zettelmeyer, Jeromin

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few months, the Greek government, is supposed to persuade private creditors holding about EUR 200bn in its bonds to voluntarily exchange their existing bonds for new bonds that pay roughly 50 percent less. This may work with large creditors whose failure to participate in a debt exchange could trigger a Greek default, but may not persuade smaller creditors, who will be told that their claims will continue to be fully serviced if they do not participate in the exchange. This pa...

  17. Entertainment in View of Politicians in Ancient Greece and Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the cultural and social conditions of the entertainment phenomenon in Ancient Greece and Rome and the attitude of the authorities to it. The appearance of entertainment is closely related to the worship of cult of Gods. It is shown that the Romans being more materialistic and pragmatic paid less attention to spiritual entertainment than Greeks who fostered dramatic performances. Greek rulers and noblemen saw relaxational and educational function of the entertainment and also considered it as reducing tension and promoting solidarity. However, they did not intrude into its practical organization and had only a monitoring position, whereas the Romans were more interested in daily life and its bodily pleasures. Accordingly in recreational activities – games there dominated the spirit of competition, especially the gladiators games, which were bloody and cruel, but heated passions of spectators whose majority was comprised of plebs. There is shown that the authorities considered the entertainment as an effective tool to reach political aims, especially for gaining the support of commons in various elections, so they financed gladiators’ performances generously.This tradition is still topical in the flow of years. These days it has become the constituent part of the political marketing.

  18. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  19. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  20. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  1. The Johannine Literature in a Greek Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    and apocalypticism by Greek rationality, to illustrate the Prologue’s Middle Platonism, and to introduce Stoicism into John’s thinking. Finally, it demonstrates how readings of the Prologue in light of Aristotle’s theory of epigenesis have displaced the focus from the logos to the pneuma and thereby managed...

  2. The Greek Financial Crisis – Theoretical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world we live in is a product of the way we think. Our conception of reality determines what we see and what we achieve. The Greek crisis is not simply a case of high public debt, economic mismanagement or weak political will in Greece or the Eurozone. It is underpinned by economic premises, constructs and resulting practices that promote exactly the type of dilemma Greece faces today. Without addressing these conceptual issues, no lasting solution is possible. Rather it can be expected to repeat and spread to other countries and regions. This article is based on views presented by participants in a WAAS webinar examining the Greek financial crisis in the light of economic theory and practice. Wherever there are unmet social needs and underutilized social resources, such as high levels of unemployment, the potential exists to stimulate economic activity, enhance human welfare and promote resilience and sustainable entrepreneurship. Both conditions prevail in Greece today, but neither current nor anticipated policies are likely to result in near term benefits to the Greek people and the local economy nor for Europe and the world economy. It supports the view that a permanent and effective win-win solution can be found to the Greek crisis, compatible with the financial stability of the country and the welfare of its citizens within the framework of the Eurozone, but that such a solution will require a rethinking of fundamental theoretical issues and adoption of innovative policy instruments beyond those presently being contemplated.

  3. The End of the Greek City States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Dorcas

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the demise of the Hellenic period and the factors responsible for the domination of Greece by Macedonia. Asks students to decide whether the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars were justified. Focuses on the role of Demosthenes and his championing of Greek liberty. (RW)

  4. Internships at Greek Universities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures so as to engage young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy at present targeting that population group, especially university students. This paper explores university…

  5. The Greek outside workers radiation passbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenopoulou, V.

    1997-01-01

    Following the European Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM of the 4 December 1990, on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas, the Greek Government has adopted the Ministerial Order, published in the Official Gazette (No 9087(FOR) 1004 of 1996). The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the competent governmental authority for radiation protection matters. Therefore it is the GAEC's responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Order. The Order consists of 6 parts, where among others are described the obligations of outside undertakings and operators and the obligations of outside workers. One of the major elements of this Ministerial Order is the radiation passbook.The Greek Radiation Passbook is written in two languages, Greek and English. It contains worker's personal data (identity, medical examinations, training in radiation protection, etc), information concerning his employee (name, address, etc) and worker's dosimetry information such as operational and the official dosimetry (external and internal) data. The radiation passbook is provided only to category A outside workers, working in Greece or abroad. The GAEC distributed the Ministerial Order with application forms to the possible outside undertakings for their information. Until August 1997, 41 radiation passbooks have been attributed to outride workers. All of them are technicians dealing with medical equipment using ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. Classical monsters in new Doctor Who fan fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Potter

    2016-01-01

    Although a number of classic Doctor Who episodes featured story lines and characters drawn from Greek myth, no new Who episodes based on Greek myth appeared until seasons 5 and 6, in 2010 and 2011. These episodes featured Pandora's box, the Minotaur, and a Siren. They all use the mythical monster or artifact outside of its ancient Greek context, and I argue that the mythical monsters were additions to earlier story ideas. I compare this with the treatment of the myths of the Minotaur and the ...

