WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomy regional

  1. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  2. Midface: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Schenck, Thilo L; Trevidic, Patrick; Sykes, Jonathan; Massry, Guy G; Liew, Steven; Graivier, Miles; Dayan, Steve; de Maio, Mauricio; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Andrews, J Todd; Remington, B Kent

    2015-11-01

    The clinical approach towards the midface is one of the most important interventions for practitioners when treating age-related changes of the face. Currently a plethora of procedures are used and presented. However, few of these approaches have been validated or passed review board assigned evaluations. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to establish a guideline manual for practitioners for a safe and effective mid-face treatment based on the most current concepts of facial anatomy. The latter is based on the 5-layered structural arrangement and its understanding is the key towards the favoured outcome and for minimizing complications. PMID:26441102

  3. Anatomy of Regional Disparities in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Jarmuzek; Biswajit Banerjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines economic growth and various dimensions of regional disparities in Slovakia. We find that regional disparities in the levels of GDP per capita, labor productivity, and labor utilization have widened since 2000, coinciding with the time that Slovakia initiated negotiations on EU accession. Notwithstanding ?-divergence in the levels, there was conditional ?-convergence in the growth rates of GDP per capita and labor productivity. Improvements in total factor productivity were...

  4. Orion B - anatomy of a star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compact HII region/molecular cloud Orion B was observed with the VLA in the radio continuum and OH absorption line at a frequency of 1667 MHz, in the near-infrared continuum and H2 emission line at a wavelength of 2 μm, and in several millimeter-wavelength molecular transitions (of HCO+, SO, H13CN, and HC15N) with the Hat Creek Array. The VLA continuum map has an integrated flux density of 59 ± 2 Jy, and the author estimates that the total flux density is 63 ± 4 Jy at this frequency. This map reveals two spectacular filamentary loops just north of a very sharp, although resolved, ionization front (IF). In OH absorption maps, the eastern loop (EL) shows up near the velocity of the Zeeman-split OH in such a way as to suggest expansion, and a high optical depth cloud appears in the north Central part of the nebula at the velocity of the main OH absorption. The infrared source IRS 2, with a strong stellar wind and a location within the EL, is deduced to be the cause of this loop. The IR observations reveal many new sources which together may supply the missing ionizing flux for the nebula. The IF is traced by the H2 line emission. In the dense molecular core the HCO+ line maps show a centrally located broad line region with an elliptical velocity distribution, a long, quiescent, NS-oriented ridge, an EW ridge which exactly abuts the IF of the adjacent HII region, and a possible one-sided high density outflow to the south with an origin apparently not near any of the IR sources mentioned above. An improved model and a suggested history for the HII region and the first detailed model for the molecular core are presented

  5. ANATOMI MAKRO EKONOMI REGIONAL: STUDI KASUS PROVINSI DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ma’ruf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of economic growth, a description of the structureof regional economy, and analysis of economic sectors of potential, the level of investment and economicstability in DIY (Yogyakarta as Special Region. The results of this study can be used as input andevaluation of regional development planning. The data used in the form of secondary data are analyzedby descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis. Analysis tool with the Shift Share Analysis (SS,Analysis of Location Quotient (LQ which consists of the static location quotient (SLQ and dynamiclocation quotient (DLQ, and analysis of Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR. The study concludesDIY macroeconomic dynamics is in line with the national economic pattern, economic growth, inflation,investment, exports and imports and consumption. Sectors that have the largest contribution are trade,hotels and restaurants, whereas the potential to be developed is the agricultural sector, processingindustries and services.Keywords: economic growth, potential sectors, economic stability.

  6. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states.

  7. MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouter van Es, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

  8. Correlated regions of cerebral blood flow with clinical parameters in Parkinson's disease. Comparison using 'Anatomy' and 'Talairach Daemon' software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assign the anatomical names of functional activation regions in the brain, based on the probabilistic cyto-architectonic atlas by Anatomy 1.7 from an analysis of correlations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and clinical parameters of the non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. We evaluated Anatomy 1.7 of SPM toolbox compared to 'Talairach Daemon' (TD) Client 2.4.2 software. One hundred and thirty-six patients (mean age 60.0±9.09 years; 73 women and 63 men) with non-demented PD were selected. Tc-99m-HMPAO brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans were performed on the patients using a two-head gamma-camera. We analyzed the brain image of PD patients by SPM8 and found the anatomical names of correlated regions of rCBF perfusion with the clinical parameters using TD Client 2.4.2 and Anatomy 1.7. The SPM8 provided a correlation coefficient between clinical parameters and cerebral hypoperfusion by a simple regression method. To the clinical parameters were added age, duration of disease, education period, Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage and Korean mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) score. Age was correlated with cerebral perfusion in the Brodmann area (BA) 6 and BA 3b assigned by Anatomy 1.7 and BA 6 and pyramis in gray matter by TD Client 2.4.2 with p<0.001 uncorrected. Also, assigned significant correlated regions were found in the left and right lobules VI (Hem) with duration of disease, in left and right lobules VIIa crus I (Hem) with education, in left insula (Ig2), left and right lobules VI (Hem) with H and Y, and in BA 4a and 6 with K-MMSE score with p<0.05 uncorrected by Anatomy 1.7, respectively. Most areas of correlation were overlapped by two different anatomical labeling methods, but some correlation areas were found with different names. Age was the most significantly correlated clinical parameter with rCBF. TD Client found the exact anatomical name by the peak

  9. Atlas of regional anatomy of the brain using MRI. With functional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume provides a unique review of the essential topographical anatomy of the brain from an MRI perspective, correlating high-quality anatomical plates with the corresponding high-resolution MRI images. The book includes a historical review of brain mapping and an analysis of the essential reference planes used for the study of the human brain. Subsequent chapters provide a detailed review of the sulcal and the gyral anatomy of the human cortex, guiding the reader through an interpretation of the individual brain atlas provided by high-resolution MRI. The relationship between brain structure and function is approached in a topographical fashion with analysis of the necessary imaging methodology and displayed anatomy. The central, perisylvian, mesial temporal and occipital areas receive special attention. Imaging of the core brain structures is included. An extensive coronal atlas concludes the book. (orig.)

  10. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  11. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  12. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  13. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  14. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  15. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  16. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  17. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  18. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  19. Applied anatomy of the cervical region of the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changchu Wu; Xing Guo; Yanwei Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To avoid recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury during thyroid surgery, it is important to identify the nerve and to follow its projection carefully to discriminate it from the inferior thyroid artery. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: All studies were performed at the Anatomy Division of Shaoyang Medical College from May 2003 to May 2004 with repeated measurement design. MATERIALS: Fifty embalmed adult corpses, comprising 20 females and 30 males, were obtained by donation. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The projection, branches, and the relationship of the RLN to the inferior thyroid artery were observed. RESULTS: The RLN in all cases ascended through the tracheoesophageal groove at the isthmus superior levels of the thyroid gland. However, the RLN in 14 cases were situated inferior to the isthmus of the thyroid gland; 11 cases were to the right side and 2 cases to the left side, projected in the tracheoesophageal groove, and ascended away from the groove after 4.5-6.5 mm. The RLN typically ramified at the thyroid isthmus plane (44 cases, 44% of all cases). The RLN branches were variable. Type 2 rami were most common in the RLN, accounting for 55%; the second most common was RLN branches with no rami. RLN braches with type 3 rami, 4 rami, and 5 rami were less common. Approximately 54% of nerves were situated behind the main branch artery. The nerves located adjacent to the arteries, and between the arterial branches, were similar; the former applied to 19 cases, accounting for 19%, whereas the latter applied to 18 cases, accounting for 18%. Left nerves behind the artery, and right nerves before the artery, were more common. There were significant differences between the left and right nerves (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: There was not a significant difference in the projection of the RLN, while a significant difference in the number of RLN branches existed. In addition, the anatomical relationship of the RLN and the inferior thyroid artery exhibited

  20. Heart region segmentation from low-dose CT scans: an anatomy based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.; Biancardi, Alberto M.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Cham, Matthew D.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in developed countries. The concurrent detection of heart diseases during low-dose whole-lung CT scans (LDCT), typically performed as part of a screening protocol, hinges on the accurate quantification of coronary calcification. The creation of fully automated methods is ideal as complete manual evaluation is imprecise, operator dependent, time consuming and thus costly. The technical challenges posed by LDCT scans in this context are mainly twofold. First, there is a high level image noise arising from the low radiation dose technique. Additionally, there is a variable amount of cardiac motion blurring due to the lack of electrocardiographic gating and the fact that heart rates differ between human subjects. As a consequence, the reliable segmentation of the heart, the first stage toward the implementation of morphologic heart abnormality detection, is also quite challenging. An automated computer method based on a sequential labeling of major organs and determination of anatomical landmarks has been evaluated on a public database of LDCT images. The novel algorithm builds from a robust segmentation of the bones and airways and embodies a stepwise refinement starting at the top of the lungs where image noise is at its lowest and where the carina provides a good calibration landmark. The segmentation is completed at the inferior wall of the heart where extensive image noise is accommodated. This method is based on the geometry of human anatomy and does not involve training through manual markings. Using visual inspection by an expert reader as a gold standard, the algorithm achieved successful heart and major vessel segmentation in 42 of 45 low-dose CT images. In the 3 remaining cases, the cardiac base was over segmented due to incorrect hemidiaphragm localization.

