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Sample records for ancho capsicum annuum

  1. The Effects Of Capsicum Annuum And Capsicum Frutescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Peppers, containing Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens are frequently consumed as spice in food. It is also known that the capsaicin content of peppers is a cause of hyper acidity. Aims:This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism of action of the extracts of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum ...

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  3. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  4. Prediction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) flavour over different harvests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Pohu-Flament, L.M.M.; Wit-Maljaars, de S.C.; Willeboordse-Vos, F.; Bos, S.; Benning-de Waard, C.; Grauw-van Leeuwen, de P.J.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand and predict the complex multifactorial trait flavor, volatile and non-volatile components were measured in fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits throughout the growing season in a diverse panel of 24 breeding lines, hybrids, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank

  5. dna profiling of capsicum annuum with the help of molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isha

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... 3Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal-506 009, India. Accepted 12 July, 2013. In the present study, genetic variability in 10 commercial ... future studies are aimed at molecular marker based pungency phenotyping. Key words: Capsicum annuum, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA, ...

  6. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In an attempt to determine a cold defense mechanism in plants, we have attempted to characterize changes occurring in the expression of cold-regulated transcript levels in the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), using cDNA microarray analysis, combined with Northern blot analysis. After analysing a 3⋅1 K hot pepper cDNA ...

  7. Assessment of pest insects of Capsicum annuum L.1753 (Solanaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper, Capsicum annuum is appreciated in tropical regions for its taste and its ability to increase the appetite level of food. This study aimed at investigating pest insects' diversity of pepper right from pricking out to harvest. It also examined how aphids and whiteflies populations vary in the plant's life cycle and specific fruit ...

  8. Effect of antrectomy on Capsicum annuum induced gastric acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The induction of gastric acid secretion by Capsicum annuum is attributed to its active principle, capsaicin, whose effect on the parietal cell is indirect. Capsaicin acutely stimulates sensory neurons to liberate acetylcholine which can release histamine from the enterochromaffin like cells. It also releases gastrin ...

  9. Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with ...

  10. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  11. Ecophysiological Response of Capsicum annuum L. Exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. Pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 5.6 (control),. 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, and 2.0) exposures on Capsicum annuum L. All pH levels with the exception of the control adversely affected all growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of leaves, root, stem ...

  12. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    protein homologue, xyloglucanendo-1,4-β-D-gucanase precursor, PR10, and the putative non-specific lipid transfer protein StnsLTP. [Hwang E-W, Kim K-A, Park S-C, Jeong M-J, Byun M-O and Kwon H-B 2005 Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions; J. Biosci. 30 657–667].

  13. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan M. Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-corrosive property of Capsicum annuum fruit paste (CFP on mild steel was investigated. Weight loss and SEM analysis showed that the aqueous and ethanolic solutions of CFP exhibits excellent corrosion inhibition in 2 M HCl. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated the formation of active compound-Fe complex. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  14. Characterization of genetic diversity of native 'Ancho' chili populations of Mexico using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Toledo-Aguilar; Higinio López-Sánchez; Amalio Santacruz-Varela; Ernestina Valadez-Moctezuma; Pedro A López; Víctor H Aguilar-Rincón; Víctor A González-Hernández; Humberto Vaquera-Huerta

    2016-01-01

    'Ancho' type chilis (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) are an important ingredient in the traditional cuisine of Mexico and so are in high demand. It includes six native sub-types with morphological and fruit color differences. However, the genetic diversity of the set of these sub­types has not been determined. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of native Mexican ancho chili populations using microsatellites and to determine the relationship among these popul...

  15. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  16. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  17. Competitive Ability of Capsicum annuum L. Relative to the Weed Amaranthus lividus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omezine Abdessatar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus lividus is the most frequently reported troublesome weed in the production of Capsicum annuum in some regions because it is an aggressive invader, difficult to control, and reduces yield significantly. The effects of A. lividus on the growth of C. annuum ‘Baklouti’ were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of A. lividus on the biomass accumulation of C. annuum seedlings for 40 days. In an additive experiment, to one C. annuum seedling and 1, 2, 3 or 4 A. lividus seedlings were grown per pot. The second experiment was established to assess C. annuum intracompetition using from one to six plants per pot as the density. In a replacement experiment, C. annuum and A. lividus seedlings were transplanted into pots with different proportions of both plants (1/5, 2/4, 3/3, 4/2, 5/1. Competition by A. lividus reduced C. annuum plant dry weight by as much as 93%. However, C. annuum had little effect on A. lividus, reducing dry weight by 31.3% at a 5:1 ratio of C. annuum: A. lividus. Relative yield analysis between C. annuum and A. lividus demonstrated the competitive advantage of C. annuum over A. lividus. The relative crowding coefficient of both plants changed significantly in the presence of the other plant, at any ratio. The aggressivity of C. annuum was higher at its lower proportion and C. annuum was more aggressive towards itself than towards A. lividus when its density increased.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN AGRIBISNIS CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annuum L DI KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernoiz Antriyandarti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of major commodity of horticulture in Central Java Province is chili (Capsicum annuum L. As a central area for agribusiness of Chili, Magelang needs the development to stimulate investment growth potential by involving all regional agribusiness, government, farmers/ agribusiness and private groups to work together in an integrated. This study aims to (1 Determine the feasibility of chilli farm; (2 Knowing the comparative advantage of the chili farm; and (3 Formulate developing agribusiness of Chili. This research uses descriptive analytical method. On farm analysis, quantitative data are converted and tabulated in the same unit. To determine the feasibility of Chili farm used analysis of R/C ratio. The greater the value of R/C ratio was more viable farm. Determination of comparative advantage of Chili is analyzed by the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. PAM results show the individual and collective effects of price and factor policies. Furthermore, this method can analyze the comparative advantage of a commodity. The result showed that Agribusiness of Chili is profitable both the private and social, and there are no disadvantage caused by the activities of Chili agribusiness. Thus agribusiness of chili can be further developed. The nontradeable inputs of chili farming have been used efficiently and provide added value for farmers. Domestic demand of chili is more profitable supplied by domestic production rather than imports. Farmers receive chili prices lower than it should and not get product price protection. Farmers pay the nontradeable input lower than it should. As for the tradeable inputs, farmers pay higher than it should. It can be concluded that the chili agribusiness has not received adequate protection.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  20. Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi Pyraclostrobin terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muryasani, Ayu Ainullah; Sulistyaningsih, Endang; Susila Putra, Eka Tarwaca

    2018-01-01

    Pemberian pyraclostrobin yang merupakan fungisida dari jenis strobilurin memiliki kemampuan untuk memacu sintesis prekursor IAA yaitu L-tryptopha yang dapat memicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan waktu aplikasi pyraclostrobin terbaik terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan kesehatan tanaman cabai (Capsicum annuum L.). Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta pada bulan Februari-Agustu...

  1. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  2. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  3. Three R2R3 MYB transcription factor genes from Capsicum annuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Three R2R3-MYB genes, designated CaMYB1, CaMYB2 and CaMYB3, were isolated from hot pepper. (Capsicum annuum. L). CaMYB1, CaMYB2 and CaMYB3 encode polypetides consisting of 340, 262 and. 345 amino acids respectively, containing R2R3 domain and the signature motif specific for the.

  4. Metode Pengusangan Cepat untuk Pengujian Vigor Daya Simpan Benih Cabai (Capsicum AnnuumL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ekowahyuni, Luluk Prihastuti; Sutjahjo, Surjono Hadi; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Suhartanto, Mohamad Rahmad; Syukur, Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    The ability of seed to maintain seed quality during storage is called seed vigor. Accurate method for seed vigor testing of pepper seeds is necessary to accurately determine seed storability during seed distribution. The aim of this research was to determine the best accelerated aging method (AAM) of pepper seed. Freshly harvested seeds of Capsicum annuumL., IPB C9 genotype were used in this study. The experiment used randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experi...

  5. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable inIndonesia, but the yield is low, and the breeding programs are confined to the conventional methods and not efficient. To improve the efficiency of the breeding programs by speeding up the production of homozygous lines, studies were aimed at the introduction of haploid technology, which includes the regeneration and the production of doubled haploid plants from gametes. This technique is well developed in the model speciesBrass...

  6. The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and scent leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were introduced to fresh water snail samples, the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, to test their molluscicidal effects. The materials were extracted using soxhlet extraction. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was ...

  7. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity in Stem of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Infected by Phytophthora capsici L.

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen Sulun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to the non-in...

  8. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  9. Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Navarrete, A

    1999-06-01

    The bioavailabilities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and of salicylic acid were studied in male Wistar rats after acute and chronic administration of a Capsicum annuum extract, containing 100 mg of capsaicin per gram. With a single administration of 100 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels remained unchanged, but salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 44% compared with control animals. With a single administration of 300 mg/kg of the extract, aspirin blood levels were undetectable while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 59%. Chronic administration once daily for 4 weeks of 100 and 300 mg/kg of the extract resulted in undetectable aspirin blood levels, while salicylic acid bioavailability was reduced in 63 and 76%, respectively, compared with controls. Results show that Capsicum ingestion reduces oral drug bioavailability, likely as a result of the gastrointestinal effects of capsaicin.

  10. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  11. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  12. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  13. INDEKS MITOSIS UJUNG AKAR KECAMBAH CABE BESAR (Capsicum annuum L. SETELAH PERLAKUAN SUSPENSI Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetroneLa Deno Raja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indeks mitosis ujung akar kecambah cabe besar (Capsicum annuum L. setelah perlakuan suspensi Trichoderma sp. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Udayana dari Oktober 2013-November 2013. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode squash, biji cabe untuk kontrol direndam dalam air ± 6 jam, untuk perlakuan biji setelah direndam air, direndam lagi dalam suspensi Trichoderma sp. 10-7 selama ± 6 jam, selanjutnya dikecambahkan. Ujung akar kecambah 2 mm dipotong, difiksasi dalam larutan farmer ± 2-24 jam, dihidrolisis dalam larutan 3N HCL ± 2-5 menit dan kemudian pewarnaan dengan aceto orcein ± 5 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan mikroskop binokuler, data pembelahan tiap fase mitosis dihitung (%, dicatat dan difoto, dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji paired T tes.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. berpengaruh terhadap indeks mitosis sel ujung akar Capsicum annuum L.,  pada fase metafase berbeda nyata antara kontrol dan perlakuan, sedangkan pada fase profase, anafase dan telofase berbeda tidak nyata.  Pada perlakuan persentase fase profase, metafase, anafase dan telofase (77,14%; 12,96 %; 5,88 % dan 5,23 % lebih tinggi dari kontrol (66,40 %; 5,44 %; 4,96 % dan 4,66 %.

  14. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  15. Shifts in Plant Chemical Defenses of Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Due to Domestication in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Luna-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    the ways in which incipient domestication through “balancing selection” in wild Capsicum annuum populations may have led to the release of selective biotic and abiotic pressures. We then analyze which shifts under cultivation generated the emergence of Capsicum chemotypes, morphotypes and ecotypes not found in high frequencies in the wild. We hypothesize that this “competitive release” can lead to a diversification of the domesticate's investment in a greater diversity of SM potency across different cultural uses, cropping systems and ecogeographic regions. While most studies of plant domestication processes focus on morphological changes that confer greater utility or productivity in human-managed environments, we conclude that changes in the chemical ecology of a useful plant can be of paramount importance to their cultivators. The genus Capsicum can therefore provide an unprecedented opportunity to compare the roles of SMs in wild plants grown in natural Neotropical ecosystems with their domesticated relatives in the milpa agro-ecosystems of Mesoamerica. Even with the current depth of knowledge available for crop species in the genus Capsicum and Solanum, our understanding of how particular SMs affect the reproduction and survival of wild vs. domesticated solanaceous plants remains in its infancy.

  16. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

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    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  17. Carotenoids from Capsicum annuum fruits: Influence of spectral quality of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Candela, M.E.; Sabater, F.

    1986-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L. cv. Ramillete fruits grown in the field were covered 60 d after flowering with “white”, yellow, red and blue cellophane filters. Two other sets were left in full sunlight and under cover, respectively. After 30 d of treatment, during the ripening period, the contents of individual carotenoids were analyzed. The red radiation was the most effective to increase the carotenoid biosynthesis, but the green and blue radiations inhibited their production. Either class of filters inhibited the formation of capsanthin, the most important carotenoid in the production of red colour of the maturation, but capsorubin, the other carotenoid responsible for the maturation colour, was more enhanced in the shade and under red radiation. Neither type of radiation was so efficient in increasing the total carotenoids content as the full sun radiation

  18. Antioxidant Properties of Fractions for Unripe Fruits of Capsicum annuum L. var. Conoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Shen, Gao-Mai; Yu, Tzu-Jung; Liao, Yi-Shin; Jian, Ru-In; Wang, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-02-07

    Capsicum plant, especially for C. annuum, is an abundant resource for bioactive antioxidants, but few studies have examined the unripe fruit part of the Capsicum plant. MeOH extract of unripe fruits of C. annuum L. var. conoides (UFCA) was chromatographed over a silica gel column using a gradient of CH2Cl2/MeOH as eluent to produce 9 fractions. Antioxidant activities are evaluated along with cell viabilities of 9 fractions of UFCA. The antioxidant properties were analyzed in terms of total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. The cell viability of human oral cancer cells (Ca9-22) was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Except for TFC, fractions (Frs.) 1 and 2 showed the lowest level of these antioxidant properties. Frs. 3 to 9 showed dose-responsive induction for antioxidant effects. Fr. 8 and Fr. 5 respectively showed the highest levels of TPC and TFC for 1162 ± 11 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg)/UFCA (g) and 1295 ± 32 quercetin equivalents (QCE) (mg)/UFCA (g). The cell viability of Fr. 3 was moderately decreased (78.2%) while those of Frs. 4, 5, and 9 were dramatically decreased (55.6, 57.8, and 46.8%, respectively) in oral cancer Ca9-22 cells. UFCA-derived 14 compounds/mixtures derived from Frs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 displayed differential antioxidant performance for these analyses. Taken together, fractions of UFCA displayed diverse antioxidant and anticancer effects for oral cancer cells. Some fractions of UFCA may be potent natural antioxidant supplements for antioral cancer cell treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Pendugaan Parameter Genetik Karakter Umur Panen dan Bobot Per Buah pada Persilangan Cabai Besar dan Cabai Rawit (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Abdullah B; Oktaviana, Linda; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Syukur, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of Genetic Parameter on Days to Harvest and Weight Per Fruit Characters of Hybrization Chilli and Cayyenne Papper (Capsicum annuum L.). Abdullah B. Arif, Linda Oktaviana, Sriani Sujiprihati, and Muhamad Syukur. Selection method is one of the most important factors in determining the success of pepper breeding programs. Selection method will be effective if it is supported by a complete knowledge of genetic character inheritance. The objective of this study was to aim information of...

  20. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum (L.) with Rhizobium strains. 1. Effect on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important agricultural crop and an excellent dietary source of natural colors and antioxidant compounds. The levels of these compounds can vary according to agricultural practices, like inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this work we evaluated for the first time the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on C. annuum metabolites and bioactivity. The results revealed a decrease of organic acids and no effect on phenolics and capsaicinoids of leaves from inoculated plants. In the fruits from inoculated plants organic acids and phenolic compounds decreased, showing that fruits from inoculated plants present a higher ripeness stage than those from uninoculated ones. In general, the inoculation with Rhizobium did not improve the antioxidant activity of pepper fruits and leaves. Considering the positive effect on fruit ripening, the inoculation of C. annuum with Rhizobium is a beneficious agricultural practice for this nonlegume.

  1. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

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    Xue Lin B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development.

  2. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  3. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

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    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  4. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Damage Analysis and Establishment of Control Threshold for Phytophthora Blight of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Phytophthora blight of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum and yield (fresh weight of pepper fruits were investigated at four separate fields located in Cheongwon, Boeun, Eumsung, and Goesan, which are major pepper production areas in Chungcheongbuk-Do. In all of the experimental fields except the Goesan field, increased incidence of Phytophthora blight led to decreased yield of pepper fruits. The harvest time in which the yield of red pepper fruits was highly correlated with the incidence of Phytophthora blight was different between areas: it was highly correlated in the third harvest in Cheongwon (y=-11.0x+435.2, r2= 0.99, but in the second harvest in Boeun (y=-15.0x+944.6, r2=0.76. In contrast, there was a very low correlation between the pepper yield and the disease incidence in Goesan in which pepper seedlings grafted on resistant stocks were planted. The final disease incidence in the Cheongwon experimental field reached 100% more than 40 days later in 2007 compared with that in 2006. The control threshold of Phytophthora blight in the pepper fields where disease incidence had been lower than 5% was set as 0.8% disease incidence, which caused less than 5% yield loss

  6. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. under Ambient Storage

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    Qumer Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g. Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05 declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality.

  7. Isolation and structural features of an antiradical polysaccharide of Capsicum annuum that interacts with BSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Sayani; Ghosh, Kanika; Micard, Valérie; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-04-01

    Red peppers, Capsicum annuum, are used worldwide as spices, foods and medicines. Herein, we have analyzed an antiradical polysaccharide isolated from red peppers through successive acetate buffer extraction. This macromolecule was purified using graded precipitation with ethanol, α-amylase treatment, deproteination and anion-exchange chromatography. This highly-branched polysaccharide (360 kDa) was esterified with phenolic acids and contained a (1,3)-linked-β-Galp chain substituted at O-6 by (1,6)-linked-β-Galp residues. The latter was substituted at O-3 by (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked-α-Araf residues, and non-reducing end-units of α-Araf and β-Galp. The antiradical potential of this polysaccharide was comparable to standard antioxidants. The phenolic acid residues were the functional sites. This polysaccharide could form complex with bovine serum albumin having binding constant K = 5.24 × 10(6)/M and change its microenvironment. Thus, aqueous extraction method provides a macromolecule that stimulates biological responses; this emphasizes the significance of red pepper as dietary antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Yu, Shuixin; Gui, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Biological synthesis approach has been regarded as a green, eco-friendly and cost effective method for nanoparticles preparation without any toxic solvents and hazardous bi-products during the process. This present study reported a facile and rapid biosynthesis method for gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract in a single-pot process. The aqueous pulp extract was used as biotic reducing agent for gold nanoparticle growing. Various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and quasi-spherical shapes) were observed within range of 6-37 nm. The UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak for the formed GNPs at 560 nm after 10 min incubation at room temperature. The possible influences of extract amount, gold ion concentration, incubation time, reaction temperature and solution pH were evaluated to obtain the optimized synthesis conditions. The effects of the experimental factors on NPs synthesis process were also discussed. The produced gold nanoparticles were characterized by transform electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the as-obtained GNPs were well dispersed and stable with good catalytic activity. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract were responsible for the capping and stabilization of GNPs.

  9. Effect of LED light on seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. serrano

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    Alejandra María Moreno-Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a crop of economic, nutritional and medicinal importance; so it is necessary to increase its production and improve its characteristics. The objective of this research was to evaluate the stimulatory effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs on serrano pepper seedlings. Germination percentage, stem length, leaf width, leaf length, number of leaves, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were analyzed. The seeds were exposed to white, blue and red LED light, using fluorescent light as a control and a photoperiod of 11/13 hours. Once germinated, the seedlings continued with exposure to light for 30 days. After the laboratory conditions, the seedlings were transferred to a greenhouse for 60 days. The results show that there were no significant differences between LED light treatments on seed germination. The variables stem length, leaf width and leaf length, were favored with red light. Blue and red LEDs highlighted by increasing the number of leaves. Seedlings treated with blue light showed the highest content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll= 0.84 mg g-1, carotenoid= 0.12 mg g-1. In conclusion, the red LED light is effective for the growth of serrano pepper seedlings, while the production of photosynthetic pigments was favored by blue LED light.   Keywords: peppers, light-emitting diodes, germination, growth, photosynthetic pigments

  10. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  11. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents.

  12. Evaluation of the oxidative stability of Chipotle chili (Capsicum annuum L. oleoresins in avocado oil

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    L. Cerecedo-Cruz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. (Chipotle chili is a natural source of bioactive metabolites with antioxidant properties. The objective of this research was to obtain and characterize the oxidative stability under storage of Chipotle chili oleoresins extracted with cold-pressed avocado oil. The most efficient conditions obtained to extract carotenoids and phenolic compounds were at 1:3 ratio (chipotle chili: avocado oil; w:v at room temperature in darkness during 48 h. At the end of the harshest conditions (45 °C, 30 days, the extracts were stable to lipid oxidation with a final Totox value of 27.34, a carotenoid preservation of 85.6%, antioxidant activity retention of 80.66% and a color change (ΔE of 1.783. The kinetic constants obtained were higher for peroxide formation than for carotenoid degradation. The oleoresins obtained could be considered an economic and sustainable alternative to extract carotenoids with good oxidation stability that could be used in foodstuffs.

  13. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  14. Estudio de modificaciones químicas en Capsicum annuum, L. durante su conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Oruña Concha, María José

    2017-01-01

    La hortaliza seleccionada para llevar a cabo el trabajo es el pimiento tipo Padrón (Capsicum annuum L.) tan apreciado en la Comunidad Gallega. La denominación de hortalizas, comprende un amplio y diverso grupo de alimentos de origen vegetal de difícil definición en el que comúnmente se engloban todos los productos vegetales que no son frutas, cereales o frutos secos. Botánicamente es un grupo complejo, en el que se encuentran representadas familias muy diferentes, así como distintas partes de...

  15. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BUNGA FLAMBOYAN (Delonix regia Hook Raf TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI MERAH BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Royana Pakpahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reach aim to the effect of flamboyant (Delonix regia Hook Raf. flower extract on the growth of large red pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., for use a land under of flamboyant trees. The research design used was Random Block Design, with five treatments extract concentration, control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, each treatment was repeated five time. Observations were made during the 15 weeks. The results showed the percentage of germination and plant height are effect significant, while the number of leaves, root length and dry weight of the plant does not provide effect for the growth of large red pepper plant. Keywords : flamboyant, allelopathy, large red pepper

  16. Osmocondicionamento em sementes de pimenta 'amarela comprida' (Capsicum annuum L.) Submetidas à deterioração controlada

    OpenAIRE

    Fialho,Gustavo Sessa; Silva,Camila Andrade; Dias,Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos; Alvarenga,Eveline Mantovani; Barros,Willian Silva

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico no desempenho de sementes de pimenta submetidas à deterioração controlada. Para tanto, sementes de pimenta 'Amarela Comprida' (Capsicum annuum L.), com teor de água ajustado para 24%, foram submetidas à deterioração controlada em banho-maria a 45ºC por 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Em seguida, foram osmocondicionadas em solução de PEG 6000 a -1,1 MPa, por 0, 6 e 8 dias. Avaliaram-se a germinação, primeira contagem de germinação...

  17. Biocontrol of certain soilborne diseases and promotion of growth of capsicum annuum using biofungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, A.; Abdelbacki, A.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Colored pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has great economic importance as a food vegetable crop in Egypt and all over the world. This crop is prone to infection with soilborne fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These mycopathogens were isolated from diseased pepper seedlings, identified; their virulence was confirmed in the greenhouse. Eight bacterial isolates mainly; (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), and many fungal isolates mainly, (Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride), were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pepper. They caused appreciable In vitro inhibition of the radial growth of the 3 pathogens in dual culture technique, in percentages ranging from (71-79%) and (80-87%), respectively. On infestation of pepper soil with these bioagents and the 3 pathogens separately in the greenhouse, they caused In vivo reduction of disease symptoms of pepper compared with the pathogens infested and non-infested control soils. In addition, they caused significant improvement of pepper growth compared with the control soil, however, promotion exerted by B. subtilis and T. harzianum was more than that of P. fluorescens and T. viride. These promoting activities could be attributed to the production of metabolites such as growth hormones; solubilization of phosphates and improvement of nutrient uptake. This is the first record of promoting the growth of pepper in greenhouse by B. subtilis and T. harzianum in Egypt. Thus these bioagents could be formulated then applied in the future in pepper fields of this country as safe, effective, ecofriendly biofungicides to control soilborne pathogens and also could be used as biofertilizers to promote the growth and productivity of this crop. (author)

  18. Resposta de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1885 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae frente ao extrato de Capsicum annuum L.

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    Juliana Ferreira da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso desenfreado de agrotóxicos vem a ser um caso de saúde pública, pois prejudica a saúde do trabalhador do campo assim como do consumidor final desses produtos. O Sitophilus zeamais é uma praga de armazenamento que ataca o milho, e no combate a essa praga comumente é utilizado produtos tóxicos. Visando essa problemática, a busca por produtos alternativos vem a ser um campo de investigação promissor, pois esse método de controle não gera resíduos para o homem tão pouco ao meio ambiente. O extrato utilizado para avaliar o potencial de repelência foi o de Capsicum annuum L. popularmente conhecido como pimentão. Os testes foram realizados com a utilização de arenas, onde em cada arena foram liberados 30 adultos de S. zeamais, não sexados e após 24 horas, foram registrados o número de insetos em cada recipiente. Os grãos de milho foram tratados com volume de extrato correspondente a 1,0% da massa de grãos, nas concentrações 0,0 (álcool 70%; 25,0; 50,0; 75,0 e 100,0% (volume de extrato/volume álcool. O experimento foi organizado segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado e constou de cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As maiores repelências foram observadas nas concentrações de 25% e 100%, repelindo 72 e 70% dos insetos respectivamente. Sendo assim a utilização desse extrato pode ser empregado no tratamento de sementes armazenadas, evitando assim uma maior infestação desses insetos, preservando assim a integridade física e fisiológica das sementes.

  19. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Properties of Hot Pepper Flower (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-09-01

    At present, the various medical treatments of obesity involve side effects. The aim of the research is therefore to find natural compounds that have anti-obesity activity with minimum disadvantages. In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from Capsicum annuum L. was examined through the evaluation of inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Phytochemical analysis indicated that total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract was 128.7 ± 4.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent/g of crude extract and 17.66 ± 0.11 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited pancreatic lipase with IC50 value equal to 3.54 ± 0.18 mg/ml. It also inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 value of 27.61 ± 2.25 μg/ml after 30 min of incubation and 41.69 ± 1.13 μg/ml after 60 min of incubation. The IC50 value of radical scavenging activity was 51.90 ± 2.03 μg/ml. The extract was also able to inhibit NO production (IC50 = of 264.3 ± 7.98 μg/ml) without showing any cytotoxic effect.

  20. BAC-derived markers converted from RFLP linked to Phytophthora capsici resistance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Nahm, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Yoon, Gi-Bo; Kim, Ki-Taek; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil; Kweon, Oh Yeol; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Han, Jung-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Minkyu; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Choi, Soon Ho; Her, Nam Han; Sung, Joo-Hee; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-12-01

    Phytophthora capsici Leonian, an oomycete pathogen, is a serious problem in pepper worldwide. Its resistance in pepper is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). To detect QTL associated with P. capsici resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed using 100 F(2) individuals from a cross between Capsicum annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho'. This linkage map consisted of 202 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 WRKYs and 1 simple sequence repeat (SSR) covering 1482.3 cM, with an average interval marker distance of 7.09 cM. QTL mapping of Phytophthora root rot and damping-off resistance was performed in F(2:3) originated from a cross between resistant Mexican landrace C. annuum 'CM334' and susceptible Korean landrace C. annuum 'Chilsungcho' using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis. Four QTL explained 66.3% of the total phenotypic variations for root rot resistance and three 44.9% for damping-off resistance. Of these QTL loci, two were located close to RFLP markers CDI25 on chromosome 5 (P5) and CT211A on P9. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from C. annuum 'CM334' was screened with these two RFLP probes to obtain sequence information around the RFLP marker loci for development of PCR-based markers. CDI25 and CT211 probes identified seven and eight BAC clones, respectively. Nine positive BAC clones containing probe regions were sequenced and used for cytogenetic analysis. One single-nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) for the CDI25 locus, and two SSRs and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) for CT211 were developed using sequences of the positive BAC clones. These markers will be valuable for rapid selection of genotypes and map-based cloning for resistance genes against P. capsici.

  1. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying : an instrumental and sensory evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white)

  2. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes

  3. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  4. Determinación preliminar de normas e interacciones nutrimentales en chile ancho (Capsicum annuum L en la Comarca Lagunera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa I. Ramírez-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Algoritmo de Recocido Simulado, cristalización simulada o enfriamiento simulado, es un algoritmo de búsqueda metaheurística para problemas de optimización; el objetivo general de este tipo de algoritmos es encontrar una buena aproximación al valor óptimo de una función en un espacio de búsqueda grande. A este valor se lo denomina "óptimo local u óptimo global". El nombre e inspiración viene del proceso de recocido del acero y cerámicas, una técnica que consiste en calentar y luego enfriar lentamente el material para variar sus propiedades físicas. El calor causa que los átomos aumenten su energía y que puedan así desplazarse de sus posiciones iniciales (un mínimo local de energía; el enfriamiento lento les da mayores probabilidades de recristalizar en configuraciones con menor energía que la inicial (mínimo global. El método fue descrito independientemente por Scott Kirkpatrick, C. Daniel Gelatt y Mario P. Vecchi en 1983.

  5. Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of Agriculture, Shimoga, India during kharif (September 2003 to January 2004) and summer (March-June) 2004. After proving its pathogenicity, the potential of the mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum was evaluated under field conditions using the popular chilli variety "Byadagi". Different combinations of Fusarium semitectum formulations with monocrotophos (0.025% and 0.05%) were tested. Oil-emulsion and dust-water formulations (DWF) at 1x 10(8) spore/ml, DWF with monocrotophos and 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) were evaluated. Population of S. dorsalis, P. latus, predatory mite Amblyseius ovalis and damage index were estimated. Populations of thrips, mite and the predatory mite were estimated at 15 days interval after 30 days of transplanting. Damage index was assessed using a visual rating method. Plant height, fruit length and dry chilli yield of each treatment were also taken. Among the treatments, oil-emulsion formulation and dust water formulation of F. semitectum in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) reduced the population of thrips significantly over other treatments. Dust water formulation was achieved a significant decline of thrips population in chilli plants after 60 days of transplanting. This reduction of thrips population could be achieved due to the effect of second spraying, which was given at 50 days after transplanting. Chilli plant height and fruit length did not vary significantly among the treatment in both seasons. The highest dry chilli yield of 512 and 1058 kg/ha was recorded in dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) followed by oil formulation (432 kg/ha and 763 kg/ha) in Kharif and summer seasons, respectively

  6. Variabilidade em população base de pimenteiras ornamentais (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José da Silva Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar progênies de uma população base de pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas 54 plantas de uma geração F2 de pimenteiras ornamentais, para se avaliarem os seguintes caracteres morfoagronômicos: altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DDC, altura da primeira bifurcação (APB, diâmetro do caule (DCL, comprimento da folha (CFL, largura da folha (LFL, comprimento da corola (CDC, comprimento de antera (CANT, comprimento do estilete (CES e largura da pétala (LAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias para o teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,01. Com exceção do CANT, verificaram-se diferenças significativas para os demais descritores, pelo Teste F. O DCL foi o descritor com maior herdabilidade (99,49%, seguido de DDC (96,14% e APB (94,05%. O caractere DCL apresentou maior variabilidade entre as plantas, formando 13 classes, seguido de DDC, com oito e APB, com seis classes. Quando se utilizaram as técnicas multivariadas, foi possível agrupar as 54 plantas em oito grupos, sendo o grupo 1 o que reuniu maior número de plantas (35. A característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência genética foi o diâmetro do caule (68,97%, seguida pelo diâmetro da copa (9,22%, altura da primeira bifurcação (6,76% e altura da planta (4,58%. Já as características de flor foram as que menos contribuíram para a variabilidade (10,47%. Houve variabilidade entre as plantas estudadas, sendo possível praticar seleção dentro dessa família, dando continuidade ao Programa de Melhoramento de Pimenteiras.

  7. Mycotoxin production by isolates of Fusarium lactis from greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Bouras, N; Yang, J; Howard, R J; Strelkov, S E

    2011-12-02

    Internal fruit rot, caused by Fusarium lactis, is an important disease of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in Canadian greenhouses. Production of the mycotoxins fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA) by F. lactis (17 isolates) and the related species F. proliferatum (three isolates) and F. verticillioides (one isolate), which are also associated with internal fruit rot, was evaluated on rice medium. All 21 isolates examined were found to produce BEA, at concentrations ranging from 13.28 to 1674.60 ppm, while 13 of 17 F. lactis isolates and two of three F. proliferatum isolates produced MON (0.23 to 181.85 ppm). Only one isolate of F. lactis produced detectable levels of FB₁ in culture, whereas all three F. proliferatum isolates and the F. verticilloides isolate produced this mycotoxin (0.28 to 314 ppm). Production of FB₁, MON and BEA was also evaluated in inoculated pepper fruits showing mild or severe symptoms of infection. FB₁ could be detected in both lightly and heavily diseased fruit tissue after inoculation with F. lactis, F. proliferatum or F. verticilloides, at concentrations ranging from 0.61 to 8.04 ppm. BEA was also detected in lightly and heavily diseased fruit tissue inoculated with F. lactis, as well as in heavily diseased tissue inoculated with F. proliferatum (3.00 to 19.43 ppm), but not in tissue inoculated with F. verticilloides. MON was detected in all tissues inoculated with F. proliferatum or F. verticilloides, and in heavily diseased tissue inoculated with F. lactis (0.03 to 0.27 ppm). The three mycotoxins were also found in naturally infected sweet pepper fruits exhibiting symptoms of internal fruit rot and collected from a commercial greenhouse. The production of MON, BEA and FB₁ alone or in combination by isolates of F. lactis suggests that development of internal fruit rot of sweet pepper is an important food safety concern, and that every effort should be made to cull infected fruit before it makes it to

  8. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  9. Rhizobium capsici sp. nov., isolated from root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Wen, Cheng-Zhe; Arun, A B; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and motile bacterium, designated strain CC-SKC2(T), was isolated from the root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant in Taiwan. Cells were positive for oxidase and catalase activities and exhibited growth at 25-37 °C, pH 4.0-9.0 and tolerated NaCl concentrations up to 4.0 % (w/v). Strain CC-SKC2(T) is able to trigger nodulation in soybean (Glycine max Merr.), but not in Capsicum annuum var. grossum, red bean (Vigna angularis), sesbania (Sesbania roxburghii Merr.) or alfalfa (Medicago varia Martin.). The novel strain shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T) and Rhizobium straminoryzae CC-LY845(T) (both 97.5 %) followed by Rhizobium lemnae L6-16(T) (97.3 %), Rhizobium pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) (97.1 %), and Rhizobium paknamense NBRC 109338(T) (97.0 %), whereas other Rhizobium species shared Rhizobium species. The major fatty acids in strain CC-SKC2(T) were C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C14:0 3-OH and/or C16:1 iso I and C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c. The polyamine pattern showed predominance of spermidine and moderate amounts of sym-homospermidine. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-10) and the DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented here, strain CC-SKC2(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium capsici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-SKC2(T) (=BCRC 80699(T) = JCM 19535(T)).

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides in the management of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Mariana O; Oliveira, José V; Esteves Filho, Alberto B; Barbosa, Douglas Rs; Santos, Andrezo A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects is of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. In this study, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L. and other crops. Abamectin had the highest lethal effect on P. latus, followed by spiromesifen, azadirachtin, neem oil and nitrogen fertiliser + citric acid. The sublethal effects of the products were indicated by the influence on mite population growth, affecting the numbers of females, males, larvae, pupae and eggs. Furthermore, a negative instantaneous rate of increase in P. latus and repellent effects were observed. The lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spiromesifen, azadirachtin and neem oil significantly affect P. latus population growth, as well as causing repellence to this mite on C. annuum, and they should be considered in the integrated pest management of this mite. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. In Vivo Monitoring on Growth and Spread of Gray Leaf Spot Disease in Capsicum annuum Leaf Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT in diagnosis of growth and spread of the gray leaf spot disease in Capsicum annuum leaf caused by the fungus Stemphylium lycopersici. Using 2D cross-sectional and 3D volumetric images of OCT, in vivo study of layer differences between fungus infected leaves and healthy leaves was observed with distinctive features. We observed that the internal layers of the disease-affected parts of the leaf seem to merge forming a single thick layer. The obtained OCT results verify the noninvasive diagnosis ability of fungal growth and spread in Capsicum annuum leaves and the applicability of this methodology for other plant diseases.