  7. The Greek media and the Kosovo crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kondopoulou

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The NATO air attacks (24/3/99-10/6/99 as an instrument of force against Serbia to terminate the abuse of the Albanian population in Kosovo, albeit supported by a significant part of the international community, were received much differently in Greece. Key to the climate of strong disagreement with the campaign was the role of the Greek media. The true reason behind the offensive was, according to them, the change in the geopolitical map to the advantage of the West, and in particular the USA. The underlying argument of this paper is that in the Kosovo crisis the media, Greek (and international, projected their own environment. It is particularly apt to examine the Greek case because of its very unique perspective that differentiated the coverage in Greece - a NATO member country - from the overall world media view. Also, the discussion is pertinent because Greek media coverage disagreed with the official government position, which although advocating a diplomatic resolution of the crisis, had to support the Alliance's decision to bomb Serbia. Furthermore, study of this case is significant because the clash of the Greek media view with the mainstream pro-NATO coverage found in many other countries generated negative views on Greece and its media on the international level. An examination of media content reveals that despite any differences concerning political or other factors, and regardless of the variations in the phrasing of the anti-NATO arguments, the overall media perspective exhibited a unanimous opposition to the bombing campaign. By placing the emphasis more or less on the same thematic areas as the world media, but by crucially reversing the line of reasoning (e.g. the refugee problem was blamed on the NATO bombing raids and not on Serbian atrocities, the Greek media invariably remained anti-war, anti-NATO and anti-Albanian in many particular cases, and in principle pro-Serb throughout. A study of the general media and the specific

  8. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  9. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage...... and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  10. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Dirk L

    2011-01-01

    In Miletus, about 550 B.C., together with our world-picture cosmology was born. This book tells the story. In Part One the reader is introduced in the archaic world-picture of a flat earth with the cupola of the celestial vault onto which the celestial bodies are attached. One of the subjects treated in that context is the riddle of the tilted celestial axis. This part also contains an extensive chapter on archaic astronomical instruments. Part Two shows how Anaximander (610-547 B.C.) blew up this archaic world-picture and replaced it by a new one that is essentially still ours. He taught that the celestial bodies orbit at different distances and that the earth floats unsupported in space. This makes him the founding father of cosmology. Part Three discusses topics that completed the new picture described by Anaximander. Special attention is paid to the confrontation between Anaxagoras and Aristotle on the question whether the earth is flat or spherical, and on the battle between Aristotle and Heraclid...

  11. Mechanical Assessment of Fire Damage of the Ancient Greek Temple of Marble Stone

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 眞生

    2016-01-01

    Historical masonry heritages buildings existing in earthquake-prone countries have been affected many times by earthquakes in their long histories. The Parthenon, Athens in Greece is one of the most famous buildings, and it well known that the Parthenon was damaged seriously by earthquakes and especially human disasters. Therefore, restoration works have been performed carefully since 1975. In addition, marble stone constructions, for example marble column, also suffered serious damage by two...

  12. Review of Perseus 2.0: Sources and Studies on Ancient Greek Culture [CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Eiteljorg, II

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available I have a love-hate relationship with the Perseus Project. Since I first learned about it, when it was still a plan more than a project, I have been impressed by its audacious scope. I have also been very impressed by the far-sightedness of the project directors as they have made certain that the data they store - not necessarily the data they put out on the commercial CDs but the underlying data stored on disc at project headquarters - have been stored in the most sophisticated and neutral formats possible. They have, for instance, used SGML for text and complex databases for other information. They are also storing mapping information in GIS format. On the other hand, I have found myself unimpressed with the CDs produced, both the original one in 1992 and the most recent version, Perseus 2.0, which was released recently. There is much in the new version to admire, much that impresses. Unfortunately, though, there is also much that is worrisome or ineffective or simply not of good quality.

  13. The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Mitevski

    2015-07-01

    Прличев е добро образован во старогрчкиот јазик и особено добар познавач  на Хомер. Под влијание на хомерската поезија, тој пишува на еден архаизиран грчки јазик епска поема под наслов ‛Ο ’Aρματωλός (во македонски превод Серадот или Мартолозот и со неа победува на поетскиот конкурс во Атина 1860 година. Второто негово епско дело под наслов Σκενδέρμπεης исто така е напишано во духот на хомерската поезија и тоа се гледа главно во областа на стилот (епитети и споредби и во композицијата (обработка на типични епски теми. На преведувачки план, Џинот најавува во печатот превод на трагедијата Антигона од Софокле, дело чија судбина исто така не ни е позната, а Прличев пишува препев на Хомеровата Илијада на еден посебен јазик кој претставува смеса од словенските јазици, а самиот автор го нарекува „општословенски“.