  1. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  2. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  3. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  4. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  5. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  6. Automatic anatomy partitioning of the torso region on CT images by using multiple organ localizations with a group-wise calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Morita, Syoichi; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic approach for anatomy partitioning on three-dimensional (3D) computedtomography (CT) images that divide the human torso into several volume-of-interesting (VOI) images based on anatomical definition. The proposed approach combines several individual detections of organ-location with a groupwise organ-location calibration and correction to achieve an automatic and robust multiple-organ localization task. The essence of the proposed method is to jointly detect the 3D minimum bounding box for each type of organ shown on CT images based on intra-organ-image-textures and inter-organ-spatial-relationship in the anatomy. Machine-learning-based template matching and generalized Hough transform-based point-distribution estimation are used in the detection and calibration processes. We apply this approach to the automatic partitioning of a torso region on CT images, which are divided into 35 VOIs presenting major organ regions and tissues required by routine diagnosis in clinical medicine. A database containing 4,300 patient cases of high-resolution 3D torso CT images is used for training and performance evaluations. We confirmed that the proposed method was successful in target organ localization on more than 95% of CT cases. Only two organs (gallbladder and pancreas) showed a lower success rate: 71 and 78% respectively. In addition, we applied this approach to another database that included 287 patient cases of whole-body CT images scanned for positron emission tomography (PET) studies and used for additional performance evaluation. The experimental results showed that no significant difference between the anatomy partitioning results from those two databases except regarding the spleen. All experimental results showed that the proposed approach was efficient and useful in accomplishing localization tasks for major organs and tissues on CT images scanned using different protocols.

  7. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  10. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  11. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  12. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  13. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  14. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  15. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  16. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.)

  17. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Kristoffersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  18. Anatomy of the lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  19. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  20. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  1. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  2. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  3. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schankin, Christoph [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Rachinger, Walter [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  4. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  5. Skull Base Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  6. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  7. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  8. Study the Minimally Invasive Orthopedic Surgery and Regional Anatomy Teaching Design%微创骨科手术与局部解剖学教学设计之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛磊; 代彭威; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive orthopedic surgery and closely related to regional anatomy for the two disciplines, and all have high conscientiousness. With the development of the society, such as fracture happened frequently, however the orthopaedic minimally invasive surgery has developed rapidly, especially in minimally invasive spine and arthroscopic surgery, these two departments are the characteristics of small trauma, surgical incision can be up to 2 cm, compared with the traditional surgery, the effect is more optimized. But as a result of such close sexual knowledge and regional anatomy, bring a series of dififculties to the clinical teaching, brings certain difficulty for the practice teaching, the students often can not understand in the operation and key points of anatomical connections, for the relevant researchers for such problem for minimally invasive bone surgery should be effectively combined with regional anatomy teaching, optimize the curriculum design.%微创骨科手术与局部解剖学为两种关系密切的学科,且均具较高严谨性。随着社会的发展,骨折等事件频发,然而骨科微创手术发展迅速,尤其是微创脊柱科与关节镜外科,上述两大科室均具创伤小的特性,手术切口可达2 cm,较传统手术而言,效果更加优化。但由于此类知识与局部解剖学的密切性,给临床实习教学带来一系列的困难,学生时常无法理解手术中与解剖学连接的关键点,针对此类问题相关研究人员将微创骨科手术与局部解剖学得教学有效的结合起来,优化课程设计。

  9. Anatomy for blepharoplasty and brow-lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Larrabee, Wayne F

    2010-08-01

    The eyelids and eyebrows provide communicative, emotional, and protective functions through a complex interplay of muscles, tendons, and other local soft tissues. A surgical intervention involving these regions are renowned for their deceptive simplicity and notable complications. With these challenges in mind, this article provides the reader with a detailed and systematic review of the eyelid and brow anatomy. PMID:20524165

  10. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  11. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  12. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connell, Rachel L.; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the “oncoplastic plane”, the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, tog...

  13. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  14. Anatomia microcirúrgica da região selar em cadáveres a fresco utilizando técnica fotográfica com fluoresceína Microsurgical anatomy of sellar region: photographic technique using fluorescein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GILBERTO DE BRITO HENRIQUES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as medidas microcirúrgicas da região selar de 20 cadáveres com um máximo de 12 horas após o óbito. Utilizou-se fluoresceína como contraste para estudo do sistema vascular. O estudo em cadáveres com pouco tempo após o óbito e o uso de fluoresceína objetivaram evitar distorções na anatomia das estruturas causadas pela formolização ou pelo uso de contrastes a base de cola. A droga foi diluída em água ou, para se obter maior consistência, em gel de ultrassonografia. A injeção do contraste foi feita nas artérias carótidas comuns e o registro fotográfico realizado com três diferentes tipos de iluminação: 1 lâmpada de Wood ("luz negra"; 2 lâmpada de wood mais luz branca; 3 luz branca. Obteve-se melhor contraste quando se iluminou somente com a lâmpada de wood. As medidas realizadas mostraram, com frequência, resultados diferentes dos de outros autores. A técnica fotográfica com fluoresceína é simples e acessível, apresentando excelente qualidade como contraste vascular para estudos neuroanatômicos.The microsurgical anatomy of sellar regions in 20 cadavers with a 12 hours maximum post mortem was studied. Fluorescein was used as contrast for vascular anatomy examination. The use of fresh specimen and fluorescein had the objective of avoiding any distortion of normal anatomy. The drug was diluted with water or, in order to have more consistency, in gel for ultrasonography. Contrast injection was made into the internal carotid artery and photographs were taken with three different kinds of lighting: 1 only with Wood's lamp; 2 Wood's lamp and normal white light; 3 only with white light. Lighting only with Wood's lamp showed more contrast. After measurement, data often showed discrepancies with other authors' data. The photographic technique with fluorescein is simple and accessible; the drug showed high quality as a vascular contrast for neuroanatomic research.

  15. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  16. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  17. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  18. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  19. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile sk...

  20. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  1. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  2. LAPAROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of mini-invasive surgery determinates a rapid improvement in laparoscopic regional anatomy. As laparoscopy is becoming common in most surgical departments, basic laparoscopic anatomy is mandatory for all residents in general surgery. Successful general surgery starts in the anatomy laboratory. Successfully minim invasive surgery starts in the operative theatre with laparoscopic exploration. The initial laparoscopic view of the right upper quadrant demonstrates primarily the subphrenic spaces, abdominal surface of the diaphragm and diaphragmatic surface of the liver. The falciform ligament is a prominent dividing point between the left subphrenic space and the right subphrenic space. The ligamentum teres hepatis is seen in the free edge of the falciform. Upward traction on the gallbladder exposes the structures of Calot’s triangle and the hepatoduodenal ligament. The liver is divided into anatomic segments based on internal anatomy that is invisible to the laparoscopist. Surface landmarks include the falciform ligament and the gallbladder fossa. The surgical procedures performed laparoscopically currently include liver biopsy, wedge resection, fenestration of hepatic cysts, laparoscopic approach of the hidatid hepatic cyst, and atypical hepatectomy. We present the laparoscopic anatomy of extrahepatic biliary tract. Once the gallbladder is elevated, inspection reveals Hartmann’s pouch and the cystic duct. The typical angular junction of the cystic duct on the common duct actually occurs in a minority of patients and the length and course of the cystic duct are highly variable. The boundaries of Calot’s triangle are often not well seen. The cystic artery is often visible under the peritoneum as it runs along the surface of the gallbladder. The variations of the structures of the hepatoduodenal ligament may occur to injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholangiography increases the safety of dissection of biliary tract by

  3. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  4. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eVernet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  5. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority. PMID:18770971

  6. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  7. TEACHING ANATOMY TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF DISSECTION IN ANATOMY AND ATTUTUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS IT.

    OpenAIRE

    ANUJ JAIN

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. Dissection in anatomy can be the beginning of a physician's training in how to isolate and restrict their emotional responses to difficult or disturbing clinical situations, or conversely how to deal appropriately with emotions engendered by such exposure.Study of regional anatomy through cadaveric dissection is considered to be a unique feature of medical courses in India. The...