  12. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Akbar, M.; Shaukat, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  13. UJI KETAHANAN TANAMAN CABAI KERITING (Capsicum annuum L.) HASIL INDUKSI MUTASI DENGAN ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE (EMS) PADA GENERASI KEDUA TERHADAP PENYAKIT ANTRAKNOSA

    OpenAIRE

    DWI RINI KURNIA FITRI

    2016-01-01

    The research study about the screening of the resistance of red chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) resulted from mutation induced by Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) on the second generation (M2) to antrachnose diseases has been done by using descriptive method to intensity diseases of Colletotrichum capsici from mutant fruit of second generation. The result showed that the intensity of antrachnose on red chilli generation ranged from 23.69% to 54.82% with tolerance criteria susceptible and very susce...

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  15. Inheritance of reaction to Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arn. in Capsicum annuum L. Herança da reação à Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arn. em Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Ferreira Blat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungicides to control powdery mildew in sweet pepper has been ineffective and genetic resistance is the best alternative. Resistance sources identified in Capsicum annuum L. are rare and unsatisfactory. The purpose of this work was to study the inheritance of C. annuum reaction to powdery mildew. Three homozygous powdery mildew resistant parents, HV-12, Chilli and #124 and three susceptible lines, 609, 442 and 428 were used to obtain seven F1's and respectively their generations F2: HV-12 x 609, 442 × HV-12, 428 × HV-12, Chilli × 609, #124 × 609, Chilli × HV-12 and #124 × HV-12. The powdery epidemic was natural using inoculum from highly sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruit production using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: locus numbers, gene action, heritability coefficient, expected selection gain and observed progress in F3 generation, and possibly allelic relationship among resistance genes of different resistance sources. The HV-12×609 cross was the only one that showed absence of dominance. Other genetically analyzed crossings showed dominant and epistatic effects. Resistance was characterized as being due to at least four pairs of genes. The heritability and selection gains estimates were high. The resistance mechanisms of #124, Chilli and HV-12 showed differences in their expression.O uso de fungicidas no controle do oídio do pimentão tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. As fontes de resistência identificadas em Capsicum annuum L. são raras e não satisfatórias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a herança da reação de C. annuum ao oídio. Três progenitores resistentes e homozigóticos, HV-12, Chilli e #124 e três suscet

  16. Osmocondicionamento em sementes de pimenta 'amarela comprida' (Capsicum annuum L. Submetidas à deterioração controlada Osmotic conditioning in seeds of 'long yellow' pepper (Capsicum annuum L. subjected to controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sessa Fialho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico no desempenho de sementes de pimenta submetidas à deterioração controlada. Para tanto, sementes de pimenta 'Amarela Comprida' (Capsicum annuum L., com teor de água ajustado para 24%, foram submetidas à deterioração controlada em banho-maria a 45ºC por 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Em seguida, foram osmocondicionadas em solução de PEG 6000 a -1,1 MPa, por 0, 6 e 8 dias. Avaliaram-se a germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, germinação a baixa temperatura, velocidade de germinação a 15ºC e a 25°C, massa seca de plântulas e comprimento de raiz primária. Verificou-se que o condicionamento osmótico foi benéfico à germinação das sementes de pimenta deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, não prejudicando a germinação das sementes de alta qualidade fisiológica e ainda contribuiu para melhorar o vigor tanto das sementes não deterioradas quanto das deterioradas por 48 e 72 horas, constituindo-se em procedimento promissor para elevar a qualidade fisiológica das mesmas.The osmotic conditioning technique has been considered promising for improving the physiological potential of seeds of various species. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of osmotic conditioning on the performance of pepper seeds subjected to controlled deterioration. Thus, seeds of 'Long Yellow pepper' (Capsicum annuum L., with water content adjusted to 24%, were subjected to controlled deterioration in water bath at 45 °C for 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. After that, they were osmotic conditioning in PEG 6000 to -1.1 MPa during 0, 6 and 8 days. The germination, first count of germination, germination at low temperature, speed of germination at 15 º C and 25 °C, dry weight of seedlings and length of primary root were evaluated. It was found that the osmotic conditioning was beneficial to the germination of pepper seeds deteriorated by 48 and 72 hours, not affecting the

  17. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  18. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Hernández-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406±4 μg/g, pasilla 2933±1 μg/g, and ancho 1437±6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%. They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief.

  19. Identification of a novel endophytic Bacillus sp. from Capsicum annuum with highly efficient and broad spectrum plant probiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, B; Mathew, J; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2016-10-01

    The study mainly aimed the isolation and characterization of plant probiotic endophytic bacteria from Capsicum annuum to explore its multipotent agricultural applications. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the surface sterilized fruit tissue. The isolates were then subjected to PCR-based screening for the presence of potential biosynthetic gene clusters. The PCR positive isolate was then analysed for its inhibitory effect towards fungal and bacterial pathogens. The compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity was purified from large scale culture and subjected to identification by LC-MS/MS. The ability of the selected isolate in plant growth enhancement was also done using Vigna radiata seedlings. In this study, an endophytic bacterium isolated from C. annuum was found to have the phenotypic and genetic basis for broad antimicrobial property. PCR-based sequence analysis has resulted in the identification of nonribosomal peptide synthases, PKS Type I, Iturin, surfactin, DAPG and gacA genes in the selected isolate CaB 5. The bioactivity-guided fractionation using column and HPLC purification of active fraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis has proved the presence of surfactin derivatives (M+H(+) - 1008 & 1036) and iturin (M+H(+) - 1058) as the basis of antimicrobial activity of CaB 5. The isolate was identified as a novel Bacillus sp. because of its low (76%) identity to the reported sequences. Endophytes are considered to have the genetic basis for a diverse array of bioactive metabolites which can have significant applications in both pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The identification of CaB 5 with broad bioactivity and excellent plant growth enhancement on taxonomically distinct plant species as explained in current study and our previous reports highlights its plant probiotic applicability. This proves the potential of the isolate obtained in the study to be an excellent plant probiotic. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile of Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Cui, Junjie; Xu, Xiaowan; Liang, Guansheng; Luo, Xirong; Chen, Xiaocui; Tang, Xiangqun; Hu, Kailin; Qin, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factor family is unique to plants and has diverse roles associated with plant-specific phenomena, such as light, phytohormone and defense responses as well as seed development and germination. Although, genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in many species, information regarding Dof genes in the pepper, Capsicum annuum L., is extremely limited. In this study, exhaustive searches of pepper genome revealed 33 potential CaDofs that were phylogenetically clustered into four subgroups. Twenty-nine of the 33 Dof genes could be mapped on 11 chromosomes, except for chromosome 7. The intron/exon organizations and conserved motif compositions of these genes were also analyzed. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Dof transcription factor family in eight plant species revealed that S. lycopersicum and C. annuum as well as O. sativa and S. bicolor Dof proteins may have evolved conservatively. Moreover, comprehensive expression analysis of CaDofs using a RNA-seq atlas and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Most of the CaDofs were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, whereas several genes were identified as being highly responsive to heat and salt stresses. Overall, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the pepper Dof family, whose genes exhibited different expression patterns in all primary fruit developmental stages and tissue types, as in response to abiotic stress. In particular, some Dof genes might be used as biomarkers for heat and salt stress. The results could expand our understanding of the roles of Dof genes in pepper.

  1. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  2. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

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    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  3. Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seed (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China

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    Yu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g, followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g. The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g. Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.

  4. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture.

  5. The effects of cellulase on capsaicin production in freely suspended cells and immobilized cell cultures of capsicum annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islek, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of cellulase on the production of capsaicin in freely suspended cell and immobilized cell cultures of Kahramanmara pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) were studied. Calluses were obtained from in vitro germinated hypocotyl explants of pepper seedlings and cell suspensions were prepared from these calluses. Immobilized cell suspension cultures with calcium alginate and free cell suspension cultures were obtained by using cell suspensions. Elicitor such as cellulase (5-30 micro g/ml), was applied both for the free and immobilized cell suspensions and control group without elicitor was prepared. The concentration of capsaicin in freely suspended cells, immobilized cells and their filtrates were identified by HPLC after extraction with ethyl acetate. It was found that the immobilization process had an increasing effect on the capsaicin accumulation. The concentration of capsaicin in the immobilized cells for both control groups and elicitor added samples was higher than the free cells. In general, capsaicin concentration in the filtrate for free cells was higher than the immobilized cells. When all the cellulase and the sampling hours were compared, the highest capsaicin concentration for the immobilized cells was determined as 362,91 micro g/ml f.w. at the 24th hour for 30 micro g/ml cellulase applied samples. (author)

  6. Evaluation of a New Mexico Landrace and Two Commercial Chile (Capsicum annuum Cultivars under Four Furrow Irrigation Schedules

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    Israel Joukhadar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial and landrace chile (Capsicum annuum cultivars are cultivated under furrow irrigation systems in Northern New Mexico. Yield and physiological differences between commercial and landrace chile cultivars under furrow irrigation systems have not been evaluated. In 2011 and 2012 two commercial chiles, ‘Sandia’ and ‘NuMex Big Jim’, with one landrace chile, ‘Chimayo’, were evaluated under four irrigation schedules, with irrigation once every 7, 9, 11, and 13-days. These four schedules represent possible water availability for farmers in Northern New Mexico. In 2011 there were inconsistent yield patterns; fresh red chile yield of ‘Chimayo’ at the seven-day interval was 90% more than at the nine-day interval. ‘Sandia’ had 138% better yields at the seven- than at the nine-day interval. ‘Chimayo’ fresh green chile yields at the nine-day interval were 47% better than the seven-day interval. ‘NuMex Big Jim’ fresh green yields were 40% greater at the seven-day interval than the 13-day interval. In 2012 no yield components were statistically different for cultivars across irrigation intervals. This data shows commercial green and landrace chile cultivars can be furrow irrigated as water becomes available on 7, 9, 11, or 13-day intervals with no yield effect.

  7. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

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    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  8. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  9. Non-thermal plasma modified growth and differentiation process of Capsicum annuum PP805 Godiva in in vitro conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Nasrin; Iranbakhsh, Alireza; Ardebili, Zahra Oraghi

    2017-05-01

    With the aim of evaluating the possible impacts of cold plasma on the structure and growth pattern of Capsicum annuum, the current study was carried out. The seeds were exposed to an argon-derived plasma (0.84 W cm-2 surface power densities) for 0, 1 or 2 minutes. Plasma-treated seeds were grown in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or MS medium supplemented with BA and IAA. The presence of purple stems was recorded in plasma-treated plants grown in the medium supplemented with hormones. The recorded morphological differences were dependent on the exposure time of plasma treatments and/or the presence of hormones in the culture media. Plasma treatment of 1 minute had an improving effect on the shoot and root lengths as well as total leaf area, whereas plasma treatment of 2 minutes had an adverse effect. In contrast to the 1 minute treatment, plasma treatment of 2 minutes significantly impaired growth and hence reduced the total biomass. Alterations in stem diameter and differences in tissue patterns (especially in the vascular system) occurred, and were mainly dependent on the plasma exposure time and/or the presence of hormones. This is a first report on the effects of cold plasma on plant growth in in vitro conditions.

  10. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Jongguk; Kang, Sukwon

    2014-04-24

    In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400-700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB), which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400-700 nm) yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600-700 nm) yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  11. PENGARUH INFEKSI TMV (TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF DAN GENERATIF BEBERAPA VARIETAS CABAI MERAH (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

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    Hasriadi Mat Akin dan Muhammad Nurdin .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of  tobacco mosaic virus infection to vegetative and generative growth of various hot pepper varieties  (Capsicum annuum L.. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of TMV infection on vegetative and generative growth of various hot pepper varieties. Treatments were arranged in completely randomized design in split plot experiment with four replications. Mainplots were virus-inoculated and uninoculated plants; subplots were three hot pepper varieties: Cimerti, HP-Typhoon, and HP-Tornado. The results of the experiment showed that TMV infection caused decrease vegetative and generative growth.  The decrease of vegetative and generative growth  indicated by the reduction of leaf width, plant height, and yield.  HP-Tornado and Cimerti varieties showed susceptible reaction proved by significant reduction of the growth and yield;  HP-Typhoon was tolerance reaction to TMV infection indicated by significant reduction of the growth and lowest reduction of the yield.

  12. Genome-wide Identification and Expression of ARF Gene Family during Adventitious Root Development in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Huanxin ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of primary/early auxin response genes by binding to auxin-responsive elements (AuxREs in their promoter regions. The ARFs play important roles in diverse developmental processes. To explore the ARF gene family in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L., we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis. In this study, 19 pepper ARF genes (CaARFs clustered into three phylogenetic groups (I, II, and III were comprehensively analyzed. Conserved domain analysis showed that all CaARFs contained a B3 DNA-binding domain and a middle domain, but two members lacked the carboxy-terminal dimerization (CTD domain. The number of introns in CaARF genes ranged from 1 to 13 and the gene structure was similar among genes in the same phylogenetic group. Additionally, prediction of CaARFs promoter elements and putative targets for microRNAs suggested that the regulation of CaARFs may occur at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Most CaARFs were expressed in more than one tested tissue, and most CaARFs were identified as being responsive to exogenous auxin. Moreover, time-course transcription profiles of CaARFs revealed their roles in adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from pepper seedlings. Therefore, our results will provide a foundation for better understanding the regulatory mechanisms and molecular functions of CaARFs in hot pepper.

  13. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The effectiveness ratings for CAPSICUM are as follows: Nerve damage related to diabetes. Some research shows that applying a cream or ... found in capsicum, reduces pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes. A specific cream containing 0.075% capsaicin (Zostrix- ...

  14. Nutrição mineral e produtividade de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) em resposta a diferentes biofertilizantes líquidos no solo

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Gibran da Silva

    2006-01-01

    O pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) é uma planta pertencente a família das solanáceas, de clima tropical e de origem latino americana. Nos últimos anos, sistemas de cultivo orgânico com a utilização de biofertilizantes líquidos tiveram um grande impulso no Brasil. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a produtividade do pimentão, as mudanças na fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional das plantas em resposta a diferentes biofertilizantes líquidos aplicados no solo. O experimento foi realizado...

  15. Cellulase applied to the leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum) upregulates the production of salicylic and azelaic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chizuru; Oka, Norikuni; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    Treating the leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum) with an aqueous solution of cellulase resulted in a four-fold increase in the salicylic acid level compared to a control plant. The level of endogenous azelaic acid was also elevated by the cellulase treatment. Azelaic acid has recently been reported to act as a mobile "priming" agent to arm plants against pathogenic attack. Our results are consistent with this and that the cellulase treatment enhanced the ability of sweet pepper to withstand viral attack.

  16. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  17. Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Canopy Photosynthesis Modeling Using 3D Plant Architecture and Light Ray-Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Ahn, Tae In; Shin, Jong Hwa; Park, Kyung Sub; Son, Jung Eek

    2016-01-01

    Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis. The objective of the current study is to estimate the canopy photosynthesis of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with an analysis of by simulating the intercepted irradiation of the canopy using a 3D ray-tracing and photosynthetic capacity in each layer. By inputting the structural data of an actual plant, the 3D architecture of paprika was reconstructed using graphic software (Houdini FX, FX, Canada). The light curves and A/C i curve of each layer were measured to parameterize the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) model. The difference in photosynthetic capacity within the canopy was observed. With the intercepted irradiation data and photosynthetic parameters of each layer, the values of an entire plant's photosynthesis rate were estimated by integrating the calculated photosynthesis rate at each layer. The estimated photosynthesis rate of an entire plant showed good agreement with the measured plant using a closed chamber for validation. From the results, this method was considered as a reliable tool to predict canopy photosynthesis using light interception, and can be extended to analyze the canopy photosynthesis in actual greenhouse conditions.

  18. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Jinkwan Jo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum. Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1, using two mapping populations: 102 ‘VK515' F2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line ‘VK515R' and susceptible parental line ‘VK515S' and 80 ‘PM Singang' F2 plants (derived from the F1 ‘PM Singang' commercial hybrid. Genetic analysis of the F2:3 ‘VK515' and F2 ‘PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in ‘VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into ‘VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  19. H2S AND NO SIGNALING INTERACTIONS IN THALE CRESS (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA L. AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. LEAVES

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    Miroslav Lisjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research comprehends a set of experiments with several thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana L. and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes in controlled conditions using growth chambers, with the aim of determining the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in plants, as well as its potential effect as a signaling compound, particularly in potential interaction with nitric oxide (NO signaling pathways. Special emphasis was focused on stomatal mechanisms and signaling in their opening and closing. Moreover, the effect of treatment of pepper plants with H2S was investigated in salt stress conditions. It was established that the applied H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, inhibit stomata closing in both plant species through the reduction of NO accumulation in stomata, which was proven to occur in SNP or ABA treatment. The effects of NO and H2S were opposite those in pepper plants response to salt stress as well, with increased antioxidative activity in leaf obtained after H2S treatments, and with NaHS in particular. In addition, GYY4137 could be considered as a convenient H2S donor for research into H2S functions in plants. The results point out the interactions of H2S and NO in plant cell signaling in both normal and salt stress conditions. Further research of this type should uncover H2S functions in plant metabolism more precisely, especially considering the potential practical value of this knowledge for plant stress resistance improvement and their productivity enhancement.

  20. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

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    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  1. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  2. EFECTO DEL PROCESAMIENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE EL COLOR SUPERFICIAL DEL PIMENTÓN ROJO (Capsicum annuum VARIEDAD 'NATALY'

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    JADER MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available El color es uno de los parámetros más importantes a la hora de medir la calidad de productos que van a ser procesados a partir del pimentón rojo (Capsicum annuum, para la fabricación de condimentos, colorantes, conservas y aderezos. En este estudio, se evaluó el efecto del procesamiento térmico (freído y conserva con respecto al cambio de color y los carotenoides en frutos de pimentón rojo. Para el freído se utilizó aceite de soya a una temperatura de 175°C por 5 min; en la elaboración de la conserva, se realizó un proceso de escaldado y pasteurización a 100°C durante 15 min. Después de los tratamientos térmicos (freído y conserva la concentración de carotenoides totales y el color superficial en los frutos de pimentón rojo se afectaron significativamente. El proceso de freído obtiene los valores medios más altos de unidades ASTA (72,214, Carotenoides Totales (95,464, L* (38,26 y a* (34,13. La conserva registró los atributos más altos de color b* (21,81, h° (30,42, IP (145,40 y ΔE* (4,56-31,84. Estos resultados evidencian que el freído es una operación que mejora el atributo de color, al aumentar la disponibilidad de carotenoides e incrementar el color superficial a*.

  3. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

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    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  4. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

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    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  5. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

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    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  6. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo growth monitoring of capsicum annuum seeds treated with different NaCl concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated as a plausible optical tool for in vivo detection of plant seeds and its morphological changes during growth. The experiment was carried out on Capsicum annuum seeds that were treated with different molar concentrations of NaCl to investigate the most optimal concentration for the seed growth. The monitoring process was carried out for 9 consecutive days. The in vivo 2D OCT images of the treated seeds were obtained and compared with seeds that were grown with sterile distilled water. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of using OCT for the proposed application. Normalized A-scan analysis method is utilized for supporting the concluded results.

  7. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels–Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200ng vitamin D3/g dry weight and 31ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D3/g dry weight......Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem......, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 in both free (32ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17ng/g dry weight)....

  8. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

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    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L. can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, P-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1. With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 /En la última década, se reportó que el consumo de ciertos alimentos y especias, como el chile (Capsicum annuum L., pueden tener un efecto positivo en la salud. Particularmente, los acervos genéticos mexicanos de chile están poco documentados en relación a la diversidad desde la perspectiva fitoquímica. En este trabajo se evaluó la variación de compuestos fitoquímicos en nueve morfotipos de chile silvestres y cultivados de Oaxaca. El ANDEVA detectó diferencias significativas entre morfotipos y estados de madurez en vitamina C, fenoles, flavonoides, P-caroteno, color, y capsaicinoides. Los valores más altos de vitamina C se determinaron en 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' y 'Costeño' (151.6 a 183.2 mg 100 g-1. En fenoles y flavonoides sobresalieron los tipos 'Piquin' y 'Solterito'. Las coordenadas cromáticas a* y b*, y los tonos (C* se correlacionaron

  10. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Llanerón extracts: In vitro study

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    Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. by different methodologies to evaluate their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Alcoholic extracts (MFP, MSd, SFP, SDP, SSd from fresh red sweet pepper (FP and dry pulp (DP and seed (Sd were obtained by maceration (M and Soxhlet (S equipment using methanol as extraction solvent; whereas aqueous extracts (LFP, LSd were obtained by decoction followed by lyophilization (L. Human tumoral cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3, prostate (PC3 and cervix (HeLa, and fibroblasts (as control were used to determine the cytotoxic properties by the MTT assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were determined by DPPH and disc diffusion method, respectively. The extracts SDP and SFP showed the higher cytotoxic activity. The SDP extract had a significant (P < 0.05 in-vitro effect on HeLa (1.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL and PC3 (< 1 µg/mL cells with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (26.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL; whereas, SFP had a significant (p < 0.05 effect on MCF-7 cell line (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (25.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL. The higher antioxidant activity was found for MFP (80.3 ± 0.2% and SFP extracts (75.5 ± 0.5%. Mild antimicrobial activity was only observed for alcoholic extracts. The results showed the potential of red sweet pepper (C. annuum L. as a source of antioxidant and cytotoxic compounds, and suggest the need of further studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds that impart those properties.

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrouf, J; Castro-Quezada, P; Mallard, S; Caromel, B; Lizzi, Y; Lefebvre, V

    2012-02-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated with the two constructs pBIN-gus and pHKN29-gfp of A. rhizogenes strain A4RS. Foliar explants of both pepper genotypes infected by A4RS-pBIN-gus or A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced transformed roots. Optimal results were obtained using the combination of the foliar explants with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp. 20.5% of YW foliar explants and 14.6% of CM334 foliar explants inoculated with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced at least one root expressing uniform green fluorescent protein. We confirmed by polymerase chain reaction the presence of the rolB and gfp genes in the co-transformed roots ensuring that they integrated both the T-DNA from the Ri plasmid and the reporter gene. We also demonstrated that co-transformed roots of YW and CM334 displayed the same resistance response to Phytophthora capsici than the corresponding untransformed roots. Our novel procedure to produce C. annuum hairy roots will thus support the functional analysis of potential resistance genes involved in pepper P. capsici interaction.

  12. A BAX inhibitor-1 gene in Capsicum annuum is induced under various abiotic stresses and endows multi-tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbat, Mohammad; Zeba, Naheed; Kim, Seong Ryong; Hong, Choo Bong

    2009-10-15

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly conserved cellular suicide process important in developmental processes and elimination of damaged cells upon environmental stresses. Among the important regulators of PCD, much interest has been centered on BCL2-associated x protein (BAX) as the pro-PCD factor. On the other hand, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been implicated as an anti-PCD factor that balances out the activity of BAX in the developmental processes and responses to environment. A cDNA clone coding a BI-1 gene was isolated from a cDNA library of heat-stressed hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) and named as CaBI-1. This gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 248 amino acids encoding a BI-1 protein. Genomic DNA-blot analysis for CaBI-1 suggested one or two loci in the C. annuum genome. Transcription of CaBI-1 was induced in response to high or low temperatures, drought, high salinity, flooding and heavy metal stresses, and ABA. We introduced the ORF of CaBI-1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (P(35S)) into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The P(35S):CaBI-1 transgenic plants displayed markedly improved tolerance to high temperature, water deficit, and high salinity in comparison to the control plants. The results indicate that CaBI-1 is a BI-1 gene of which expression induced under various abiotic stresses and endows tolerance to several types of environmental stresses.

  13. Análisis dialélico de algunos caracteres cuantitativos en pimentón (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Echeverri A. Alvaro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio genético del carácter rendimiento y sus componentes primarios número de frutos y tamaño del fruto (peso fruto, peso del lóculo, largo y ancho del fruto y días a floración, empleando la metodología propuesta por Hayman (1954a, 1954b. Para el efecto se empleó un diseño dialélico para el cruzamiento de 10 x 10 cultivares de pimentón (LPUNA L, Yolo Wonder, Keystone Resistant Giant, Pimentao Amarelo, Morviones, Avelar, California Wonder, Roque 8-B, Red Pepper, y L-363-46-672, Sin considerar los reciprocas. No se detectó presencia de epistasis, excepto para la variable rendimiento, y los datos experimentales se ajustaron al modelo aditivo­ domillante. La dominancia fue muy importante en la expresión del rendimiento por planta y días a floración, y poco importante para número de frutos por planta, peso promedio de fruto y ancho de fruto. Pudo observarse sobredominancia para días a floración. Los estimativos de los coeficientes de heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h. para los caracteres rendimiento por planta, número de frutos por planta, peso promedio del fruto, peso promedio del lóculo, longitud del fruto, ancho del fruto, y días a floración, fueron 0.681,0.802, 0.772, 0.734,0.666 Y 0.587, respectivamente.

  14. [Growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem ii in seedlings of two varieties of Capsicum annuum L. inoculated with rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Azareel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Alarcón, Alejandro; Almaraz-Suárez, Juan José; Delgadillo-Martínez, Julián; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel; García-Barradas, Oscar

    2017-10-17

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]. In addition, a fertilized treatment (Steiner nutrient solution at 25%) and an unfertilized control were included. Seedlings of "Caloro" jalapeno pepper and "California Wonder" bell pepper were inoculated with AMF at seed sowing, and PGPR were inoculated after 15 days of seedling emergence; seedlings were grown under plant growth chamber conditions. P61 bacterium and H1 AMF consortia were the most effective microorganisms for jalapeno pepper whereas R44 bacterium and AMF H3 and H1 were the most effective for bell peppers, when compared to the unfertilized control. Furthermore, P61 and R44 bacteria showed beneficial effects on PSII efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes of Some Biochemical and Physiological Parameters in Capsicum annuum L. as a Consequence of Increased Concentrations of Copper and Zinc

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    Snezana T. Stavreva-Veselinovska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil cultures of peppers were (Capsicum annuum L. cultivated. The first leaves of youngplants in the stage of forming were treated with excessive concentrations of ZnSO4—7H2O in fourdifferent concentrations (mg/kg: 1.0; 5.0; 10.0 and 20.0 while the control group of plants was treatedwith water only. Parallel to this, a part of the plants were treated with excessive concentrations ofCuSO4—5H2O again in four different concentrations: 0.5; 1.0; 5.0 and 10.0, while the control group ofplants was treated with water only. The material for the analysis was taken at the end of thevegetation period, in the phase of bearing fruit, and then it was dried to absolute dry mass at thetemperature of 60-80oC. The dry plant material is broken up into small pieces and used for analyzingthe phenol compounds. Raw material is used for determining the contents of Chlorophyll andvitamin C.

  16. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum microRNA transcriptome reveals novel and conserved targets: a foundation for understanding MicroRNA functional roles in hot pepper.

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    Dong-Gyu Hwang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress in Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, A.; Chaudhry, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Community structure and ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was studied in the present study using two host plant species i.e. Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L. under CuSO4 stress. Five levels of copper sulfate (CuSO4) i.e. 0 ppm (control), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm, and 100 ppm were used to elucidate their influence on mycorrhizal community. Results showed that some spores disappeared with increased metal content while other spores were abundant even at a high level of stress. Present studies supported the stress tolerance mechanism conferred by AMF spore density and diversity. Value of Simpson index was shown to decrease from 3.58 to 2.42. Shannon index value was changed from 0.27 to 0.51. Similar rise in the values was observed for spore diversity i.e. 20.94 to 79.13. However, it may be concluded that spore ecotypes might vary in their abundance depending upon the host plant and soil physical-chemical characters that control the metal availability to plants. Among all the four plant varieties, ghotki chilli seemed to have less species associated with it. It can be concluded that when compared to the control, more mycorrhizal types were found to be associated with plants under stress which could prove the tolerance of mycorrhizae against the heavy metals and their positive role in protecting plant from the toxicity of heavy metals. (author)

  18. Single and competitive adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions from aqueous solutions onto industrial chili seeds (Capsicum annuum waste

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    Nahum A. Medellin-Castillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the single and binary adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II onto industrial chili seeds (CS (Capsicum annuum from aqueous solutions was investigated as a possible low-cost biosorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The dependence of the adsorption capacity of CS on the solution pH and temperature, and the presence of competitive metal were also studied in detail. The adsorption equilibrium experiments of Cd(II and Pb(II on CS were conducted in a batch adsorber. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were fitted to the single adsorption equilibrium data and the latter provided a better fit. Moreover, it was found that the adsorption capacity of CS towards Cd(II and Pb(II ions was greatly increased by increasing the solution pH. The effect of the pH was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged CS surface and the Cd2+ and Pb2+ cations in the aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity was slightly increased by raising the temperature because the adsorption of Cd(II or Pb(II ions on CS was an endothermic process. The experimental binary adsorption data were satisfactorily interpreted using the modified Langmuir multicomponent isotherm and the competitive adsorption of Cd(II-Pb(II on CS revealed that the affinity of Pb(II for CS was more than 5 times higher than that of Cd(II.

  19. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: III. ION UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of salinity and two N sources on content, uptake rate and translocation of nutrients by chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Either an organic-N liquid fertilizer extracted from grass clippings or ammonium nitrate, an inorganic fertilizer, were combined with three different soil salinity treatments (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1. Fertilizer treatments were two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer. The combination of each N rate and source with the three salinity levels were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. The use of the organic-N source produced greater cation contents in roots, shoots, and enhanced the uptake rates and translocation of cations to shoots compared to plants fertilized with inorganic-N. The root and shoot concentration, uptake rates and root-to-shoot transport of Cl increased at increasing salinity. Higher contents of Cl and cations in chile pepper shoots in relation to roots were observed. It was also observed that high N rate from the organic source enhanced the cation contents in both roots and shoots. Salinity diminished N content, N uptake rate and root to shoot transport in both roots and shoots

  1. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: II. NITROGEN AND WATER USE EFFICIENCIES, AND SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response to two nitrogen sources on water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and tolerance of salt-stressed chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels, and two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer as ammonium nitrate were arranged in randomized complete block designs replicated four times. The liquid organic-N source was an organic, extracted with water from grass clippings. Water use decreased about 19 and 30% in moderate and high salt-stressed plants. Water use efficiency decreased only in high salt-stressed plants. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased either by increased salinity or increased N rates. An apparent increase in salt tolerance was noted when plants were fertilized with organic-N source compared to that of inorganic-N source.

  2. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: I.GROWTH AND YIELD

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    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two sources of nitrogen on plant growth, and fruit yield of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia grown in greenhouse to increased salinity   were evaluated. An organic source extracted from grass clippings in rates of 120 and 200 kg N ha-1, and another inorganic (ammonium nitrate in rate of 120 kg ha-1 were combined with low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. Salinity treatments reduced dry matter production, leaf area, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate but increased leaf area ratio. Mean fresh fruit yields decreased for each N rate and source combinations as soil salinity increased. The organic fertilizer produced higher fruit yields tan the inorganic fertilizer. The highest fruit yield was obtained with the increased rate of organic N.    The fruit number was more affected by salinity than the individual fruit weight. This organic fertilizer may be an effective N source for chile pepper and other vegetable crops grown under non- and salt-stressed conditions.

  3. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, P M; Maliepaard, C; Tikunov, Y; Haanstra, J P W; Bovy, A G; Visser, R G F

    2012-05-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and copper on growth, accumulation of osmolyte, mineral nutrition and antioxidant enzyme activity of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latef, Arafat Abdel Hamed

    2011-08-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zhongjiao 105) plant growth and on some physiological parameters in response to increasing soil Cu concentrations was studied. Treatments consisted of inoculation or not with Glomus mosseae and the addition of Cu to soil at the concentrations of 0 (control), 2 (low), 4 (medium), and 8 (high) mM CuSO(4). AM fungal inoculation decreased Cu concentrations in plant organs and promoted biomass yields as well as the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total protein, and the concentrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Plants grown in high Cu concentration exhibited a Cu-induced proline accumulation and also an increase in total free amino acid contents; however, both were lower in mycorrhizal pepper. Cu-induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation rates and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and AM symbiosis enhanced these antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased oxidative damage to lipids. In conclusion G. mosseae was able to maintain an efficient symbiosis with pepper plants in contaminated Cu soils, improving plant growth under these conditions, which is likely to be due to reduced Cu accumulation in plant tissues, reduced oxidative stress and damage to lipids, or enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  5. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-09

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  6. Effects of different doses of organic fertilizer type bocashi in morphological and productive indicators of pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L. var. California wonder

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    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Between June and September 2012 in field condition in agroecological farm was carried out an investigation using a randomised block experimental design with four treatments and four repetitions with the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi in pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L..The treatment consisted in the application of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi (1.66, 2.22, 2.78 tha-1 and a control treatment without application. The results were evaluated by means of the pro-gram Statistica version 8.0, for windows, where the indicators used showed significant differences multiple comparison of Tukey was applied to p ≤ 0.05. The variable evaluated were: height of the plants (cm, steam diameter (cm,yield and their components (number fruit.plant -1, average weigh of fruit (g, average diameter of fruit (cm and average large of fruit (cm. The treatment where was applied doses of 2.22 and 2.78 tha-1 of organic fertilizer bocashi was obtained the best results in productive indicator evaluated with securities in the agricultural yield of 33.4 and 32.9 tha-1

  7. EFECTO DEL ESTRÉS HIDRICO EDAFICO EN EMERGENCIA Y DESARROLLO DE PLANTULA EN LAS ESPECIES DE CHILE Capsicum frutescens L. Y Capsicum annuum L.

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    Alejandra Nieto-Garibay

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la emergencia y el desarrollo de plántulas en una especie semidomesticada de chile (C. frutescens como cultivo familiar y de pequeña escala con características de tolerancia a bajos déficit hídricos, el cual fue comparado con una variedad comercial cultivada de chile (C. annuum, una de las más cultivadas en la región noroeste de México. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con arreglo factorial donde los factores fueron las dos especies de chile expuestas a cinco tratamientos de déficit hídrico. Los resultados muestran una menor tasa de emergencia y menor porcentaje total a la especie semidomesticada y una diferencia de siete días para emerger con respecto a la especie comercial. Los tratamientos de déficit hídrico no afectaron el desarrollo de la especie de chile semidomesticada (C. frutescens, ya que no presentó efectos negativos en longitud de raíz, longitud del tallo y producción de biomasa seca por planta. En contraste, para C. annuum el tratamiento más severo de estrés hídrico (-3.2 MPa disminuyó significativamente su tamaño y también redujo la producción de biomasa, por lo que la especie comercial domesticada mostró mayor vulnerabilidad al déficit hídrico. C. frutescens presentó una emergencia más lenta comparada a la especie cultivada (C. annuum, lo cual puede implicar un mecanismo de retraso inherente a la condición de semidomesticación y a los ciclos naturales de sequía a los que comúnmente está expuesta. Los tratamientos de déficit hídrico no afectaron de manera negativa su crecimiento, incluyendo la condición extrema de frecuencia de riego cada 26 días, equivalente a una tensión hídrica de -3.2 MPa. Lo anterior indica para C. frutescens una menor susceptibilidad a la escasez de agua que C. annuum, lo cual se traduce en bajos requerimientos de la misma, por lo que representa una

  8. Evaluación de la germinación y crecimiento de Plántula de Chiltepín (Capsicum annuum L variedad glabriusculum.) en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Nidia Araiza Lizarde; Evelia Araiza Lizarde; Juan Guillermo Martínez Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Título en ingles: Evaluation of germination and seedling Growth of Chiltepín (Capsicum annuum L variedad glabriusculum)  greenhouse Abstract The chiltepin is one of the natural resources of the sinaloense saw, which reaches a commercial value of $100.00 mexican pesos  for 250 g approximately, due to the fact that its crop implies penetrating in the low caducifolia jungle and crossing kilometeres to be able to obtain it, in addition the persons of the region who collect it obtain the resource...

  9. Evaluación de la germinación y crecimiento de plántula de chiltepín (capsicum annuum l variedad glabriusculum.) en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Araiza Lizarde, Nidia; Araiza Lizarde, Evelia; Martínez Martínez, Juan Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Título en ingles: Evaluation of germination and seedling Growth of Chiltepín (Capsicum annuum L variedad glabriusculum)  greenhouse Abstract The chiltepin is one of the natural resources of the sinaloense saw, which reaches a commercial value of $100.00 mexican pesos  for 250 g approximately, due to the fact that its crop implies penetrating in the low caducifolia jungle and crossing kilometeres to be able to obtain it, in addition the persons of the region who collect it obtain the resource ...

