Sample records for anbn

  1. Clinical Utility of Subtyping Binge Eating Disorder by History of Anorexia or Bulimia Nervosa in a Treatment Sample (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M.; Mitchell, James E.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.


    Objective This study examined whether having a history of anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with response to treatment in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Data from 189 adults diagnosed with BED who were randomly assigned to one of three group cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments were analyzed to compare those with and without a history of AN/BN. Results A total of 16% of the sample had a history of AN/BN. The BED subgroup with a history of AN/BN presented with higher rates of mood disorders and greater eating-related symptom severity at baseline. Participants with a history of AN/BN also had higher global eating disorder (ED) symptoms at end of treatment (EOT), and more frequent objective binge-eating episodes at EOT and 12-month follow-up. Discussion These findings suggest that in adults with BED, a history of AN/BN is predictive of greater eating-related symptom severity following group-based CBT and poorer short- and long-term binge-eating outcomes. These findings suggest that considering ED history in the treatment of adults with BED may be clinically useful. PMID:25959549

  2. Rational approximants for the Euler-Gompertz constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bolbachan, Vasily


    We obtain two sequences of rational numbers which converge to the Euler-Gompertz constant. Denote by the integral of f(x)e^{-x} from 0 to infinity. Recall that the Euler-Gompertz constant \\delta is . Main idea. Let P_n(x) be a polynomial with integer coefficients. It is easy to prove that =a_n+b_n$ for some integers a_n, b_n. Hence if /b_n converges to zero, a_n/b_n converges to - \\delta . Main Theorem. Let u be positive real. There exists polynomials P_n(x)(they are explicitly given in the paper) such that tends to u as n tends to infinity. Proof of Main Theorem is elementary.

  3. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia. (United States)

    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A


    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice.

  4. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders. (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L


    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ≥ 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development.

  5. Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Frank, Guido K; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H


    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and nine control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [(11)C]McN5652 and [(11)C]raclopride binding. There was a significant positive correlation between [(11)C]McN5652 binding potential (BP(non displaceable(ND))) and [(11)C]Raclopride BP(ND) for the dorsal caudate, antero-ventral striatum (AVS), middle caudate, and ventral and dorsal putamen. No significant correlations were found in CW. [(11)C]Raclopride BP(ND), but not [(11)C]McN5652 BP(ND), was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [(11)C]McN5652 BP(ND) and [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in the dorsal putamen significantly predicted HA. This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [(11)C]McN5652 and [(11)C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs.

  6. Discovery of a Recursive Principle: An Artificial Grammar Investigation of Human Learning of a Counting Recursion Language (United States)

    Cho, Pyeong Whan; Szkudlarek, Emily; Tabor, Whitney


    Learning is typically understood as a process in which the behavior of an organism is progressively shaped until it closely approximates a target form. It is easy to comprehend how a motor skill or a vocabulary can be progressively learned—in each case, one can conceptualize a series of intermediate steps which lead to the formation of a proficient behavior. With grammar, it is more difficult to think in these terms. For example, center embedding recursive structures seem to involve a complex interplay between multiple symbolic rules which have to be in place simultaneously for the system to work at all, so it is not obvious how the mechanism could gradually come into being. Here, we offer empirical evidence from a new artificial language (or “artificial grammar”) learning paradigm, Locus Prediction, that, despite the conceptual conundrum, recursion acquisition occurs gradually, at least for a simple formal language. In particular, we focus on a variant of the simplest recursive language, anbn, and find evidence that (i) participants trained on two levels of structure (essentially ab and aabb) generalize to the next higher level (aaabbb) more readily than participants trained on one level of structure (ab) combined with a filler sentence; nevertheless, they do not generalize immediately; (ii) participants trained up to three levels (ab, aabb, aaabbb) generalize more readily to four levels than participants trained on two levels generalize to three; (iii) when we present the levels in succession, starting with the lower levels and including more and more of the higher levels, participants show evidence of transitioning between the levels gradually, exhibiting intermediate patterns of behavior on which they were not trained; (iv) the intermediate patterns of behavior are associated with perturbations of an attractor in the sense of dynamical systems theory. We argue that all of these behaviors indicate a theory of mental representation in which recursive