  9. 松果体区脑池和蛛网膜的显微解剖研究%Microsurgical anatomy of cisterns and arachnoid membranes in pineal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊俊; 漆松涛; 张喜安; 石瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统研究松果体区脑池及其蛛网膜结构的显微解剖学特点,为手术入路及手术操作提供解刮学依据.方法 在手术显微镜下观察20例尸头松果体区各个脑池的形态、边界、内容物及相关蛛网膜结构.结果 松果体区的蛛网膜结构包括蛛网膜袖套、环中脑后膜和小脑前中央膜.其中蛛网膜袖套由枕叶底、内侧面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕尖处汇合而成,包裹Galen静脉系统、松果体及松果体七隐窝;环中脑后膜由枕叶底面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕切迹处汇合形成,环绕并附着于中脑背侧;小脑前中央膜由小脑上表面蛛网膜和蛛网膜袖套汇合处发出,前下方附着于下丘.四叠体池与小脑上池通过小脑前中央膜分隔,与后胼周池通过蛛网膜袖套分隔.与环池后部通过环中脑后膜的升段分隔,环池后部与小脑中脑裂池通过环中脑后膜的水平段分隔.结论 重新划分了松果体区各个脑池的范围与交通情况,明确了蛛网膜的形态与分布.%Objective To study micro-anatomical features of cisterns and their arachnoid membranes in pineal region. Methods Cisterns in pineal region including their shapes, borders, contents and arachnoidal membranes were observed in 20 cadaveric brains using an operating microscope. Results Arachnoid membranes of the pineal region include the arachnoidal envelope, the posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane. At the level of the tentorial apex, arachnoid membranes covering the inferior-medial surface of occipital lobe and the superior surface of cerebellum converge to form the arachnoidal envelope, which encloses the vein of Galen with its tributaries, the pineal gland and the suprapineal recess. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane arises from the outer arachnoid membranes covering the inferior occipital lobe and the superior cerebellum at the tentorial edge. It surrounds and is attached

  10. Anatomy and imageology of the jugular foramen region%颈静脉孔区的解剖学结构与影像显示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫萍; 谭文; 李凤飞; 姜鹏君; 吴解万

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To provide anatomic and imageologic basis of the jugular foramen region for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in this region. Methods: Ten adult skulls were dissected and observed through Fisch infratemporai fossa approach. By using MRCT and MR,heads of ten healthy volunteers were scanned and analyzed. Results: Fiber septum (18 sides,90%),bony septum (3 sides,15%),and constant temporal bone process presented,which separated partly the cranial nerve Ⅸ from the cranial nerve Ⅹ ,however,occipital bone process and internal compatition did not appear all the while. There were many nerve roots for carnial nerves of Ⅸ,Ⅹ and Ⅸ,especially the Ⅹ th with the root number of 13. The position of the right jugular bulb was higher than that of the left. MRCT could clearly show the bony structures of jugular foramen,while MR3D-TOF exhibited clearly vascular images of internal carotid artery,basilar artery and cerebralis posterior. Conclusions: The anatomical and imageologic data are useful references for the operations in the jugular foramen region,which is helpful for avoiding the lesion of vessels and cranial nerves.%目的:探讨颈静脉孔区正常解剖结构特点及影像学表现,为该区疾病诊断、手术治疗提供解剖学与影像学依据.方法:取10个成人头颅标本(20侧颈静脉孔)通过采用Fisch颞下窝手术入路进行解剖和观察,测量相关解剖学数据;采用MSCT与MR对10名健康自愿者进行头颅扫描,获取MSCT与MR影像表现,将测得数据进行统计学分析.结果:在20侧颈静脉孔中,有18侧(90%)的舌咽神经和迷走神经之间存在纤维性硬膜,颞突比较恒定,枕突少见,3侧(15%)有完整骨桥;舌咽神经、迷走神经、副神经都有很多根丝,迷走神经根丝可多达13条;右侧颈静脉球高度高于左侧,P<0.05.MSCT颅底层面可清晰显示颈静脉孔大小、形态及其内颞突、枕突、骨桥等骨性结构;MR3D-TOF法可显示颈内动脉、基底动

  11. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA)

  12. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    dissection. Syro-Indian, Byzantine, Greek, Chinese and Arabic knowledge all influenced the third era. In the fourth period, the first colour illustrated anatomical text (by Mansur, 14th century AD) was compiled. Chinese and Indian anatomical styles were embraced, though there was a strong religious siege of anatomy late in this era. By the 19th century, Persia had entered a new era of modernizing movements and academic contact with the West through the reforms of Mirza Tagi Khan Amir Kabir. Knowledge of anatomy for this region in the 20th century was greatly influenced by Europe and America.

  13. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    dissection. Syro-Indian, Byzantine, Greek, Chinese and Arabic knowledge all influenced the third era. In the fourth period, the first colour illustrated anatomical text (by Mansur, 14th century AD) was compiled. Chinese and Indian anatomical styles were embraced, though there was a strong religious siege of anatomy late in this era. By the 19th century, Persia had entered a new era of modernizing movements and academic contact with the West through the reforms of Mirza Tagi Khan Amir Kabir. Knowledge of anatomy for this region in the 20th century was greatly influenced by Europe and America. PMID:17428200

  14. The anatomy of transsylvian fissure-insular surgical approach for removal of intracerebral hematoma in basal ganglia region%经外侧裂-岛叶清除基底节血肿手术入路的解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯三平; 冯继

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基底节脑出血手术中,经外侧裂岛叶入路的相关结构的解剖,做到既能彻底的清除血肿,又能最大程度地保护脑组织,减少术后并发症发生.方法 对10例(20侧)成人尸头标本进行外侧裂、岛叶、岛盖、大脑中动脉、基底节的相关解剖.结果 ①外侧裂的表面有3个分支与岛盖关系密切,为暴露岛叶提供有利条件;②岛叶呈一个金字塔外形,表面由4~7个岛回组成,周围以环岛沟为界与额顶颞叶分隔开;③大脑中动脉的M1沿蝶骨嵴向外走形,多在岛顶前下方的岛阈附近分叉;M2段彼此“(11)V”字形,或“网眼状”,在岛叶表面向后上扇形展开,并发出许多微小的穿支血管供应岛叶皮层.④岛叶向内对应了基底节、内囊,丘脑等结构,本研究中发现,在岛叶的中部水平切面上,岛叶的中后短回,垂直向内对应了壳核最为宽阔的部分和内囊的膝部.结论 熟悉外侧裂-岛叶手术入路中的解剖,有利于基底节血肿的清除.%Objective To study the anatomy via transsylvian fissure-insular surgical approach in the surgery of intracerebral hematomas in basal ganglia region for a good removal of hematoma, well preservation of brain tissues and decrease of post-operation complications. Methods Dissection and relative measurement were performed in the sylvian fissure, operculum insulae, insular, middle cerebral artery and basal ganglia of 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 hemispheres). Results There were 3 branches in the surface of sylvian fissure, which had a close relationship with the operculum insulae, making the exposure of the insular more easy; the insular had a shape of the incompletely inverted pyramid, had 4-7 insular gyri in its surface, and the anterior, superior and inferior limiting sulcus separated from frontal, parietal and temporal lobe along the periphery of the insula; the M1 of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) coursing outward the sphenoidal crest, and the

  15. Anatomy-based reconstruction of FDG-PET images with implicit partial volume correction improves detection of hypometabolic regions in patients with epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia diagnosed on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of hypometabolic areas on interictal FDG-PET images for assessing the epileptogenic zone is hampered by partial volume effects. We evaluated the performance of an anatomy-based maximum a-posteriori (A-MAP) reconstruction algorithm which combined noise suppression with correction for the partial volume effect in the detection of hypometabolic areas in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). FDG-PET images from 14 patients with refractory partial epilepsy were reconstructed using A-MAP and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. In all patients, presurgical evaluation showed that FCD represented the epileptic lesion. Correspondence between the FCD location and regional metabolism on a predefined atlas was evaluated. An asymmetry index of FCD to normal cortex was calculated. Hypometabolism at the FCD location was detected in 9/14 patients (64%) using ML and in 10/14 patients (71%) using A-MAP reconstruction. Hypometabolic areas outside the FCD location were detected in 12/14 patients (86%) using ML and in 11/14 patients (79%) using A-MAP reconstruction. The asymmetry index was higher using A-MAP reconstruction (0.61, ML 0.49, p=0.03). The A-MAP reconstruction algorithm improved visual detection of epileptic FCD on brain FDG-PET images compared to ML reconstruction, due to higher contrast and better delineation of the lesion. This improvement failed to reach significance in our small sample. Hypometabolism outside the lesion is often present, consistent with the observation that the functional deficit zone tends to be larger than the epileptogenic zone. (orig.)

  16. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  17. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  18. The anatomy of teaching and the teaching of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, David; Skandalakis, John E

    2004-04-01

    Professional education is one of the greatest problems currently confronting the healing professions. The incorporation of basic science departments into colleges of medicine has affected curriculum design, research, admissions criteria, and licensure. Those who are not practicing members of a particular health care profession wield undue influence in medical schools. Ideally, gross anatomy teachers should be health care professionals who use anatomy in their practices. Reorganization of medical education will heal the rift between research and clinical medicine.

  19. BASE OF SKULL ANATOMY AND DIFFERENT PATHOLOGIES IN CROSS SECTIONAL IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Sharifian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to improvethe radiologic knowledge of skull base anatomy and pathologies. Content: Skull base is composed of multiple complex bones and soft tissues. So many pathologies as tumoral, infectious and traumatic can involve it. With a brief discussion of the anatomy, we review various pathologic conditions in this region.

  20. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  1. Anatomie et identification des bois

    OpenAIRE

    Jourez, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Anatomie des bois Structure anatomique des résineux et des feuillus Structure de la membrane cellulaire structure submicroscopique Anatomie du bois des essences feuillues tropicales Caractères anatomiques servant à l'identification des essences Reconnaissance microscopique du bois des essences résineuses et feuillues Duramen et duraminisation Formations anormales ( bois de compression et bois de tension) Chimie du bois Composition générale Cellulose, hé...