  10. Efecto de la aplicaci??n N-K en condiciones de salinidad, sobre algunos parametros fisiol??gicos y bioqu??micos en plantas de pimiento (capsicum annuum L. cv. Lamuyo)

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Prados, Agust??n

    1993-01-01

    Debido al avance en las t??cnicas de cultivo, aplicaci??n de fertilizantes, mejora de la calidad de las semillas, uso de h??bridos resistentes a enfermedades, etc..., el cultivo bajo pl??stico ha sufrido en los ??ltimos a??os un incremento bastante importante, sobre todo en el sureste espa??ol. una de las especies que su cultivo se ha visto incrementado, es el pimiento (capsicum annuum l.). Adem??s se requiere un conocimiento mas adecuado de las relaciones fertilizaci??n- salinidad debido a l...

  11. Absorción y distribución de nutrimentos en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. CV. HOT en alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Alvaro Azofeifa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la absorción y distribución de los nutrimentos durante el ciclo de cultivo en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se determinó el peso seco y se analizó el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, y S, en cada sección de la planta. Con base en el peso seco y la concentración de nutrimentos, se estimó la absorción de los elementos por cada tejido y en toda la planta. Se calculó la extracción de los nutrimentos con una densidad de siembra de 20 833 plantas.ha-1 y un rendimiento de 15 t.ha-1 de fruta comercial fresca. El orden de extracción de nutrimentos fue K>N>Ca>S>P y Mg con valores de 79,3, 60, 31,7, 8,2, 7,6 y 7,3 kg.ha-1, respectivamente. Las cantidades de nutrimentos en las distintas partes de la planta variaron durante el ciclo de crecimiento. Al final del ciclo, la planta acumula K, Ca y Mg principalmente en la parte aérea, P y S en la fruta y N en los frutos y la parte aérea. El principal evento fenológico que reguló estas fluctuaciones fue la fructificación.

  12. Ethyl methane sulfonate induced mutations in M2 generation and physiological variations in M1 generation of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Mohamed Hamed Arisha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to enhance genetic variability in peppers (Capsicum annuum, cv B12 using ethyl methansulphonate (EMS. Exposure to an EMS concentration of 0.6%, v/v for 12 hours was used to mutagenize 2000 seeds for the first generation (M1. It was observed that the growth behaviors including plant height, flowering date and number of seeds per first fruit were different in the M1 generation than in wild type plants. In addition one phenotypic mutation (leaf shape and plant architecture was observed during the M1 generation. During the seedling stage in the M2 generation, the observed changes were in the form of slow growth or chlorophyll defect (e.g., albino, pale green and yellow seedlings. At maturity, there were three kinds of phenotypic mutations observed in three different families of the mutant population. The first observed change was a plant with yellow leaf color, and the leaves of this mutant plant contained 62.19% less chlorophyll a and 64.06% less chlorophyll b as compared to the wild-type. The second mutation resulted in one dwarf plant with a very short stature (6 cm, compact internodes and the leaves and stem were rough and thick. The third type of mutation occurred in four plants and resulted in the leaves of these plants being very thick and longer than those of wild type plants. Furthermore, anatomical observations of the leaf blade section of this mutant plant type contained more xylem and collenchyma tissue in the leaf midrib of the mutant plant than wild type. In addition, its leaf blade contained thicker palisade and spongy tissue than the wild type.

  13. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  14. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L. Leaves under Chilling Stress.

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    Wei-Li Guo

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L. production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68% showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32% showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  15. Effect of Arbucula Myrrhizal Fungi on an Ecological Crop of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. Efecto de los Hongos Micorrícicos Arbusculares en un Cultivo Ecológico de Ají (Capsicum annuum L. Cacho de Cabra

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    Claudia Castillo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapuche farmers in southern Chile have been cultivating local ecotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L., called locally “Cacho de cabra” for many decades. It is used to make “merkén”, a condiment that is consumed locally and exported. This vegetable requires a nursery stage and can obtain nutritional benefits from symbiotic associations such as mycorrhizal fungi, achieving a better adaptation to transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are obligate biotrophes appearing in abundance in agroecosystems with conservation management. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of two AMF, a commercial mycorrhizal inoculant (IC, Glomus intraradices and another native (IN, Glomus claroideum with a control without inoculation (-I on the production and quality of “Cacho de cabra”. At 45 days after sowing (DAS transplanting was carried out and at 90 and 216 DAS fruit quality, fungal and edaphic parameters were evaluated. The harvest was at four stages. With IN inoculation plants and with greater foliar area were obtained. Also, precocity of fruit production was observed. The harvest started 49 days earlier and fresh weight was 177% higher than that of the control. Root colonization was low, showing significant differences between IN and IC, while a large number of spores was produced in the substrate. It was concluded that inoculation with native fungi decreased transplanting stress thus accelerating the maturation stage of plants and resulting in higher and better yield quality.En el sur de Chile, agricultores mapuches han cultivado durante décadas ecotipos locales de ají (Capsicum annuum L.“Cacho de cabra” para elaborar “merkén”, producto con reconocidas ventajas en el mercado internacional. Esta hortaliza requiere etapa de almácigo, pudiendo beneficiarse nutricionalmente con la asociación simbiótica del tipo micorrizas,logrando una mejor adaptación al trasplante. Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares son bi

  16. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas ecombinadas de Capsicum annuum L. em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Agronomic performance of recombinant inbred of Capsicum annuum L. lines cultivated under organic system and greenhouse conditions

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    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas em cultivo protegido e a busca de produtos orgânicos pelos consumidores têm sido um desafio para produtores e pesquisadores de hortaliças. Para que essas formas de cultivo proporcionem lucratividade ao produtor e frutos de qualidade para o consumidor, faz-se necessária a busca por genótipos adaptados a esse manejo diferenciado. Neste trabalho, objetivouse avaliar o desempenho de 12 linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de Capsicum annuum L., obtidas do cruzamento entre os acessos UENF 1421 e UENF 1381, em cultivo protegido sob manejo orgânico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, na Estação Experimental de Seropédica da PESAGRO-RIO, em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se o número total de frutos (NTF, peso total de frutos (PTF, peso médio dos frutos (PMF, comprimento dos frutos (CF, diâmetro dos frutos (DF, relação comprimento/diâmetro do fruto (CF/DF e presença de capsaicina (CAPS. Foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos variâncias genotípica, fenotípica e ambiental, coeficientes de determinação genotípico e de variação genética e o índice de variação. Houve diferença altamente significativa para todas as características, exceto para PTF. As linhas produziram elevado número de frutos, leves e de formatos variados. Somente duas linhas não tiveram pungência e quatro segregaram para CAPS. Todas as características tiveram alta variância genotípica e altos coeficientes de determinação genotípicos, mostrando que os resultados são, predominantemente, de origem genética. Os dados permitiram a indicação preliminar das linhas 5 e 8 para o cultivo orgânico em ambiente protegido.Plant management under greenhouse conditions, associated with search for ecological products by consumers, has been a challenge for both farmers and vegetable researchers. Obtaining profit and quality depends on adapted genotypes that can be grown using an adequate management. The aim

  17. Produção do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. irrigado sob diferentes tensões de água no solo e doses de cálcio Sweet pepper production (Capsicum annuum L. under different soil water tension and calcium levels

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    Márcio José de Santana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de tensões de água no solo e doses de cálcio sobre a produção do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., instalou-se o presente experimento em casa-de-vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras - MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial com seis repetições, sendo testados 4 doses de cálcio no solo (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg dm-3 e 4 tensões de água no solo (10 kPa, 30 kPa, 50 kPa e 60 kPa. Cultivou-se uma planta de pimentão por vaso com 13 dm³ de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Durante o período experimental, foram obtidos dados de altura e diâmetro do caule das plantas e produção de frutos. Pelos resultados obtidos, verifica-se que com a irrigação sendo feita diariamente, elevando-se a umidade do solo próxima à capacidade de campo (10 kPa, houve uma melhor resposta da cultura quanto à produção total, produção comercial, número de frutos totais, número de frutos comerciais, alturas das plantas e diâmetro de caule. Para as doses de cálcio e a interação cálcio x tensão, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Com maior umidade do solo, houve uma diminuição do cálcio no solo, o que, provavelmente, deveu-se a um aumento da absorção desse nutriente pelas plantas.With the objective of evaluating the effects of water tension and calcium levels on sweet pepper production (Capsicum annuum L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Engineering Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG. The statistical design was entirely randomized in a factorial outline with 4 calcium levels (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg dm-3 and 4 tensions of water in the soil (10 kPa, 30 kPa, 50 kPa and 60 kPa, with six replications. Plants were cultivated individually on 13 dm³ pots filled with a red oxisoil. Fruit production, plant height, and stem diameter were determined

  18. Fenotipic adaptability and stability of four lineas and six hybrids of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Adaptabilidad y estabilidad fenotípica de líneas e híbridos de pimentón, Capsicum annuum, L.

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    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was carry out in Palmira and Darién (Valle, Colombia to determine fenotipic adaptability and stability of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Yield and its components was evaluated, according to the methodology proposed by Eberhart and Russel (1966. Three environments were determined according to adaptability and stability parameters: good environments (Palmira 1991-B, middle environment (Palmira 1991-A and bad environment (Darién 1991-A and B. Genotypes were classified according to yield and regression coefficient: specific genotypes for good environments (1,5,6,8 and 10 genotypes and poor adaptation genotypes (3, 4, 9 and 11 genotypes.En Palmira y Darién (Valle, Colombia se analizó la adaptabilidad y estabilidad fenotípica de diferentes genotipos de pimentón. Se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes utilizando la metodología propuesta por Eberhart y Russel (1966. De acuerdo a los parámetros de adaptabilidad y estabilidad se determinaron tres ambientes: bueno (Palmira 1991-B, medio (Palmira 1991-A y malo (Darién 1991-A y B. De acuerdo al rendimiento y coeficiente de regresión, los genotipos se clasificaron así: genotipos para ambientes buenos (1, 5, 6, 8 y 10 Y genotipos para ambientes pobres (3, 4, 9 y 11. De acuerdo con su adaptabilidad y estabilidad el genotipo 6 fue el más destacado, pues su comportamiento a través de las localidades fue similar y su rendimiento no varió con las épocas de siembra.

  19. La nécrose apicale en relation avec certains paramètres morphologiques et la teneur en calcium dans les fruits chez quatre variétés de piment (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Jebari H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Blossom-end rot in relation to morphological parameters and calcium content in fruits of four pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.. The objective of this study is to identify, in the case of four pepper cultivars: ' J27 ', ' Marconi ', ' Beldi ' and ' Jerid ', a relation between vegetative growth rate, fruit weight and its calcium content with blossom-end rot induction. The results show that the more sensitive cultivars to blossom-end rot are ' Marconi ' and ' J27 ' cultivars, those having a larger final size and faster growth speed of the fruits and a higher rate of transpiration in comparison with ' Jerid ' cultivar, which is characterized by its small fruits. On the other hand, the calcium contents of their fruit, especially in the apical part, is weaker than the ' Jerid ' cultivar’s one.

  20. Viabilité et développement végétatif des plantules de piment (Capsicum annuum L. suivant différents matériels de conditionnement des semences

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    Youmbi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and Seedling Development from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds following Storage in Different Packaging Materials. A study on the germination and seedling development from pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds following storage in different packaging materials was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD, Njombe Multipurpose Research Station in Cameroon. Germination tests were conducted at 30 days intervals during 24 weeks of seed conservation in the laboratory at ambient temperature. Seeds were prepared from 4 pepper varieties (Safi, Big sun, Thailande and Local and stored in 5 packaging materials (glass vial, plastic vial, laminated aluminium foil packet, paper and plastic envelope. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 5 factorial design (4 varieties of pepper x 5 packaging materials making 20 treatments in 5 replications. At each germination test, germinated seeds were counted everyday during 15 days. To estimate seedling development, 5 seedlings from each pepper variety issued from each packaging material was grown during each germination test in a polythene bag filled with local topsoil. Each sample was repeated 10 times. Thirty days after sowing, observations were made on seedling development parameters. The results obtained show that germination rate is higher immediately after seed preparation for all pepper varieties. Thereafter germination rate declines slowly when seeds are stored in laminated aluminium foil packets and rapidly when they are stored in paper and polythene envelopes. The other packaging materials occupy intermediary positions. Also, seedlings issued from seeds stored in laminated aluminium foil packets are more vigorous than those issued from seeds stored in paper and polythene envelopes during seed conservation period (6 months. The rapid loss of viability in pepper seeds stored in the two last packaging materials could be attributed to their permeability to air and humidity

  1. Influencia del secado lento a baja temperatura en el contenido carotenoide de dos variedades de pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.. Balance biosintético y/o degradativo en función de las condiciones de procesado

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    Minguez-Mosquera, M. I.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of drying process at low temperature of two varieties of pepper for paprika (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jaranda and Jariza according to the traditional techniques of La Vera region is carried out controlling simultaneously the characteristics of the fruits before and after of the dehydration process and the conditions used. Correspondences have been found between the initial moisture of the fruits, the drying parameters (temperature and time, and the increase and/or loss (including its corresponding quantity in carotenoid pigment content. The favorable conditions to produce a pigment content increase, that indicates the existence of a biosynthetic process, are those including a healthy raw material with high moisture values and temperature of dried moderate - low (50 ºC without extending unnecessarily the dehydration time (just to obtain the adequate texture for the grinding.Se realiza un estudio del proceso de secado de dos variedades de pimiento pimentonero (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jaranda y cv Jariza efectuado a baja temperatura según las técnicas tradicionales de la comarca de La Vera. El control de las características de los frutos antes y después del procesado y de las condiciones de deshidratación en seis procesos de secado han permitido establecer una correspondencia entre la humedad inicial de los frutos, los parámetros de secado (temperatura y tiempo, y la ganancia y/o pérdida (y su correspondiente cuantía en el contenido inicial de pigmentos carotenoides. Las condiciones favorables a una ganancia en pigmentos (que indica la existencia de un proceso biosintético son aquellas en las que se parte de frutos sanos, con altos valores de humedad, temperatura de secado moderada - baja (menor de 50 ºC y sin extender innecesariamente el tiempo de procesado (sólo hasta conseguir la textura adecuada para la molienda.

  2. Análisis de crecimiento del chile jalapeño (capsicum annuum l. cv. hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica

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    Álvaro Azofeifa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El patrón de crecimiento de la planta de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum, cv Hot, se analizó durante un ciclo de cultivo, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, de mayo a noviembre de 1995. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 4 repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron las épocas de muestreo. Cada 14 días, a partir del 85% de plántulas emergidas (26 días después de la siembra, DDS, fueron muestreadas 8 plantas, se determinó el área foliar y el peso seco en cada sección (raíz, parte aérea, flor y fruto, variables con las cuales se determinaron los índices fisiológicos y morfológicos. Las plantas presentaron una curva de crecimiento sigmoidal, con las siguientes fases: a- de 26-82 DDS: esta fase se caracterizó por un crecimiento lento, debido a que la planta era muy pequeña y apenas estaba desarrollando su sistema radical y foliar; bde 83-110 DDS: fase de rápido crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo de las plantas. La planta presenta los valores de índice de crecimiento relativo (ICR e índice de asimilación neta (IAN más altos y los del índice de área foliar (IAF e índice de cosecha (K son crecientes. Tanto la razón de área foliar (RAF como la de peso radical (RPR presentan las reducciones más importantes; c- de 111-152 DDS: la tasa de crecimiento disminuye gradualmente. El crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo es menor que en la fase anterior. Presenta valores de ICR, IAN y RAF decrecientes, K permanece constante; d- de 153-166 DDS, la planta alcanza la madurez y las tasas de crecimiento tienden a estabilizarse. El ICR presenta un valor cercano a cero. Los índices IAN, RAF y RPR son bajos y constantes; e- de 167-180 DDS, la planta muestra signos de senescencia y el contenido de materia seca decrece. El ICR muestra valores negativos. La producción de biomasa está ligada a la fenología de la planta, principalmente durante la floración y la fructificación. En estas fases, la planta invierte cantidades similares

  3. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  4. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

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    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  5. Comparaison des effets des couvertures en polyéthylène des abri-serres de première et de deuxième année d'utilisation sur la croissance et le développement du piment fort (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Bouaouina, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of Effects Polyethylene Greenhouse Cover Age on Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Growth and Development. Hot pepper (variety Forty was grown under two plastic greenhouses S1 and S2 covered with a regular non colored polyethylene film in its first year of use for S1 and in its second year of use for S2. The microclimate of S1 compared to that of S2 yielded higher perfomences, improved the precocity, and increased the yield of green pepper.

  6. Introgression of heat shock protein (Hsp70 and sHsp) genes into the Malaysian elite chilli variety Kulai (Capsicum annuum L.) through the application of marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Yusuff, Oladosu A; Ismail, Mohd R; Miah, Gous

    2018-03-01

    Backcrossing together with simple sequence repeat marker strategy was adopted to improve popular Malaysian chilli Kulai (Capsicum annuum L.) for heat tolerance. The use of molecular markers in backcross breeding and selection contributes significantly to overcoming the main drawbacks such as increase linkage drag and time consumption, in the ancient manual breeding approach (conventional), and speeds up the genome recovery of the recurrent parent. The strategy was adopted to introgress heat shock protein gene(s) from AVPP0702 (C. annuum L.), which are heat-tolerant, into the genetic profile of Kulai, a popular high-yielding chilli but which is heat sensitive. The parents were grown on seed trays, and parental screening was carried out with 252 simple sequence repeat markers. The selected parents were crossed and backcrossed to generate F 1 hybrids and backcross generations. Sixty-eight markers appeared to be polymorphic and were used to assess the backcross generation; BC 1 F 1 , BC 2 F 1 and BC 3 F 1 . The average recipient allele of the selected four BC 1 F 1 plants was 80.75% which were used to produce the BC 2 F 1 generation. BC 1 -P 7 was the best BC 1 F 1 plant because it had the highest recovery at 83.40% and was positive to Hsp-linked markers (Hsp70-u2 and AGi42). After three successive generations of backcrossing, the average genome recovery of the recurrent parent in the selected plants in BC 3 F 1 was 95.37%. Hsp gene expression analysis was carried out on BC 1 F 1 , BC 2 F 1 and BC 3 F 1 selected lines. The Hsp genes were found to be up-regulated when exposed to heat treatment. The pattern of Hsp expression in the backcross generations was similar to that of the donor parent. This confirms the successful introgression of a stress-responsive gene (Hsp) into a Kulai chilli pepper variety. Furthermore, the yield performance viz. plant height, number of fruits, fruit length and weight and total yield of the improved plant were similar with the recurrent

  7. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of root exudate phenylamine compounds in hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Wang, Yan

    2013-06-12

    Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) with derivatization was developed for the determination of three root exudate phenylamine compounds in hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance and applicability of the proposed procedure were evaluated through the extraction of 1-naphthylamine (1-NA), diphenylamine (DPA), and N-phenyl-2- naphthaleneamine (N-P-2-NA) in a recirculating hydroponic solution of hot pepper. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. The calibration curves showed a good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 μg mL(-1). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the three compounds were 0.096, 0.074, and 0.057 μg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment factors reached 174, 196, and 230 at the concentration of 5 μg mL(-1), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of 9.5, 8.6, and 7.8% and 8.4, 7.6, and 6.2% were obtained at concentrations of 2 and 5 μg mL(-1) for 1-NA, DPA, and N-P-2-NA, respectively. Recoveries ranging from 90.2 to 96.1% and RSDs below 9.1% were obtained when HF-LPME with in situ derivatization was applied to determine root exudate 1-NA, DPA, and N-P-2-NA after 15 and 30 days of culture solution, respectively.

  8. Influência de películas de fécula de mandioca na qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.

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    VICENTINI Nívea Maria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta em estudo é o uso de películas comestíveis, derivadas de fécula de mandioca na manutenção da qualidade de frutos de pimentão após a sua colheita. Frutos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. receberam tratamento com películas de amido, com a finalidade de avaliar a sua eficiência como barreira à perda de água, bem como sua influência nas propriedades físicas e químicas dos mesmos. Os frutos foram mergulhados por um minuto em suspensões a 1, 3 e 5% de fécula, secos naturalmente ao ar e armazenados em condições ambientais, onde a temperatura e umidade relativa médias do período variaram de 26,0-29,0° C e 59,5-71,5%, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial com 16 tratamentos, 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. As análises de controle (porcentagem de perda de peso, textura, pH e teor de sólidos solúveis, foram feitas a cada três dias por um período de 12 dias. As películas a 3 e 5% mantiveram os frutos firmes. Os tratamentos não influenciaram significativamente na perda de peso, pH e no teor de sólidos solúveis.

  9. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property. Based on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  11. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

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    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  12. Reúso de água residuária na produção de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. Wastewater reuse in the production of green pepper

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    José T. de Sousa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho da cultura do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., submetida a cinco tratamentos distintos: 1 irrigação com água de poço e solo sem adubação; 2 irrigação com água de poço e solo com adubação mineral completa; 3 irrigação com água de poço e solo com adubação orgânica (vermicomposto; 4 irrigação com efluente de lagoa de polimento, e 5 irrigação com efluentes de reator UASB. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. A cultura do pimentão com adubação orgânica apresentou a maior produtividade (38,3 t ha-1; outrossim, não houve diferença significativa em relação ao peso médio dos frutos e à área foliar, entre os tratamentos 2, 3 e 5, respectivamente, adubação mineral, adubação com vermicomposto e fertirrigação com efluente do reator UASB, mas a menor produtividade ocorreu com o tratamento 4, irrigado com efluente de lagoa de polimento.In this paper an evaluation is made on the performance of cultivated green pepper submitted to five different treatments: 1 irrigation with well water and soil without fertilizer; 2 irrigation with well water and soil with mineral fertilization; 3 irrigation with well water and soil with organic fertilizer; 4 irrigation with polishing pond effluent; and 5 irrigation with UASB reactor effluent. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, with four repetitions, and data were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey test. The highest productivity of green pepper was observed when organic fertilizer was used (38.3 t ha-1. There were no significant differences between treatments 2, 3 and 5. The lowest productivity occured with treatment 4 irrigated with effluent of polishing pond.

  13. Regional tests for a new pepper cultivar (Capsicum annuum appraising six nitrogen doses Pruebas regionales para una variedad promisoria de pimentón evaluando varias dosis de N.

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    Madero Edgar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    At the National University of Colombia in Palmira, Valle del Cauca, was carried out an experiment to evaluate in 12 "environments" (two soils: an isohiperthermic fine/fine loam Vertic Haplustoll and an isohiperthermic very fine/fine loam Ustic Epiaquert, and six urea doses from 0 to 250 kg N ha-1 the adaptability of a 003 new pepper Capsicum annuum cultivar bred by a Genetic Program of this Faculty, using Eberhart and Russell's methodology (1966. Under a favorable weather the cultivar showed adaptability lo all environments and had a relatively high yield: 417 g/plant and 4.95 fruits/plant; the more soil N-doses the more its harvest with a stable height, and the best economic N-dose was 250 kg N ha-l. To produce 400 g/plant the 003 cultivar extracted 73 kg ha-1 N, 12 P, 57 K, 27 Ca, 12 Mg, 4 Na, 495g ha-1 Fe, 181 Mn, 36 Cu, 181 Zn and 5B.

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se realizó un experimento en dos suelos (isohipertérmico fino/franco fino Haplustol Vértico e isohipertérmico muy fino/ franco fino Epiaquert Ustico, tratados con seis dosis de úrea (O a 250 kg N ha-1 para crear 12 "ambientes" con el fin de evaluar la adaptabilidad de la línea promisoria 003 de pimentón, del Programa de Mejoramiento Genético y Producción de Semillas de esta Facultad, mediante la metodología de Eberhart y Russell (1966. En un clima favorable, la línea demostró adaptabilidad a todos los ambientes y sus rendimientos relativos y cantidad de frutos por planta fueron bastante altos: 417 g y 4.95 unidades respectivamente; su respuesta a los incrementos en la dosis de N. fue producir más cosecha  sin incrementar la altura y la dosis  250 Kg N ha-1 fue la mas económica. Para producir 400 g/planta se registró la siguiente extracción de nutrientes: 73 kg ha- N, 12 P, 57 K, 27 Ca, 12 Mg, 4 Na, 495 g ha-1Fe, 181 Mn, 36 Cu, 181 Zn y 5 B.

  14. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  15. Genetic mapping of semi-polar metabolites in pepper fruits (Capsicum sp.): towards unravelling the molecular regulation of flavonoid quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Stahl-Hermes, V.; Ballester, A.R.; Vos, de C.H.; Voorrips, R.E.; Maharijaya, A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Víquez Zamora, A.M.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Arisi, A.C.M.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Untargeted LCMS profiling of semi-polar metabolites followed by metabolite quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis was performed in ripe pepper fruits of 113 F2 plants derived from a cross between Capsicum annuum AC1979 (no. 19) and Capsicum chinense No. 4661 Selection (no. 18). The parental

  16. Capsicum annum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro) grown in. Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, ...

  17. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

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    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of Capsicum spp germplasm bank accessions based on α/β-esterase polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, E R; Bronzato, A R; Orasmo, G R; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2013-04-12

    Genetic diversity and structure were analyzed in 10 accessions belonging to Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Capsicum located at Federal University of Piauí in northwestern Brazil that receives pepper samples grown in community gardens in various regions and Brazilian states. Selections were made from seeds of C. chinense (4 accessions), C. annuum (5 accessions), and C. baccatum (1 accession). Samples consisting of leaves were collected from 4-10 plants of each accession (a total of 85 plants). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify α- and β-esterase polymorphisms. Polymorphism was clearly detected in 5 loci. Sixteen alleles were found at 5 α/β-esterase loci of the three Capsicum species. In the C. chinense samples, the highest HO and HE values were 0.3625 and 0.4395, respectively, whereas in C. annuum samples, HO and HE values were 0.2980 and 0.3310, respectively; the estimated HO and HE values in C. chinense samples were higher than those detected in C. annuum samples. A deficit of homozygous individuals was found in C. chinense (FIS = -0.6978) and C. annuum (FIS = 0.7750). Genetic differentiation between C. chinense and C. annuum at these loci was high (FST = 0.1867) indicating that C. chinense and C. annuum are genetically structured species for α/β- esterase isozymes. The esterase analysis showed high genetic diversity among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6321) among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and the C. baccatum accession.

  19. Potential for breeding sweet pepper adapted to cooler growing conditions : a physiological and genetic analysis of growth traits in Capsicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important greenhouse crop in theNetherlands. In 2005, the production area of sweet pepper in the

  20. Genetic diversity in some Turkish pepper (Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Turkey. PM-702. Campanulate. INRA Breeding line. France. Urfa local. Blocky. Local Cultivar. Turkey. Elazig. Blocky. Local Cultivar. Turkey vegetables. It has a large number of pepper breeding lines. The institution tries to improve especially elongate fruit shape types pepper for Turkey. Its pepper types are.

  1. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  2. Selection Criteria for Improving Yield in Chili (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakrabarty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to estimate the genetic variability and character association. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the 15 traits for 20 chili genotypes. The highest genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation were found for ten edible fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, ten dry fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, and weight of seeds per fruit. High heritability coupled with very high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for ten edible fruit weight, ten dry fruit weight, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, and fruit yield per plant. Phenotypic correlation coefficient among different traits indicated that fruit yield per plant at green stage had significant and positive association with ten edible green fruit weight, number of primary branches, harvest duration, and first fruit maturity and significant negative correlation with days to first picking. The path coefficient analysis revealed that days to first picking had the maximum positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant followed by harvest duration, ten edible fruit weight, ten dry fruit weight, hundred-seed weight, number of fruits per plant, first fruit maturity, and number of primary branches. Days to first picking had the maximum positive direct effect but significant negative effect with fruit yield per plant which indicated that the trait should be selected to expunge the undesirable indirect effect in order to make use of the direct effect. Therefore, selection should be practiced for ten edible fruit weight, ten dry fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, harvest duration, and hundred-seed weight for direct improvement of fruit yield per plant.

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity among Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vast genetic diversity is available in chilli which may facilitate the breeder to develop new varieties, provided the genetic distance between the accessions is properly understood. In this study, 45 accessions of chilli collected from Chilli Research Station, Devihosur, Haveri district of Karnataka State were subjected for RAPD ...

  4. DNA profiling of commercial chilli pepper ( Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Gemini, G-334, Agnirekha, Pusa jwala, Mangala, Black diamond, Sindura, Pusa jyothi, Badiga-2 and Teja (branch), cultivated in the local area of Andhra Pradesh State, India, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was ...

  5. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots .... data were obtained in the transition of vegetative and reproductive stages, at 40 DAT. In the same period, ...

  6. REQUERIMIENTO MACRONUTRIMENTAL EN PLANTAS DE CHILE (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar-Jara FI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La extracción nutrimental determina la cantidad de nutrimentos extraída por una planta, puede cuantificarse en una etapa fenológica determinada o a través del ciclo de cultivo. Es una forma para establecer cuánto fertilizante se debe aplicar al cultivo de chile mediante el cálculo de la cantidad de nutrimento requerido por la planta para expresar un rendimiento esperado, por lo tanto, la cantidad necesaria de nutrimento para producir una tonelada de producto fresco debe ser un dato conocido. Se revisó literatura científica actualizada acerca de la cantidad de nutrimentos que extrae el cultivo de chile por tonelada de frutos frescos cosechados al igual que las partes vegetales no destinadas para consumo (follaje, tallos, raíces, es decir, el requerimiento nutrimental específico de chile; asimismo, se revisó la distribución de los nutrimentos en los órganos de las plantas, cómo es influenciada por las diferencias en tecnología de producción, rendimiento y las condiciones del suelo. Se encontró que la extracción y requerimientos nutrimentales en chile variaron por cultivares, tipos de chiles (jalapeño, dulce y pimiento, órgano muestreado y por sistemas de producción. De acuerdo con los resultados encontrados en esta revisión, se puede asegurar que el requerimiento nutrimental específico del cultivo de chile que sirva de base para el cálculo de dosis de fertilización, es como se indica a continuación (en kg t-1: Nitrógeno (N, 2.4 - 4.0; Fósforo (P2O5, 0.4 - 1.0; Potasio (K2O, 3.4 - 5.29, Calcio (CaO: 0.55 - 1.80 y Magnesio (MgO, 0.28 - 0.49.

  7. Activité des extraits de six variétés de piment (Capsicum) utilisés en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Ivoire. 3 Unité de formation et Recherche .... garantir l'innocuité des aliments, les pouvoirs publics mettent également en place des ... de 6 variétés de piments commercialisées sur le marché d'Abidjan : Capsicum annuum var.

  8. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mutagenesis and breeding for disease resistance in capsicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccardo, F.; Sree Ramulu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The principal diseases, for which no sources have so far been found within the cultivars of Capsicum annuum in Italy, are caused by Verticillium dahliae, Phytophthora capsici and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The wild species C. pendulum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. chacoense, C. pubescens and C. eximium were analysed to find out if the sources for resistance to the three diseases are available. It was observed that particularly the species C. frutescens and C. chinense had good sources of resistance to V. dahliae and Ph. capsici. However, the occurrence of reproductive barriers between the wild and cultivated species appears to be a problem for the transfer of disease-resistant genes. For CMV, none of the wild species showed good resistance; so in this case a screening technique was set up using mutagenic agents to isolate resistant types in the prominent agronomic cultivars of C. annuum. Also, for V. dahliae and Ph. capsici, mutation screening techniques were set up to induce disease resistance character directly in the cultivars of C. annuum, without causing any changes in the most important agronomic characters of the cultivars. (author)

  10. Ancho Canyon RF Collect, March 2, 2017: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gamble, Thomas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the March 2, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright electromagnetic signals were seen nearby the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse at a collection point about 570m distant on the East Mesa. However, "liveness" tests of the East Mesa data acquisition system and checks of the timing both suggest that the collection system was working correctly. We examine possible reasons for the lack of detection. Principal among these is that the impulsive signal may be small compared to the radio frequency background on the East Mesa.

  11. ESTRES HIDRICO EN DOS ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM CON DIFERENTES GRADOS DE DOMESTICACION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Nieto Garibay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La germinación en semillas está comúnmente afectada por el estrés hídrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto del estrés hídrico en el porcentaje final de germinación, tasa media de germinación, y longitud de epicotilo e hipocotilo, índice de radícula:tallo de las especies de chile semi-domesticado Capsicum frutescens L. y cultivado Capsicum annuum L. Las semillas fueron expuestas a ocho niveles de potencial hídrico (Ψ inducidas con polietilen glicol (PEG 8000. Capsicum annuum presentó el porcentaje final de germinación de 73%; sin embargo, se presentaron diferencias no significativas (P=0.01 entre tratamientos en cada especie. La tasa media de germinación fue menor en C. frutescens que en C. annuum. El índice de la relación radícula:tallo fue mayor para C. annuum que para C. frutescens. Las diferencias entre el índice radícula:tallo fue significativa entre tratamientos en el caso de C. annuum, mientras que para C. frutescens no. El índice radícula:tallo fue un indicador relevante de tolerancia a la sequía  en ambas especies de chile. Un incremento en el índice radícula:tallo como una función de los niveles de estrés hídrico sugiere un efecto promotor en C. annuum mejorando el crecimiento de plántula bajo estrés hídrico. En el caso de C. frutescens, no se evidenció una disminución en el índice radícula:tallo. Lo cual sugiere una característica adaptativa del crecimiento bajo condiciones climáticas aridas y semiaridas en Baja California Sur.

  12. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1 Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2 Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3 Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4 Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium. Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct

  13. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E.; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  14. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  15. ESTRES HIDRICO EN DOS ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM CON DIFERENTES GRADOS DE DOMESTICACION

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Nieto Garibay; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; Enrique Troyo-Diéguez; Jose Luis Garcia-Hernandez; Francisco Higinio Ruiz- Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    La germinación en semillas está comúnmente afectada por el estrés hídrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto del estrés hídrico en el porcentaje final de germinación, tasa media de germinación, y longitud de epicotilo e hipocotilo, índice de radícula:tallo de las especies de chile semi-domesticado Capsicum frutescens L. y cultivado Capsicum annuum L. Las semillas fueron expuestas a ocho niveles de potencial hídrico (Ψ) inducidas con polietilen glicol (PEG) 8000. ...

  16. June 2017 Ancho Canyon RF Collects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junor, William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Layne, John Preston [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goglio, Joshua Henry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Bobby Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snelson-Gerlicher, Catherine Mary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goorley, John Timothy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    We report the results from the June 8, 2017, Ancho Canyon RF collection. While bright, electromagnetic signals were seen close to the firing point, there were no detections of signals from the explosively-fired fuse (EFF) at a collection point about 600m distant on the East Mesa. The East Mesa site was unable to collect data because the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was exhausted by the time of the shot. We did see signals from the EFF at the Bunker 57 antennas, about 123m distant from the Point 88 firing point. The strength of these signals is consistent with our limited knowledge of the collection antenna performance and the use of the standard model to predict the electric field strength. From our knowledge of the geometry of the EFF loop and the current in the loop in this test, and from measurements at the Bunker 57 site, we predict that we would have seen signals of about 50mV at 3.67MHz in a 100 kHz channel on the Rohde & Schwarz HE010 antennas at the East Mesa location. The noise oor there is about 0.113mV (based on the March 2017 collects). Thus we would have had an SNR of 53 dB from the collect, had the data collection system been running.