  14. The universe of conics from the ancient Greeks to 21st century developments

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg; Odehnal, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This text presents the classical theory of conics in a modern form. It includes many novel results that are not easily accessible elsewhere. The approach combines synthetic and analytic methods to derive projective, affine and metrical properties, covering both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. With more than two thousand years of history, conic sections play a fundamental role in numerous fields of mathematics and physics, with applications to mechanical engineering, architecture, astronomy, design and computer graphics. This text will be invaluable to undergraduate mathematics students, those in adjacent fields of study, and anyone with an interest in classical geometry. Augmented with more than three hundred fifty figures and photographs, this innovative text will enhance your understanding of projective geometry, linear algebra, mechanics, and differential geometry, with careful exposition and many illustrative exercises. Authors Hellmuth Stachel, born 1942, got his PhD and habilitation in geometry ...

  15. Translating ancient Greek aspect: Sappho's Fr. 1 Voigt / Janika Päll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päll, Janika, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Vana-kreeka keele aspektist, selle kasutamisest ja tõlkimisprobleemidest Sappho luuletuse tõlkeid analüüsides. Lisas toodud ka Sappho luuletus originaalkeeles, tõlked ladina, eesti, inglise, saksa, itaalia, prantsuse ja vene keelde

  16. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. On Three Locations Connected with Aristotle: Ancient Stagira - Mieza - Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed well-nigh simultaneous discoveries on three archaeological sites connected with Aristotle, which have eliminated many cliches and mistaken assumptions about the philosopher's life and work. These are: (1 his native town of Stagira, or Stagirus; (2 his school in the Macedonian town of Mieza; and (3 the location of the Peripatetic school, the Lyceum, at Athens. The first part of the article thus briefly surveys the most important discoveries about the layout of ancient Stagira, as described in the monograph by Konstantinos Sismanidis. The  main  archaeological finds include an early classical town-wall (an admirable example of military architecture, the  stoa,  an  aqueduct, the  foundations of three  temples, silver coins with the type of a wild boar, etc.-The second part moves from a preliminary description of Mieza to an  attempt at  reconstructing the philosophical ideas transmitted by Aristotle to Alexander and  his peers at Mieza- not  Pella-, using  Plutarch's Life of Alexander as a starting-point. Such education would have been  impossible if the Macedonians had not been  Greeks  and  their  language a Greek  dialect, and  it is the failure to realize this fact that has long impeded- and  still does- our understanding of Aristotle's attitude to Philip and  Alexander. The article touches on  the potential relevance of Alexander's politics for  the  present, which  may be sought in  its interplay of  two processes: the  spreading of Greek culture abroad on  the  one hand, and, on  the  other, the  preservation of  other cultures with which  the Greeks came into contact. The third part, drawing on  Rupp's book Peripatoi, presents the  latest archaeological discoveries relating to the exact location of Aristotle's Peripatos in Athens. In 323 BC -immediately after Alexander's death- Aristotle retired from Athens for the  second time, his life endangered by the  prevailing anti

  18. Stars, myths and rituals in Etruscan Rome

    CERN Document Server

    Magini, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a detailed and fascinating picture of the astonishing astronomical knowledge on which the Roman calendar, traditionally attributed to the king Numa Pompilius (reign 715-673 BC), was based. This knowledge, of Mesopotamian origins, related mainly to the planetary movements and to the occurrence of eclipses in the solar system. The author explains the Numan year and cycle and illustrates clearly how astronomical phenomena exerted a powerful influence over both public and private life. A series of concise chapters examines the dates of the Roman festivals, describes the related rites and myths, and places the festivals in relation to the planetary movements and astronomical events. Special reference is made to the movements of the moon and Venus, their relation to the language of myth, and the particular significance that Venus was considered to have for female fertility. The book clearly demonstrates the depth of astronomical knowledge reflected in the Roman religious calendar and the designated...

  19. Realities and myths of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis

    2001-01-01

    In the last ten years we have seen an impressive growth of electrical generation by wind power. However this increase cannot be explained by an advance of the technology or by the improvement of the economic factors. The explanation of the boom is based mostly on environmental aspects instead of strategic considerations on energy supply. In Argentina wind power is promoted as a kind of economically viable panacea based on four myths: the explosive growth of wind power, the decrease of costs as a function of the power increase, the wind power potential of Patagonia, the analogy with conventional technologies. The analysis of these myths shows that the global wind power production is very low and it is concentrated in few developed countries, it is supported by environmental interests and protected by important subsidies. In Argentina this support cannot be justified neither by environmental considerations nor by economic reasons

  20. Pasolini's Edipo Re: myth, play, and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Tony

    2013-08-01

    The pervasive influence of the Oedipus complex on world culture is a given, yet throughout the long history of motion pictures only one major filmmaker has tackled the literary source that inspired Freud. The film, Edipo Re, directed by Italian poet, novelist, and social and political activist Pier Paolo Pasolini, not only reconstructs the myth and adapts Sophocles' tragedy, but uses both as a basis of cinematic autobiography. This paper is a detailed analysis of the formal, stylistic, and thematic dimensions of this film, illustrating the complex manner in which Pasolini interweaves myth, play, and autobiography into a unique cinematic achievement. This analysis is followed by speculations on the implications of the film's structure and techniques and on what they reveal about Pasolini's character, his sexual profile, and the ignominious murder that ended his life.