  2. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  3. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  4. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  5. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-01

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26669269

  8. 颞区皮肤手术易损伤结构的应用解剖研究%Applied Anatomy on Vulnerable Structures of Skin Operation at the Temporal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏含辉; 梁雪梅; 黄剑真; 郑春丽; 张海玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the data of the anatomic structure and analyze the safety of the skin tumors biopsy or operation at the temporal region. Methods: The anatomy of the temporal region was studied layer - by - layer and the main structural parameter was observed in 5 embalmed adult cadaveric heads. Results : The main structure lay in the superficial temporal fascia. In the preauricular group, from hack to front was the superficial temporal vein , the auriculotemporal nerve, the superficial temporal artery and the temporal branches of facial nerve, ( 3. 14 ±0. 21 )mm . ( 7. 04 ±1. 18 )mm. ( 7. 32 ± 1. 92 )mm, ( 28. 67 ±0. 37 )mm respectively from the tragus; the most temporal distance of the temporal branch of facial nerve at the upper edge of zygomatic arch was ( 28. 67 ±0. 37 )mm and went 45 degrees up and forward from the tragus. In the posterior auricular group, from front to back was the posterior auricular artery, the lesser occipital nerve and the posterior auricular vein, ( 6. 55 ±0. 23 )mm , ( 40. 41 ± 1. 37 )mm , ( 41. 18 ± 1. 57 )mm respectively from the middle of the posterior auricular sulcus. Conclusions : The radial incision at the center of auricular apex has minimal postoperative scar. The temporal branches of facial nerve are most likely injured as the skin tumor biopsy or operation, the nearer it is to the upper edge of zygomatic arch, the easier to be injured and the more serious consequences it has. The skin tumor biopsy or operation is relatively safe without the temporal branch of facial nerve in the range of 28mm front from tragus.%目的:获得颞区解剖结构数据,分析颞区皮肤肿瘤活检和手术治疗的安全性.方法:经10%甲醛液固定的成人尸头标本5例10侧,行颞区层次解剖,观测耳前、后组血管神经的参数.结果:主要结构分布于颞浅筋膜层,耳前组由后向前为颞浅静脉、耳颞神经、颞浅动脉及面神经颞支,分别距耳屏(3.14±0.21)mm,(7.04±1.18) mm,(7.32±1

  9. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  10. Anatomy adventure: a board game for enhancing understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy Adventure, a board game on anatomy was designed to reduce some of these pressures, emphasize student centered and collaborative learning styles, and add fun to the process of learning while promoting understanding and retention of the subject. To assess these objectives, 95 out of over 150 medical and dental students who expressed willingness to be part of the study were recruited and divided into a Game group and a Non-game group. A pretest written examination was given to both groups, participants in the Game group were allowed to play the game for ten days, after which a post-test examination was also given. A 20-item questionnaire rated on a three-point scale to access student's perception of the game was given to the game group. The post-test scores of the game group were significantly higher (P game counterparts. Also the post-test score of the game based group was significantly better (P game was interesting, highly informative, encouraged team work, improved their attitude, and perception to gross anatomy. PMID:23878076

  11. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  12. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  13. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  14. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  15. MR and CT anatomy of the axilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria); Morrigl, B. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Anatomy; Kathrein, A. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Trauma Surgery; Buchberger, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Judmaier, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Peer, S. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Oser, W. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria)

    1997-03-01

    Purpose: To depict the complex anatomy of the axilla with CT and MR imaging. Material and Methods: The axillary regions of 2 cadavers (with arms hyperabducted) were examined by means of CT and MR. In this position the cadavers were frozen and cryosectioned. The anatomical sections documented by the MR and CT images were compared and anatomical structures were designated. To show the reproducibility of the anatomical structures and to find variations, 20 volunteers were also examined by MR, and 20 consecutive patients without axillary symptoms were examined by CT. Results: The complexity of the axilla was excellently shown by both CT and MR, but MR was able to demonstrate more detail in the small vessels and in the brachial plexus. The comparability of the examinations of the different individuals was best in the axial plane. Some differences appeared in the coronal and sagittal planes caused by different positions of the arm. Conclusion: Axillary anatomy was demonstrated in detail and was reproducible with CT and MR imaging. (orig.).

  16. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  17. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  18. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  19. Skull anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skull is anterior to the spinal column and is the bony structure that encases the brain. Its purpose is to protect the brain and allow attachments for the facial muscles. The two regions of ... is the part of the skull that directly houses the brain and the ...

  20. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  1. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  2. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  3. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  4. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Smith, Jay [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Anatomy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dahm, Diane L. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  5. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation. (orig.)

  6. Normal anatomy and common labral lesions at MR arthrography of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR arthrography of the shoulder is the most accurate imaging modality in demonstrating abnormalities of the glenoid labrum and associated structures. Tears of the labrum, the capsule or the gleno-humeral ligaments can lead to pain, catching, popping or instability. The anatomy of this region is complex. We present the normal anatomy of the glenoid labrum, biceps anchor and gleno-humeral ligaments together with their normal variants and then describe common labral-ligamentous pathologies

  7. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  8. [New findings of clinical anatomy in pelvis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Surgical anatomy involves clarifying the mutual relationships of each structure in the operative field. Knowledge of new surgical anatomy has arisen via new methods or approaches. Associated with the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery in recent years, adaptation to changes in surgical techniques using knowledge of classical pelvic anatomy has been difficult. Better knowledge of the delicate structures surrounding the prostate is essential in order to provide both cancer control and functional preservation with regard to radical prostatectomy. In this report, we review the progress in knowledge of pelvic anatomy, particularly regarding the endopelvic fascia, prostatic fascia and Denonvilliers' fascia.

  9. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. PMID:24616425

  10. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  13. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that emphasised on special features of the museum with special emphasis on sectional variety. Observations: The various techniques of specimen preparation, preservation, mounting and display were observed and photographed. The sectional variety was noted. Moreover the various methods of maintaining specimen related information in pictorial and computerised catalogues was observed. Results and Conclusion: A design of a contemporary anatomy museum can now be conceived that incorporates all aspects of anatomy from history, evolution, embryology, cross-sectional anatomy, comparative anatomy, teratology, genetics and clinical anatomy to sections with modern techniques like plastination. Such a museum will certainly have a more holistic approach to anatomy and will be more educative and scientific.

  14. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  15. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  17. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  18. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index

  19. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  20. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  1. Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.

  2. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  3. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like structures called turbinates, ... which cold viruses attach. CAT Scan of the Nose and Sinuses The maxillary sinus (black) is surrounded ...

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  6. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  7. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  8. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  9. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  10. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  11. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath; Biswabina. Ray; Shakuntala R. Pai; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that...

  12. Microsurgical anatomy and clinical significance of the insular and basal ganglier region%岛叶与基底节区的显微解剖关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨允东; 朱树干

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨外侧裂、岛叶、基底节及侧脑室间的相互关系,为相关手术入路提供解剖学基础.方法 成人头颅湿标本10例(20侧),显微镜下进行外侧裂、岛叶、基底节及侧脑室的解剖学观察和相关数据测量.结果 岛叶构成外侧裂隙的底,解剖外侧裂的不同部分可以显露岛叶的不同区域.岛叶中央沟位于大脑外侧面皮层中央沟前5.0 mm,后5.5 mm的范围内.岛叶皮层下的白质为最外囊,最外囊深部依次为屏状核、外囊、豆状核.内囊前肢前端位于前环岛沟与上环岛沟交界的深部;内囊后肢后端位于下环岛沟与上环岛沟交界的深部.前岛点与侧脑室额角的垂直距离平均为11.5 cm;后岛点与侧脑室三角部的垂直距离平均为10.9 cm.下环岛沟中点与侧脑室颞角的垂直距离平均为9.2 cm.侧脑室室间孔位于相当于中岛短回中点水平切面的深部.结论 外侧裂、岛叶、基底节及侧脑室各部位间解剖关系密切,了解岛叶区域的显微解剖,有助于进行该部位病变的手术治疗.%Objective The purpose of this study was to define the relationships among the sylvian fissure, insular, basal ganglia and lateral ventricles. Methods Topographic anatomy of 10 cadaveric brains (20 cerebral hemispheres) were examined with microsurgical methods , the relationships among sylvian fissure, insular, basal ganglia and lateral ventricles were detailed. Results Opening specific of the sylvian fissure can expose different parts of the insular. The inferior end of the central sulcus on the convexity was located less than 5. 5 mm posterior and 5. 0 mm anterior to the central insular sulcus. Isular cortex and the extreme capsule coverd the claustrum , external capsule, putamen, globus pallidus, and the internal capsule. The anterior portion of the superior peninsular sulcus was separated from the frontal horn by the anterior isthmus, and the posterior portion of the peninsular sulcus was

  13. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali D Deshatty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch of VIMS &RC, Bangalore were divided in 2 groups. Each group was having 50 students. One group was standard note-taking (SNT and other was mind map group (MM.Method: Same gross Anatomy topics were assigned for both groups. MM group was given training for mind mapping and asked them to study topic with mind maps. Theory exam was conducted on the given topic for both groups. Marks scored in the exam were compared. After exam a questionnaire was given to MM group to assess their opinion to mind maps.Result: Students belonging to MM group scored better than SNT group. Majority of students of MM group opinion was mind map as a better learning tool in gross Anatomy. Conclusion: Mind maps helped medical students in learning Anatomy. It should be encouraged as a learning tool in gross Anatomy along with standard note-taking method.