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  18. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum sp. sobre quatro bactérias toxinfectivas alimentares In vitro antibacterial activity of hot and sweet peppers (Capsicum sp. on four food toxinfective bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se in vitro a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB, através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos, de extratos de oito pimentas do gênero Capsicum, etnograficamente acessadas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS/BR, frente a inóculos bacterianos padronizados (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, respectivamente Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076 e Escherichia coli (11229, em doses-desafio = 10(7 UFC mL-1. Quatro destas plantas, pimenta calabresa ("pool" Capsicum sp, pimenta-de-jardim (C.annuum, pimenta dedo-de-moça (C. baccatum e pimenta malagueta (C. frutescens, apresentaram atividades de inibição e inativação seletivas, em ordem decrescente, para salmonela, coliforme fecal, enterococo e estafilococo. As demais, pimenta cambuci (C. baccatum e os pimentões (C. annuum amarelo, verde e vermelho, apresentaram nenhuma atividade. Discute-se a validade da ferramenta etnográfica na prospecção de fatores de proteção anti-bacteriana em plantas, bem como a influência da inibição/inativação na preditividade do diagnóstico bacteriológico.The intensity of bacterial inhibition activity (IINIB and the intensity of bacterial inactivation activity (IINAB of extracts of eight peppers of the genus Capsicum, ethnographically located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were assessed in vitro through Dilution Tests in Multiple Tube Series against standardized bacterial inocula (American Type Culture Collection - ATCC, Staphylococcus aureus (25923, Enterococcus faecalis (19433, Salmonella enteritidis (13076, and Escherichia coli (11229, respectively, at challenge doses = 10(7 CFU mL-1. Four of these species, cayenne pepper (Capsicum sp pool, garden pepper (C. annuum, ají pepper (C. baccatum, and malagueta pepper (C. frutescens, had

  19. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Metabolites and Pungency Candidate Genes Expression between Bhut Jolokia and Other Capsicum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Sarpras; Gaur, Rashmi; Sharma, Vineet; Chhapekar, Sushil Satish; Das, Jharna; Kumar, Ajay; Yadava, Satish Kumar; Nitin, Mukesh; Brahma, Vijaya; Abraham, Suresh K.; Ramchiary, Nirala

    2016-01-01

    Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency) biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India. Significant intra and inter-specific variations for fruit morphological traits, fruiting habits and 65 fruit metabolites were observed in the collected Capsicum germplasm belonging to three Capsicum species i.e., Capsicum chinense (Bhut jolokia, 63 accessions), C. frutescens (17 accessions) and C. annuum (56 accessions). The pungency level, measured in Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) and antioxidant activity measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay showed maximum levels in C. chinense accessions followed by C. frutescens accessions, while C. annuum accessions showed the lowest value for both the traits. The number of different fruit metabolites detected did not vary significantly among the different species but the metabolite such as benzoic acid hydroxyl esters identified in large percentage in majority of C. annuum genotypes was totally absent in the C. chinense genotypes and sparingly present in few genotypes of C. frutescens. Significant correlations were observed between fruit metabolites capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, hexadecanoic acid, cyclopentane, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, comparative expression analysis (through qRT-PCR) of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway revealed many fold higher expression of

  20. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum extract against selected strains of bacteria and micromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popelka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of traditional plant that has so many pharmacology effects is chilli fruit (Capsicum sp. that belong to the family Solanaceae. Around the world is known five varieties of Capsicum which are C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. Chilli peppers are known for causing the sensation of heat or burning when consumed. The heat sensation is incited by the type and the amount of a group of capsaicinoids, the alkaloids found only in chilli pepper pods. The HPLC method was used for determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content in various dried peppers from genera C. chinense. Based on the results of HPLC the hottest pepper has been Bhut Jolokia, followed by Habanero Red Savina, Fatalii Yellow, Habanero Paper Latern, Habanero Maya Red, Habanero Red, and Scotch Bonnet Red. The inhibitory effect of the extract of Capsicum chinense pepper type was evaluated, using dics diffusion method, against selected bacteria and micromycetes. Extracts from Bhut Jolokia, Fatalii Yellow, Scotch Bonnet Red and habaneros did not inhibit growth of the any bacteria and micromycetes included in our test.

  1. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 93 accesions of Capsicum spp of germoplasm bank of National University of Colombia - Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.Morphologic characterization of 93 Capsicum accessions of Capsicum spp., from 11 countries (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú and El Salvador and representative of four species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, 21 IBPGR's descriptors were used (six quantitative y 15 qualitative; eight of vegetative traits, three of flower traits and ten of fruit and seed traits. Morphologic characterization permited confirm the presence of intragenetic variability, in special for of plant architecture descriptors, reproductive structures and production, wich explain the 78% of the total variability. Dice's distance permitted groups formation based in their origin and flower and fruit traits, but didn't permit to interespecific discrimination. Narrow genetic distances among C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense can indicate these three species conform only one morphological group.

  2. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  3. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher ( 2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher

  5. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  6. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Davalos Mario Augusto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  7. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum extract against Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated in raw beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careaga, Mónica; Fernández, Elizabeth; Dorantes, Lidia; Mota, Lydia; Jaramillo, Maria Eugenia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Humberto

    2003-06-25

    The inhibitory effect of the extract of Capsicum annuum bell pepper type was evaluated against Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inoculated in minced beef meat mixed with different concentrations of the extract, and stored at 7 degrees C for 7 days. The combined effect of C. annuum extract and sodium chloride on the bacterial growth was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract to prevent the growth of S. typhimurium in minced beef was 1.5 ml/100 g of meat; the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% w/w of sodium chloride did not have any additional inhibitory effect on Salmonella. In the case of P. aeruginosa, a concentration of 0.3 ml of the extract/100 g of meat showed a bacteriostatic effect, while a concentration of 3 ml/100 g of meat showed a bactericidal effect. When 1% w/w of sodium chloride was added to the meat together with the extract, the concentration needed to kill P. aeruginosa was reduced.

  8. Changes in Vitamin C and Color during Cooking Of Green Peppers (Capsicum Annuum L

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    Francia E. Quipo-Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of pepper is mainly valued for flavor, color, and vitamin C. This study explored the effect of cooking on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits of green pepper. Weighed 150 g, cut to size of 2.2 cm long and 1.3 cm wide and subjected to heat treatment (steam and water for 5 min, and 760 W microwave for 2 min, and quenched proceeded to determine the pH and acidity, vitamin C concentration by the indophenol method, total chlorophyll content by spectrophotometry at 652 nm and the surface color coordinates. After heat treatment the concentration of vitamin C, chlorophyll content and acidity significant differences (p <0.05, in contrast pH, L *, a *, b *, C * and h ° not statistically affected. Vitamin C ranged from 147.84 ± 4.36 and 79.31 ± 5.44 mg ascorbic acid/100 g fresh weight. The total chlorophyll ranged from 4.44 ± 0.04 and 2.61 ± 0.04 mg/ 100 of pepper. In the acidity values were between 0.10 ± 0.005 and 0.07 ± 0.001% citric acid. The microwave cooking method obtains the highest level of retention of vitamin C, and the surface color of green pepper is not affected by the different cooking methods evaluated in this study.

  9. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

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    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  10. Modeling sorption phenomena and moisture migration rates in paprika (Capsicum annuumL.) using physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkole, S S; Sutar, P P

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the GAB and moisture migration rate models were used to predict the shelf life of paprika under domestic (40 °C and 90% RH) and industrial (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C with 70% RH) storage conditions. The correlations between physicochemical characteristics and moisture content of paprika were developed to estimate the stability of the paprika. The estimated shelf life of low moisture paprika (4.40% dry basis) was found to be 101 and 31 days in HDPE and LDPE packages, respectively when stored in domestic condition. In industrial storage condition, the shelf life prediction was 5.47 years in HDPE and 1.68 years in LDPE packages. The first order kinetic models of extractable color (ASTA) and degree of caking described the quality degradation of paprika during storage. The relative humidity and temperature of the storage environment were significant parameters affecting the stability of paprika. The shelf life of paprika can be extended by storage at or below monolayer moisture content and low temperature.

  11. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  12. Chimerism in M1 plants of Vicia faba, Capsicum annuum and Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, T.; Brunner, H.; Daskalov, S.; Nakai, H.

    1983-01-01

    One important task of our group at IAEA is to develop procedures aiming to improve sampling of M 2 seeds to facilitate the recovery of a maximum number of induced mutations in crop plants. Results from studies on three species are reported in this paper. Seeds have been mutagen treated and the chimeric M 1 plants were progeny tested in M 2 . The position of the M 2 seeds on the M 1 plants has been recorded

  13. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L -1 , treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g -1 , respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g -1 was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  14. Aflatoxin B 1 production in chillies ( Capsicum annuum L.) kept in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to isolate and enumerate the mycoflora invading chillies kept in cold storage since May, 1999. Chilli pods were collected from the cold stores at monthly intervals for a period of one year between December 2002 to November 2003. The incidence of molds on unsterilized as well as surface ...

  15. Cytokinin response in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinković, T.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Goessler, W.; Jurašin, D. D.; Parađiković, N.; Vrček, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JUL (2017), s. 10-18 ISSN 0013-9351 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biodistribution * Cytokinin response * Pepper * Silver nanoparticles * Uptake Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2016

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Leaf Heterosis by RNA-seq

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    Tao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been mostly used in hot pepper breeding and production, but the molecular basis of heterosis has not been extensively studied. In this study, comparative transcriptomes analysis of parental lines (D6, D7 and F1 hybrids (D6×D7 and D7×D6 was performed. A total of 0.6 billion raw reads, and 0.44 billion high-quality reads were obtained after the filtering process. Statistical analysis of genes with presence/deletion variations showed that, there were 1068 (6.20% and 780 (4.56% genes in the "single parent express consistent type" in the direct (D6×D7 and reciprocal (D7×D6 F1 hybrids, respectively. More genes fit into the non-additive expression type in two F1 hybrids compared to the parents, and less than 8% of the genes belong to the additive expression type. 66.08% in direct and 62.96% in reciprocal F1 hybrids belong to the epistatic dominance expression pattern. There were more differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the two parental lines (351 than between the two hybrids (17. The results of gene ontology (GO analysis showed that there were obvious differences in electron transmission and photorespiration between two F1 hybrids. GO terms for regulating plant hypersensitive responses, and MAPK pathways were only enriched in the direct hybrid (D6×D7.

  17. Perlakuan Benih dengan Rizobakteri Meningkatkan Mutu Benih dan Hasil Cabai (Capsicum AnnuumL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Safuan, La Ode; Sutariati, Gusti Ayu Kade

    2012-01-01

    The development of biological products based on beneficial microorganisms could extend the range of options for maintaining the health and yield of crops. Rhizobacteria have been used for ‘promoting plant growth. The objectives of this research were to determine the best method of preplant seed treatment through seed conditioning with rhizobacteria which would be effective to improve yields and increase seed quality of hot pepper. This research was conducted in Agronomy Laboratory Haluoleo Un...

  18. Evaluasi Vigor Daya Simpan Benih Pada Berbagai Genotipe Cabai (Capsicum Annuum L.) Dengan Metode Pengusangan Cepat

    OpenAIRE

    Ekowahyuni, Luluk Prihastuti; Sutjahjo, Surjono Hadi; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Suhartanto, Mohamad Rahmad; Syukur, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was designed to evaluate the accelerated aging method with 20% methanol for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours which is the first stage of the experimental results at several pepper seed genotypes including hybrid seeds, non hybrid, local, introduction, pepper and great pepper produced in 2009 and 2010. The seeds used are non-hybrid seed as much as 4 genotype seed production in 2009 and 4 genotype seed production in 2010. Hybrid seeds used were 10 genotypes of production in 2009 and 8 geno...

  19. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in scalded Jalapeño pepper industrial byproduct (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castro, Claudia Jaqueline; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Oomah, B Dave; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Espinosa-Alonso, L Gabriela

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated from industrial Jalapeño pepper byproducts and simulated non processed byproducts from two Mexican states (Chihuahua and Sinaloa) to determine their value added potential as commercial food ingredients. Aqueous 80% ethanol produced about 13% of dry extract of polar compounds. Total phenolic content increased and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased on scalding samples (80 °C, 2 min) without affecting ascorbic acid. The major phenolic compounds, rutin, epicatechin and catechin comprised 90% of the total compounds detected by HPLC of each Jalapeño pepper byproducts. ORAC analysis showed that the origin and scalding process affected the antioxidant activity which correlated strongly with capsaicin content. Although scalding decreased capsaicinoids (up to 42%), phenolic content by (up to 16%), and the antioxidant activity (variable). Jalapeño pepper byproduct is a good source of compounds with antioxidant activity, and still an attractive ingredient to develop useful innovative products with potential food/non-food applications simultaneously reducing food loss and waste.

  20. RESEARCH ON STOLBUR OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria stolbur is a disease of economic significance that affects pepper, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes. Stolbur is referred to the transmission diseases, i.e. the agent is being transferred via vector, namely cicada Hyalesthes obsoletus in this specific case. This research aims at following the stolbur disease of pepper of the variety of Sofiiska Kapiya. The experiment took place in 2010 and in 2011 on the experimental fields of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv. The occurence of Hyalesthes obsoletus was determined via visual observations of flower sticky traps (yellow, blue, and white. Route investigations were carried out for the purpose of tracking the symptoms of the disease. Reinforced migration of cicadas was established during the second ten days of July. It was established that the larger number of cicadas were reported for the yellow sticky traps, which may be recommended for practical application as a successful fight against cicada and limitation of its flight.

  1. Effects of organic fertilizers on growth and development of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are biofertilizers for crop treatment as activators of the physiologic functions, so that its application makes better use of nutrients and represent an appropriate option to address the pro-blems of chemical fertilization. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of two organic fertilizers on the growth and development of pepper plants, which were subjected to different doses of these fertilizers in a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The work was developed in the Experimental Center “The Beach”, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi, extension La Maná. The stem length, number of fruits, fruit diameter, and fresh biomass of the fruit were measured. The results showed that the pepper plants with the application of organic fertilizers stimulated the variables height of the plant, number of fruits, long of the fruit, diameter of the fruits and fresh biomass of the fruits

  2. Germinación en semilla de chile piquín (Capsicum annuum var. aviculare).

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Vázquez, Anaid

    2013-01-01

    El chile piquín es una planta silvestre que presenta ciertos mecanismos para asegurar la perpetuación de la especie. Dentro de estos mecanismos se encuentra la latencia de sus semillas. La germinación de las semillas de chile piquín presenta problemas para siembras intensivas comerciales. En este trabajo se planteó: 1) comparar diversas colectas en cuanto a su capacidad germinativa; 2) indagar si la baja germinación se debe a impermeabilidad en la semilla o a alguna característica estructura...

  3. Change of surface colour parameters during storage of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Belović Miona M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of paprika surface colour during three years of storage was monitored by measuring CIEL*a*b* colour parameters once a year. Ten commercial and three branded paprika samples, originating from Hungary, Austria and Serbia, were stored in original packaging at ambient temperature in dark during the storage period. The colour of paprika powder was measured by Chroma Meter CR-400 (Konica Minolta, Japan, using attachment for granular materials CR-A50. Directly measured colour parameters were CIE L* (lightness, a* (+a* = redness, -a* = greenness, b* (+b* = yellowness, -b* = blueness and dominant wavelength (DWL, while derived colour parameters were chroma (C*, hue angle (h°, and total colour change (ΔE. Paprika samples had similar granulation, and therefore it was concluded that it did not influence the colour reflection. The change of reflected colour of paprika powder during storage can be characterized by increase of CIE L* and b* colour values and decrease of a* colour value. Therefore, chroma values remained almost unchanged, while hue angle showed shift in spectrum from red-orange to orange-yellow, similarly to dominant wavelength. The paprika samples changed their colour most rapidly during the first year of storage, except the branded paprika from Serbia. Commercial paprika samples from Serbian market changed their colour more rapidly comparing to other investigated samples.

  4. HR-Mediated Defense Response is Overcome at High Temperatures in Capsicum Species

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    Bong Nam Chung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus isolated from paprika (TSWV-Pap was overcome at high temperatures (30 ± 2°C in both accessions of Capsicum annuum S3669 (Hana Seed Company and C. chinense PI15225 (AVRDC Vegetable Genetic Resources. S3669 and PI15225, which carrying the Tsw gene, were mechanically inoculated with TSWV-Pap, and then maintained in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 ± 2°C to 30 ± 2°C (in 5°C increments. Seven days post inoculation (dpi, a hypersensitivity reaction (HR was induced in inoculated leaves of PI152225 and S3669 plants maintained at 25°C ± 2°C. Meanwhile, necrotic spots were formed in upper leaves of 33% of PI15225 plants maintained at 30 ± 2°C, while systemic mottle symptoms developed in 50% of S3669 plants inoculated. By 15 dpi, 25% of S3669 plants had recovered from systemic mottling induced at 30 ± 2°C. These results demonstrated that resistance to TSWV-Pap can be overcome at higher temperatures in both C. chinense and C. annuum. This is the first study reporting the determination of temperatures at which TSWV resistance is overcome in a C. annuum genetic resource expressing the Tsw gene. Our results indicated that TSWV resistance shown from pepper plants possess the Tsw gene could be overcome at high temperature. Thus, breeders should conduct evaluation of TSWV resistance in pepper cultivars at higher temperature than 30°C (constant temperature.

  5. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp. Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

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    Omodesola O. Ogunruku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM and Capsicum chinense (RO and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P<0.05 ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P<0.05 ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  7. A novel Capsicum gene inhibits host-specific disease resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gregory; Monroy-Barbosa, Ariadna; Bosland, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety 'New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399' (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses.

  8. Diversity and spatial distribution patterns of polychaete assemblages in the Paso Ancho, Straits of Magellan Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Américo; Quiroga, Eduardo; Gerdes, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    The polychaete fauna of the Paso Ancho Basin in the Straits of Magellan was studied by means of three different sampling gears: a multibox corer, an Agassiz trawl, and a Rauschert dredge. A total of 1743 polychaete specimens belonging to 166 species from 36 families were collected at 10 stations. Significant differences were found between the catches of the three gears in terms of species numbers. The multibox corer brought up 63% of all species caught, especially macroinfauna polychaetes, the Rauschert dredge caught 16%, mostly small-bodied macroepifauna species and the Agassiz Trawl brought up 6% of the total species, largely mega-epifauna polychaetes. Only 15% of the total species occurred in more than one of the gears and only one species was found parallel in all three gears thus indicating that the combination of these gears allowed a better description of the polychaete communities than possible by just one of the gears. Using the Abundance-based Coverage Estimator and combining all species from the three different gears led to an asymptotic value of the species accumulation curve of 223 species for the Paso Ancho. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based on presence/absence data distinguished between shallow (120 m) polychaete assemblages. The shallow assemblage showed higher species richness values than the deep assemblage, and the taxonomical composition, too, differed considerably between both assemblages.

  9. ¿Existen variaciones interanuales en el crecimiento larval de anchoíta bonaerense (Engraulis anchoita)?

    OpenAIRE

    Barretto, A.C.; Chandler, D.E.; Gómez, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Se determinaron las tasas de crecimiento de larvas de la anchoíta argentina (Engraulis anchoíta) provenientes de la plataforma bonaerense, contando y midiendo incrementos diarios en sus otolitos sagitta. Las larvas se capturaron en diferentes años y durante diferentes épocas (otoño de 1999; invierno de 2000 y primavera de 2002, 2003 y 2004)a los fines de analizar diferencias interanuales en el crecimiento. Se observó que tanto el crecimiento de las larvas como el del otolito estaban acoplados...

  10. ANCHO DE TRABAJO ÓPTIMO DE LOS IMPLEMENTOS AGRÍCOLAS PROGRAMADOS EN VISUAL BASIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo José Hossne García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La metodología de análisis, con el uso de los procesos computarizados, es necesaria para facilitar a los técnicos y productores agropecuarios, mecanismos accesibles para el cálculo de los procesos agrícolas que le proporcionen una mejor toma de decisiones. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo la creación e implementación de un sistema informático que consistió en presentar a los usuarios del agro, un programa fácil de utilizar para calcular el ancho óptimo de trabajo de los aperos agrícolas utilizando ecuaciones ampliadas y actualizadas. En la metodología se utilizaron los procedimientos económicos aplicados, las relaciones algebraicas y procedimientos programáticos en Visual Basic 6, diagrama de flujo y excel. Los resultados presentan un programa para el cálculo del ancho de trabajo óptimo de aperos agrícolas, utilizando ecuaciones introducidas con un número de parámetros representativos del área; las cuales, pueden ser reemplazadas o ampliadas. Se concluye que el modelo podría ser utilizado como una ayuda para la toma de decisiones en predecir por ejemplo el número de tractores para cubrir una determinada área prevista dentro de una restricción de tiempo o puede ser adoptado para el desarrollo de un programa en caso de operar múltiples unidades de maquinarias agrícolas. El programa es fácil de utilizar, con adquisición del paquete a petición.

  11. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  12. yield and yield component association of some capsicum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-24

    Jul 24, 2015 ... The experiment was conducted in humid agro ecological zone of Calabar, Nigeria, to evaluate the yield performance and the association between yield and yield related components of some capsicum genotypes which include; Bird pepper(Capsicum annuumvar. aviculare), Habanero pepper(Capsicum ...

  13. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  14. Molecular and agronomic analysis of intraspecific variability in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, P S S; Rodrigues, R; Silva, R N O; Pimenta, S; Medeiros, A M; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A

    2016-10-05

    Capsicum baccatum is one of the most important chili peppers in South America, since this region is considered to be the center of origin and diversity of this species. In Brazil, C. baccatum has been widely explored by family farmers and there are different local names for each fruit phenotype, such as cambuci and dedo-de-moça (lady's finger). Although very popular among farmers and consumers, C. baccatum has been less extensively studied than other Capsicum species. This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic variability in C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions. Twenty-nine accessions from the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro gene bank, and one commercial genotype ('BRS-Mari') were evaluated for 53 morphoagronomic descriptors (31 qualitative and 22 quantitative traits). In addition, accessions were genotyped using 30 microsatellite primers. Three accessions from the C. annuum complex were included in the molecular characterization. Nine of 31 qualitative descriptors were monomorphic, while all quantitative descriptors were highly significant different between accessions (P < 0.01). Using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, four groups were obtained based on multicategoric variables and five groups were obtained based on quantitative variables. In the genotyping analysis, 12 polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers amplified in C. baccatum with dissimilarity between accessions ranging from 0.13 to 0.91, permitting the formation of two distinct groups for Bayesian analysis. These results indicate wide variability among the accessions comparing phenotypic and genotypic data and revealed distinct patterns of dissimilarity between matrices, indicating that both steps are valuable for the characterization of C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available annuum_S.png Capsicum_annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  16. Determinación de la condición fisiológica de la semilla de Capsicum spp y efecto del método de secado para su almacenamiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardozo C. I.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Semillas del género Capsicum se caracterizaron fisiológicamente. Basados en datos de viabilidad y germinación se estimó la tolerancia a la desecación y conservación por lo cual se estableció la condición ortodoxa de las semillas. Sin embargo, se destaca la importancia de la variable vigor, que permitió establecer diferencias entre las especies respecto de su longevidad y deducir que los contenidos de humedad de 10% y 7.5% y temperatura de 10°C admiten mayor capacidad de conservación. Los cuatro métodos de secado (secado artificial, sílica gel, sol y sombra y los dos sistemas de ambiente controlado no presentaron diferencias significativas en viabilidad. Se detectaron niveles moderados de latencia en las semillas que pudieron interferir en la interpretación de los resultados. Palabras claves: C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, viabilidad, germinación. ABSTRACT Determination of physiological status of Capsicum spp seed and efect of the dry method for storage. Capsicum spp seeds was physiologycal characterizated. Based on data of viability and germination to estimate the tolerance to drying and conservation, the orthodox condition of the seeds could be established. Nevertheless, the importance of the variable vigor stands out, that allowed to establish differences between the species with respect to its longevity, It was settled down that 10 and 7.5% of humidity contents and temperature of 10°C allow greater capacity of conservation. The four methods of seed drying and the capacity of conservation under two different controlled environment systems were not significant differences. Moderate levels of the seed dormancy could be interfered the interpretation of the results. Keywords: C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccalum, viability, germination

  17. Variaciones estacionales en el crecimiento de larvas de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) en la zona costera argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Leonarduzzi, Ezequiel; Brown, Daniel R.; Sánchez, Ramiro P.

    2010-01-01

    Se determinó la edad y el crecimiento de larvas de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) mediante el conteo y medición de los incrementos diarios de los otolitos sagitta. Las larvas fueron capturadas en la Plataforma Costera Argentina durante el año 2000 por medio de una red Bongo. Se analizaron un total de 251 larvas entre 3.5 a 12.2 mm. Las relaciones talla-edad y talla -radio del otolito se representaron mediante modelos lineales para cada estación del año (primavera-verano-otoño). La mayor tasa d...

  18. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  19. QTL analyses on genotype-specific component traits in a crop simulation model for capsicum annuum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Dieleman, J.A.; Magan, J.J.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: QTL for a complex trait like yield tend to be unstable across environments and show QTL by environment interaction. Direct improvement of complex traits by selecting on QTL is therefore difficult. For improvement of complex traits, crop growth models can be useful, as such models can

  20. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Some Selected Parameters of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. ‘HRF’ Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jezdinský

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the trial the effect of nitrogen deficiency and potassium surplus on the dry weight, photosynthetic activity (A, transpiration (E, stomatal conductance (gs and water use efficiency (WUE were examined. The macroelement content of aboveground parts were analysed, too. The plants were grown in pots filled by pure Sphagnum peat. The top-dressing started in the 3-leave stage of plants, with different solution (every irrigation: control treatment: 0.28 g N, 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.42 g K (0.50 g K2O per litre; nitrogen-deficiency: 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.42 g K (0.50 g K2O per litre; potassium surplus: 0.28 g N, 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.83 g K (1.0 g K2O per litre. The transplants grown in the commercial fertilization technology (control treatment almost in every evaluated parameters shown average value. The potassium surplus resulted significantly higher transpiration activity (2.58 mmol H2O. m−2 . s−1 and photosynthetic activity (11.54 μmol CO2. m−2 . s−1 than the nitrogen deficiency (E: 1.91 mmol H2O. m−2 . s−1 and A: 9.01 μmol CO2. m−2 . s−1, but without significant differences with control treatment. The N, P and K content of aboveground parts was significantly lower in the nitrogen deficiency treatment, than in the case of the potassium surplus, too. The effect of treatments on the dry weight of the plants, the stomatal conductance and the water use efficiency was not proven statistically.

  1. Characterizing and marker-assisting a novel chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yellow bud mutant with cytoplasmic male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G S; Dai, Z L; Bosland, P W; Wang, Q; Sun, C Q; Zhang, Z C; Ma, Z H

    2017-02-23

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper is a better way to produce hybrid seeds compared to manual production. We used the two sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR 130 ) in CMS pepper, to identify the genotype. We assembled two CMS yellow bud mutants (YBM; YBM12-A and YBM12-B). This mutation in leaf color is controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. The aim was to create a new hybrid seed production method that reduces the costs and increases F 1 hybrid seed purity. The results suggest that the CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR 130 markers can be used together in multiple generations to screen for restorer or maintainer genes. We found the marker linked to the restorer gene (Rf) in the C-line and F 1 hybrids, as well as partially in the F 2 generation, whereas it was not found in the sterile YBM12-A or the maintainer line YBM12-B. In the F 2 population, sterility and fertility segregated at a 3:1 ratio based on the CRF-SCAR marker. A 130 bp fragment was produced in the YBM12-A, F 1 , and F 2 populations, suggesting that these lines contained sterile cytoplasm. A 140 bp fragment present in the YBM12-B and C-line indicated that these lines contained normal cytoplasm. In addition, we identified some morphological characters distinguishing sterile and fertile buds and flowers that may be linked to the sterility gene. If more restorer lines are identified, CMS expressing the YBM trait can be used in hybrid seed production.

  2. The influence of far-red light on attributes of green bell pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum l. during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MIHALY COZMUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green bell peppers fruits, stored for 1 month at 8oC and 455% relative humidity in Far-Red light (FRL and darkness respectively, were investigated in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The exposure to FRL slows down the water loss from fruits by stimulating the surface wax biosynthesis into a higher specific amount and hydrophobic nature and reducing the apertures, diameters of the pericarp cells, intercellular walls and dermal layer thicknesses. The higher level of catalase enzyme in the FRL-exposed fruits resulted in lower chilling injury index in comparison with the one in fruits exposed to darkness. FRL has favorable effect on chlorophyll and carotenoids accumulation rates. The multiplication of yeasts and molds on the surface of FRL-exposed bell peppers was significantly delayed as compared to the multiplication on the surface of the darkness-exposed bell peppers.

  3. Characterisation of antioxidant compounds in sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under organic and conventional growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2012-09-01

    Sweet red bell pepper is one of the best sources of ascorbic acid and carotenoids as well as phenolic compounds important in the human diet. There have been some studies showing a higher level of bioactive compounds in organic bell pepper fruits compared with conventional fruits, but not all studies have been consistent in this respect. The levels of carotenoids and phenolics are very variable and may be affected by ripeness, genotype and cultivation. The results obtained in this study showed that an organic growing system affected the level of bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) in sweet bell pepper fruits cultivated in Poland. Organic bell pepper fruits contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, cis-β-carotene, total phenolic acids (as well as individual gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin D-glucoside, quercetin and kaempferol) compared with conventional fruits. The bell pepper variety also affected the level of antioxidant compounds in fruits. Organic growing increased the level of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C in sweet bell pepper. The second significant factor affecting the antioxidant compound content of sweet bell pepper was variety. It would be necessary to continue this study as a long-term experiment in order to eliminate the influence of seasonality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The effect of substrates with compost and nitrogenous fertilization on photosynthesis, precocity and pepper (Capsicum annuum) yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazia, de J.; Tittonell, P.A.; Chiesa, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fast-growing seedlings have larger immediate nutrient demands as compared with adult plants. A tray experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilization of sweet pepper transplants growing on different substrates [Control (60% Sphagnum peat + 40% perlite), Mix I (45% Sphagnum peat + 30% perlite +

  6. Acclimations to light quality on plant and leaf level affect the vulnerability of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anna M; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the influence of light quality on the vulnerability of pepper plants to water deficit. For this purpose plants were cultivated either under compact fluorescence lamps (CFL) or light-emitting diodes (LED) providing similar photon fluence rates (95 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) but distinct light quality. CFL emit a wide-band spectrum with dominant peaks in the green and red spectral region, whereas LEDs offer narrow band spectra with dominant peaks at blue (445 nm) and red (665 nm) regions. After one-week acclimation to light conditions plants were exposed to water deficit by withholding irrigation; this period was followed by a one-week regeneration period and a second water deficit cycle. In general, plants grown under CFL suffered more from water deficit than plants grown under LED modules, as indicated by the impairment of the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII, resulting in less biomass accumulation compared to respective control plants. As affected by water shortage, plants grown under CFL had a stronger decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR) and more pronounced increase in heat dissipation (NPQ). The higher amount of blue light suppressed plant growth and biomass formation, and consequently reduced the water demand of plants grown under LEDs. Moreover, pepper plants exposed to high blue light underwent adjustments at chloroplast level (e.g., higher Chl a/Chl b ratio), increasing the photosynthetic performance under the LED spectrum. Differently than expected, stomatal conductance was comparable for water-deficit and control plants in both light conditions during the stress and recovery phases, indicating only minor adjustments at the stomatal level. Our results highlight the potential of the target-use of light quality to induce structural and functional acclimations improving plant performance under stress situations.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Chryseobacterium kwangjuense Strain KJ1R5, Isolated from Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Mannaa, Mohamed; Sang, Mee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Strain KJ1R5 of the rhizobacterium Chryseobacterium kwangjuense is an effective biocontrol agent against Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by a destructive soilborne oomycete, Phytophthora capsici. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain KJ1R5, which contains genes related to biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and environmental stress adaptation. PMID:27103726

  8. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5 Gb genome of Capsicum annuum form a single linked-read library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of multiple human genomes, however the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5 gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Cap...

  9. Efektifitas Penginduksi Resistensi dan Biopestisida terhadap Penyakit Bercak Daun Cercospora dan Antraknosa pada Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Heri Isnawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A research to confirm potential natural resources as an induced systemic resistance agent and bio- pesticide and it combination against Cercospora leaf spot and anthracnose on pepper. The research method was conducted by experiment on field, arranged in factorial design 3 x 5, arranged Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications as blocks. The First factor was inducer of resistance, consist of 3 levels i.e. non-inducer of resistance, inducer of resistance by Mirabilis jalapa and inducer of resistance by Amaranthus spinosus. The Second factor was bio-pesticide consist of 5 level i.e. non-bio-pesticide, bio-pesticide Amp, bio-pesticide Pfm001, bio-pesticide Amp+Pfm001 and chemical fungicide. The result of this research showed that inducer of resistance could suppressing damage fruit by anthracnose but could not influencing in Cercospora leafspot. Inducer of resistance could not be influencing growth of plant but could suppressing damage fruit volume and total damage fruit. Inducer of resistance i.e. Mirabilis jalapa and Amaranthus spinosus could suppressing damage fruit by anthracnose. Bio-pesticide could not be influencing in Cercospora leafspot but could suppressing anthracnose on pepper. Bio-pesticide could not be influencing the growth of pepper but could suppressing total damage fruit and damage fruit volume also increasing up the yield. There is no interaction between inducer of resistance and bio-pesticide through every parameter except for the area under diseases progress curve (AUDPC.

  10. KERAGAMAN SERANGGA PADA TANAMAN CABAI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM YANG DIBERI PESTISIDA SINTETIS VERSUS BIOPESTISIDA RACUN LABA-LABA (NEPHILA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the diversity of insects in chili plant agroecosystem treated with synthetic pesticide versus that treated with biopesticide (venom of spider Nephila sp. Two plots of chili pepper plants, each sized 600 m2, located at Ciwidey area Bandung –West Java, were taken as the sample plots. The first plot was weekly treated with profenofos insecticide (50% active ingredient, a.i. while the second plot was treated with  biopesticide (70% a.i. spider venom extracted from Nephila sp., each at 35 ml/17 L rate of spray solution. Sweep net was used to sample insects along two transects in each plot. Result showed that 14 families of 8 insect orders were found in pesticide-treated plot while 15 families of  9 orders were found in biopesticide-treated plot. The evenness index and diversity index of insects in plot treated with biopesticide were relatively higher than those in pesticide-treated plot. In contrast, dominance index in biopesticide plot was lower than that in synthetic pesticide plot. Thrips sp.(Thysanoptera: Thripidae was found to be the most dominant species in both plots.

  11. Effect of growing conditions at greenhouse on vitamin E content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on effect of growing conditions on vitamin E content in fruits of two cultivars of sweet pepper (Bendigo F1 and Lamuyo F1 were carried out. The influence of growing substrate type (sphagnum peat or rockwool, Flormin, Poland, season of fruits harvesting (Summer or Autumn and dosages of mineral Iiquid nutrition were investigated. It was found that fruits of sweet pepper grown in rockwool contained more vitamin E than those from sphagnum peat substrate (ring culture, during Summer harvesting„ ln Autumn differences appeared too. but most of them were not statistically proved. The sweet pepper fruits harvested at Summer contained more vitamin E than fruits from Autumn. There were not significant differences among vitamin E level in fruits of the plants cultivated in rockwool at different dosages of fertilizers.

  12. CaDMR1 Cosegregates with QTL Pc5.1 for Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. Rehrig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major problem for the pepper ( industry is the root rot disease caused by (, to which all commercial varieties suffer yield losses despite good management practices and available landraces with high levels of resistance. A high-density map with 3887 markers was generated in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL derived from the highly resistant accession Criollo de Morelos-334 and Early Jalapeño. These lines have been systematically screened for resistance against a set of isolates collected from Mexico, New Mexico, New Jersey, California, Michigan and Tennessee. Quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with effective resistance across isolates have been identified and validated with SNP markers across additional segregating populations. By leveraging transcriptomic and genomic information, we describe , a homoserine kinase (HSK, as a candidate gene responsible for the major QTL on chromosome P5 for resistance to . SNP markers for the resistant allele were validated to facilitate gene pyramiding schemes for recurrent selection in pepper.

  13. Alleviation of Phytophthora capsici-induced oxidatıve stress by foliarly applied proline in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koç Esra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora capsici is a highly destructive pathogen of pepper. To examine whether proline modifies the levels of plant defense compounds produced in response to P. capsici-induced stress, pepper seedlings were infected with P. capsici-22 in the presence of proline (1 mM, 10 mM or in its absence. Proline was sprayed on the leaves of CM-334 and Kekova pepper cultivars prior to inoculation. CM-334 was more resistant to P. capsici-22, while the Kekova cultivar exhibited a sensitive reaction. P. capsici-22 increased the total phenolic compound and H2O2 levels, as well as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in pepper seedlings. The application of exogenous proline further increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, as well as the total levels of phenolic compounds and the fresh and dry weights of the plants on the 5th and 7th days post treatment. After proline application, the highest catalase activity was found in both cultivars on the 5th day of the 10 mM proline + P. capsici application. On all days of the experiment, the applications caused a decrease in disease severity, necrosis length and H2O2 levels in both cultivars. In addition, proline decreased the colony growth of P. capsici and the number of zoospores. This finding indicates that enzymes and total phenolic compound levels protect the pepper seedlings against stress-related damage. Moreover, proline has the potential to directly scavenge free radicals and promote enzyme activity in pepper seedlings under P. capsici stress. These results suggest that foliar application of proline is an effective way to improve the stress tolerance of pepper to P. capsici.