  14. How useful is plastination in learning anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael M; García-Sanz, Mari P; Moreno, Matilde; Hernández, Fuensanta; Gil, Francisco; López, Octavio; Ayala, Maria D; Ramírez, Gregorio; Vázquez, Jose M; Arencibia, Alberto; Henry, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    In recent years plastination has begun to revolutionize the way in which human and veterinary gross anatomy can be presented to students. The study reported here assessed the efficacy of plastinated organs as teaching resources in an innovative anatomy teaching/learning system. The main objective was to evaluate whether the use of plastinated organs improves the quality of teaching and learning of anatomy. For this purpose, we used an interdepartmental approach involving the departments of Veterinary Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Veterinary Surgery, and Education Development and Research Methods. The knowledge base of control and experimental student groups was examined before and after use of the fixed or plastinated resources, respectively, to gather information evaluating the effectiveness of these teaching resources. Significant differences (p plastinated specimens. Using these data, we were able to quantitatively characterize the use of plastinated specimens as anatomy teaching resources. This analysis showed that all the plastinated resources available were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Although the properties of plastinated specimens accommodate student needs at various levels, traditional material should be used in conjunction with plastinated resources. PMID:17446645

  15. Students as teachers in an anatomy dissection course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomäki, Tiina; Laakkonen, Juha; Ruohoniemi, Mirja

    2014-01-01

    One way to improve students' learning outcomes and well-being is to change teaching practices to allow students to become more active participants. We used an anatomy dissection course to test a cooperative group work method in which first-year veterinary students took turns leading their peer group and were each responsible for teaching the anatomy of a particular topographic region. The important blood vessels, lymphatic system, and nerves of each region of the body were covered. Students felt that exploration of the entire topographic region helped them to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the respiratory apparatus and the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Assigning individual tasks to each group member resulted in sharing the workload equally. Open-ended comments revealed that support from other group members was important for the students' learning experience, but the results also offered insight into a lack of constructive criticism. While teaching was considered challenging, and even a stress factor that hindered learning for some students, group work was generally held to be supportive of learning. The results suggest that more thorough instruction of students in their group work and in their individual tasks is required. Some students experienced difficulty in expressing their concerns openly and in seeking guidance from teachers, demonstrating the need for further investigation regarding students' self-regulation skills. Comments from the open-ended responses suggest that use of a cooperative learning method in anatomy dissection courses not only deepens student understanding of a subject but also offers first-year students an opportunity to practice the generic skills that will be needed in their future profession. PMID:24219999

  16. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  17. The 2008 anatomy ceremony: essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2009-03-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a "diversity of experience," which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another's body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. PMID:19325944

  18. Image guided IMRT dosimetry using anatomy specific MOSFET configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Norrlinger, Bern; Heaton, Robert; Islam, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of using a set of multiple MOSFETs in conjunction with the mobile MOSFET wireless dosimetry system, to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance (QA) of IMRT plans. Anatomy specific MOSFET configurations incorporating 5 MOSFETs have been developed for a specially designed IMRT dosimetry phantom. Kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging was used to increase the positional precision and accuracy of the detectors and phantom, and so minimize dosimetric uncertainties in high dose gradient regions. The effectiveness of the MOSFET based dose measurements was evaluated by comparing the corresponding doses measured by an ion chamber. For 20 head and neck IMRT plans the agreement between the MOSFET and ionization chamber dose measurements was found to be within -0.26 +/- 0.88% and 0.06 +/- 1.94% (1 sigma) for measurement points in the high dose and low dose respectively. A precision of 1 mm in detector positioning was achieved by using the X-Ray Volume Imaging (XVI) kV CBCT system available with the Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. Using the anatomy specific MOSFET configurations, simultaneous measurements were made at five strategically located points covering high dose and low dose regions. The agreement between measurements and calculated doses by the treatment planning system for head and neck and prostate IMRT plans was found to be within 0.47 +/- 2.45%. The results indicate that a cylindrical phantom incorporating multiple MOSFET detectors arranged in an anatomy specific configuration, in conjunction with image guidance, can be utilized to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance of IMRT plans. PMID:18716593

  19. Contrasted study between thin coronal sectional anatomy of the pineal region and MRI image%松果体区的薄层冠状断层解剖与MRI的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博; 刘树伟; 汤煜春; 樊令仲; 林祥涛; 李振平; 亓恒涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphology and relationships with the adjacent structures in the pineal region on the thin sections and to provide anatomic data for imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases in this region. Methods By CT and MRI examination, one normal head specimen was selected for this study. Using the computerized freezing milling technique, the specimen was sliced from anterior to posterior. The in vivo MR images were obtained from ten normal Chinese male adult volunteers using a 3.0 T GE scanner. The base lines of the sectioning and the MR scan were perpendicular to the AC-PC line. Then primary sections were contrasted with the corresponding MR images. Results By the appearance of the pineal peduncle and the disappearance of the pineal gland, the pineal region could be divided into three parts from anterior to posterior, and the shape changed from an inverted triangle to a trapezoid and a triangle gradually. The first interspace was getting wider in the anterior and middle parts of the pineal region, while in the posterior part of the pineal region, it was getting narrower and disappeared finally. From anterior to posterior, the bilateral internal cerebral veins were always in the midline of the pineal region and descended gradually.Conclusion By the computerized freezing milling technique, the anatomic details and adjacent relationships of the pineal region could be exhibited clearly in the thin serial sections, which could help the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatments for minute diseases in this region.%目的 探讨松果体区结构在连续薄层冠状断面上形态结构的变化规律,为该区病变的影像学诊断和外科治疗提供解剖学依据. 方法 选择1例成人头部标本,应用冷冻数控铣削技术由前向后垂直于连合间线(AC-PC线)进行铣削.另选择健康成年男性10名,应用3D SPGR序列行与标本基线一致的3.0 T MR扫描.选取典型的断面标本图像与相应活体的MRI图

  20. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  1. Quantitative wood anatomy - practical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg evon Arx

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological obstacles to overcome when aiming at producing (large data sets of xylem anatomical data.Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 to 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors – if not avoided or corrected – may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful

  2. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  3. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. PMID:25156955

  4. The development, assessment and validation of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen Benn

    1996-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.

  5. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  6. Automatic anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Body-wide anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem because various diseases result in various abnormalities of objects such as shape and intensity patterns. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [1] whose applicability was demonstrated on near normal diagnostic CT images in different body regions on 35 organs. The aim of this paper is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to diagnostic CT images of patients with various pathologies as a first step toward automated body-wide disease quantification. The AAR approach consists of three main steps - model building, object recognition, and object delineation. In this paper, within the broader AAR framework, we describe a new strategy for object recognition to handle abnormal images. In the model building stage an optimal threshold interval is learned from near-normal training images for each object. This threshold is optimally tuned to the pathological manifestation of the object in the test image. Recognition is performed following a hierarchical representation of the objects. Experimental results for the abdominal body region based on 50 near-normal images used for model building and 20 abnormal images used for object recognition show that object localization accuracy within 2 voxels for liver and spleen and 3 voxels for kidney can be achieved with the new strategy.

  7. Pain. Part 2a: Trigeminal Anatomy Related to Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Egbuniwe, Obi

    2015-04-01

    In order to understand the underlying principles of orofacial pain it is important to understand the corresponding anatomy and mechanisms. Paper 1 of this series explains the central nervous and peripheral nervous systems relating to pain. The trigeminal nerve is the 'great protector' of the most important region of our body. It is the largest sensory nerve of the body and over half of the sensory cortex is responsive to any stimulation within this system. This nerve is the main sensory system of the branchial arches and underpins the protection of the brain, sight, smell, airway, hearing and taste, underpinning our very existence. The brain reaction to pain within the trigeminal system has a significant and larger reaction to the threat of, and actual, pain compared with other sensory nerves. We are physiologically wired to run when threatened with pain in the trigeminal region and it is a 'miracle' that patients volunteer to sit in a dental chair and undergo dental treatment. Clinical Relevance: This paper aims to provide the dental and medical teams with a review of the trigeminal anatomy of pain and the principles of pain assessment.

  8. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  9. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  10. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed. PMID:17259679

  11. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  12. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  13. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  14. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. Susanne [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.s.hall@gcal.ac.uk; Durward, Brian R. [Educational Development, NHS Education for Scotland, Floor 5, Thistle House, 91 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5HD (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  15. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet. Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions. Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1. The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped. The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris that travels along with the

  16. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali D Deshatty; Varsha Mokashi

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch) of VIMS &RC,...