  14. Response agronomic of the pepper crops ( Capsicum annuum L. under drought conditions with Biobrás-Plus application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in two towns of Granma in order to evaluate the agronomic response of pepper cultivars, “Spanish” variety, under drought stress conditions and with the application brassinosteroids (Biobrás - Plus. In the town of Jiguaní the research was done at Las Marianas market garden, and in the town of Guisa the research was done at Río de Guisa market garden. The biostimulant was applied to foliage 15 days after being planted and at bloom initiation, early in the morning. The growth rate was evaluated every 10 days, and at harvest the yield and their components were evaluated. In order to assess the response of the variables, an analysis of the main components was carried out. Among the variables that had a better response to the treatments were: the total number of the fruits per plant, polar and equatorial diameter of fruits and average weight, average mesocarp thickness and the yield of the cultivar. The results showed that the biostimulant utilized had a high anti stress effect, the best results were achieved when applied to plants that were under drought stress conditions.

  15. Cytotoxic Effect on MG-63 Cell Line and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Seed Extracts of Capsicum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the concept of ethnobotany, plant extract was taken into consideration as an alternative to chemicals synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The extracts from the chilli seeds were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. In this study two species of chilli, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, have been used to analyse the characteristics of the bio-active compounds found in their seeds. Analysis of the bioactive compound was performed by using Soxhlet extraction with solvents followed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS. Furthermore, green synthesis of nanoparticles with chilli extracts was carried out using silver nitrate to detect its antimicrobial activity. The characterizations of both the nanoparticles were carried out using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. Antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens and the antioxidant assay using DPPH and FRAP assays were performed. The cytotoxicity effects on osteosarcoma cell lines were also evaluated with the synthesized AgNPs.

  16. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia Morphological characterization of accesions of Capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica C.I. Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.68 accessions from the Capsicum collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica, Palmira were morphologically characterized by using 12 quantitative and 10 qualitative descriptors. For the principal components analysis the variables with highest contribution were associated to plant architecture and fruit descriptors and their explained 70.8% of total variability. Classification analysis based on quantitative data showed 5 groups but did not allow discrimination between species. For the multiple correspondence analysis 83.4% of the variability was explained by variables related with flower and fruit traits. The classification analyses using qualitative descriptors showed 4 groups and allowed discrimination of C. baccatum species. The discriminant analysis showed that C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense are phylogenetically closely related.

  17. Floodplain Assessment for the North Ancho Canyon Aggregate Area Cleanup in Technical Area 39 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    This floodplain assessment was prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022 Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements, which was promulgated to implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements under Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management and Executive Order 11990 Wetlands Protection. According to 10 CFR 1022, a 100-year floodplain is defined as “the lowlands adjoining inland and coastal waters and relatively flat areas and flood prone areas of offshore islands.” In this action, DOE is proposing to collect soil investigation samples and remove contaminated soil within and around selected solid waste management units (SWMUs) near and within the 100-year floodplain (hereafter “floodplain”) in north Ancho Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The work is being performed to comply with corrective action requirements under the 2016 Compliance Order on Consent.

  18. Sistema de modulación de ancho de impulso para el control de potencia alterna monofásica

    OpenAIRE

    Valla, María Inés; Rivetta, Claudio H.

    1987-01-01

    La modulación de ancho de impulsos (PWM) es ampliamente utilizada en el control de inversores. El principal objetivo es lograr una tensión senoidal da salida con mínima distorsión armónica. En el presente trabajo se describe un inversor monofásico de simple implementación, cuyo control presenta la característica inherente de mantener la relación de tensión a frecuencia fundamental de salida (V/f) constante y un mínimo contenido armónico espúreo en un amplio rango de frecuencia de referencia. ...

  19. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  1. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (<45%). Cis-violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and lutein were the next most relevant carotenoids in the yellow/orange Andean peppers (5% to 14%). As a whole, rocotos showed the highest contributions of provitamin A carotenoids to the carotenoid fraction. In terms of nutritional contribution, both ajíes and rocotos provide a remarkable provitamin A activity, with several accessions showing a content in retinol equivalents higher than California Wonder controls. Furthermore, levels of lutein in yellow/orange ajíes and rocotos were clearly higher than California Wonder pepper (≥1000 μg·100/g). Finally, the Andean peppers, particularly red ajíes, can be also considered as a noticeable source of capsanthin, the most powerful antioxidant compound among pepper carotenoids. Practical Application: Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is

  2. Riqueza y abundancia de aves en bosques ribereños de diferentes anchos en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Copán, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inty T Arcos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudió se realizó en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Departamento de Copán, Honduras. El propósito fue explorar el efecto del ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños sobre la riqueza y abundancia de especies de aves que visitan estos bosques. Se encontraron 1 294 aves pertenecientes a 145 especies en bosques ribereños. La diversidad de aves estuvo ligada al ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños: se encontró mayor número de especies e individuos, en anchos iguales o mayores a 50 m. Las especies pertenecientes al grupo alimenticio de los insectívoros y nectarívoros fueron las más abundantes en las franjas ribereñas. Todas las especies de aves identificadas dependen de los bosques ribereños y responden al ancho del bosque; aún las especies más generalistas tienen algún grado de dependencia a las franjas ribereñas más anchas. Para conservar las poblaciones de aves en los paisajes agrícolas fragmentados es de suma importancia mantener franjas ribereñas que sean mayores a 50 m de ancho y que brinden suficientes habitas y recursos.Richness and abundance of birds in riparian forest belts of varied breadths at the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras. Riparian forests protect many species of plants and animals. We studied bird communities in riparian forest belts of the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras (140o 43’ 12" - 140o 58’ 35" N, 88o 53’ 23" - 89o 14’ 17" W. The main goal was to explore the effects of belt breadth on the richness and abundance of avian species visiting these forests. We selected 20 belts, and randomly established 30 observation points to monitor bird presence in the dry (March-April 2005 and rainy (June-July 2005 season (N= 60 observations. A total of 1 294 birds belonging to 145 species were recorded. Bird diversity was significantly correlated to the breadth of the riparian belts, with a greater number of species and individuals in belts 50 m wide or wider

  3. Sistemas de preparo de solo e acúmulo de metais pesados no solo e na cultura do pimentão (Capsicum Annum L. Systems preparation of soil and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and in the culture of pepper (Capsicum Annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ezequiel Villarreal Núñez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos determinar a influência de diferentes métodos de preparo do solo sobre as perdas por erosão de metais pesados e na contaminação do solo e de frutos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. com esses elementos. A avaliação foi realizada durante os meses de dezembro de 1999 a março de 2000, no ciclo de cultivo do Pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas parcelas do tipo Wischmeier, de tamanho de 22,0 x 4,0m. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: (i aração com trator morro abaixo e queima dos resíduos vegetais (MAQ; (ii aração com trator morro abaixo e não queima dos resíduos vegetais (MANQ; (iii aração com tração animal em nível, faixas de capim colonião a cada 7,0m (AA e (iv cultivo mínimo, com preparo de covas em nível (CM. As perdas mais elevadas de metais pesados por erosão foram verificadas no tratamento MAQ, típico da região. A concentração de Pb no fruto in natura, nos quatros sistemas de preparo do solo, e de Cd no CM estiveram acima dos limites permitidos para alimentos in natura, estando impróprios para o consumo humano Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que o uso intensivo de agroquímicos associados às elevadas perdas de solo por erosão pode determinar sérios riscos de contaminação do solo, água e alimentos produzidos.The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of different soil tillage methods on the loss of heavy metals by erosion, and to evaluate the level of contamination of soil and food in Paty do Alferes County, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The experiment was conducted from December of 1999 to March of 2000, and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was the cultivated crop. Four Wichmeier plots were installed, with an area of 22 x 4m. The treatments utilized were the following: (i tillage with machinery and operation down hill and burning of the grassland (MAQ; (ii tillage with machinery and operation down and without burning

  4. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  5. Molecular and functional diversity in Capsicum landraces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study analyzed the diversity in 26 landraces of Capsicum from Andaman Islands using 20 morphological, 16 biochemical and 10 DNA markers. Significant differences were observed in tested landraces and 16 reference genotypes from mainland India. Biochemical markers grouped all the genotypes into eight ...

  6. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... Protein profile was studied during the development of Capsicum chinense somatic embryos. The total protein content and profile of polypeptides (by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of somatic embryos at different developmental stages (globular, heart-shaped, torpedo.

  7. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein profile was studied during the development of Capsicum chinense somatic embryos. The total protein content and profile of polypeptides (by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of somatic embryos at different developmental stages (globular, heart-shaped, torpedo and cotyledonary stages) ...

  8. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Vásquez Juan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando

    12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las carac- terísticas de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de co- rrespondencia multiple el 8%.&% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de for y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  9. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  10. Diseño de un amplificador operacional CMOS de amplio ancho de banda y alta ganancia para aplicaciones de alta velocidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simancas García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se diseña un amplificador operacional de topología estándar CMOS con proceso tecnológico de 0,12 um, de gran ancho de banda (97 MHz y alta ganancia (136 dB, para ser utilizados en la elaboración de filtros activos integrados. Para tal fin se realiza inicialmente un estudio teórico de los diferentes conceptos relacionados con el funcionamiento de los amplificadores operacionales, según se presenta en la literatura para la tecnología CMOS. Posteriormente se establecen las especificaciones de un amplificador para una aplicación en filtros activos y se diseña aquel. Luego se muestra el correcto funcionamiento del circuito diseñado a través de simulaciones en el software de aplicación Multisim® de NI, y se verifica si se cumplen las especificaciones evaluadas de ancho de banda y ganancia. Por último, se presenta un cuadro comparativo que permite contrastar los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo con los exhibidos por un diseño académico y un amplificador operacional comercial.

  11. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  12. Diseño y construcción de un inversor monofásico tipo puente con control de frecuencia y modulación de ancho de pulso (pwm)

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera Villacres, Narcisa De Jesus; Chong Aguirre, Pedro; Villagomez Gavilanes, Yary Justo; Chootong Ching, Norman

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo a desarrollarse en este tópico consiste en el diseño de un inversor monofásico de frecuencia variable y modulación de ancho de pulso o PWM, lo que significa que se puede variar el ancho del pulso alterno producido. Esto es un convertidor de potencia dc a potencia ac con la posibilidad de variar la frecuencia dentro de un amplio rango de trabajo. Se ha diseñado con la capacidad de que la carga no afecte el funcionamiento del inversor (como cuando se introduce una carga inductiva). ...

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  14. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  15. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of some capsicum (Capsicum annum varieties grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro grown in Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, 9.0 and 8.8% moisture; 11.9, 8.8 and 9.2% crude protein; 27.3, 26.0 and 28.6% crude fiber and 11.2, 9.5 and 9.2% fat (oleoresin on wet weight basis. They also contained 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8 mg/100 g potassium; 27.2, 38.2 and 54.6 mg/100 g calcium and 7.2, 6.9 and 9.6 mg/100 g iron on wet weight basis. Tannin was found to be 0.142, 0.164 and 0.148 mg/100 g, respectively, while phytate was not detected in any of the samples. Analysis of variance and LSD (least significant difference test revealed that protein and oleoresin of Marako fana were significantly higher (p<0.05 than Bako local and Oda haro. Potassium, calcium and iron contents of Oda haro were significantly higher (p<0.05. Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of oleoresin, while Oda haro is nutritionally preferable because it contains high amounts of potassium, calcium and iron.

  16. Estrategias de la anchoíta en un mar de tiburones: Las pymes conserveras marplatenses durante la valoración financiera [1975-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mateo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años 70' Argentina se consolidó como un país pesquero, siendo la merluza hubbsi la principal especie capturada y exportada. Desde fines de la década de 1990 pequeñas y medianas empresas supieron conciliar extracción, manufactura y mercados explotando especies costeras, entre las cuales se destaca la anchoíta. El presente trabajo se centra en las estrategias de gestión, organización e innovación de Coomarpes e Indupesa, empresas que han subsistido en un mercado dominado por un poderoso oligopolio interno y por capitales foráneos que depredan el mar argentino y exportan productos con escaso agregado de valor hacia mercados europeos y asiáticos

  17. The influence of ethephon applied before harvesting on vitamin C, reducing sugars, protein total, and carotenoids content in the fruits of sweet pepper PCR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes were examined in vitamin C, protein total, reducing sugars, and carotenoids content in fruits of sweet pepper treated with ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid before harvesting the fruits. The obtained results show that epplying ethephon caused an increase in vitamin C and carotenoids total content in fruits of pepper harvested 35 days after spraying. With an increase of xantophyll concentration (capsanthin + capsorubin effected by ethephon, a decrease in ß-carotene occurred, and with an increase in the amount of ß-carotene a decrease in the amount of red carotenoids in pepper fruits was found.

  18. SELECCIÓN DE LÍNEAS DE PIMIENTO (Capsicum annuum L.) PARA SER UTILIZADAS COMO PROGENITORAS EN LOS PROGRAMAS DE OBTENCIÓN DE HÍBRIDOS

    OpenAIRE

    Yaritza Rodríguez; T. L. Depestre

    2005-01-01

    Las enfermedades virales constituyen el principal obstáculo para el desarrollo del pimiento en el mundo. En Cuba, lo afectan principalmente el virus del mosaico del tabaco (TMV), virus Y de la papa (PVY), virus del grabado del tabaco (TEV), virus del moteado de las venas del pimiento (PVMV) y virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV). El control genético aparece como la vía más eficiente. Para la construcción simultánea de resistencia a virus y adaptación climática en el pimiento, se realizó un estu...

  19. Efeito de tratamentos de pressão e temperatura na actividade e estabilidade da pectina metilesterase e na textura de pimento (Capsicum annuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Sónia Marília de Almeida e

    2007-01-01

    De entre os diversos métodos de conservação de alimentos, o processamento térmico é o mais comum. No entanto, a alta pressão tem ganho interesse já que inactiva microorganismos e várias enzimas relacionadas com a qualidade alimentar, enquanto que outros atributos (cor, aroma, vitaminas) são mantidos. Do mesmo modo, a aplicação de pressão a baixas temperaturas (abaixo de 0oC) tem tido um interesse crescente na área do processamento por congelação, já que este provoca danos irreversíveis na tex...

  20. RESPUESTA DEL CULTIVO DE PIMENTÓN (CAPSICUM ANNUUM A LA INOCULACIÓN CON GLOMUS MANIHOTIS Y ACAULOSPORA LACUNOSA EN SUELO CON NIVELES ALTO DE FOSFORO

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    Laura Esther Rojas-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomus manihotis y Acaulospora lacunosa are fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizae; mutually beneficial symbiotic associations between fungi and specialized roots. This root-fungus formation performs various functions in association with plants. Previous research has shown that they can provide biological substitutes for mineral fertilizers. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Glomus manihotis (GL and Acaulospora lacunosa (ACU in pepper plants grown in soils with high levels of P. Methods: The Phillips and Hayman method was used for the determination of the percentage of infection. Other variables were: height, total fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, weight and number of fruit, percentage of infection and foliage nutrient content. Results: Plants inoculated with (GL recorded an infection rate of 70.3 %, inoculated with (ACU had 45 % and the inoculated treatment (GL / ACU 28%. The infection had a positive effect in the majority agronomic variables analyzed in plants inoculated with (GL and (ACU, but not in the mixed treatment (GL / ACU which was very similar to control. In terms of the content of nutrients in foliage, there were no significant differences in treatments NPK, but there were significant differences in the mobile few nutrients such as Zn, Cu and Fe, favoring plants inoculated with (ACU. Conclusions: These results suggest that inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi in conditions of high phosphorus levels may be an effective adjuvant in the optimal development of a plant, long as they determine the effective specific fungus under these conditions.

  1. Simultaneous and individual quantitative estimation of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pyriforme) and Serrano peppers (Capsicum annuum) using an MPN technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Díaz, E; Martínez-Chávez, L; Sánchez-Camarena, J; Muñiz-Flores, J A; Castillo, A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; González-Aguilar, D G; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2018-08-01

    Simultaneous and individual enumeration of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes was compared on inoculated Roma tomatoes and Serrano peppers using an Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Samples consisting of tomatoes (4 units) or peppers (8 units) were individually inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella, Shigella or L. monocytogenes, or by simultaneous inoculation of three strains of each pathogen, at low (1.2-1.7 log CFU/sample) and high (2.2-2.7 log CFU/sample) inocula. Samples were analyzed by an MPN technique using universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth at 35 °C for 24 ± 2 h. The UP tubes from each MPN series were transferred to enrichment and plating media following adequate conventional methods for isolating each pathogen. Data were analyzed using multifactorial analysis of variance (p  simultaneous), type of bacteria (Salmonella > Shigella and L. monocytogenes), type of sample (UP broth > pepper and tomato), and inoculum level (high > low). The MPN technique was effective for Salmonella on both commodities. Shigella counts were higher on tomatoes compared to peppers, (p < 0.05), and for L. monocytogenes on peppers (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

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    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  3. Electrical penetration graph studies to investigate the effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Alana L; Kennedy, George G

    2014-05-01

    The anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole has been shown to suppress aphid and whitefly populations as well as reduce transmission of plant viruses by thrips and whiteflies when taken up systemically by the plant. In this study, electrical penetration graphing (EPG) was used to compare effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae with those of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid applied as a soil drench to pepper plants two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. Significant reductions in the total amount of time spent probing, mean number of phloem feeding events, and mean number of intracellular punctures were observed on both cyantraniliprole- and imidacloprid-treated plants, compared to aphids that fed on plants treated only with water. Imidacloprid treatment also caused a significant reduction in the total number of probes relative to the water treated control. The effects of cyantraniliprole were statistically significant only in assays conducted at ten-days post-treatment, whereas the effects of imidacloprid on aphid feeding were significant in assays conducted at two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. These findings document significant effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding by Myzus persicae. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of Aphis glycines as an Alternative Host for Supporting Aphelinus albipodus Against Myzus persicae on Capsicum annuum cv. Ox Horn and Hejiao 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y Q; Sun, H Z; Du, J; Wang, X D; Cheng, Z J

    2017-04-01

    Bank plant systems provide effective biological control for pests infesting commercially important crops. Aphids cause physical damage to crops by feeding on the leaves, as well as transmitting damaging viral diseases. To develop a bank plant system to control aphids that damage vegetable crops, we initially reared the parasitoid Aphelinus albipodus (Hayat and Fatima) on the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura) reared on the soybean plant, Glycine max (L.) that was elected as the alternate host. Parasitoid adults that emerged from A. glycines were allowed to parasitize second instar nymphs of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) which were reared on sweet pepper and chili pepper leaves. The results showed that A. albipodus females feeding and parasitizing M. persicae nymphs reared on sweet pepper lived for 18.9 days, with an average fecundity of 337.3 progenies/female, while females feeding and parasitizing on M. persicae nymphs reared on chili pepper lived for 18.8 days, with an average fecundity of 356.2 progenies/female. There were no significant difference in the development time and reproduction of A. albipodus individuals parasitizing M. persicae nymphs reared on sweet pepper and chili pepper plants. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), net aphid killing rate (Z 0 ), and finite aphid killing rate (θ) of A. albipodus parasitizing sweet pepper and chili pepper M. persicae was 0.2258 days -1 , 171.7 progeny adults, 222.6 aphids, and 0.4048 and 0.2295 days -1 , 191.8 progeny adults, 243.3 aphids, and 0.4021, respectively. Our results suggested that A. glycines could serve as an effective alternative host for supporting A. albipodus against M. persicae infesting sweet pepper and chili pepper.

  5. THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. FAJINMI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  7. Influence of Phytophthora capsici L. inoculation on disease severity, necrosis length, peroxidase and catalase activity, and phenolic content of resistant and susceptible pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Esra; ÜSTÜN, Ayşen Sülün

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the level of infection caused by different inoculum concentrations (102, 103, and 104 zoospores mL-1) of Phytophthora capsici in 3 pepper cultivars at days 2, 4, and 6. The effect that the infection induced on the peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and phenolics of resistant and sensitive seedlings, as well as the defense mechanism against the pathogen, were also investigated. The resistance of PM-702 against the isolate used was high, whereas KM-Hot and DEM-8 displayed sen...

  8. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  9. Full-genome analyses of a Potato Virus Y (PVY) isolate infecting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Vaneson; Ibaba, Jacques D; Naidoo, Roobavathie; Gubba, Augustine

    2014-12-01

    Potato Virus Y (PVY) is a pathogen of economic importance in pepper and other major crop species in the family Solanaceae. Three major PVY strain groups: O, C, and N, have been distinguished on the basis of genome sequencing. In this study, the first full-genome sequence of a PVY isolate (JVW-186) infecting pepper from the province of KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa is reported. The complete genome sequence of JVW-186 was assembled from overlapping RT-PCR clones using MEGA 5 software. Two ORFs were identified at position 186 and 2915 of the sequence encoding the viral polyprotein and the frameshift translated protein P3N-PIPO, respectively. RDP4 software confirmed three recombination breakpoints at position 343, 1365, and 9308 of the sequence. At each recombination event, a 1,021-bp fragment at the 5' end in the region of the P1/HC-Pro protein and a 392-bp fragment in the region of the coat protein shared a high sequence similarity of 91.8 and 98.89 % to the potato borne PVY(C) isolate PRI-509 and the PVY(O) isolate SASA-110, respectively. The non-recombinant fragment 1 (342-bp) clustered within the C clade of PVY isolates; however, the large 7,942-bp fragment 3 did not cluster within any of the clades. This suggests the possibility of a PVY isolate that has evolved due to the dynamics of selection pressure or the likelihood of an ancestral PVY strain.

  10. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense

  11. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seou1 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gyung Ja [Screening Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yusung, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doil, E-mail: doil@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seou1 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of a thionin-like peptide from Capsicum annuum fruits and combinatorial treatment with fluconazole against Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Gabriel B; Mello, Érica O; Carvalho, André O; Regente, Mariana; Pinedo, Marcela; de La Canal, Laura; Rodrigues, Rosana; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2017-05-01

    Many Fusarium species are able to cause severe infections in plants as well as in animals and humans. Therefore, the discovery of new antifungal agents is of paramount importance. CaThi belongs to the thionins, which are cationic peptides with low molecular weights (∼5 kDa) that have toxic effects against various microorganisms. Herein, we study the mechanism of action of CaThi and its combinatory effect with fluconazole (FLC) against Fusarium solani. The mechanism of action of CaThi was studied by growth inhibition, viability, plasma membrane permeabilization, ROS induction, caspase activation, localization, and DNA binding capability, as assessed with Sytox green, DAB, FITC-VAD-FMK, CaThi-FITC, and gel shift assays. The combinatory effect of CaThi and FLC was assessed using a growth inhibition assay. Our results demonstrated that CaThi present a dose dependent activity and at the higher used concentration (50 µg mL -1 ) inhibits 83% of F. solani growth, prevents the formation of hyphae, permeabilizes membranes, induces endogenous H 2 O 2 , activates caspases, and localizes intracellularly. CaThi combined with FLC, at concentrations that alone do not inhibit F. solani, result in 100% death of F. solani when combined. The data presented in this study demonstrate that CaThi causes death of F. solani via apoptosis; an intracellular target may also be involved. Combined treatment using CaThi and FLC is a strong candidate for studies aimed at improved targeting of F. solani. This strategy is of particular interest because it minimizes selection of resistant microorganisms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. EFECTO DE CUATRO RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DE CRECIMIENTO SOBRE LA PUDRICIÓN BASAL CAUSADA POR Phytophthora capsici EN PLANTAS DE CHILE DULCE (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de mohos en el pedúnculo de la piña de Costa Rica, es uno de los proble- mas poscosecha más importantes que conlleva al rechazo de la fruta en el mercado destino. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar las poblaciones de los hongos causantes de mohos en el pedúnculo de la piña, en diferentes fases de procesamiento poscosecha, mediante muestreos mensuales durante un año de producción en 2 zonas. Además, se realizó la identificación mor- fológica y molecular de los hongos más frecuen- tes. Se cuantificó, in vitro, el número de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC en el agua de des- infección, la cera, el aire de las cámaras de alma- cenamiento y en el pedúnculo y la cáscara de la fruta, sin procesar (SP y procesada (P con los tratamientos comerciales de las fincas. Además, se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de moho en el pedúnculo. Hubo variaciones en las poblaciones de hongos en todas las fases de procesamiento y en la fruta, con valores más altos en la cera que en el agua de desinfección. En el pedúnculo de fruta SP se obtuvo poblaciones más altas que en fruta P, lo cual coincidió con mayores porcentajes de moho al finalizar el almacenamiento. En las cámaras de enfriamiento también se recuperó esporas de hongos, que podrían ser una fuente de inóculo para el desarrollo de moho. Los prin- cipales hongos identificados fueron Penicillium purpureogenum , P. diversum y Penicillium sp., los cuales presentaron alta esporulación in vitro y crecimiento en el pedúnculo. Además en dife- rentes puntos del proceso como el encerado y el enfriamiento, en los que se capturaron esporas, la fruta podría ser contaminada, por lo que se considera importante la adecuada limpieza de las cámaras de enfriamiento, así como evitar que la cera acumule poblaciones importantes de microorganismos.

  14. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana da pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens).

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Lins Azevedo do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), como é conhecida no Brasil, é uma das espécies de pimenta mais usadas na culinária e na medicina popular brasileira. Foram analisadas as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, o teor de fenólicos totais, capsaicina, dihidrocapsaicina e crisoeriol. O teor de capsaicina, dihidrocapsaicina e crisoeriol encontrado foi de 9,2, 4,0 e 2,1 mg/g de extrato respectivamente. A concentração inibidora mínima foi determinada frente seis linhagens de bactérias e d...

  15. Volatile and capsaicinoid composition of ají (Capsicum baccatum) and rocoto (Capsicum pubescens), two Andean species of chile peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    Ají (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) and rocoto (Capsicum pubescens R. & P.) are two species of chile pepper used for millennia in Andean cuisine. The introduction of these relatively unknown Capsicum species to new markets requires an understanding of their flavour-related compounds. Thus both heat level (Scoville method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)) and, particularly, aroma (headspace solid phase microextraction and GC/MS/olfactometry) were studied in different accessions of ají and rocoto and a C. chinense control. Ajíes and rocotos are mildly pungent compared with C. chinense (13-352 vs 1605 mg kg(-1) total capsaicinoids). More than 200 volatiles were detected and marked differences in volatile pattern were found between the studied accessions. The powerful fruity/exotic aroma of the C. chinense control is due to esters such as ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, norcarotenoids such as β-ionone and the hydrocarbon ectocarpene. In contrast, the Andean peppers had more earthy/vegetable/bell pepper-like aromas. Rocotos also exhibited a distinct additional cucumber odour, while one of the ajíes had a distinctive sweet/fruity note. The aroma of C. pubescens fruits is mainly due to substituted 2-methoxypyrazines and lipoxygenase cleavage products (e.g. 2-nonenals, 2,6-nonadienal). 2-Heptanethiol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and several phenols (e.g. guaiacol) and terpenoids (e.g. α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, linalool) are the basis of C. baccatum aroma, with some 3-methyl-2-butyl esters contributing to fruity notes. In this study the compounds responsible for heat and aroma in the Andean peppers C. baccatum and C. pubescens were identified. The results will be of use to inspire future studies aimed at improving the flavour of these species. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evaluación de la diversidad genética del género Capsicum sp. presente en los Departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo por medio de Isoenzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Capsicumcomprende 25 especies de las cuales cinco han sido domesticadas y dadoorigen a numerosos cultivares. Sin embargo, la alta selección a la que está siendo sometido elgénero podría llevarla a su erosión genética, por ello se requiere la introducción de nuevogermoplasma que suministre una fuente de diversidad genética, para el mejoramiento de loscultivares comerciales. Dicha fuente se debe encontrar en aquellas zonas donde las especiessilvestres, cercanas y/o relacionadas se distribuyen, ya que estas áreas funcionan como reser-vorio de genes y es allí donde se encuentran variedades con acervos genéticos amplios; fuentesgenéticas para resistencia a enfermedades, alta productividad y calidad nutricional. Teniendoen cuenta lo anterior la región amazónica colombiana tiene un valor potencial en la exploraciónde germoplasma importante para el género Capsicum, por ser considerada como el lugar deorigen del complejo silvestre annuum-chinense-frutescens. Así mismo se requiere de unaevaluación urgente de la diversidad genética de la región amazónica, antes de que se agotela disponibilidad de material vivo debido al proceso de deforestación. Con el propósito devalorar la diversidad genética presente del género Capsicum, en la Amazonía colombiana seutilizó la técnica de electroforésis de isoenzimas para los materiales de Ají colectados enhuertos y chagras indígenas de los departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo. Para laevaluación se utilizaron cinco isoenzimas polimórficas: alfabetaEST (alfabeta esterasa, GOT(glutamato oxaloacetato transaminasa, PRX (peroxidasa, 6PGDH (6-fosfoglucona-todehidrogenasa y ME (enzima málica. Con los resultados de presencia-ausencia de bandasse construyeron fenogramas con el índice de similaridad de Dice o Nei (1945 por mediodel programa estadístico NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analisys System. Deacuerdo a los resultados se pudo establecer la alta variabilidad

  17. A pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) metacaspase 9 (Camc9) plays a role in pathogen-induced cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Min; Bae, Chungyun; Oh, Sang-Keun; Choi, Doil

    2013-08-01

    Metacaspases, which belong to the cysteine-type C14 protease family, are most structurally similar to mammalian caspases than any other caspase-like protease in plants. Atmc9 (Arabidopsis thaliana metacaspase 9) has a unique domain structure, and distinct biochemical characteristics, such as Ca²⁺ binding, pH, redox status, S-nitrosylation and specific protease inhibitors. However, the biological roles of Atmc9 in plant-pathogen interactions remain largely unknown. In this study, a metacaspase gene present as a single copy in the pepper genome, and sharing 54% amino acid sequence identity with Atmc9, was isolated and named Capsicum annuum metacaspase 9 (Camc9). Camc9 encodes a 318-amino-acid polypeptide with an estimated molecular weight of 34.6 kDa, and shares approximately 40% amino acid sequence identity with known type II metacaspases in plants. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of Camc9 was induced by infections of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race 1 and race 3 and treatment with methyl jasmonate. Suppression of Camc9 expression using virus-induced gene silencing enhanced disease resistance and suppressed cell death symptom development following infection with virulent bacterial pathogens. By contrast, overexpression of Camc9 by transient or stable transformation enhanced disease susceptibility and pathogen-induced cell death by regulation of reactive oxygen species production and defence-related gene expression. These results suggest that Camc9 is a possible member of the metacaspase gene family and plays a role as a positive regulator of pathogen-induced cell death in the plant kingdom. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Method for the flotation oil extraction of light filth from ground capsicums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1977-05-01

    The present official first action method for ground capsicums, 44.123, was adopted in 1945 and there have been great changes in processing and examination of spices since that time. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, followed by wet sieving and extraction of the light filth from 60% ethanol with flotation oil. The filter papers were clean and recoveries were good (95%) for 5 different lots of capsicums and annato spiked with insect fragments and rodent hairs.

  19. Short-term changes in the plankton of a highly homogeneous Basin of the Straits of Magellan (Paso Ancho during spring 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Antezana

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nutrients, chlorophyll and zooplankton were followed for 11 d in a basin of the Straits of Magellan (Paso Ancho, characterized by a homogeneous water column during a spring event defined by a drastic change in wind stress and direction. Conditions hardly seemed conducive to a phytoplankton bloom. Initial conditions were characterized by SW gales, low nutrients as well as by Chaetoceros spp. and Thalassiosira spp. dominated phytoplankton. Wind switched abruptly to calm-weak northerlies by the middle of the study period, a subsurface chlorophyll peak developed and extended to the end of the study while nitrates decreased. Zooplankton was dominated by copepods, nauplii and a diverse meroplankton assemblage. Zooplankton composition was rather uniform, except for diel changes in some taxa. Gut contents of zooplankton size fractions (including Euphausia vallentini as the largest fraction were measured. Grazing rates accounted for 0.5 % of the available chlorophyll. Phytoplankton blooming may be explained by transient water stratification resulting from the relaxation of wind stress and eventual retention of the phytoplankton in the photic layer. Minor variability in zooplankton implied the existence of a permanent and distinct assemblage in a strongly homogeneous environment.

  20. Intracellular Localization, Interactions and Functions of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M K; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2017-01-01

    Tospoviruses are among the most devastating viruses of horticultural and field crops. Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) has emerged as an important pathogen of capsicum and tomato in Australia and South-east Asia. Present knowledge about CaCV protein functions in host cells is lacking. We determined intracellular localization and interactions of CaCV proteins by live plant cell imaging to gain insight into the associations of viral proteins during infection. Proteins were transiently expressed as fusions to autofluorescent proteins in leaf epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana and capsicum. All viral proteins localized at least partially in the cell periphery suggestive of cytoplasmic replication and assembly of CaCV. Nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural movement (NSm) proteins localized exclusively in the cell periphery, while non-structural suppressor of silencing (NSs) protein and Gc and Gn glycoproteins accumulated in both the cell periphery and the nucleus. Nuclear localization of CaCV Gn and NSs is unique among tospoviruses. We validated nuclear localization of NSs by immunofluorescence in protoplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed self-interactions of CaCV N, NSs and NSm, and heterotypic interactions of N with NSs and Gn. All interactions occurred in the cytoplasm, except NSs self-interaction was exclusively nuclear. Interactions of a tospoviral NSs protein with itself and with N had not been reported previously. Functionally, CaCV NSs showed strong local and systemic RNA silencing suppressor activity and appears to delay short-distance spread of silencing signal. Cell-to-cell movement activity of NSm was demonstrated by trans -complementation of a movement-defective tobamovirus replicon. CaCV NSm localized at plasmodesmata and its transient expression led to the formation of tubular structures that protruded from protoplasts. The D 155 residue in the 30K-like movement protein-specific LxD/N 50-70 G motif of NSm was critical for

  1. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species.

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  3. A new prenylated flavanonol from Seseli annuum roots showing protective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Ivan; Vajs, Vlatka; Stanković, Miroslava; Tesević, Vele; Milosavljević, Slobodan

    2010-03-01

    A new prenylated flavanonol named seselinonol (1) was isolated from the roots of Seseli annuum, together with the well-known biologically active polyacetylenes falcarinol (2) and falcarindiol (3), and the prenylated furanocoumarin phellopterin (4). Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR. Seselinonol and phellopterin were tested for in vitro protective effect on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The new compound exerted a beneficial effect by decreasing DNA damage of human lymphocytes.

  4. Riesgo de Contaminación de los Acuíferos que abastecen las Nacientes río Loro, Arriaz, Paso Ancho y Lankaster del cantón central de Cartago debido a Plaguicidas Organofosforados y Carbamatos

    OpenAIRE

    Masís-Meléndez, Federico; Romero-Blanco, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Proyecto de Investigación (VIE-5402-1460-6501) Se determinó el riesgo de contaminación de los acuíferos que abastecen las nacientes Río Loro, Arriaz, Paso Ancho y Lankaster del Cantón Central de Cartago, debida a la infiltración de plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos. Para esto se procedió a medir mediante ensayos de campo y de laboratorio, las características físico químicas del suelo presente en las zonas de naciente y zonas de recarga hídrica; así como la movilidad,...

  5. Irradiación gamma en anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) : Aspectos tecnológicos y de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió desde un abordaje multidisciplinario el efecto de la irradiación gamma sobre dos productos pesqueros, a fin de analizar la factibilidad de extender su vida comercial en refrigeración. Se utilizaron dos productos que difieren en su composición y preservación: anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) frescas y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita). En distintas experiencias se aplicó la irradiación gamma mediante una fuente de Cobalto-60, en la planta de irradiaci...

  6. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified recombinant enzyme. The enzyme accepted pyruvate, and oxaloacetate but not 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrate, which is in accordance with other characterised transaminases from the plant kingdom. The enzyme was also able to convert (S)-1-phenylethylamine into acetophenone with high stereo-selectivity. Additionally, it was shown to be active at a broad pH range. Conclusions We suggest PAMT to be renamed to VAMT (vanillin aminotransferase, abbreviation used in this study) as formation of vanillin from vanillylamine could be demonstrated. Furthermore, due to high stereoselectivity and activity at physiological pH, VAMT is a suitable candidate for biocatalytic transamination in a recombinant whole-cell system. PMID:24712445

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  8. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.

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    Hellismar W. da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L., variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados modelos matemáticos frequentemente utilizados para representação da higroscopicidade de produtos agrícolas. Para uma atividade de água constante o aumento da temperatura reduz o teor de água de equilíbrio higroscópico das sementes de pimenta. As isotermas de dessorção apresentam formato sigmoidal do tipo II. Os modelos de Cavalcanti Mata, Chen Clayton, Chung Pfost, Chung Pfost Modificado, Henderson e Henderson Modificado são adequados para representar a higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta Cabacinha para a faixa de temperatura de 10 a 40 °C e atividade de água de 0,213 a 0,975.

  9. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C; Berke, Terry; Jarret, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At maturity, fruits were collected and analyzed for seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) concentrations. The main objectives of this investigation were: 1) to determine the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the soil and monitor their accumulation in mature fruits, 2) to categorize the pepper accessions as low or high heavy metal accumulators, and 3) to determine if heavy metal content of the pepper fruit was lower than the permitted limits. Concentrations and relative proportions of heavy metals in pepper fruits of C. chinense varied among accessions. Fruits of Plant Introduction (PI) 355820 accumulated significant concentrations of Cd (0.47 μg g(-1) dry fruit). PI-260522 accumulated the highest concentration of Pb (2.12 μg g(-1) dry fruit) among the 63 accessions tested. This accession (PI-260522) contained about twice the Pb limit on a fresh weight basis. Among the 63 accessions analyzed, PI-238051 contained the highest levels of Ni (17.2 μg g(-1)). We concluded that high accumulator genotypes may be useful for phytoremediation, while, low accumulator accessions might be appropriate selections for growing on Cd-, Pb-, or Ni-contaminated soils to prevent potential human exposure to heavy metals and health hazards through the food chain.

  10. Secondary Metabolites of Capsicum Species and Their Importance in the Human Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (pepper) comprises a large number of wild and cultivated species. The plants are grown all over the world, primarily in tropical and subtropical countries. The fruits are an excellent source of health-related compounds, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids (provitamin

  11. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  12. Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal | Niu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the depletion of fossil fuel and the concern about environmental issues, the utilization of biomass resources has attracted increasing worldwide interest. The pyrolysis behavior of capsicum stalks and Baoji coal mixtures was investigated by TG-DSC. Results show that the thermal degradation temperature range of ...

  13. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  14. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  15. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with capsicum and turmeric oleoresin increases resistance to necrotic enteris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  16. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  17. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  18. Diseño y construcción de un prototipo de sensor de medida resistivo de clase 0.2 para redes de 20kV con amplio ancho de banda de hasta 5kHz

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Fresneda, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    El presente Trabajo Fin de Grado, y a su vez proyecto europeo, se ha realizado en colaboración con el Centro Tecnológico de Alta de Tensión (CTAT) del Laboratorio Central Oficial de Electrotecnia (L.C.O.E.). El desarrollo de este Trabajo Fin de Grado, consiste en el diseño y construcción de un sensor de medida resistivo, o también llamado divisor de tensión resistivo, para redes de 20kV en un ancho de banda de hasta 5kHz. El impulso de una mayor dependencia de la energía renovable en ...

  19. Estudio del ancho eficaz en secciones en t de hormigón armado e identificación de los parámetros significativos en su respuesta estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Bernat, Antonio R.

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effective width of different types of reinforced concrete cross sections /s presented. The method of analysis used is the finite elements method, using shell elements and beam elements to represent the flanges and web respectively. One of the objectives of this study is to identify the more significant parameters in the determination of the effective width. For this purpose, a parametric study has been performed and a number of simple analytical expressions for the effective width is proposed. The obtained results have been compared with the ones coming from other analytical methods and with the ones proposed by the Spanish Concrete Code. Finally some conclusions have been derived.En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio del ancho eficaz de distintos tipos de secciones. El método de análisis utilizado es el de los elementos finitos, usando elementos lámina y viga para modelizar las cabezas y almas respectivamente. El estudio pretende identificar los parámetros básicos que influyen de forma relevante en la determinación de dicho ancho eficaz. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio paramétrico en régimen lineal elástico, como consecuencia del cual se proponen unas expresiones sencillas. Los resultados obtenidos se han comparado con otros procedentes de soluciones analíticas (para algunos casos particulares y experimentales, así como con los resultados obtenidos mediante aplicación de la vigente Normativa Española del Hormigón EH-82, extrayendo conclusiones al respecto.

  20. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

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    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  1. Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morré, D James; Geilen, Christoph C; Welch, Anna M; Morré, Dorothy M

    2009-01-01

    A single case of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) was treated topically with a patch consisting of an aqueous paste of a commercially available mixture (50:1) of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) for approximately 14 days. The carcinoma responded by the formation of apoptotic blisters whereas surrounding normal tissue showed no response. A second untreated carcinoma 17 cm distant from the treated area also responded indicative of a systemic action of the substance.

  2. Efficacy of capsicum oleoresin nanocapsules formulation by the modified emulsion-diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surassmo, Suvimol; Min, Sang-Gi; Bejrapha, Piyawan; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of high pressure homogenizer on the physico-chemical properties of capsicum oleoresin loaded nanoemulsion (NE) or nanocapsules (NCs) based on the emulsion-diffusion method. According to the application stage of high pressure process at principle emulsion-diffusion method, NCs was prepared by conventional-emulsion-diffusion method (CED), modified-emulsion-microfluidization-diffusion method (MEMD) and modified-emulsion-diffusion-microfluidization method (MEDM). The nanocapsules of MEMD showed homogeneous and the smallest particle size as compared with CED. In addition, MEMD presented the surface tension at the value 36.5 mN/m. The encapsulated capsicum oleoresin was generated the bright color and suppressed the dark red color. Furthermore, MEMD gave the high encapsulation efficiency of capsicum oleoresin around 95% and showed the slow release rate. On the other hand, MEDM presented the non-homogeneous and agglomerate of the particle, low percentage of encapsulation efficiency and the high initial release rate when compared with CED and MEMD methods. According these results, it was supposed that the microfluidization was interesting technique to ameliorate the physical properties and efficiency of NCs. However, it was depending on the appropriate combination of microfluidization based on the emulsion-diffusion method.

  3. Oxidative stress reduced by a green tea concentrate and Capsicum combination: synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Greg B; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species that are produced by aerobic metabolism and signaling cascades have the potential to play important roles in maintaining homeostatic redox and cell proliferation. When the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species is perturbed toward production, the result is oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress are a general characteristic of cancer. The altered redox state within a tumor microenvironment confers a growth advantage through increased proliferation rates, evasion of apoptosis, and increased resistance to therapeutic compounds. We have tested a synergistic combination of green tea-Camellia sinensis-concentrate and powdered Capsicum powder (TeaFense™/Capsol-T™) as a dietary supplement to reduce oxidative stress as an approach to elimination of malignant cells. Here, we demonstrate that the green tea-powdered Capsicum mixture effectively reduces levels of oxidative stress in both cancer (HeLa) and noncancer (MCF-10A) cells as determined from measurements of levels of the oxidative stress indicator Nrf-2 by western blot analysis. Nrf-2 is a transcription factor that controls an antioxidant response element. Increased expression of Nrf-2 is linked to high levels of oxidative stress and vice versa. Based on levels of Nrf-2, the mixture of green tea concentrate plus powdered Capsicum reduced oxidative stress by more than 50% compared with 15% by the green tea concentrate alone.

  4. The effects of exposure dose and dose rate of gamma radiation on in vitro shoot-forming capacity of cotyledon explants in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yatsufusa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sripichitt, P.; Nawata, E.; Shigenaga, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of exposure dose and dose rate of gamma radiation on shoot-forming capacity of cotyledon explants of red pepper were investigated. The twelve-day-old seedlings were irradiated by gamma radiation with varying exposure doses of O, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0 and 2.5 krad delivered at the dose rates of l, 5 and 10 krad/ hr. After irradiation, cotyledons were excised from the seedlings and cultured on MURASHIGE and SKOOG medium supplemented with benzyladenine at the concentration of 3 mg/l to induce shoot formation. It was found that the percentage of shoot-forming explants and the number of shoots per explant were decreased as the exposure dose increased. Moreover, the increase in exposure dose delayed callus and shoot bud formation and inhibited the development of shoot buds into vigorous shoots. At the same exposure dose, the higher dose rate (10 krad/hr) was more detrimental for shoot formation than the lower ones (1 and 5 krad/hr). The exposure dose which caused 50 percent reduction in the number of shoots per explant (RD50) was around 1.0 krad at the dose rates of 1 and 5 krad/hr whereas RD 50 was 0.75 krad at the rate of 10 krad/hr. (author)

  5. Design and fabrication of a real-time measurement system for the capsaicinoid content of Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method through visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of...

  6. Diversité de Ralstonia Solanacearum au Cameroun et bases génétiques de la résistance chez le piment (Capsicum Annuum) et les Solanacées

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbou-Somo-Toukam , Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of R. solanacearum as well as the knowledge of genetic determinism of pepper resistance are critical for elaborating a strategy against this ubiquist bacterium. They will facilitate the choice and direction of fighting methods and the development of well adapted tools for quarantine measures. In a modern approach of genetics more and more based on plant models, Solanaceaes occupy a place of pioneer. On another hand the emerging breakdown of resistances seems...

  7. Short-term effect of add on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasukeerthi, Padakandla; Mooventhan, A; Manjunath, N K

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. Though various studies have reported the beneficial effect of Yoga in patient with T2DM, there is a lack of study in combination with bell pepper and yoga. Hence, the present study aims at evaluating short-term effect of add on bell pepper juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty T2DM subjects with the age varied from 34 to 69-years were recruited and randomly divided into either study group or control group. The study group received 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT while the control group received only IAYT for 4-consecutive days. Baseline and post-test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for the social sciences, version-16. Results of this study showed no significant difference in overall (fasting and post prandial) blood glucose level in the study group compared with control group. However, a significant reduction in Post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP) and Double product (Do-P) was observed in the study group compared with control group. Results of this study suggest that though an addition of 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT is not more effective in reducing fasting blood glucose, it may be more effective in reducing PPBG, SBP, PP, RPP and Do-P than IAYT alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora parasitica on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with compost teas from different sources, and their effects on plant growth promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco MARIN; Fernando DIÁNEZ; Mila SANTOS; Francisco CARRETERO; Francisco J. GEA; Carlos CASTAÑEDA; María Jesús NAVARRO; José A. YAU

    2014-01-01

    Suppressive effects of different compost teas were evaluated against the phytopathogens P. capsici and P. parasitica, isolated from diseased plants from commercial sweet pepper farms in Almería (Spain), during 2011. Aerated compost tea and non-aerated compost tea were prepared from spent mushroom compost, grape marc compost, crop residues compost and vermicompost. In vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of the two tested pathogens was assessed, and in vivo effects of compost teas on disease se...

  9. Estabilidad fenotípica del rendimiento y adaptación en líneas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. durante la época lluviosa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Echandi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 3 experimentos durante la época lluviosa de los años 2001 al 2003, para evaluar la productividad, adaptación y estabilidad fenotípica de 25 líneas de chile en Sabanilla, Poás y Sarchí Norte, Provincia de Alajuela, respectivamente. Los genotipos junto con 2 testigos se dispusieron en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 3 repeticiones en una plantación de renovación de café. Las variables evaluadas fueron el peso y número de frutos tipo A, B y C, el rendimiento total de frutos y la incidencia e índice de daño de la mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas campestris. El análisis combinado permitió identificar la interacción línea por localidad en las variables de respuesta, por lo que se recurrió al análisis de estabilidad propuesto por Eberhart y Russell (1966, en el caso del rendimiento total de frutos comerciales. Las líneas 2 y 3 sobresalieron por su rendimiento promedio de frutos comerciales en las 3 localidades, con 10,57 y 12,38 t ha-1, respectivamente. La línea 21 junto a las anteriores resultó ser una de las más aptas para la producción de chile jalapeño en la localidad más desfavorable de Poás. Las líneas 15 y 18, junto con la 2 y 3, incrementarían significativamente el ingreso del productor de café, en relación con los comparadores, en los ambientes más favorables de producción. La reacción promedio de los genotipos al daño foliar por X. campestris en las 3 localidades fue de baja intensidad (20,3%. Este nivel de daño foliar no afectó el rendimiento de frutos; por lo que se recomienda evaluar la respuesta de estos materiales a presiones mayores de inóculo.

  10. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR. The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2 and standard error of prediction (SEP for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S

    2015-10-29

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45-159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  12. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hellismar W. da; Costa, Lílian M.; Resende, Osvaldo; Oliveira, Daniel E. C. de; Soares, Renato S.; Vale, Luís S. R.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.), variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw) determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados expe...

  13. EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EcoTILLING technique allows polymorphisms in target genes of natural populations to be quickly analysed or identified and facilitates the screening of genebank collections for desired traits. We have developed an EcoTILLING platform to exploit Capsicum genetic resources. A perfect example of the utility of this EcoTILLING platform is its application in searching for new virus-resistant alleles in Capsicum genus. Mutations in translation initiation factors (eIF4E, eIF(iso4E, eIF4G and eIF(iso4G break the cycle of several RNA viruses without affecting the plant life cycle, which makes these genes potential targets to screen for resistant germplasm. Results We developed and assayed a cDNA-based EcoTILLING platform with 233 cultivated accessions of the genus Capsicum. High variability in the coding sequences of the eIF4E and eIF(iso4E genes was detected using the cDNA platform. After sequencing, 36 nucleotide changes were detected in the CDS of eIF4E and 26 in eIF(iso4E. A total of 21 eIF4E haplotypes and 15 eIF(iso4E haplotypes were identified. To evaluate the functional relevance of this variability, 31 possible eIF4E/eIF(iso4E combinations were tested against Potato virus Y. The results showed that five new eIF4E variants (pvr210, pvr211, pvr212, pvr213 and pvr214 were related to PVY-resistance responses. Conclusions EcoTILLING was optimised in different Capsicum species to detect allelic variants of target genes. This work is the first to use cDNA instead of genomic DNA in EcoTILLING. This approach avoids intronic sequence problems and reduces the number of reactions. A high level of polymorphism has been identified for initiation factors, showing the high genetic variability present in our collection and its potential use for other traits, such as genes related to biotic or abiotic stresses, quality or production. Moreover, the new eIF4E and eIF(iso4E alleles are an excellent collection for searching for new resistance

  14. EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiza, Vicente P; Cañizares, Joaquín; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-11-12

    The EcoTILLING technique allows polymorphisms in target genes of natural populations to be quickly analysed or identified and facilitates the screening of genebank collections for desired traits. We have developed an EcoTILLING platform to exploit Capsicum genetic resources. A perfect example of the utility of this EcoTILLING platform is its application in searching for new virus-resistant alleles in Capsicum genus. Mutations in translation initiation factors (eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E, eIF4G and eIF(iso)4G) break the cycle of several RNA viruses without affecting the plant life cycle, which makes these genes potential targets to screen for resistant germplasm. We developed and assayed a cDNA-based EcoTILLING platform with 233 cultivated accessions of the genus Capsicum. High variability in the coding sequences of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes was detected using the cDNA platform. After sequencing, 36 nucleotide changes were detected in the CDS of eIF4E and 26 in eIF(iso)4E. A total of 21 eIF4E haplotypes and 15 eIF(iso)4E haplotypes were identified. To evaluate the functional relevance of this variability, 31 possible eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E combinations were tested against Potato virus Y. The results showed that five new eIF4E variants (pvr2(10), pvr2(11), pvr2(12), pvr2(13) and pvr2(14)) were related to PVY-resistance responses. EcoTILLING was optimised in different Capsicum species to detect allelic variants of target genes. This work is the first to use cDNA instead of genomic DNA in EcoTILLING. This approach avoids intronic sequence problems and reduces the number of reactions. A high level of polymorphism has been identified for initiation factors, showing the high genetic variability present in our collection and its potential use for other traits, such as genes related to biotic or abiotic stresses, quality or production. Moreover, the new eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E alleles are an excellent collection for searching for new resistance against other RNA viruses.

  15. Activité des extraits de six variétés de piment ( Capsicum ) utilisés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsicum) utilisés en Côte d'Ivoire (extrait aqueux, éthanolique 70% et acétatique) sur la croissance de Penicillium sp. Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus et Aspergillus niger. Méthodologies et résultats : La méthode de diffusion en ...

  16. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  17. Fabrication and properties of capsicum extract-loaded PVA and CA nanofiber patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Sila-On, Warisada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers loaded with capsicum extract (CE) for use in topical skin treatments. CE, 0.5, 1 or 2 wt %, was loaded into PVA and CA electrospun fiber mats. Various properties of the CE-loaded fiber mats as well as release and skin permeation were investigated. The average diameters of these fibers ranged from 251-368 nm. The release rate of capsaicin from CE-loaded as-spun PVA was faster than that of the CA fiber mats and increased as the CE content in CE-loaded as-spun PVA and CA increased. The release kinetics of the CA and PVA fibers followed the Higuchi equation. The percentages of CE that permeated the shed snake skin with PVA and CA fiber mats containing 2 wt % CE after 24 h were 60% and 20%, respectively. The results suggest a potential use of PVA and CA nanofibers being used to control skin permeation of capsicum extract. Our research suggests the potential application of CE-loaded PVA electrospun mats as transdermal drug delivery systems.

  18. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  19. Influência do ácido giberélico no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade do fruto em cultura de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. Influence of GA3 on the development, yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annum L. crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lucchesi

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi aplciado, na cultura de pimentão variedade híbrida Cascadura x Agronômico 10 G, ácido giberélico (GA3, 10, 20 e 40 ppm, pulverizado, uma, três e seis vezes, com intervalos de uma semana, iniciando-se a primeira aplicação sete dias após o transplante , com a finalidade de se estudar a influência desse fitorregulador no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade do fruto, nessa cultura. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 10 ppm, uma semana após o transplante, resultou em maior produção; maior peso médio do fruto e relativa precocidade. A dose de 40 ppm em se is aplicações consecutivas, resultou em pequena produção, mais tardia, com as plantas mostrando maior desenvolvimento vegetativo, folhas maiores e de coloração verde amarelada.Gibberelic acid (GA3 was sprayed at concentrations of 10, 20, or 40 ppm, in one, three or six times, with one week intervals on pepper crop (C as cadura x Agronômico 10 G hyb rid , starting serven days afte r transp lanting in a field trial, to study its influence on development, yield an frut quality. The concentration of 10 ppm, applied seven days after transplanting, resulted in the highest yield , with highest mean fruit weig ht and precocity. The concentration of 40 ppm, with six applications resulted in a delayed lower yield with plants showing more ve getative growth, larger leaves and yellow green color.

  20. Effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli (Capsicum annum L.) quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoraga, S. B.; Sabarisman, I.; Ainuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) has significant price fluctuation. When the chilli price is declined, it causes food waste from unsold chilli. Therefore, drying chilli is a solution for this condition. Futhermore, it can be processed for various product like chilli powder, chilli sauce, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli quality. Chilli was blenched with hot water and steam before drying. The purpose of this pretreatments is to inactivate enzyme that prevents color and vitamin C losses. The quality parameters were moisture content, colour, vitamin C content, and capsaicin. Changes were observed by gravimetri method for moisture content, chromameter in L* a * b * colour model, and iodine titration for vitamin C. After drying for 20 hours at 60°C, chilli with steam blanching pretreatment dried rapidly than other samples. Unpretreated chilli had higher vitamin C content and better color than blanched chilli.

  1. Fungicidal properties of two saponins from Capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, A J; Boue, S; Palmgren, M S; Maskos, K; Cleveland, T E

    2006-04-01

    Two steroidal saponins have been purified from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Both have the same steroidal moiety but differ in the number of glucose moieties: the first saponin has four glucose moieties (molecular mass 1081 Da) and the second contains three glucose moieties (molecular mass 919 Da). Solubility in aqueous solution is less for the saponin containing three glucose moieties than for the one containing four glucose moieties. The larger saponin was slightly fungicidal against the nongerminated and germinating conidia of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, and F. graminearum, whereas, the second saponin (molecular mass 919 Da) was inactive against these fungi. Results indicate that the absence of one glucose molecule affects the fungicidal and aqueous solubility properties of these similar molecules.

  2. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  3. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO 4 , Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P 2 O 2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  4. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  5. Avaliação da eficiência de extração de compostos nitrogenados da polpa de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita Evaluation of the efficiency of nitrogen compounds extraction from the anchovy (Engraulis anchoita pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcenir Júnior Mendes Furlan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da extração de compostos nitrogenados, como proteínas solúveis (PS, nitrogênio total (NT, nitrogênio não proteico (NNP e nitrogênio proteico (NP da polpa de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita, bem como obter informações a respeito de sua composição proximal e do frescor em relação ao seu local de captura. A polpa de anchoíta foi submetida a tratamento de extração de nitrogenados utilizando como soluções NaHCO3 (0,1; 0,2; 0,3 e 0,5%, NaCl 0,3% e água destilada. O ciclo de lavagem da polpa utilizando 0,1% de NaHCO3, dois ciclos de água destilada e um ciclo de NaCl 0,3% demonstrou maior eficiência na extração dos compostos nitrogenados, assim como das proteínas sarcoplasmáticas. Na determinação da composição proximal, a anchoíta in natura apresentou valores de umidade de 77,2%, proteína 16,8%, lipídios 3,4% e cinzas 2,4% e, para a polpa de anchoíta, foram encontrados valores de umidade de 78,1%, proteína 17,5%, lipídios 2,4% e cinzas 2,0%. A avaliação do frescor foi determinada através do pH, bases voláteis totais (N-BVT e trimetilamina (N-TMA, encontrando-se valores de 6,3; 11,5 mg.100 g-1 e 2,8 mg.100 g-1 para a anchoíta in natura e 6,7; 20,2 mg.100 g-1; 3,1 mg.100 g-1 para a polpa, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the nitrogen compounds extraction like soluble proteins (SP, total nitrogen (TN, non protein nitrogen (NPN, and nitrogen protein (NP from the anchovy pulp (Engraulis anchoita, as well to investigate their proximal composition and freshness alteration based on the capture place. The anchovy pulp was submitted to nitrogen extraction treatment using NaHCO3 (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.5%, NaCl 0.3% as solutions and distilled water. The pulp washing cycles using 0.1% NaHCO3, two cycles of distilled water, and one of NaCl 0.3% demonstrated improved efficiency in the extraction of the nitrogenous compounds and

  6. Etnobotánica del chile quipín (Capsucum annuum var. Glabriusculum) en la sierra gorda y semidesierto de Querétaro

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, Héctor Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    El chile silvestre, comúnmente denominado piquín (C. annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill) ha sido identificado como el progenitor y pariente silvestre de las formas domesticadas. En México las poblaciones naturales de este taxón se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas y son aprovechadas por los habitantes del medio rural, a través de la recolección. Las poblaciones silvestres también pueden ser la mejor reserva de germoplasma útil ya que conservan los procesos evolutivos nat...

  7. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  8. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  9. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  10. Symptom and Resistance of Cultivated and Wild Capsicum Accessions to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Heon Han

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred Capsicum accessions were screened for symptomatic response and resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus-pb1 (TSWV-pb1. Symptom and its severity rating were checked by visual observation at 9, 12, 14, and 45 days after inoculation, respectively. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay was performed all tested individuals on non-inoculated upper leaves after the third rating to indentify viral infection. Leaf curling was predominant in almost susceptible individuals of each accession. Stem necrosis was most frequent in wild species while yellowing in commercial hybrids and Korean land race cultivars. Ring spot, a typical symptom of TSWV, was rarely detected in some of a few accessions. Different levels of resistance to TSWV-pb1 were observed among the tested accessions. High level of resistance was detected in 4 commercial cultivars of Kpc- 35, -36, -57, and -62, and 8 wild species of PBI-11, C00105, PBC076, PBC280, PBC426, PBC495, PBC537, and PI201238 through seedling test by mechanical inoculation.

  11. Pengaruh pupuk organik limbah padat industri crumb rubber terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman cabe (Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research about the influence of organic fertilizer of crumb rubber solid waste industry on chili plants (capsicum frutescens growth had been done. The aim of the research was to evaluate the vegetative growth of chili plants treated with organic fertilizer that was made from crumb rubber solid waste industry and it was compared with chili plants treated was commercial organic fertilizer (SP -36. The organic fertilizer was made by mixing of soil, crumb rubber solid waste, cow fieces, talc, saw dust, and hull rices, using and aerab system. The variation of the amount of solid waste was 0%; 10%, 20%; 30%; and 40%, respectively. Fertilizing of chili plants was done by dasage variation i.e.1:1,5; and 2 kg/10m2 and control (without fertilizer respectively. The observation was done on fourth month on vegetative growth including high plants, leaf length, and leaf width. The results showed that crumb rubber solid waste could be used as organic fertilizer for chili plants. The best growth of plants especially high was treated with 20% crumb rubber solid waste at dosage of 2 kg /10m2 is 38.2 cm, while the best growth of leaf length and leaf width was chili plant treated with 40% crumb rubber solid waste at dosage of 2 kg/10m2 was 10.0 cm and 6.2 cm.

  12. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity assessment of Xeranthemum annuum L. and isolation of two cyanogenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Gulyurdu, Fulya; Kupeli Akkol, Esra; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Arabaci Anul, Serap; Tatli, Iffet Irem

    2016-11-01

    Xeranthemum annuum L. (Asteraceae) (XA) is an ornamental and medicinal species with limited bioactivity and phytochemical data. Identification of anticholinesterase, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the flower and root-stem (R-S) extracts of XA. Anticholinesterase (at 100 μg mL -1 ) and antioxidant (at 1000 μg mL -1 ) effects of various extracts were evaluated via microtiter assays, while anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the R-S extracts were tested using carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema (100 and 200 mg kg -1 ) and p-benzoquinone (PBQ) writhing models (200 mg kg -1 ) in male Swiss albino mice. The R-S ethanol extract of XA was subjected to isolation studies using conventional chromatographic methods. Most of the extracts showed inhibition over 85% against butyrylcholinesterase and no inhibition towards acetylcholinesterase. The flower chloroform and the R-S ethyl acetate extracts were most effective (97.85 ± 0.94% and 96.89 ± 1.09%, respectively). The R-S ethanol extract displayed a remarkable scavenging activity against DPPH (77.33 ± 1.99%) and in FRAP assay, while the hexane extract of the R-S parts possessed the highest metal-chelating capacity (72.79 ± 0.33%). The chloroform extract of the R-S caused a significant analgesic effect (24.4%) in PBQ writhing model. No anti-inflammatory effect was observed. Isolation of zierin and zierin xyloside, which were inactive in anticholinesterase assays, was achieved from the R-S ethanol extract. This is the first report of anticholinesterase, antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and isolation of zierin and zierin xyloside from XA. Therefore, XA seems to contain antioxidant and BChE-inhibiting compounds.

  13. STANDARDISASI BUAH CABE RAWIT HIYUNG (Capsicum frutescens L. ASAL TAPIN KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiyung chili (Capsicum frutescens L. is a type of local chili from Tapin, South Kalimantan. This research aims to know the parameter value of simplisia and extract of hiyung chili fruit. Standardization has been done by setting the value of specific and non-specific parameter simplisia and extracts from three different places which include simplisia organoleptic, test microscopic, compound soluble ethanol, the water-soluble, drying shrinkage, total ash content simplisia, acid insoluble ash content simplisia, contamination of heavy metals, extract organoleptic, yield, phytochemical screening, chromatography pattern, the determination of total flavonoid content, water content, ash content in total extracts, and acid insoluble ash content of the extract. The results of the three villages standardization of simplisia obtained an average are powder with reddish color, very spicy, spesific smell, there epidermis cells, hypodermis and parenchyma mesokarp, the soluble in ethanol compound content 19,55 ± 1,07%, water-soluble 32,33 ± 2,03%, drying shrinkage 2,22 ± 0,51%, total ash content 4,11 ± 0,44%, acid insoluble ash content 0,14 ± 0,01%, contamination of heavy metals Pb 2,00 mg/kg and Cd 4,00 mg/kg. The results of the three villages standardization of extracts obtained an average are condensed extract with brown color, very spicy, spesific smell, with a yield of 19,19 ± 1,03%, which contained the chemical constituents are alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, chromatogram pattern with Rf value of 0,18; 0,60; 0,98, total flavonoid content that most is Sungai Rutas 0,339%, water content 11 ± 0,67%, total ash content 7,96 ± 0,80%, and acid insoluble ash content 0,61 ± 0,05%.

  14. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  15. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  16. Genetic variability of a Brazilian Capsicum frutescens germplasm collection using morphological characteristics and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S I C; Bianchetti, L B; Ragassi, C F; Ribeiro, C S C; Reifschneider, F J B; Buso, G S C; Faleiro, F G

    2017-07-06

    Characterization studies provide essential information for the conservation and use of germplasm in plant breeding programs. In this study, 103 Capsicum frutescens L. accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortaliças, representative of all five Brazilian geographic regions, were characterized based on morphological characteristics and microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat - SSR) molecular markers. Morphological characterization was carried out using 57 descriptors, and molecular characterization was based on 239 alleles from 24 microsatellite loci. From the estimates of genetic distances among accessions, based on molecular characterization, a cluster analysis was carried out, and a dendrogram was established. Correlations between morphological and molecular variables were also estimated. Twelve morphological descriptors were monomorphic for the set of C. frutescens accessions, and those with the highest degree of polymorphism were stem length (14.0 to 62.0 cm), stem diameter (1.0 to 4.2 cm), days to flowering (90 to 129), days to fruiting (100 to 140), fruit weight (0.1 to 1.4 g), fruit length (0.6 to 4.6 cm), and fruit wall thickness (0.25 to 1.5 mm). The polymorphism information content for the SSR loci varied from 0.36 (EPMS 417) to 0.75 (CA49), with an overall mean of 0.57. The correlation value between morphological and molecular characterization data was 0.6604, which was statistically significant. Fourteen accessions were described as belonging to the morphological type tabasco, 85 were described as malagueta, and four were malaguetinha, a morphological type confirmed in this study. The typical morphological pattern of malagueta was described. Six similarity groups were established for C. frutescens based on the dendrogram and are discussed individually. The genetic variability analyzed in the study highlights the importance of characterizing genetic resources available for the development of new C. frutescens cultivars with the potential

  17. Bioengineering of the Plant Culture of Capsicum frutescens with Vanillin Synthase Gene for the Production of Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Marcus Jenn Yang; Lycett, Grantley W; Khoo, Teng-Jin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-01-01

    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.

  18. Lipolytic efficacy of alginate double-layer nanoemulsion containing oleoresin capsicum in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Seohyun; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    Background : Oleoresin capsicum (OC) is an organic extract from fruits of the genus Capsicum , and has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Objective : This study comparatively investigated lipolytic effects of single-layer nanoemulsion (SN) and alginate double-layer nanoemulsion (AN) containing OC in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods : SN and AN were compared by analyzing the intracellular lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) content, release of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol, and mRNA expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipolysis were analyzed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results : Compared with SN, AN exhibited higher efficiency in inhibiting the intracellular lipid accumulation and TG content, and enhanced the release of FFAs and glycerol into the medium. In AN-treated cells, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and the fatty acid-binding protein adipocyte protein-2, which are involved in adipogenesis, were down-regulated, whereas those of genes related to lipolysis, including hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α, were up-regulated compared with SN-treated cells. Conclusion : The lipolytic effect of AN was greater than that of SN; this was partly associated with the increased TG hydrolysis via induction of lipolytic gene expression and suppression of adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.​​​​.

  19. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P botanical altered (P extracts enhanced (EASE extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa health and stimulating the immune system.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L. AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3 was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide

  1. Research Paper:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shanu

    2014-01-08

    Vacciniummacrocarpon). Plant Cell Tissue Org. Cult. 44:195-199. Marin A, Ferreres F, Tomas-Barberan FA, Gil MI (2004). Characterization and quantitation of antioxidant constituents of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L). J. Agric. Food.

  2. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  3. Disease Severity Rating of Chile Pepper Plants Inoculated with Phytophthora Capsici Collected in Taiwan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The data are the phenotypic host reactions of a recombinant inbred line population of Capsicum annuum developed to differentiate races of Phytophthora capsici. The...

  4. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. Significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in different preference

  5. Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic distance with heterosis in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) SL Krishnamurthy, A Mohan Rao, K Madhavi Reddy, S Ramesh, Shailaja Hittalmani, Rao M. Gopinath ...

  6. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 25 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MA Sevik, 4976-4979 ...

  7. Assessment of contamination by organochlorine pesticides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    OCPs) in Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum samples commercially sold in Nigeria. OCPs were detected in all the samples analysed using Hewlett-. Packard (HP 6890) gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector ...

  8. Cloning and characterization of two novel purple pepper genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsicum annuum L.) CHS and F3H genes were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on the conserved sequence information of some Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs.

  9. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  10. Comparative anti-inflammatory properties of Capsaicin and ethyl-aAcetate extract of Capsicum frutescens linn [Solanaceae] in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolayemi, A T; Ojewole, J A O

    2013-06-01

    The analgesic effect of capsaicin (the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae]) had been reported in several studies. Current research is being directed at producing analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents with better side effect profile. To investigate if either the ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) or capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) (in addition to the known analgesic properties) has any anti-inflammatory effect comparable to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDS). The effects of ethyl acetate extract of Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae] (CFE) and capsaicin (Fluka Biotechnika-CPF) was examined on rat hind paw. Inflammation was induced in the rat's hind paw by subplantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg). Diclofenac (100 mg/kg) was used as the reference anti-inflammatory agent for comparison, while distilled water was used as the placebo. The leucocytes count, corticosterone and C - reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured as biomarkers of inflammation. Data obtained were pooled and analysed using repeated ANOVA, in a general linear model with the CPSS software. Sub-plantar injections of fresh egg albumin (0.5 ml/kg) produced profound and time-related oedema in the rat hind paw of the 'control' rats. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and reference capsaicin (CPF, 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited paw swelling at (p<0.05-0.001) (CI 95%) compared to distilled water-treated 'controls'. While the corticosterone levels were all very low in 7 rats treated with capsaicin, the leucocytes count was within normal range in 9 rats. However, in 16 specimens randomly assigned for CRP levels, there were very high CRP readings, up to a magnitude of 10 times the normal range. Capsaicin in both forms (CFE and CPF) produced anti-inflammatory effects that were comparable to diclofenac in the experimental rat model at p<0.05. It may be concluded that capsaicin has both analgesic and anti

  11. PENGARUH INDUKSI GIBERELIN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABAI MERAH (Capsicum annum L SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

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    Titin Yeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted on February 2, 2012 until April 30, 2012 at the Green House in University of Muhammadiyah Metro. The purposes of this study are (1 to determine the effect of induction of gibberellin on the growth and production of red pepper plants (Capsicum annum L. (2 To determine the induction of 200 ppm gibberellin can provide growth and production of red pepper (Capsicum annum L is best. This study used statistical design of experiments using the Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL and the data analysis by using the path on ANAVA toward the production chilies with 3 treatments and 1 control. Each trial has treatments, as follow: without gibberellin induction as a control (H0, 150 ppm gibberellin induction (H1, induction of gibberellin is 200 ppm (H2, and induction of gibberellin is 250 ppm (H3. The population in this study is overall  of the 3 treatments and 1 control with 4 replications, and the total is 16 red pepper plant. The sample in this study is the whole of plants, the total is 12 samples of red pepper plant. Based on the research results can be concluded that;  (1 There is an induction effect of gibberellin on the growth and production of red pepper plants (2 Induction of gibberellin is 200 ppm delivers growth and crop production the best chili. For education research results can be used as a learning resource material of growth and developmental biology.   Kata Kunci:  induksi giberelin, pertumbuhan cabai merah, produksi cabai merah, sumber belajar biologi.