  17. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  18. 单侧完全性唇腭裂胎儿颌面部血供的应用解剖%Applied anatomy of the maxillofacial region's blood supply in unilateral complete cleft lip and palate fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海龙; 邓健全; 陈丽娟; 钟卫娟; 梁恩来

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide anatomic basis of intrauterine surgical repair in unilateral complete cleft lip and palate fetus. Methods The head and neck vascular cast specimens of 21-32 weeks normal and unilateral complete cleft lip and palate were made and observed, which maxillofacial region's blood supply source and arterial anastomosis were compared. Results ①For the normal fetus, the maxillofacial region' s blood supply mainly came from facial artery, submental artery, inferior labial artery, superior labial artery, lower edge nasal alar artery, nasal alar artery, lateral nasal artery, dorsal nasal artery, infraorbiatal artery and transverse facial artery, which to build the rich vascular network. ②For the fetus with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, the affected side of superior labial artery walked along cleft border up to the anastomosis with lower edge nasal alar artery by the basis of nasal alar artery. The affected side of greater palatine artery and nasal vessel were formd in the anastomosis by bone stump. Conclusion When the intrauterine surgical repair of unilateral complete cleft lip and palate is performed, the emphasis of blood supply are on the nose and upper lip region, which are mainly in superior labial artery, lower edge nasal alar artery and greater palatine artery.%目的 为单侧完全性唇腭裂胎儿宫内手术修复提供解剖学基础.方法 制作和观察21~32周正常和单侧完全性唇腭裂胎儿头颈部血管铸型标本,比较它们颌面部血供的来源及吻合情况.结果 ①正常胎儿颌面部血供主要来源于面动脉、颏下动脉、下唇动脉、上唇动脉、鼻翼下缘动脉、鼻翼动脉、鼻外侧动脉、鼻背动脉、眶下动脉及面横动脉等,这些动脉及其分支构筑颌面部组织丰富的血管网;②单侧完全性唇腭裂胎儿患侧上唇动脉沿裂缘向上至鼻翼基底部与鼻翼下缘动脉等相吻合,患侧部分腭骨缺损暴露的腭大动脉穿过骨残端

  19. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  20. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  1. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  2. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  3. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M

    1984-04-01

    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  4. 犬胸腰段选择性脊髓动脉造影的解剖学研究%Applied anatomy of the angoigraphy of selective spinal cord arteries on thoracolumbar region of canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 杨惠林; 倪才方; 唐天驷

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To provide antomical basis for the angoigraphy of selective spinal cord arteries on thoracic and lumbar region of canine.Methods:The origins,types,heights,locations,angles and diameters of the thoracolumbar segemental arteries were observed and measured on 7 adult mongrel dogs after perfused with red latex.Results:Bilateral symmetry,there are about 32~35 pairs of selective arteries.Expect for the first 2 or 3 pairs,they originate from dorsal decending aorta at the level of neighbor cranial vertebral body or intervertebral disc.From cranium to cauda,the angle between the artery and aorta decrease while the interartery distance increase.The inner diameters of the arteries were smaller than that of 4F catheter.Conclusion:It is feasible to perform the SSCA in canine by means of selective catheterization.%目的:为犬胸腰段选择性脊髓动脉造影(SSCA)实验提供解剖学依据。方法:7只犬行动脉乳胶灌注,观测与选择性肋间(腰)动脉插管相关的指标。结果:每例起始于降主动脉的肋间(腰)动脉32~35支,多成对;起始高度多在相应上一个椎体、椎间隙平面;起始方位以后中壁和后外侧壁居多;从颅侧向尾侧,与降主动脉下夹角渐减,起点间距离渐增;始端内径小于4F导管管径;每对动脉的起始处多不在同一水平面上。结论:犬肋间(腰)动脉有其特殊性,选用适宜导管,参照相关解剖学资料,可有效行犬胸腰段SSCA。

  5. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  6. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  7. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  8. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  9. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  10. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  11. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  12. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  13. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  14. Scaphoid fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Buijze

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in anatomy, diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Anatomical inconsistencies are elucidated by accurate 3D imaging. Sophisticated diagnostic imaging cannot solve the problem of the suspected scaphoid fracture because there is no gold standard for a true

  15. 经口、咽入路处理颅颈交界区病变的应用解剖%Applied anatomy of the mouth and pharynx approaches to the region between cranium and neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳升荣; 代生富; 李华; 吴宇平; 朱磊; 陶远孝

    2001-01-01

    目的:为延髓及颈脊髓上段中线腹侧病变切除提供解剖学资料。方法:1.成人完整颅骨200个,测枕骨基底部的长、宽和厚;2.在10具成人头部标本,保留颅后窝硬脑膜,各脑神经根和血管,观察其位置及毗邻;3.20具成人头部正中矢状断面标本,观察经鼻咽部进入颅腔和椎管的层次结构;4.5具头标本经口、鼻咽部逐层解剖至脑干下段及颈脊髓上段,观察两侧椎动脉,基底动脉、静脉和各脑神经根。结果:1.枕骨基底部平均长(27.9±2.4)mm,平均宽(20.3±2.6)mm,平均厚(10.0±0.5)mm;2.经解剖后详述了此入路的各层结构。结论:经口、咽入路适合颅颈交界区中线和骨窗范围的病变切除。%Objective: To provide anatomical data for surgical treatment of the disease on the medulla oblongata and the upper part of cervical spinal cord.Methods: 1.The lengths, widths and thickness of basilar part of occipital bone were measured on 200 adult skulls which were preserved in good condition. 2.The location and relation of the root of cranial nerves and vessels on posterior cranial fossa were observed on 10 section specimens of cranial cavites.3.The layers and structures from mouth to the cranial cavity and spinal canal were observed on 20 sagittal sectional head specimens.4.The vertebral vessel, basal vessel and the root of cranial nerve were observed on the layers from nasopharyngeal cavity to the lower segment of brain stem in 5 head specimens.Results: 1.The average lenth of the basilar part of occipital bone is 27.9±2.4mm, the average width is 20.3±2.6mm, and the average thickness is 10.0±0.5mm. 2.The layers and structures on this area was described in detail.Conclusion: The mouth and pharynx approach is suitable for the operation in the region between the cranium and neck.

  16. A scoring framework for assessing anatomy competence of undergraduate preclinical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Daleen; Raubenheimer, Jacques Eugene; van Zyl, Sanet

    2016-07-01

    Recent higher education changes toward outcomes-based education emphasize competent learners, but a widely accepted definition of competence is still lacking. Although the importance of anatomy in health professions education is recognized, there is still uncertainty about what anatomical competence entails and how to assess it. This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing anatomical competence, using an anatomy competence score, for the anatomy course in the undergraduate medical learning program at the University of the Free State in South Africa. All assessments within the dissection program of two student groups (July 2012 to June 2014) were explored to determine the representation of the three competence domains: knowledge, skill and application in context. Student performance in the final objective structured practical examination (OSPE) was investigated for the three domains and the different body regions. Knowledge had ±50% representation in assessments and the different body regions (in final OSPE) for both groups, and skill and application represented ±25% each in both groups. The best average student performance was in the skill domain (64% and 67% for the respective groups). All domains showed good reliabilities (> 0.75) and student performance correlated well between the domains (P competence assessment. However, this ratio depends on the assessment type, the stage of the anatomy course and the institutional context. Nonetheless, it provides a guideline for ensuring that assessments address all competence domains. Anat Sci Educ 9: 319-329. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26588194

  17. CT segmentation of dental shapes by anatomy-driven reformation imaging and B-spline modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, S; Paoli, A; Razionale, A V

    2016-06-01

    Dedicated imaging methods are among the most important tools of modern computer-aided medical applications. In the last few years, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity in digital dentistry for 3D imaging of jawbones and teeth. However, the anatomy of a maxillofacial region complicates the assessment of tooth geometry and anatomical location when using standard orthogonal views of the CT data set. In particular, a tooth is defined by a sub-region, which cannot be easily separated from surrounding tissues by only considering pixel grey-intensity values. For this reason, an image enhancement is usually necessary in order to properly segment tooth geometries. In this paper, an anatomy-driven methodology to reconstruct individual 3D tooth anatomies by processing CBCT data is presented. The main concept is to generate a small set of multi-planar reformation images along significant views for each target tooth, driven by the individual anatomical geometry of a specific patient. The reformation images greatly enhance the clearness of the target tooth contours. A set of meaningful 2D tooth contours is extracted and used to automatically model the overall 3D tooth shape through a B-spline representation. The effectiveness of the methodology has been verified by comparing some anatomy-driven reconstructions of anterior and premolar teeth with those obtained by using standard tooth segmentation tools. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Providing visualisation support for the analysis of anatomy ontology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Albert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in technology have been accompanied by the generation of large amounts of complex data. This same technology must be harnessed effectively if the knowledge stored within the data is to be retrieved. Storing data in ontologies aids its management; ontologies serve as controlled vocabularies that promote data exchange and re-use, improving analysis. The Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project stores the developmental stages of the mouse embryo in anatomy ontologies. This project is looking at the use of visual data overviews for intuitive analysis of the ontology data. Results A prototype has been developed that visualises the ontologies using directed acyclic graphs in two dimensions, with the ability to study detail in regions of interest in isolation or within the context of the overview. This is followed by the development of a technique that layers individual anatomy ontologies in three-dimensional space, so that relationships across multiple data sets may be mapped using physical links drawn along the third axis. Conclusion Usability evaluations of the applications confirmed advantages in visual analysis of complex data. This project will look next at data input from multiple sources, and continue to develop the techniques presented to provide intuitive identification of relationships that span multiple ontologies.

  19. How Does Leaf Anatomy Influence Water Transport outside the Xylem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; John, Grace P; Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-08-01

    Leaves are arguably the most complex and important physicobiological systems in the ecosphere. Yet, water transport outside the leaf xylem remains poorly understood, despite its impacts on stomatal function and photosynthesis. We applied anatomical measurements from 14 diverse species to a novel model of water flow in an areole (the smallest region bounded by minor veins) to predict the impact of anatomical variation across species on outside-xylem hydraulic conductance (Kox). Several predictions verified previous correlational studies: (1) vein length per unit area is the strongest anatomical determinant of Kox, due to effects on hydraulic pathlength and bundle sheath (BS) surface area; (2) palisade mesophyll remains well hydrated in hypostomatous species, which may benefit photosynthesis, (3) BS extensions enhance Kox; and (4) the upper and lower epidermis are hydraulically sequestered from one another despite their proximity. Our findings also provided novel insights: (5) the BS contributes a minority of outside-xylem resistance; (6) vapor transport contributes up to two-thirds of Kox; (7) Kox is strongly enhanced by the proximity of veins to lower epidermis; and (8) Kox is strongly influenced by spongy mesophyll anatomy, decreasing with protoplast size and increasing with airspace fraction and cell wall thickness. Correlations between anatomy and Kox across species sometimes diverged from predicted causal effects, demonstrating the need for integrative models to resolve causation. For example, (9) Kox was enhanced far more in heterobaric species than predicted by their having BS extensions. Our approach provides detailed insights into the role of anatomical variation in leaf function.