  12. Race Characterization of Phytophthora root rot on Capsicum in Taiwan as a Basis for Anticipatory Resistance Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenger, Derek W; Sheu, Zong-Ming; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Shih-Wen; Burlakoti, Rishi R; Bosland, Paul W

    2018-02-27

    Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization. As a basis to develop a global anticipatory breeding program, New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines (NMRILs) functioned as a host differential for Phytophthora root rot to characterize the race structure of P. capsici populations in Taiwan. Using the NMRILs, 24 new races were identified, illustrating the utility and usefulness of the NMRILs for anticipatory breeding. Virulence of P. capsici was observed to be geographically specific and in two virulence clusters. Interestingly, all but two isolates collected in 2016 were the A2 mating type, which is a shift from the predominantly A1 mating type isolates collected prior to 2008. The NMRILs host differential provides an approach for scientists to work together on a global scale when breeding for resistance as well as on a local level for regional gene deployment. Additionally, we propose that the current race numbering system, which has no biological meaning, be supplemented with the virulence phenotype, based on the susceptible NMRILs to a given isolate. This work provides insights into the population dynamics of P. capsici and interactions within the highly complex Capsicum-Phytophthora pathosystem, and offers a basis for similar research in other crops.

  13. Field Performance and Quality Traits of hot pepper Genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit length and width were the most stable quantitative traits. These findings reveal that traits of interest in C. annuum that vary with the environment may be improved by using suitable cropping seasons and management practices. Keywords: Agronomic traits, Capsicum annuum, seeds. African Crop Science Journal, Vol.

  14. The Performance of Five Selected Pepper Accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana three species of pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens) are commonly found among which C. annuum is the most widely cultivated in farms and gardens. This study sought to compare the growth and yield of 5 pepper accessions against two local cultivars. Seedlings of the accessions were ...

  15. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84

    OpenAIRE

    Hanau, Claudia; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-01

    Background Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early i...

  16. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

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    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  17. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-05

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Caracterización bioquímica y fisiológica de algunos frutos amazónicos (Capsicum sp. Y Eugenia stipitata MC VAUGH

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    Juan Francisco Manduca Fermín

    2006-01-01

    3581,5080 nmoles*min-1*mg prot-1, respectivamente. C. frutescens presentó dos períodos de actividad; y al igual que C. annuum, C. baccatum es de actividad tardía. El pico climatérico del fruto de Arazá fue de 102,49 mgCO2/kg/h, mientras que el pico de etileno fue de 26,62 mgC2H4/kg/h coincidiendo con la máxima madurez del fruto.

  19. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: um estudo de caso = Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci de Oliveira Cruz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas, polinização cruzada manual, polinização aberta, polinização aberta emasculada e autopolinização espontânea. O padrão de crescimento dos tubos polínicos mostrou-se semelhante em todos os tratamentos. Os tubos atingiram o ovário cerca de 24 horas após a polinização. Apesar de C. frutescens ser considerada autógama, essa cultura beneficia-se da polinização realizada por A. mellifera,produzindo significativamente maior quantidade de frutos, quando comparada com a autopolinização espontânea.The anthesis, anther dehiscence, pistil receptivity, pollen tubegrowth and fruit set of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae were studied in São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. C. frutescens flowers are perfect, protogynous and receive visits from many bee species, mainly Apis mellifera L., which collect pollen and nectar. Treatments of pollination by bees, hand cross pollination, open pollination, emasculated open pollination and spontaneous self pollination were performed. Pollen tube growth pattern did not differ among treatments. Pollen tubes were observed in the ovary within 24 hours after pollination. Despite C. frutescens being considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by A. mellifera, producing better fruit set than by using spontaneous self-pollination.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

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    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  1. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

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    Kim JY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joo-Yeon Kim,1,* Mak-Soon Lee,1,* Sunyoon Jung,1 Hyunjin Joo,1 Chong-Tai Kim,2 In-Hwan Kim,3 Sangjin Seo,1 Soojung Oh,1 Yangha Kim11Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Functional Materials Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC and nanoemulsion OC (NOC on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.Methods: The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks.Results: NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not.Conclusion: From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.Keywords: oleoresin capsicum

  2. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %).

  3. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. THE RATS WERE RANDOMLY SEPARATED INTO THREE GROUPS: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.

  5. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  6. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  7. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Asghar, M.A.; Ahmed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Shamsuddin, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  8. Pimentas do gênero Capsicum cultivadas em Roraima, Amazônia brasileira: II. Hábitos e formas de uso Peppers of the genus Capiscum cultivated in Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia: Habits and forms of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herundino Ribeiro do Nascimento Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi o de relacionar e discutir os hábitos e as formas de uso mais comuns das pimentas do gênero Capsicum cultivadas em Roraima, e utilizadas pelos povos indígenas e comunidades migrantes de outras regiões do país.The objective of this study was relate and discuss both the habit and the most common forms of using Capsicum peppers cultivated in the state of Roraima and utilized by indigenous people and colonist communities from the other regions of the country.

  9. Pimentas do gênero Capsicum cultivadas em Roraima, Amazônia brasileira: II. Hábitos e formas de uso Peppers of the genus Capiscum cultivated in Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia: Habits and forms of use

    OpenAIRE

    Herundino Ribeiro do Nascimento Filho; Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa; Francisco Joaci de Freitas Luz

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi o de relacionar e discutir os hábitos e as formas de uso mais comuns das pimentas do gênero Capsicum cultivadas em Roraima, e utilizadas pelos povos indígenas e comunidades migrantes de outras regiões do país.The objective of this study was relate and discuss both the habit and the most common forms of using Capsicum peppers cultivated in the state of Roraima and utilized by indigenous people and colonist communities from the other regions of the country.

  10. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp. en la Amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Gladys

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta de rizósferas y raíces de ají en diferentes rutas. La colonización se evaluó por medio de la metodología de Phillips y Hayman (1970, con modificaciones de Sieverding (1983. El aislamiento y cuantificación de esporas por la técnica de Gerdeman y Nicolson (1963, modificada por Sieverding (1983. La asignación de géneros se realizó a partir de la descripción morfológica de esporas. Todas las plántulas de ají muestreadas presentaron asociaciones con HFMA. Características químicas del suelo, presencia de otras especies vegetales en chagras, fuente de colecta y especies del género Capsicum incidieron en una alta o baja alta ocurrencia de la simbiosis micorrícica. Se identificaron nueve morfotipos de endomicorrizas; Glomus sp. fue el de mayor ocurrencia.

  11. Importance of the Río de la Plata estuarine front (southwestern Atlantic Ocean in the feeding ecology of Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae Importancia del frente estuarial del Río de la Plata (Océano Atlántico sudoccidental en la ecología trófica de la anchoíta argentina, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano N Padovani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The feeding of Engraulis anchoita was studied in the coastal reproductive habitat of the northern population during the spawning period. Stomach contents of anchovy adults and plankton samples taken during a research cruise were examined. The highest stomach fullness values were found in the Rio de la Plata estuary, particularly at stations close to the surface salinity front. Copepods, particularly those 1 mm total length. This might be explained by a low gill rakers efficiency of adult anchovies to retain small prey. In the Rio de la Plata front, both the reported large biomasses of zooplankton and the observed intense anchovy feeding revealed the ecological significance of this front, especially when compared with the contiguous "poor in food" coastal areas.Se estudió la alimentación de la población norteña de Engraulis anchoita en el hábitat reproductivo costero durante su periodo de desove. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de adultos de anchoíta y muestras de zooplancton tomados durante un crucero de investigación. Los mayores valores de repleción estomacal se encontraron en el estuario del Río de la Plata, particularmente en estaciones cercanas al frente salino de superficie. Los copépodos fueron las presas más abundantes, particularmente especímenes 1 mm de longitud total. Esto se puede explicar por la baja eficiencia del aparato branquial de anchoítas adultas para retener pequeñas presas. En el frente del Río de la Plata, las altas biomasas de zooplancton reportadas y la intensa alimentación observada, evidencian su significancia ecológica, especialmente cuando se compara con aguas costeras adyacentes pobres en alimento.

  12. Capsaicin from chili (Capsicum spp. inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4yk

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    Rongxia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation is implied in cardiovascular disease and significantly contributes to vessel lumen reduction following surgical interventions such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery. Therefore, identification and characterization of compounds and mechanisms able to counteract VSMC proliferation is of potential therapeutic relevance. This work reveals the anti-proliferative effect of the natural product capsaicin from Capsicum spp. by quantification of metabolic activity and DNA synthesis in activated VSMC. The observed in vitro activity profile of capsaicin warrants further research on its mechanism of action and potential for therapeutic application.

  13. Detecção e isolamento de peptídeos antimicrobianos de folhas de Capsicum annum L. (pimentão Magali R )

    OpenAIRE

    Games, Patrícia Dias

    2009-01-01

    Peptídeos antimicrobianos (AMPs) têm atraído a atenção de pesquisadores como pontenciais compostos de defesa para serem usados no agronegócio. Eles apresentam mecanismos de ação diferentes dos compostos disponíveis comercialmente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, por técnicas proteômicas, bioprospectar o potencial antimicrobiano de frações enriquecidas em peptídeos de folhas de pimentão (Capsicum annum Magali R ) contra fitopatógenos de importância comercial, objetivando aplicação biotecnológi...

  14. Morphological and genetic relationships between wild and domesticated forms of peppers (Capsicum frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacquin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Reifschneider, F J B; Buso, G S C; Faleiro, F G

    2014-09-12

    Capsicum chinense and C. frutescens peppers are part of the Brazilian biodiversity, and the Amazon basin is the area of greatest diversity for them, especially for that former species. Nevertheless, little is known about their evolutionary history. Aiming to identify genotypes with wild and domesticated characteristics, 30 accessions of the germplasm bank of Embrapa were characterized using morphological descriptors and ISSR molecular markers. Of the 72 primers tested, 42% showed amplification and produced 136 amplicons with some of the primers, namely i7Pv and i57Zm, allowing the identification of each species. ISSR also revealed polymorphisms within a species, especially between domesticated and wild forms. Four wild accessions collected in the Amazon region (CNPH 4315, CNPH 4372, CNPH 4337 and CNPH 4325B) popularly known as "olho-de-peixe" or "olho-de periquito" were molecularly classified as C. chinense and showed fruit with similar characteristics as the wild species: upright position, rounded to campanulate shape, small size (1.0 cm long and 0.8 cm wide), average weight of 0.2 g, dark-red color when ripe, easy detachment of calyx and presence of calyx annular constriction (discriminative of C. chinense). The wild form CNPH 4353 known as "malaguetinha" was morphologically and molecularly classified as C. frutescens, demonstrating a more preserved morphology in C. frutescens than in C. chinense. A significant correlation was found between morphological and molecular characterization, and the combination of the two analyses was effective in identifying and classifying the wild forms and contributing to evolutionary studies in the genus.

  15. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

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    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  16. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

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    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O registro de cultivares permite a produção e comercialização de sementes no país. É um processo importante para os programas de melhoramento, pois assegura a identidade genética e a qualidade varietal das cultivares. Adicionalmente, a proteção de cultivares, que garante os direitos intelectuais aos obtentores, possibilita que empresas públicas e privadas de pesquisa possam ser beneficiadas com o ingresso de recursos decorrentes dos direitos sobre as cultivares que desenvolvem dando sustentabilidade parcial ou total à continuidade de programas de melhoramento e o subseqüente lançamento de novas cultivares de interesse para o agronegócio brasileiro. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças e o resultado dos processos de registro e proteção de cultivares de pimentas do grupo jalapeño, denominadas BRS Sarakura e BRS Garça. Foram utilizados 48 descritores, sendo que quatro apresentaram potencial discriminatório para diferenciar as duas cultivares: altura e largura das plantas, intensidade da coloração verde dos frutos antes da maturação e espessura do pedúnculo. Ambas cultivares apresentam uniformidade de plantas, alta produtividade, alto teores de capsaicina, estabilidade quanto aos descritores avaliados durante os dois ciclos, bem como se mostraram distintas de outras cultivares de pimentas do gênero Capsicum. Para a obtenção do registro e proteção das cultivares de pimenta foram relevantes a experiência na caracterização morfológica do banco de germoplasma e aplicação dos descritores, o conhecimento da morfologia da planta, o auxílio de um profissional na área de botânica para identificar as diversas espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum e o conhecimento e cumprimento das exigências burocráticas para efetivação dos processos.The process of registration of new cultivars in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply is an

  17. Seed dispersal as an ecosystem service: frugivore loss leads to decline of a socially valued plant, Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Monika H; Fricke, Evan C; Rogers, Haldre S

    2018-04-01

    Species interactions, both mutualistic and antagonistic, are widely recognized as providing important ecosystem services. Fruit-eating animals influence plant recruitment by increasing germination during gut passage and moving seeds away from conspecifics. However, relative to studies focused on the importance of frugivores for plant population maintenance, few studies target frugivores as ecosystem service providers, and frugivores are underappreciated as ecosystem service providers relative to other mutualists such as pollinators. Here, we use an accidental experiment to elucidate the role of seed dispersal by frugivores for maintaining a culturally and economically important plant, the donne' sali chili (Capsicum frutescens) in the Mariana Islands. One of the islands (Guam) has lost nearly all of its native forest birds due to an invasive snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas nearby islands have relatively intact bird populations. We hypothesized that frugivore loss would influence chili recruitment and abundance, which could have economic and cultural impacts. By using video cameras, we confirmed that birds were the primary seed dispersers. We used captive bird feeding trials to obtain gut-passed seeds to use in a seedling emergence experiment. The experiment showed that gut-passed seeds emerged sooner and at a higher proportion than seeds from whole fruits. Consistent with our findings that birds benefit chilies, we observed lower chili abundance on Guam than on islands with birds. In a survey questionnaire of island residents, the majority of residents reported an association between the wild chili and local cultural values and traditions. In addition, we identified a thriving market for chili products, suggesting benefits of wild chilies to people in the Marianas both as consumers and producers. Our study therefore documents seed dispersal as both a cultural and a supporting ecosystem service. We provide a comprehensive case study on how seed-dispersed plants

  18. Effects of different varieties of pepper (Capsicum annum L. on the biological parameters of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Tunisia

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    Lassaad Mdellel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae is an important pest of pepper, Capsicum annum (Solanaceae, with infestations by this aphid resulting in serious economic damage. Commonly, biological parameters are used to compare insect fitness on different varieties of pepper. Effect of rearing M. persicae on nine varieties of pepper (Anamex, Balconi, Bami, Chargui, Garn ghzel, Italico, J27, Starter and Torero on the population density and percentage infestation it achieves, and its mean relative growth rate (MRGR and generation time were studied under laboratory conditions. The highest population density, maximum percentage infestation (92.93%, minimum generation time (10.95 days and highest MRGR (0.063 were recorded on the variety Chergui and the lowest population density, minimum percentage infestation (51.4%, minimum MRGR (0.043 and maximum generation time on the variety Anamex.

  19. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa fruits: possible role in prevention of diabetic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ibrar; Ahmad, Haroon; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycationend products (AGE's) in the body, due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is associated with several pathological conditions like aging and diabetes mellitus. Hence a plant having anti-glycation and anti-oxidation potentials may serve as therapeutic agent for diabetic complications and aging. In this study the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of crude methanolic extracts of fruits of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa were investigated. Among the two C. frutescens had more anti-glycation ability with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 90βg/mLas compared to 324βg/mL MIC50 of C. longa. Curcuma longa had the more anti-oxidation potential i.e. 35.01, 30.83 and 28.08% at 0.5mg, 0.25mg and 0.125mg respectively.

  20. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P cattle fed high concentrate diets.

  1. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae

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    Blenzar A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocide effects of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. In an attempt to elaborate a strategy of integrated pest management on vegetable crops in Morocco, insecticidal activities of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids extracted from Capsicum frutescens L. fruits against eggs and adults of Bemisia tabaci infesting tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, were carried out under controlled conditions. Alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids, dissolved in ethanol at 1%, were tested at 0, 5, 10 and 20 g.l-1. The three compounds affected egg and adult survival, significantly. The mortality of embryo and adult varied according to the compound considered and for each compound according to concentration and exposure duration. For eggs, the corrected mortality varied from 35 to 59% for alkaloids, 14 to 31% for saponins and 10 to 14% for flavonoids. In adults, the mortalities were spread from 29% to 86%, 14 to 48% and 6 to 29% with alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids, respectively. Significant correlation between egg and adult mortality, due to the compounds tested, were observed. However, eggs required higher concentrations than adults; the LC50 was 13.78 vs. 6.83 g.l-1 for alkaloids, 98.63 vs. 32.28 g.l-1 for saponins and nontoxic vs. 120.65 g.l-1 for the flavonoids. Therefore, alkaloids were shown more effective against B. tabaci than saponins or flavonoids. However, the LT50 estimated for compounds, killing more than 50% of the population studied, was sufficient for viruliferous adults to inoculate TYLCV to plants before they died. The use of these compounds in integrated pest management merit further study.

  2. Detecção de capsaicina em extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica

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    Tamires de Souza RODRIGUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum L. é uma espécie utilizada no mundo inteiro pelo seu sabor picante e por possuir inúmeras atividades medicinais. Essas atividades farmacológicas são proporcionadas por um grupo de substâncias presentes, os capsaicinoides, além de taninos, flavonoides, vitamina C, entre outros. Dos capsaicinoides presentes, a capsaicina possui especial importância. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença da capsaicina nos extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica. Os extratos foram preparados com acetona. A cromatografia foi realizada com placas de sílica gel G4, eluída com hexano:acetato de etila (60:40 e reveladas com reagente de Dragendorff. A capsaicina pode ser detectada somente no estágio imaturo (verde dos frutos de Capsicum baccatum L. pela metodologia de cromatografia em camada delgada e pelo teste histoquímico.

  3. Hot pepper (Capsicum chinense, Jacq. inheritance of reaction to powdery mildew Herança da reação ao oídio em pimenta (Capsicum chinense, Jacq.

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    Sally Ferreira Blat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The pepper species C. chinense has been considered one of the most important resistance sources to powdery mildew Capsicum spp. However, the inheritance in this species was unknown. The purpose of this work was to study its reaction inheritance. Two powdery mildew resistant parents, 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1 and PI 152225 and two moderately susceptible ones, 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 and 'Pimenta Índio', were used to obtain three F1 and their respective F2 generations: 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 ´ 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, 'Pimenta Índio' ´ PI 152225 and 'Pimenta Doce' IH-1761 ´ PI 152225. The powdery mildew epidemy was natural using inoculum from a highly-sporulating susceptible pepper host. Powdery mildew host reaction evaluations were carried out during the fruiting stage using a rating system based on disease severity scales varying from 1 (resistant to 5 (highly susceptible. The experimental design was completely randomized. The following genetic parameters were estimated: gene action, heritability coefficient and expected selection gain in the F3 generation. The transgressive segregation in F2 indicated oligogenic inheritance. Results show the presence of additive, dominant, and epistatic gene action. The dominant and epistatic effects detected in crosses presented negative values, tending towards susceptibility. The heritability and selection gain estimates were moderate, with values of 35.5% and 1.7% for 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 ´ 'Pimenta Cheiro' 1, from 50.4% to 3.5% for 'Pimenta Índio' ´ PI 152225, and 49% and 2.7% for the 'Pimenta Doce' IH 1761 ´ PI 152225 crosses, respectively. These gene action results are favorable for breeding programs and exploration of hybrids.A espécie de pimenta C. chinense tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes fontes de resistência ao oídio, porém a herança dessa resistência ainda é desconhecida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre a herança dessa reação. Dois progenitores

  4. Fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica

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    Paulo Cássio Alves Linhares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas são todas as espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum com frutos geralmente menores que os pimentões, com diferentes formatos, frequentemente de paladar pungente, embora existam pimentas doces. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho analisar a fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo no setor de agroecologia da UEPB, no município de Catolé do Rocha- PB, no ano de 2012. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, sendo estudados os efeitos de 5 fontes de matéria orgânica e foram testados 4 tipos de biofertilizantes. Avaliaram-se as seguintes variáveis: Fitomassa Seca da Folha (FSF, Fitomassa Seca do Caule (FSC e Fitomassa Seca da Raiz (FSR. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos estudados sobre a massa seca de plantas de pimenta doce italiana. As fontes de matéria orgânica se comportaram de maneira semelhante em relação à fitomassa seca do caule de pimenteira doce-italiana. O biofertilizante à base de esterco bovino enriquecido com farinha de rocha + cinza de madeira (T4, desempenhou um maior acúmulo de massa seca da pimenta.  Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  5. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIUM PAENIBACILLUS ILLINOISENSIS STRAIN NAGOTH JAR 007 FROM SEEDS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSIS BHUT JOLOKIA

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    Nagoth Joseph Amruthraj

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the identities of endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of dry fruits of Capsicum chinensis Bhut Jolokia using PCR analysis with the view of food products quality. The bacteria were isolated from the seeds soaked in peptone broth followed by serial dilution. Standard molecular methods were used for DNA extraction (UniFlexTM DNA Isolation kit method, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, Amplification, Electrophoresis, Purification and Sequencing of generated PCR products. The partial sequences obtained were deposited in the database of National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Based on genotypic characteristics, these strains belonged to the genus Paenibacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that they clustered with Paenibacillus illinoisensis (99 % similarity. It was assigned Paenibacillus illinoisensis strain Nagoth JAR 007 and was submitted to Genbank (KC886309. The research findings concluded that presence of the endophytic Paenibacillus are nonpathogenic and has a role in plant resistance to abiotic or biotic stress.

  6. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

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    Catherine Pardey Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.

  7. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of salt stress (NaCl on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.

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    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (AW and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment of five months was carried out under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress is induced by NaCl at 7 concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, had a negative impact on roots (length, fresh and dry weights and leaves (number and area. Also, chlorophyll (a and b amount in addition to quantium yield (Fv/Fm decreased significantly. However, biosynthesis of proline in leaves is activated. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more proline in leaves and maintaining usually higher values in all parameters in opposition to Souk jedid cultivar. Taken together, our data partly explain the mechanism used to ovoid salt stress by pepper plants when excessive in the culture medium.

  9. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of the crude extracts of Capsicum frutescens, Citrus limon and Opuntia vulgaris against Newcastle disease in domestic fowl in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, M M; Mushi, E J; Kinabo, L D; Maeda-Machang'u, A; Mwamengele, G L; Yongolo, M G; Temu, R P

    1999-12-15

    Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a combination of Capsicum frutescens (red pepper), Citrus limon (lemon) and Opuntia vulgaris (prickly pear) against Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic fowl were evaluated. Eighty-eight broiler chickens were divided into five groups. Birds from three groups were inoculated with velogenic ND virus strain, whereas birds from two groups were left as controls. Two groups received a mixture of the plant extract three days prior to inoculation and birds from one group were given the plant extract for two days following development of clinical signs. Blood samples were collected for haemaglutination inhibition tests (HI) for detection of ND virus antibodies. Body weights were monitored during the experiment. Three birds died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus and treated with the plant extract; two died from the group that received the plant extract as a prophylaxis and inoculated with ND virus; and one bird died from the group that was inoculated with ND virus but not given the plant extract. No death was observed in any of the birds in the control groups. Antibody titers for ND virus rose four-fold in the inoculated birds but remained low in the un-inoculated groups. Mean body weights of birds in group B declined markedly compared to the other groups. The results indicated that there was no prophylactic or therapeutic value of the plant extract against ND. The plant extract showed a negative effect on body weights in birds with ND.

  11. Das virtudes da ardência: uso e disseminação dos frutos de Capsicum nos séculos XVI e XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fausto Moraes dos Santos

    Full Text Available A partir do século XV, observa-se, em escala global, a disseminação do cultivo, da comercialização e do uso de muitos vegetais. Apesar de a historiografia dispor de um razoável volume de estudos publicados sobre as especiarias do Oriente, bem como sobre o impacto econômico destas no Renascimento, ainda existe espaço para uma abordagem relacionada à propagação e ao uso de plantas americanas, que também se converteram em especiarias de considerável importância cultural e econômica. Entre essas plantas, as representantes do gênero Capsicum possuem destacada importância. Baseado em textos de cronistas, médicos, herbaristas e filósofos naturais dos séculos XVI e XVII, este trabalho analisa a dispersão e o cultivo de espécies de pimentos do Novo Mundo, a partir das grandes viagens marítimas iniciadas pelos portugueses no século XV.

  12. Valorização de pimentas Capsicum nativas do Brasil com uso de tecnologia supercrítica : extração e encapsulação

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina de Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho a caracterização, a extração e o encapsulamento de extratos de pimentas Capsicum com tecnologia supercrítica foram estudados. Inicialmente, 20 variedades de pimentas foram caracterizadas quanto à concentração de capsaicinoides. Foi observada uma grande variação entre a composição dos capsaicinoides, sendo que a capsaicina e a dihidrocapsaicina foram os compostos majoritários. Com base nos resultados obtidos, foram selecionadas duas pimentas para obtenção de extratos com...

  13. Diversidade dos pigmentos e do gene codificador da Capsantina- capsorubina sintase (Via biossintética dos carotenóides) em quatro espécies do gênero Capsicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, José Getúlio

    2011-01-01

    Os Carotenóides são compostos naturais que apresentam papéis fisiológicos cruciais nas plantas e que possuem importantes funções nutricionais e nutracêuticos na dieta de seres humanos e animais. Os frutos maduros de Capsicum apresentam uma gama de colorações incluindo vermelho intenso, laranja, amarelo e marrom que são condicionadas pela presença de distintos pigmentos carotenóides. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar, via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), a divers...

  14. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dávila Mario Augusto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.

  15. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, Claudia; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2014-01-06

    Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early intervention in early stage cancer when in its most susceptible and manageable stages. One hundred ten (110) subjects were tested for cancer presence using the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin 2-D gel/western blot protocol for detection of serum presence of transcript variants of the ENOX2 protein. Subjects testing positive for ENOX2 received 350 mg of Capsol-T® in capsule form every 4 h including during the night for periods of at least 3 to 6 months or longer after which they were again tested for ENOX2 presence using the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin Cancer Test protocol. Of the 110 subjects, both male and female, ages 40 to 84, with no evidence of clinical symptoms of cancer, 40% were positive for ENOX2 presence in the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin Cancer Test. After completion of 3 to 17 months of Capsol-T® use, 94% of subjects subsequently tested negative for ENOX2 presence. Oral Capsol-T® is well tolerated and, for ENOX2 presence in serum in the absence of clinical cancer symptoms, is consistently effective in reducing the serum ENOX2 levels to below detectable limits.

  16. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA eERTANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH and the other obtained from red grape (RG, were chemically characterised using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L-1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L-1 for AH of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG at three doses (zero, low and high and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  17. Effect Of Gamma Rays And Growth Regulators On Explants Excised From In Vitro Shoots And Greenhouse Seedlings, Of Pepper (Capsicum Annum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, A. A.; Kassem, M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted on pepper (Capsicum annum L.) to compare the ability of the in vitro explants with those of greenhouse grown seedlings on shoot proliferation and callus formation and their ability to form plantlets and the effect of gamma irradiation and growth regulators on the shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue was used as laboratory explants, leaf tissue nodes and internodes were taken from greenhouse seedlings. 6- benzyla-minopurine (BAP) in different concentrations was combined with Indoleacertic acid (IAA) to know their effect on shoot proliferation, 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4- D) was used for callus formation, and use stimulation effect of gamma irradiation, potassium nitrat (KNO 3 ), Thidaiazurom (TDZ) and casine hydrolysate (CH) for plantlet formation. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus was obtained by in vitro hypocotyls and greenhouse grown nodes followed by in vitro leaf tissue thereafter greenhouse leaf tissue. The shoot tips were the lowest efficient explants in producing callus in both in vitro and greenhouse ones. The highest percentage of shooting resulted from shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue of in vitro explants, followed by shoot tip, nodes and internodes of greenhouse grown explants and the lowest percentage was recorded by leaf tissue. Highest percentage of shoot number was obtained form greenhouse grown shoot tip followed by in vitro shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue of greenhouse grown seedlings the internodes were the lowest efficient in producing shoots. The highest success in plantlet formation was caused by TDZ followed by gamma irradiation and the other treatments were equaled. (Authors)

  18. Effect of cow manure and empty fruit bunches application treated with different fertilizers on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Mohd Rashdan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Study on the comparison of cow manure (CM) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) compost application as planting medium was conducted using four different treatments of fertilizer (without fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, and both fertilizer) on growth and yield of chili (Capsicum annum). The experiment started on August until December 2014 which consisted of eight treatments and were laid in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Variety chili that was used was Cilibangi 3. The seed was planted inside the tray for one week and transferred into the polybag containing growth media consisted of soil, compost (CM or EFB compost) and sand with ratio 3:2:1. Treatments without fertilizer were acted as a control. Throughout the study, plant growth performance and yield were recorded. The highest height of the plants for CM compost was 100.8 cm using chemical fertilizer and have significant different between the groups. For EFB compost was 92.7 cm using also chemical fertilizer but no significant different between the groups. The highest fruits weight per plant for CM compost was 485.67 g treated with both fertilizers and for EFB compost was 420.17 g treated with chemical fertilizer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) table stated that fruits weight per plant has significant different for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment. For the highest total fruits per plant, CM compost recorded about average 55 fruits per plant using both fertilizers and EFB compost recorded around 45 fruit per plant using chemical fertilizer. There was significantly different for total fruits per plant for both planting medium with the fertilizer treatment according to the ANOVA table. For CM, the ripening time was around 102-112 days and for EFB compost was around 96-110 days. Thus, application of CM compost treated with both chemical and organic fertilizers demonstrated better growth and fruit yield. While EFB compost was better growth and fruit

  19. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Agronomic evaluation of Capsicum accessions of the gene Bank of the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.100 accessions from Capsicum gene Bank of the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus, under field conditions of the experimental station at Candelaria, Cauca Valley were studied. In a design of incomplete blocks 10 x 10 with three repetitions, quantitative descriptions were evaluated. The characteristics were related with yield, capsaicin content and virus presence.The agronomic evaluation found that the differences among the accessions are explained for the capsaicin content, yield, characteristics associated and fruits characteristics associated. Inverse correlation among the capsaicin content with production, quantity of fruits for plant with weight was found. The dispersion of the accessions in the Cartesian axis placed the commercial varieties: Cayenne, Tabasco and

  20. Biologia floral e polinização de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: um estudo de caso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.877 Floral biology and pollination of hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae: a case study - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci de Oliveira Cruz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A antese, a deiscência das anteras, a receptividade do estigma, o padrão de crescimento do tubo polínico e o percentual de vingamento dos frutos de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae foram estudados em São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais, sudeste brasileiro. As flores de C. frutescens são perfeitas, protogínicas e recebem a visita de várias espécies de abelhas, principalmente da abelha melífera Apis mellifera L., que coleta pólen e néctar. Foram comparados tratamentos de polinização por abelhas, polinização cruzada manual, polinização aberta, polinização aberta emasculada e autopolinização espontânea. O padrão de crescimento dos tubos polínicos mostrou-se semelhante em todos os tratamentos. Os tubos atingiram o ovário cerca de 24 horas após a polinização. Apesar de C. frutescens ser considerada autógama, essa cultura beneficia-se da polinização realizada por A. mellifera, produzindo significativamente maior quantidade de frutos, quando comparada com a autopolinização espontânea.The anthesis, anther dehiscence, pistil receptivity, pollen tube growth and fruit set of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae were studied in São Miguel do Anta, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. C. frutescens flowers are perfect, protogynous and receive visits from many bee species, mainly Apis mellifera L., which collect pollen and nectar. Treatments of pollination by bees, hand cross pollination, open pollination, emasculated open pollination and spontaneous self pollination were performed. Pollen tube growth pattern did not differ among treatments. Pollen tubes were observed in the ovary within 24 hours after pollination. Despite C. frutescens being considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by A. mellifera, producing better fruit set than by using spontaneous self-pollination.

  1. Determinação espectrofotométrica indireta de capsaicinoides em pimentas Capsicum a partir da reação com o complexo de Co(II com 4-(2-piridilazo resorcinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tonon de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAPS are substances responsible for pungency in Capsicum. It is important to quantify these types of compounds owing to their broad application in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical weapons. In this work, we developed an indirect spectrophotometric method based on the colorimetric reaction between CAPS, Co(II 3.10×10-5 mol L-1 and 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol (PAR 6.23×10-5 and, in cachaça:water 92:8v/v solutions, for quantification of total CAPS in Capsicum peppers. The product of the reaction is CoPAR2CAPS2 and its absorption in aquo-ethanolic solution at 510 nm is proportional to the total CAPS concentration from 0.60 to 17.94 mg L-1. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0004 and 0.001 mg of CAPS/g of pepper, respectively, with 4% relative standard deviation. The developed method yielded similar results to those obtained from high performance liquid chromatography, with 95% of confidence.

  2. Changes in Lipid Content of Ungerminated and Germinated Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipid contents of ungerminated and germinated seeds of Capsicunl srmuurn and Atremomum melequeta were studied to determine the level of total lipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids. The percentage germination of Capsicum annuum and Aframomum melequeta were 95+2.0% and 90+1.5% respectively. The total ...

  3. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  4. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet pepper), Ocimum Basilicum (Scent leaf) and Piper nigrum (Black pepper) on fresh water snails. Abstract · Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles The pesticidal activities of extracts of neem leaves, barks, and seeds against some common insects of stock products

  6. Morphological, pathogenic and genetic variability in Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit rot disease caused by Colletotrichum capsici under tropical and subtropical conditions, results in qualitative and quantitative yield losses. Twenty (20) isolates of C. capsici were collected from conventional chilli growing areas of Tamil Nadu. In culture, most of the isolates produced cottony, ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cavalcante, Lourival Ferreira. Vol 15, No 36 (2016) - Articles Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic substances and soil mulching. Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 36 (2016) - Articles Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) under saline stress and exogenous application ...

  8. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and. Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic.

  9. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  10. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Hawk-Bin Kwon. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 5 December 2005 pp 657-667 Articles. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions · Eul-Won Hwang Kyung-A Kim Soo-Chul Park Mi-Jeong Jeong Myung-Ok ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bursić, V. Vol 31, No 2 (2017) - Articles Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1726- ...

  13. Model Selection for Nondestructive Quantification of Fruit Growth in Pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Ma, Y.T.; Heuvelink, E.; Hemerik, L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying fruit growth can be desirable for several purposes (e.g., prediction of fruit yield and size, or for the use in crop simulation models). The goal of this article was to determine the best sigmoid function to describe fruit growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum) from nondestructive fruit

  14. The host range of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the host range of two fungal organisms, Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of vegetable root rots and Aspergillus niger, the black mold organism, among the members of the family Solanaceae. The test crops were tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), potato ...

  15. Quantification of virus syndrome in chili peppers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Gough FJ (1978). Effect of wheat host cultivars on pycnidiospore production by Septoria tritici. Phytopathology, 68: 1343-1345. Guigón C, González-González PA (2001). Estudio Regional de las. Enfermedades del chile (Capsicum annuum, L.) y su comportamiento temporal en el sur de Chihuahua, México ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamidele, JF. Vol 30 (2015) - Articles Ecophysiological Response of Capsicum annuum L. Exposed to Simulated Acid Rain Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  17. Natural additives effects on some quality parameters of un-refined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible oils are widely utilized in diets as a major source of fat and a heat transfer medium during frying. Improvement on nutritive value is a major concern in edible oil industry. Therefore, objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum.) ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eguagie, MO. Vol 30 (2015) - Articles Ecophysiological Response of Capsicum annuum L. Exposed to Simulated Acid Rain Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  19. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... root extract of Sorghum halepense stimulated seedling shoot length of Parthenium hysterophorus. Similar effects of the aqueous extracts of Inula grantioides Boiss. and. Capsicum annuum L. on seedling growth of test species have also been demonstrated against various test species by Shaukat et al.

  20. Effect of industrial wastewater ontotal protein and the peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of industrial wastewaters on protein and the peroxidase activity in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Vicia faba L. Industrial wastewaters were taken from Dardanel Fisheries Company, Tekel alcoholic drinks companies' ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 245-250 Article. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L.

  2. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of miniature paprika (Capsicum annuum) 'Hivita Red' and 'Hivita Yellow' were decontaminated and placed in a petri dish containing a half-strength MS medium and then were incubated in the dark for 7 10 ... Morphology and fruit shape of regenerated plants were normal and plants set seeds as the same as to the ...