  20. Anatomy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur William Barrios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labelling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg’s ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg’s ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs are also labelled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.

  1. Anatomy, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Arthur W; Núñez, Gonzalo; Sánchez Quinteiro, Pablo; Salazar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labeling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg's ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg's ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP) (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs) are also labeled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gαi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb). These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line. PMID:25071468

  2. The Anatomy of the Aging Face: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Fratila, Alina A M; Schenck, Thilo L; Redka-Swoboda, Wolfgang; Zilinsky, Isaac; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Rejuvenative procedures of the face are increasing in numbers, and a plethora of different therapeutic options are available today. Every procedure should aim for the patient's safety first and then for natural and long-lasting results. The face is one of the most complex regions in the human body and research continuously reveals new insights into the complex interplay of the different participating structures. Bone, ligaments, muscles, fat, and skin are the key players in the layered arrangement of the face.Aging occurs in all involved facial structures but the onset and the speed of age-related changes differ between each specific structure, between each individual, and between different ethnic groups. Therefore, knowledge of age-related anatomy is crucial for a physician's work when trying to restore a youthful face.This review focuses on the current understanding of the anatomy of the human face and tries to elucidate the morphological changes during aging of bone, ligaments, muscles, and fat, and their role in rejuvenative procedures. PMID:27248022

  3. The postauricular fascia: classification, anatomy, and potential surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Kayvan; Taylor, James Paul; Le Roux, Cara M; Ashton, Mark W; Rozen, Warren M; Jones, Nicholas S; Payne, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    In recent times, there has been evolving interest in the fascial structure of the ear, especially in relation to otoplasty techniques. Although the fascial tissues used in these procedures are referred to as "postauricular/retroauricular fascia," the sparse anatomical studies that exist use this terminology to describe what is the adjacent thicker and more fibrous structure of the superficial temporal area continuous with the mastoid region, rather than the tissue actually used in these procedures which is adherent to the posterior surface of the ear. There are clear clinical differences in the properties of these two structures, and this study set out to identify the anatomical nature of these differences, looking in detail at the anatomy and vascularity of the fascia directly posterior and adherent to the ear itself, highlighting its unique properties, and how it interfaces with the rest of the fascia. We provide a nomenclature to differentiate the fascia adherent to the posterior of the ear (the intrinsic postauricular fascia) from the more fibrous tissues continuous with the scalp fascia (the extrinsic postauricular fascia). Clinical applications for the fascia are suggested based on the vascularity and anatomy described, and our clinical experience.

  4. From macro-scale to micro-scale computational anatomy: a perspective on the next 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku

    2016-10-01

    This paper gives our perspective on the next two decades of computational anatomy, which has made great strides in the recognition and understanding of human anatomy from conventional clinical images. The results from this field are now used in a variety of medical applications, including quantitative analysis of organ shapes, interventional assistance, surgical navigation, and population analysis. Several anatomical models have also been used in computational anatomy, and these mainly target millimeter-scale shapes. For example, liver-shape models are almost completely modeled at the millimeter scale, and shape variations are described at such scales. Most clinical 3D scanning devices have had just under 1 or 0.5 mm per voxel resolution for over 25 years, and this resolution has not changed drastically in that time. Although Z-axis (head-to-tail direction) resolution has been drastically improved by the introduction of multi-detector CT scanning devices, in-plane resolutions have not changed very much either. When we look at human anatomy, we can see different anatomical structures at different scales. For example, pulmonary blood vessels and lung lobes can be observed in millimeter-scale images. If we take 10-µm-scale images of a lung specimen, the alveoli and bronchiole regions can be located in them. Most work in millimeter-scale computational anatomy has been done by the medical-image analysis community. In the next two decades, we encourage our community to focus on micro-scale computational anatomy. In this perspective paper, we briefly review the achievements of computational anatomy and its impacts on clinical applications; furthermore, we show several possibilities from the viewpoint of microscopic computational anatomy by discussing experimental results from our recent research activities.

  5. Clinical anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A; McEwan, Islay M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    The ankle is an important joint to understand in the context of dance because it is the connection between the leg and the foot that establishes lower extremity stability. Its function coordinates with the leg and foot and, thus, it is crucial to the dancer's ability to perform. Furthermore, the ankle is one of the most commonly injured body regions in dance. An understanding of ankle anatomy and biomechanics is not only important for healthcare providers working with dancers, but for dance scientists, dance instructors, and dancers themselves. The bony architecture, the soft tissue restraints, and the locomotive structures all integrate to allow the athletic artistry of dance. Yet, there is still much research to be carried out in order to more completely understand the ankle of the dancer. PMID:19618582

  6. Maxillary artery: functional and imaging anatomy for safe and effective transcatheter treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Shuichi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Mori, Hiromu; Hori, Yuzo; Okahara, Mika; Sagara, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    The maxillary artery is a terminal branch of the external carotid artery. Although the main maxillary artery trunk and most of its branches course within the extracranial space and supply the organs and muscles of the head and neck, other surrounding soft tissues, and the oral and rhinosinusal cavities, other branches supply the dura mater and cranial nerve and can anastomose to the internal carotid artery (ICA). Various pathologic conditions of the intracranial, head, and neck regions can involve the branches of the maxillary artery. Many of these diseases can be treated with endovascular approaches; however, there is a potential risk of complications in the brain parenchyma and cranial nerves related to the meningoneuronal arterial supply and anastomoses to the ICA. Therefore, familiarity with the functional and imaging anatomy of the maxillary artery is essential. In the past, conventional angiography has been the standard imaging technique for depicting the maxillary artery anatomy and related pathologic findings. However, recent advances in computed tomographic, magnetic resonance, and rotational angiography have further elucidated the maxillary artery anatomy by means of three-dimensional representations. Understanding the functional and imaging anatomy of the maxillary artery allows safe and successful transcatheter treatment of pathologic conditions in the maxillary artery territories. PMID:24224604

  7. Neural and endocranial anatomy of Triassic phytosaurian reptiles and convergence with fossil and modern crocodylians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Butler, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Phytosaurs are a clade of large, carnivorous pseudosuchian archosaurs from the Late Triassic with a near cosmopolitan distribution. Their superficial resemblance to longirostrine (long-snouted) crocodylians, such as gharials, has often been used in the past to infer ecological and behavioural convergence between the two groups. Although more than thirty species of phytosaur are currently recognised, little is known about the endocranial anatomy of this clade. Here, we describe the endocranial anatomy (including the brain, inner ear, neurovascular structures and sinus systems) of the two non-mystriosuchine phytosaurs Parasuchus angustifrons (="Paleorhinus angustifrons") and Ebrachosuchus neukami from the Late Triassic of Germany based on digital reconstructions. Results show that the endocasts of both taxa are very similar to each other in their rostrocaudally elongate morphology, with long olfactory tracts, weakly demarcated cerebral regions and dorsoventrally short endosseous labyrinths. In addition, several sinuses, including large antorbital sinuses and prominent dural venous sinuses, were reconstructed. Comparisons with the endocranial anatomy of derived phytosaurs indicate that Phytosauria is united by the presence of elongate olfactory tracts and longitudinally arranged brain architecture-characters which are also shared with Crocodyliformes. However, a substantial morphological variability is observed in the cephalic and pontine flexure and the presence of a pineal organ across the different phytosaur species. These results suggest that the endocranial anatomy in Phytosauria generally follows a plesiomorphic pattern, with moderate variation within the clade likely resulting from divergent sensory and behavioural adaptations. PMID:27547557

  8. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. PMID:27278888

  9. Sacral arcuate lines: Anatomy and pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sacrum is one of the most commonly radiographed bones of the human body as part of abdominal and pelvic radiologic examinations. This paper describes the radiologic anatomy of the sacral arcuate lines and presents a systematic approach to identifying pathologic conditions, for example, primary and metastatic malignancies, traumatic and osteoporotic fractures, vascular erosions from aneurysms, changes from neural tumors, and changes following radiation therapy

  10. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A

    1993-01-01

    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  11. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  12. Scaphoid fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, G.; Jupiter, J.B.; Ring, D.C.; Goslings, J. C.; Buijze, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in anatomy, diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Anatomical inconsistencies are elucidated by accurate 3D imaging. Sophisticated diagnostic imaging cannot solve the problem of the suspected scaphoid fracture because there is no gold standard for a true fracture, and there likely never will be. Acknowledging that we can only deal in probabilities, the development of clinical prediction rules will help to better define and narrow those probabiliti...