  3. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  4. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 2. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L. AY ZUNUN-PÉREZ T GUEVARA-FIGUEROA SN ...

  5. A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were

  6. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive and can develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7°C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries (CI) of sweet pepper during 30 ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 9151 - 9200 of 11090 ... ... and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker based genetic distance with heterosis in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Abstract .... of sirinol (garlic emulsion) against Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by three ...

  8. A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.

    2013-01-01

      This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hossain, MM. Vol 7, No 20 (2008) - Articles Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. (Orchidaceae) Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 4 (2009) - Articles Regeneration potential of seedling explants of chilli (Capsicum annuum) Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 32 (2010) - Articles

  10. UN-EDITED VERSION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    36

    . 1 oligosaccharide on Capsiate Content and Gene Expression-associated to capsinoids synthesis in. 2. Capsicum annuum L. 3. 4. Zunun-Pérez A. Y.1,3, Guevara-Figueroa T. 1, Jimenez-Garcia S.N4, Feregrino-Pérez A.A 1, Gautier F. 2, and ...

  11. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis in chilli pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India is considered to be the secondary center of diversity of chilli pepper, especially of Capsicum annuum. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and diversity analysis especially in cultivated species which have low levels of polymorphism. The diversity ...

  12. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Pepper Plants in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of potato psyllid damage and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in La Cruz de Elota, Sinaloa, México in March 2009. The plants had chlorotic or pale green leaves and exhibited leaf cupping, sh...

  13. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  14. Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene CaMF4 in Capsicum annuum. XUEFENG HAO1,2, CHANGMING CHEN2, GUOJU CHEN2, BIHAO CAO2 and JIANJUN LEI1,2∗. 1Department of Biology, Taiyuan Normal University, Taiyuan 030012, Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China. 2College of ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What history tells us III. André Lwoff: From .... pp 647-655 Articles. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress ... pp 657-667 Articles. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions · Eul-Won ...

  16. Tsw gene-based resistance is triggered by a functional RNA silencing suppressor protein of the Tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronde, de D.; Butterbach, P.B.E.; Lohuis, H.; Hedil, M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of contradictory reports, the avirulence (Avr) determinant that triggers Tsw gene-based resistance in Capsicum annuum against the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Here, the N and NSs genes of resistance-inducing (RI) and resistance-breaking (RB) isolates were cloned

  17. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  18. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  19. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (ppigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (ppigment are

  20. Herança de caracteres relacionados à produção de frutos em Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum com base em análise dialélica de Hayman Inheritance of traits related to fruit production in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum based on Hayman's diallel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar parâmetros genéticos relacionados à produção de frutos em um dialelo de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Foram avaliados cinco genitores de pimenta (UENF 1616, UENF 1624, UENF 1629, UENF 1639 e UENF 1732 e seus respectivos híbridos F1, a partir de um dialelo completo, sem recíprocos. O experimento foi conduzido em cultivo protegido (politúnel, na área de convênio UENF/PESAGRO-RIO, Campos dos Goytacazes, no período de julho a dezembro de 2009. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e nove plantas por parcela. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características agronômicas: diâmetro da copa (DC, altura de planta (ALTP, dias para a frutificação (DF, número de frutos por planta (NFP, peso médio do fruto (PMF, massa seca do fruto (MSF; teor de massa seca (TMS, comprimento do fruto (CF, diâmetro do fruto (DIAM, espessura da polpa (ESP, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (TSS e produção por planta (PROD. Somente as características PMF, MSF e PROD tiveram ausência de significância nos três testes de suficiência do modelo aditivo-dominante, indicando haver homogeneidade entre as variâncias e covariâncias e, consequentemente, ausência de epistasia no controle destas características. Para PMF e MSF, os efeitos gênicos aditivos foram os mais importantes. Por sua vez, na expressão de PROD o efeito de dominância foi o mais importante. Verificou-se dominância parcial para PMF e MSF e sobredominância para PROD. Os genitores UENF 1616 e UENF 1629 foram os que tiveram as maiores concentrações de alelos favóraveis para as três características em estudo.This work aimed to estimate genetic parameters related to the fruits production in a chilli pepper diallel (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Five chilli pepper genitors were evaluated (UENF 1616, UENF 1624, UENF 1629, UENF 1639 and UENF 1732 and its respective hybrids F1, from a complete diallel

  1. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    -mail: islasign@cicy.mx. Tel: +529999428330 ext .... MRS, and is undergoing phase III clinical trials for skin and soft tissue and catheter-related bloodstream infections (Bayley and Summers, 2008). In addition, telavancin and ...

  2. Efecto de la fertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento de ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia Effect of the fertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Rodríguez Araujo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de las fertilizaciones química y orgánica y biofertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento del ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y en la producción de plántulas en vivero y en campo. Las variables evaluadas en vivero fueron: peso fresco de raíz y parte aérea, número de hojas, altura de la planta (cm, diámetro del tallo (mm, peso seco total, peso seco de raíz y parte aérea. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos, bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar, de la forma siguiente: fertilización de síntesis química completa (testigo (FSQC, FSQC más fertilización orgánica (FSQC + O, FSQC + O más biofertilización 1 (solubilizador de fósforo con base en Penicillium janthinellum (1x10(7conidias/ml, FSQC + O más micorrizas (FSQC + O + M, FSQC + O más biofertilización 2 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml y Azospirillun sp. (1x10(8 UFC/ml, FSQC + O más biofertilización 3 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml. El experimento se instaló sobre un Typic Hapludolls. El análisis de resultados mostró que, en todos los tratamientos la fertilización de síntesis química + orgánica + micorrizas presentó los mejores resultados (P This study was realised with the purpose of to evaluate the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca in the initial production of plants in breeding ground and final production in field. Two experiments were realized, one in stage of fish-pond and other one in field stage. In fish-pond an experiment was realized where there was evaluated the effect of the different types of fertilization in chili and other one where there was evaluated the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilización in chili. In field there was evaluated the effect of the

  3. Diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões da Embrapa Clima Temperado Genetic diversity in peppers and sweet peppers of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Valli Büttow

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os acessos de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. da Embrapa Clima Temperado constituem parte dos recursos genéticos de Capsicum. Contudo, é necessário conhecer o quanto esses genótipos são divergentes para que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e caracterizar a divergência genética entre os acessos de C. annuum do banco ativo de germoplasma de Capsicum da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 20 acessos com base em 36 descritores morfológicos multicategóricos. A diversidade genética foi avaliada por meio do método de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O método de Tocher formou três grupos de acessos. Pelos critérios utilizados, os dois métodos foram concordantes em agrupar isoladamente o acesso P77, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos particulares em relação aos demais. O estudo realizado evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética moderada entre os 20 acessos de C. annuum estudados e apresenta acessos com características ornamentais, os quais podem ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento.Accessions of peppers and sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank (Pelotas - RS integrate Capsicum genetic resources. However, it is necessary to know how much these genotypes are different, so they can be harnessed and used in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize genetic diversity among C. annuum accessions which belongs to Capsicum Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank. Twenty accessions were characterized through 36 multicategorical morphologic descriptors. Genetic diversity was assessed using Tocher grouping method and UPGMA. Three groups of accessions were formed by Tocher. Both methods were in agreement with the isolation of P77, due to its exclusive morphological traits. The study shows moderate genetic variability among 20 accessions of C. annuum studied and introduced accession with

  4. Single amino acid substitution in the methyltransferase domain of Paprika mild mottle virus replicase proteins confers the ability to overcome the high temperature-dependent Hk gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsutoshi; Johnishi, Kousuke; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Hiromasa; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Kappei; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2009-03-01

    Capsicum plants harboring the Hk gene (Hk) show resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) at 32 degrees C but not 24 degrees C. To identify the viral elicitor that activates the Hk-mediated resistance, several chimeric viral genomes were constructed between PaMMV and Tobacco mosaic virus-L. Infection patterns of these chimeric viruses in Hk-harboring plants revealed responsibility of PaMMV replicase genes for activation of the Hk-mediated resistance. The comparison of nucleotide sequence of replicase genes between PaMMV and PaHk1, an Hk-resistance-breaking strain of PaMMV, revealed that the adenine-to-uracil substitution at the nucleotide position 721 causes an amino acid change from threonine to serine at the 241st residue in the methyltransferase domain. Introduction of the A721U mutation into the replicase genes of parental PaMMV overcame the Hk resistance at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that Hk-mediated resistance is induced by PaMMV replicase proteins and that methyltransferase domain has a role in this elicitation.

  5. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  6. OVERCOMING OF UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF SWEET PEPPER CV. BELOSNEZHKA AND KARLIK BY COLD STRESS OF POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a technique for overcoming the unilateral cross- incompatibility of of sweet pepper cultivars Belosnezhka and Karlik (Capsicum annuumL. by pre- coating the stigma of the parental plants by own frozen pollen (fertile, but lost fertilizing capacity in order to initiate the necessary changes in the tissues of the pistil that ensures germination of pollen tubes of foreign pollen , successful fertilization and hybrid seeds formation.

  7. [Activity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of banana fruit tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulantseva, E A; Thang, Nguen; Buza, N L; Krinitsyna, A A; Protsenko, M A

    2005-01-01

    The activity of polygalacturonase and the protein inhibiting this enzyme, which affected polygalacturonases of phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Gloesporium musarium, were detected in banana (Musa acumthata L.) fruit of cultivars Cavendish and Korolevskii. The polygalacturonase from banana fruit was inhibited by the preparations of the protein inhibitor not only from bananas but also from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit.

  8. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  9. PMKER 24(3)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    Une étude sur la fertilisation minérale et organique et le rendement en fruits du piment (Capsicum annuum. L.) a été menée au Cameroun. Trois types d'engrais simples : l'urée (46 %N), le superphosphate simple. (16 % P2O5) et le sulfate de potassium (48 % K2O) ont été utilisés seuls, ou en combinaison deux à deux.

  10. 1718-IJBCS-Article-Allal Douira

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    aux taches foliaires de Bactris gasipaes. (Morejón, 1998). H. bicolor est considéré comme un champignon véhiculé par les semences de. Capsicum annuum (Deena et Basuchaudhry,. 1984 ; Jamaluddin et al., 2004), il peut induire des lésions sur les feuilles et les fruits de cette espèce (Sapnesh et al., 2012) . En Iran, il est.

  11. Response of four greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Argyropoulou, Konstantina Efstathiou

    2011-01-01

    The decline in availability of fresh water in the region of Ierapetra, Crete, Greece has resulted in the increased use of saline water for irrigation of greenhouse crops. The aim of this work is to study the responses of four greenhouse pepper hybrids, that are widely used in this region ( Capsicum annuum L., Drago, Sammy, Kappy and Gracia ), to NaCl salinity during in hydroponic culture ( perlite ) and culture in soil of young plants and during in vitro germination and seedlin...

  12. Variation among Solanaceae crops in cadmium tolerance and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thiebeauld, Odon; Soler, Salvador; Dolores Raigón, María; Prohens, Jaume; Nuez, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Plantlets of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), pepino (Solanum muricatum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were watered with several nutrient solutions containing cadmium (Cd) at doses ranging from 0 to 500 mg*L-1 (cape gooseberry) or 0 to 200 mg*L-1 (rest of the crops). Cadmium depressed the growth of roots, stems and leaves and caused a reduction in dry matter and chlorophyll concentration, especially at ...

  13. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  14. Efektivitas dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Faktor Produksi Usahatani Cabai Besar di Desa Baturiti Kecamatan Baturiti Tabanan

    OpenAIRE

    SANGURJANA, I GEDE WEGANANDA FAJAR; WIDYANTARA, I WAYAN; DEWI, IDA AYU LISTIA

    2016-01-01

    The Effectiveness and Efficiency of The Usage of Production Factors in Chili Farming at Baturiti Village, Baturiti District, Tabanan Big Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a potential commodity of horticulture in Bali. One of Chili producer areas in Bali is Baturiti village, Baturiti district, Tabanan regency. This study aims to find out the influence of production factors, effectiveness and efficiency of USAge of production factors to optimalizing production. The research was carried out at Batu...

  15. The evaluation of trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Khadijeh; Rezvani Fard, Mehdi; Khorsandi, Jamshid; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucamber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow Capsicum annuum (Yellow bell pepper) and red Capsicum annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 to March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of INAA showed that, the concentrations of Fe (Iron), Mn (Manganese) and Zn (Zinc) were varied from <10-50.0 mgkg-1, 6.8-15.0 mgkg-1 and 10.0-23.0 mgkg-1, respectively. The elemental concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable Upper Intake Level (UIL). The results of this study revealed that, considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:25340168

  16. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus and three plant species on the aquaponic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustikasari, A.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish and three types of plants consist of Ipomoea Aquatica, Brassica rapa, and Capsicum annuum on the aquaponic technology have been studied. The aquaponic technology system has been done with 200 fishes m-3, water pump with 15 watts solar energy panel, physical and biological filter, and deep flow technique (DFT). In this study, we have reported that the specific growth rate (SGR), survival (SR), Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and Wet weight (W) are used as the physical growth indicator of Oreochromis niloticus fish, while the length and the number of leaves of plants are used as the physical growth indicator of plants. The physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus fish showed that SGR is 5,56% day-1, SR is 97,67%, FCR is 0,92g and the wet weight is 1220g. The physical growth of the plant in aquaponic technology systems has been compared with the hydroponic treatment systems as controls. Analysis with t-test shows that physical growth of Ipomoea Aquatica and Brassica rapa has no significant difference respectively, whereas Capsicum annuum has significant differences compared with controls. Also, Brassica rapa in the aquaponic technology system shows a more yellow leaf color than the control. Based on these results, we conclude that aquaponic technology system provides effective results for the physical growth of Oreochromis niloticus with Ipomoea Aquatica, while additional nutrients for the both Brassica rapa and Capsicum annuum are required.

  17. Caracterización fisiológica y bioquímica de los frutos de cuatro accesiones de ají amazónico pertenecientes a la diversidad del género Capsicum para su conservación y uso

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Alberto Barrera García; Luz Marina Melgarejo Muñoz; María Soledad Hernández Gómez

    2005-01-01

    El ají es uno de los cultivos más importantes para las culturas indígenas de la Amazonía, debido al conocimiento de sus múltiples formas y usos haciendo parte de su tradición. El género Capsicum cuenta con varias especies, pero la alta selección de unas pocas especies comerciales, está erodando el recurso genético, por lo que se hace necesario caracterizar e introducir nuevos materiales. La valoración de la diversidad del género para su conservación y de las formas de uso hace parte de esa ca...

  18. Caracterización fisiológica y bioquímica de los frutos de cuatro accesiones de ají amazónico pertenecientes a la diversidad del género capsicum para su conservación y uso

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera García, Jaime Alberto; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina; Hernández Gómez, María Soledad

    2011-01-01

    El ají es uno de los cultivos más importantes para las culturas indígenas de la Amazonía, debido al conocimiento de sus múltiples formas y usos haciendo parte de su tradición. El género Capsicum cuenta con varias especies, pero la alta selección de unas pocas especies comerciales, está erodando el recurso genético, por lo que se hace necesario caracterizar e introducir nuevos materiales. La valoración de la diversidad del género para su conservación y de las formas de uso hace parte de esa ca...

  19. Reação de acessos de pimentão e pimentas ao oídio (Oidiopsis taurica Reaction of sweet and hot pepper accesses to powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally F. Blat

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio causado pelo fungo Oidiopsis taurica é uma das principais doenças no gênero Capsicum spp. Seus danos podem causar desfolha de até 75% e perdas de até 40% em produção. Seu controle através de fungicidas tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. Poucas fontes de resistência já foram identificadas em Capsicum annuum. Neste trabalho avaliou-se os acessos da coleção de Capsicum spp. do banco de germoplasma da USP/ESALQ quanto às suas reações ao oídio e identificar novas fontes de resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em condições severas de ocorrência do patógeno. Durante a fase de frutificação foi feita a avaliação das reações, através de uma escala de notas, de 1 (resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Dos 156 acessos testados, 53 foram considerados resistentes, sendo representados por 5 acessos em C. annuum, 31 em C. baccatum e 17 em C. chinense. Dentre os acessos resistentes em C. annuum, a variedade dihaploide HV-12 mostrou-se como a mais resistente. Duas novas fontes de resistência se destacaram em C. annuum, #124 e Chilli. Esses acessos mostraram um mecanismo diferenciado de resistência, apresentando uma reação de hipersensibilidade ao patógeno. Os híbridos comerciais Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R e Magda foram classificados como suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis. Grande parte dos acessos resistentes de C. baccatum e C. chinense apresentaram desfolha em conseqüência do mecanismo de hipersensibilidade.Powdery mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica is one of the major diseases of Capsicum spp., causing damage due to defoliation of up to 75% and yield losses of up to 40%. Disease control with fungicide is inefficient, genetic resistance being the best way of control. Few resistant sources have been identified in Capsicum annuum. Capsicum spp. collection accesses of USP/ESALQ germplasm bank were screened in their reaction and

  20. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... parents et ainés plus anciens dans le métier. Les autres (85%) affirment ne pas sentir le besoin d'en prendre. DISCUSSION. Les feuilles flétries, signes de viroses dont les vecteurs sont des Homoptères et des Hétéroptères ont été signalés par Yéboué (1998) ainsi que Fabre et. Ryckewaert (2001).

  1. Rhizosphere Fungi of Red Pepper ( Capsicum frutescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus candidus, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium poae, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, Verticillium lateritium, Fusarium avenaceum, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Fusarium verticilliodes, ...

  2. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vertimec 18 EC, Kart 500 SP, Cypercal 50 EC, Curacron 500 EC.) from eight families (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, strobilurins, nereitoxins, bipyridylimm, phosphonoglycines). Among the products used, three of these are not recommended for market gardening but rather to growing cotton.

  3. Estudio comparativo de la utilización de ancho de banda con los protocolos SIP e IAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Salcedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the VoIP networks environment, there are three protocols that solve the problem of voice packet signaling, known as “highlight protocols”: H323, SIP and IAX. Particularly, this document focuses on a specific difference between SIP and IAX: the bandwidth usage, which is an essential parameter in order to design and optimize a VoIP network for an organization. One of the most important factors to consider when building VoIP networks is proper planning capacity. About planning capacity, bandwidth calculation is an important factor to consider when designing and troubleshooting packet voice networks for good voice quality. This paper presents important explanations about the bandwidth utilization over VoIP networks; this includes some theoretical foundations and bandwidth calculation on a per-flow basis for a VoIP trunk, in which different voice codecs are enabled (specifically G.711 and GSM together with VoIP protocols such as SIP and IAX. Voice over IP (VoIP is applied. These calculations are compared against the results obtained from traffic analyzers over a physical Ethernet trunk between two Asterisk servers into a specific LAN, simulating two different branches of an organization. Both the analysis of the results obtained and the conclusions from this work are useful when calculating the maximum number of simultaneous calls or the minimum capacity of a data link that is necessary for a particular number of voice conversations, taking into account the audio codecs used and the signaling and data flow protocols.

  4. Procesamiento y comercialización de la anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) del Mar Argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolotti, María Isabel; Manca, Emilio A.

    1986-01-01

    Fil: Bertolotti, María Isabel. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales; Argentina. Fil: Manca, Emilio A. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP); Argentina.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  6. Pathogen-inducible CaUGT1 is involved in resistance response against TMV infection by controlling salicylic acid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Soo Bok; Bae, Jungdon; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Young-Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2009-07-07

    Capsicum annuum L. Bugang exhibits a hypersensitive response against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) P(0) infection. The C. annuumUDP-glucosyltransferase 1 (CaUGT1) gene was upregulated during resistance response to TMV and by salicylic acid, ethephon, methyl viologen, and sodium nitroprusside treatment. When the gene was downregulated by virus-induced gene silencing, a delayed HR was observed. In addition, free and total SA concentrations in the CaUGT1-downregulated hot pepper were decreased by 52% and 48% compared to that of the control plants, respectively. This suggested that the CaUGT1 gene was involved in resistance response against TMV infection by controlling the accumulation of SA.

  7. Uso de testes de vigor de sementes na detecção de variabilidade genética intracultivar em pimentão Use of seed vigor tests for detection of intracultivar variability in sweetpepper

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa Santos Fernandes; Jorge Luiz Nedel; José Galli

    1999-01-01

    Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese de polimorfismo intracultivar para vigor em pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.), sementes de um único lote da cv. Ikeda foram submetidas a quatro testes de vigor, respectivamente: teste de frio sem solo, velocidade de germinação, envelhecimento precoce e classificação do vigor de plântula. As plântulas vigorosas e fracas, selecionadas em cada teste, junto com testemunhas (lote original, sem seleção) foram transplantadas para casa de vegetação até a produção de se...

  8. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  9. Genetic determinism and evolutionary reconstruction of a host jump in a plant virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilakos, Nikon; Simon, Vincent; Tzima, Aliki

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their widespread occurrence, only few host jumps by plant viruses have been evidenced and the molecular bases of even fewer have been determined. A combination of three independent approaches, 1) experimental evolution followed by reverse genetics analysis, 2) positive selection...... analysis, and 3) locus-by-locus analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) allowed reconstructing the Potato virus Y (PVY; genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) jump to pepper (Capsicum annuum), probably from other solanaceous plants. Synthetic chimeras between infectious cDNA clones of two PVY isolates...

  10. Esra KOÇ1,♠, Ayşen SÜLÜN ÜSTÜN1

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to th...

  11. Aproximación proteómica al estudio de la respuesta diferencial del metabolismo energético al estrés por bajas temeperaturas en tomate y pimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Egea, Isabel; Sánchez-Ballesta, M. Teresa; Sevillano, Laura; Martínez-Madrid, Concepción; Romojaro, Félix; Bolarín, M. Carmen; Flores, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Tomate (Solanum lycopersicum) y pimiento (Capsicum annuum), son dos especies hortofrutícolas pertenecientes a la familia Solanaceae susceptibles a sufrir daños por frío cuando se almacenan a bajas temperaturas, lo que afecta seriamente a la calidad de los frutos, siendo causa de importantes pérdidas económicas en el sector agro-alimentario. Una de las principales respuestas celulares al estrés por bajas temperaturas consiste en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis osmótica por la acumulación de...

  12. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    esculentum Mill.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), bambara [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.] and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam were tested for seed-borne viruses using various techniques including......The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...

  13. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO COMO FORMA DE CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves na sua cadeia produtiva é a ocorrência de perdas consideráveis dos frutos após a colheita, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas para a sua conservação pós-colheita. Desta forma, objetivou-se desenvolver extrato de pimenta-biquinho como forma de conservação da hortaliça e disponibilizar matéria-prima para a elaboração de produtos derivados, com alto valor agregado, principalmente em períodos de entressafra. Para o preparo do extrato, as pimentas foram lavadas, sanitizadas, branqueadas (80oC/3min, trituradas e concentradas até 12oBrix. Avaliou-se o rendimento, extrato seco, umidade, pH, acidez  titulável, oBrix, cor (L*, a*, b*, índices chroma e hue, teor de vitamina C e carotenoides, contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, mesófilos aeróbios, bactérias láticas, coliformes totais e termotolerantes e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., durante 90 dias de armazenamento.  Não houve variação de umidade, extrato seco, oBrix e  acidez  mas, observou-se  variação do pH. Os valores de L* indicaram baixa luminosidade e os valores de a* e b* indicaram a tendência do extrato para coloração vermelha e amarela. A concentração de vitamina C e de carotenoides foi considerável e, estável. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,0 a 4,1 Log UFC/g e de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,3 Log UFC/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de bactérias láticas foi <1,0 Log UFC/g, de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP/g e constatou-se ausência de Salmonella sp. em 25 g do extrato. O extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma excelente alternativa para o processamento da hortaliça em períodos de entressafra e para prevenção de perda de matéria-prima pela agroindústria e em outras indústrias que

  14. Determinación del requerimiento hídrico del pimentón en el municipio de Candelaria, departamento del Valle del Cauca Water requeriments of pepper in Candelaria, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gómez Enríquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo con el fin de determinar el requerimiento hídrico del pimentón Capsicum annuum variedad Unapal-Serrano, en la zona de Candelaria-Valle del Cauca (Colombia. Se determinó que el pimentón requiere 425mm de agua durante su ciclo vegetativo, obteniendo una eficiencia del uso del agua de 5.32 kg/m³ de fruto fresco y de 0.5 kg/m³ en términos de materia seca. Además, se comprobó la eficiencia del microevaporímetro 'MIEVHR' como herramienta para programación del riego y estudios hidrológicos.A trial was carried out in order to determining the water requirement of the pepper Capsicum annuum variety UNAPAL- Serrano in the zone of Candelaria -Valley of the Cauca (Colombia and to evaluate the efficiency of the microevaporímeter 'MIEVHR' as estimator of the evaporation. It was determined that the pepper requires 425mm of water during the cycle vegetative obtaining an efficiency of the use of the water of 5.32 Kg/m³ of fresh fruit and 0.5 kg/m³ in terms of dry matter. Besides, it was verified the microevaporímeter efficiency 'MIEVHR' as tool for programming of the irrigation.

  15. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  16. Exploración de la diversidad morfológica de chiles regionales en Yaxcabá, Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer los tipos y usos del chile, los criterios de selección, y obtener muestras de las variantes o poblaciones criollas. El sistema estudiado fue el policultivo maíz, frijol, chile y calabaza (milpa y se estableció en dos fases: a una encuesta a 60 familias de la comunidad, a fin de obtener información del cultivo y de los sistemas de cultivo que manejan en la milpa, pach pakal (área apta para hortalizas y solares. b una exploración etnobotánica para colectar material genético, y realizar una valoración in situ de los caracteres morfológicos de planta, fruto y flor. En la comunidad, se siembran un total de ocho tipos regionales de chiles, siete pertenecen a Capsicum annuum (yaax ic, xcat’ic, cha’hua, chile dulce, sucurre, pico paloma y maax, este último C. annuum var. aviculares y uno a Capsicum chinense (habanero. El chile yaax ic es el de mayor aceptación en la comunidad. Los agricultores basan la selección de su germoplasma en el tamaño del fruto, sabor, tolerancia a plagas y enfermedades, y usos culinarios. Los chiles regionales se siembran en asociación con otros cultivos tanto en la milpa como en los solares

  17. Pattern of the Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Jeonnam Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sug-Ju Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV was occurred at 8 areas including Naju, Suncheon, Younggwang, Youngam, and Shinan in Jeonnam province and the crops of Younggwang were severely damaged by TSWV. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum v ar. angulosum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon in greenhouse and hot pepper in open field were infected by TSWV. Especially, hot pepper was severely damaged by TSWV infection. The survey data indicated that 1.1−30% in the nursery field at Naju, Suncheon, and Jangheung were infected by TSWV. Plants were infected by TSWV from early June to August. However, TSWV-infected seedlings from nursery fields showed the disease symptoms from May after transplanting. In pepper greenhouses, Frankliniella occidentalis was more dominant insect vector than Frankliniella intonsa. But in open field, the population of insect vector was opposed to greenhouse. In addition, the removal of weeds was able to delay the incidence of TSWV via side-window of greenhouse in Winter. Taken together, the control of weed and insect vector nearby side-window of greenhouse is important to prevent TSWV infection of plants.

  18. Potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee-Ebrahim-Saraee, Khadijeh; Fard, Mehdi Rezvani; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content of commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow C. annuum (Yellow bell pepper), and red C. annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 and March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results: The results of INAA showed that the concentrations of aluminum, bromine, cobalt, rubidium and strontium of these vegetables were varied from 7.2 to 28.4 mg/kg, 0.6–11.7 mg/kg, 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, 4.2–8.4 mg/kg, and 12.0–141.0 mg/kg, respectively. The trace mineral concentrations of As, Cr, Cs, Sc, Th, and U in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable upper intake level. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:26605243

  19. Transferencia del dorsal ancho para lesiones irreparables del manguito rotador. Técnica quirúrgica y evaluación de una serie de 20 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    promedio de 1 y por la mejoría de la elevación y rotación externa antes mencionada. La evaluación radiológica post operatoria, siguiendo los criterios de Hamada no evidenció una progresión significativa hacia la artropatía por rotura del manguito.

  20. Estudio comparativo de caracteres merísticos y morfométricos de la anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita)

    OpenAIRE

    Ratti, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The argentine anchovy (E.anchoita)shows a distributional area between 35° and 47°30' on the continental shelf off Argentina. This paper deals with some meristic and morphometric characters in order to test their power in separating different stocks. Those largely scattered distributions of morphologic features, which had been already pointed out other authors, make difficult to separate different stocks of this species on this basis.

  1. New role of LTR-retrotransposons for emergence and expansion of disease-resistance genes and high-copy gene families in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil

    2018-02-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-Rs) are major elements creating new genome structure for expansion of plant genomes. However, in addition to the genome expansion, the role of LTR-Rs has been unexplored. In this study, we constructed new reference genome sequences of two pepper species (Capsicum baccatum and C. chinense), and updated the reference genome of C. annuum. We focused on the study for speciation of Capsicum spp. and its driving forces. We found that chromosomal translocation, unequal amplification of LTR-Rs, and recent gene duplications in the pepper genomes as major evolutionary forces for diversification of Capsicum spp. Specifically, our analyses revealed that the nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich-repeat proteins (NLRs) were massively created by LTR-R-driven retroduplication. These retoduplicated NLRs were abundant in higher plants, and most of them were lineage-specific. The retroduplication was a main process for creation of functional disease-resistance genes in Solanaceae plants. In addition, 4-10% of whole genes including highly amplified families such as MADS-box and cytochrome P450 emerged by the retroduplication in the plants. Our study provides new insight into creation of disease-resistance genes and high-copy number gene families by retroduplication in plants. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(2): 55-56].

  2. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  3. Regeneration potential of seedling explants of chilli (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... gation techniques for mass multiplication have become imperative. Conventional methods usually utilize huge amounts of seeds, which results in the wastage of the crop significantly. Cross pollination behavior of chilli plants is a constraint to propagation of agronomic traits and for commercial seed ...

  4. Sensory evaluation of irradiated powered paprika (Capsicum Annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, E.W. de; Alfaro, R.; Mandiola, C.; Rubio, T.

    1990-01-01

    Spices are usually contaminated with microorganisms from soil. Its industrial use may lead to fermentation and/or putrefaction problems affecting the quality of elaborated product. Different dosis of gamma radiation upon the initial microflora were studied, specially on the genus Rhizopus, main contaminant of powered paprika. A 5 kGy dosis was chosen and its effect on the sensory quality and pungency, through the Scoville index, was studied. Our results showed no changes either on the organoleptic characters of powered paprika, nor on the pungency. An increase in the pungent taste was observed on 65% of the studied products. (author)

  5. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... such as in Arabidopsis, the genes found were elongation factor-1α (LeEF-1A), expansin protein (leEXP1) and ripening inhibitor (RIN). This research focused on discovering similar genes that may play an important role in the ripening of peppers. Real-time PCR was performed on the cDNA of the green bell.

  6. Evaluation of Capsicum as a Source of Natural Antioxidant in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These residues were tested on sunflower oil to evaluate their antioxidant effects. The accelerated methods used for oxidation were the Automated Rancimat, Oven heating and UV light at 254 nm. The oxidation of sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) at ...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of fermented spices and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food preservation is required to maintain for a long period of time. Traditional organic food preservative, “Datta” is spice mainly made up of Chili Peppers which frequently used in southern and western part of Ethiopia. Datta can be consumed almost with every kind of foods and it is believed as appetizer and ...

  8. Intra and interspecific hybridization in the genus "capsicum" | Falusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1994) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Nitrogen determination in pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, six levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen status in pepper plants. At the flowering and fruiting stages, total nitrogen was evaluated by laboratory analysis. The chlorophyll index was determined using a soil plant analysis development (SPAD)-502 chlorophyll meter. Also, color ...

  10. Nitrogen determination in pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) plants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... That means that crop N status can be accessed from vegetation coverage reflex. Lukina et al. (1999) acquired vegetation coverage images of wheat from digital camera, computed vegetation coverage degree using digital image processing and estimated vegetation coverage biologic quantity of wheat.

  11. Performance of Pepper ( Capsicum Fructescens L.) on simulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...

  13. DNA extraction protocols for Citrullus lanatus and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... judging from the number of species specific protocols being reported. Sangwan et al. (1998) went ... the top aqueous layers (homogenate) were transferred carefully into new Eppendorf tubes and the chloroform .... Contaminants of extracted DNA include RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenol ...

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of fermented spices and Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of Cu uptake by pepper plants was highest in the treatment on chernozem, lower on fluvisol and pseudogley, and lowest on vertisol, while the degree of Mn uptake by pepper plants was highest on chernozem and lowest on pseudogley. The Cu content of pepper leaves in all the treatments was low as compared ...

  16. Heterosis y aptitud combinatoria en pimenton (Capsicum allnuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverri A. Álvaro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar la heterosis, la aptitud combinatoria general (ACG y la aptitud combinatoria específica (ACE en un cruzamiento dialélico entre diez cultivares de pimentón usando las metodología propuesta por Griffing (1956b, método experimental 4, Modelo I (modificado por Hallauer y Miranda, 1988. Los parentales con valores más altos de heterosis relativa (HR y heterobelriosis (HB fueron LPUNAL (155,87% y 138,69%, Avelar (136,84% y 119,18%, y L363-46-672 (130,95% y 113,22%, los que participaron en la formación de cuatro de los diez cruzamientos más destacados por rendimiento. El análisis de varianza para aptitud combinatoria, mostró que en la transmisión y expresión de los caracteres evaluados, actúan en forma conjunta y altamente significativa tanto los efectos génicos aditivos (ACG como los 110 aditivos (A CE, pero con predominio de los primeros (Griffing, 1956. Los mayores valores de ACG para rendimiento fueron observados en LPUNAL-Palmira y Avelar (87.0 y 79.9, respectivamente.

  17. Regeneration potential of seedling explants of chilli ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted with hypocotyl, cotyledon and shoot tip of chilli as explants for regeneration on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Regeneration potential was determined by two ways. One is regeneration of shoot via callus formation from hypocotyls ...

  18. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mirela

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Lombardi and Maldonado, 2011). Moreover, copper has the ability to increase chlorophyll stability (Vukadinović and Lončarić, 1997). These reasons serve as an indication of the high importance of this element during photosynthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was conducted in 2009 and ...

  19. PEMANFAATAN DAUN TANAMAN BERKAYU SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK TANAMAN SAYURAN DAN JAGUNG - (UTILIZATION OF WOODY PLANT LEAVES AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR VEGETABLES AND CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use woody plant leaves as organic fertilizer (compost and their effects on vegetables and corn. The compost was made from leaves of Samanea saman, Swietenia macrophylla, Nephelium lappaceum and cow dung (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using OrgaDec (0.5% w/w, Decomic (0.1% v/w and Dectro (0.1 v/w as bioactivator. The result showed that compost from Samanea saman leaves and cow dung (1:3 using Decomic (0.1% v/w met the organic fertilizer standard. The compost was applied to Ipomoea reptans, Capsicum annuum and Zea mays on a media from compost and latosol soil (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The analyzed data using ANOVA showed no significant difference in the growth parameter of tested plants. The best media for Ipomoea reptans was the mixture of compost and latosol soil (3:1 meanwhile for Zea mays and Capsicum annuum were 1:3 and 2:2, respectively.Keywords: compost, compost application, organic fertilizer, woody plant leavesABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan daun tumbuhan berkayu menjadi pupuk organik (kompos serta pengaruhnya terhadap tanaman sayuran dan jagung. Kompos dibuat dari daun kihujan (Samanea saman, daun mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum dan kotoran sapi (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan bioaktivator OrgaDec (0,5% w/w, Decomic (0,1% v/w dan Dectro (0,1 v/w. Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan bahwa kompos yang dibuat dari daun kihujan dan kotoran sapi (1:3 yang menggunakan bioaktivator Decomic (0,1% v/w adalah perlakuan yang paling sesuai dengan baku mutu pupuk organik berdasarkan Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011. Kompos hasil penelitian diujicobakan kepada tanaman kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans, cabe keriting (Capsicum annuum dan jagung manis (Zea mays pada media campuran kompos dan tanah latosol (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 3 ulangan sedangkan data yang diperoleh diolah dengan ANOVA

  20. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.