  13. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  15. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  16. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  17. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  18. Spinal biomechanics and functional anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoix, J M

    1999-04-01

    Knowledge of the normal functional behavior and mechanical properties of the vertebral column is important to understand the pathogenesis of back lesions, to identify the clinical manifestations of back pain, and to ensure a rational approach to physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis of in vivo and in vitro data obtained from different but complementary investigations. Presently, in vivo studies are limited; few gait-specific kinematic and electromyographic investigations are in process. Higher stresses to reach the maximal range of intervertebral motion can be applied on the spine on anatomical specimens than in living horses, and anatomical functional data can be obtained at the level of intervertebral structures. For each movement of flexion, extension, lateroflexion, and rotation, regional and intervertebral mobility is presented with an emphasis on craniocaudal variations and their anatomical causes. Because of the location of their ICR, the dorsoventral movements of a thoracolumbar intervertebral joint can be defined as a rotation around the center of the more caudal vertebral body. This information supports the new concept of intervertebral mobility in the horse and provides additional elements to facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of back problems in the horse. PMID:10218240

  19. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME) SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf) and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blad...

  20. Clinical functional anatomy of the pterygopalatine ganglion, cephalgia and related dysautonomias: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Khonsary, Seyed Ali; Ma, Quanfeng; Villablanca, Pablo; Emerson, Josh; Malkasian, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the anatomy of the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG), its location in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) in the skull, and the relationship it has to the Vidian nerve terminal branches and the fifth cranial nerve. An overview of the neuro-anatomical/clinical correlations, a spectrum of pathologies affecting the seventh cranial nerve and some therapies both medical and surgical are noted. The focus is the pterygopalatine region with discussion of the proxima...

  1. Curva de aprendizado da sonoanatomia do plexo braquial na região axilar Curva de aprendizaje de la sonoanatomía del plexo braquial en la región axilar Learning curve for the ultrasound anatomy of the brachial plexus in the axillary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2009-04-01

    : Proficiency in ultrasound-guided blocks demands four skills: recognition of the ultrasound anatomy, capacity to generate images, aligning the needle with the ultrasound beam, and recognizing the dispersion of the local anesthetic. The objective of this study was to construct and evaluate learning curves for image generation and ultrasound identification of the neurovascular structures in the axilla. METHODS: Seven Anesthesiology residents received theoretical and practical notions on the basic principles of ultrasound and the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region with the objective to identify the terminal branches of the brachial plexus and axillary vessels. Each resident performed six exams. The accuracy and the time to identify the structures were evaluated. The success rate of each exam was calculated. Simple linear regression evaluated the time necessary to identify each structure in relation to the number of the exam. RESULTS: The axillary vessels were identified in 100% of the exams. The median nerve was identified in 83% of the cases from the first to the fifth exams. The radial nerve was identified in 100% of the exams. The ulnar nerve was identified in 67% of the cases in the first exam, and in 83% of the cases from the second to the fifth exams. The musculocutaneous nerve was identified in 50% of the cases in the first exam and in 83% of the cases in the fourth and fifth exams. All structures were identified correctly on the sixth exam. The mean time for the correct identification of the structures decreased considerably from the first to the sixth exam (r = - 0.37. CONCLUSIONS: Learning progression required the memorization of the ultrasound anatomy of the axillary region and acquisition of manual ability, and increasing success rates were associated with a significant reduction in the time to identify the structures.

  2. STUDY ON MULTIMEDIA ANIMATION SYSTEM OF ACUPOINT ANATOMY WITH FLASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  3. Surgical strategy for pineal region tumors by the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal route-microsurgical anatomy and clinical study%后纵裂经胼胝体入路处理松果体区肿瘤的解剖与临床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉海; 蔡学见; 董吉荣; 刘斌; 王剑超; 朱军; 杨理坤; 冯毅

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过对后纵裂经胼胝体入路的解剖和临床研究,为处理松果体区病变提供切实可行的外科策略.方法 取10具血管经彩色乳胶灌注的成人尸头,在6~25倍显微镜下模拟后纵裂经胼胝体入路,测量入路中相关重要结构间的距离,并回顾性分析和比较后纵裂经胼胝体入路与幕下小脑上入路处理的15例松果体区病变的临床治疗效果.结果 后纵裂经胼胝体入路可以人字缝作为人路的标志点,并以人字缝与鼻根部连线的方向作为入路的方向.在标本和T2RMRI上,人字缝至松果体中心部的距离平均分别是71.40 mm和70.14 mm.15例松果体区肿瘤中,11例采用幕下小脑上入路,其中4例全切,重残1例,死亡2例;4例采用后纵裂经胼胝体入路者均做到了肿瘤的全切,重残1例,无死亡.结论 松果体区肿瘤手术人路的选择主要取决于肿瘤的部位和侵及的范围,尤其要注意其与脑室系统、中线、胼胝体及Galen静脉的关系,而术前T2RMRI和MRV或DSA可为手术入路的选择提供可靠的依据.%Objective To provide surgical strategy for pineal region lesions by the microsurgical anatomy and clinical study of the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal route.Methods The posterior interhemispberic transcallosal route was examined in stepwise dissections in 10 adult cadaveric brains after perfusion of the arteries and veins with colored silicone in 6~25 operating microscope.To measure distances of correlating structures and analyze and contrast retrospectively the clinical outcomes of 15 cases pineal region lesions using the posterior interhemispheric transcallosal route and the infratentorial supracerebellar approach.Results The surface landmarks for the approach pathway were the lambdoid suture and the direction for the approach was from lambdoid suture to the center of pineal body.The distance between lambdoid suture and the center of pineal body in cadaver brains and T2RMRI

  4. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  5. MRI and gross anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, Joshua M. [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Ho; Klika, Alison; Barsoum, Wael [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cleveland, OH (United States); Drake, Richard [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic/NA24, Cleveland, OH (United States); Elgabaly, Mohamed

    2008-01-15

    The objective was to explain the anatomic basis of a longitudinal cleft of increased signal in the iliopsoas tendon seen on hip MR arthrograms. A prospective review of 20 MR hip arthrograms was performed using standard and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images to establish whether or not the cleft was composed of fatty tissue and to define the anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex. Three cadaver dissections of the hip region were then performed for anatomic correlation. Fourteen out of 20 MR hip arthrograms demonstrated a longitudinal cleft of increased T1 signal adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, which suppressed on frequency selective fat-suppressed images, indicating fatty composition. Gross anatomic correlation demonstrated this fatty cleft to represent a fascial plane adjacent to the iliopsoas tendon, in one case separating the iliopsoas tendon medially from a thin intramuscular tendon within the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle. Also noted was a direct muscular insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle onto the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis in all 3 cadavers. The anatomy of the iliopsoas tendon complex is more complicated than typically illustrated and includes the iliopsoas tendon itself attaching to the lesser trochanter, the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle attaching directly upon the anterior portion of the proximal femoral diaphysis, and a thin intramuscular tendon within this lateral iliacus muscle that is separated from the iliopsoas tendon by a cleft of fatty fascia that accounts for the MRI findings of a cleft of increased T1 signal. (orig.)

  6. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  7. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  8. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  9. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal. PMID:27278889

  10. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot.

  11. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  12. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot. PMID:24980923

  13. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  14. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  15. 3D stereophotogrammetry for the assessment of tracheostoma anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dirven; F.J.M. Hilgers; J.M. Plooij; T.J.J. Maal; S.J. Bergé; G.J. Verkerke; H.A.M. Marres

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. 3D stereophotogrammetry is a useful tool for quantitative assessment of tracheostoma anatomy, and thus in future could possibly play a role in solving current problems with peristomal and intratracheal fixation of stoma appliances. Objectives. Differences in tracheostoma anatomy between

  16. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  17. Øvelse i sammenlignende anatomi og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2014-01-01

    I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid.......I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid....

  18. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  19. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  20. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  1. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  2. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  3. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  4. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  5. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures. PMID:26589693

  6. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  7. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  8. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  9. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. PMID:22334502

  10. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  11. Regional anatomy and clinical application of retrograde island musculocutaneous flap pedicled with small saphenous vein and sural nerve%腓肠神经-小隐静脉逆行岛状肌皮瓣的局部解剖与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东; 邢丹谋; 冯伟; 陈焱; 王欢; 赵志明; 彭正人

    2014-01-01

    目的:介绍腓肠神经-小隐静脉逆行岛状肌皮瓣的局部血管解剖研究与临床应用经验。方法解剖3个成人小腿灌注标本,观察腓肠神经-小隐静脉血管轴与腓肠肌内外侧头肌支和肌皮穿支之间的吻合关系,根据观察结果设计以腓动脉肌间隔穿支供血的逆行岛状腓肠肌皮瓣修复4例足踝部创面,皮瓣面积10~16 cm ×6~9 cm。结果在腓肠神经穿出深筋膜前,腓肠神经-小隐静脉血管轴与两侧的腓肠肌肌支间各有2~4个吻合。在穿出深筋膜后,与两侧的腓肠肌肌皮穿支间各有2~3个吻合。在腓肠肌腱腹交界(约为小腿中点)的近侧2~4 cm 内,有1~3支肌皮穿支血管与腓肠神经血管轴相交通。据此设计的肌皮瓣完全成活。结论腓肠神经-小隐静脉逆行岛状肌皮瓣血供可靠、转移方便,较传统的腓肠神经营养血管皮瓣可切取面积更大,是修复足踝部组织缺损的好方法。%Objective To introduce the regional anatomy of retrograde island musculocutaneous flap pedicled with small saphenous vein and sural nerve nutrition and provide experiences for its clinical application.Methods Three injected adult samples of the lower limb were dissected for identification of anastomoses among the axis of small saphenous vein and sural nerve,the medial and lateral branches of the sural muscle and musculocutaneous branches.Based on these anatomic studies,the retrograde sural island flap(10 ~16 cm ×6 ~9 cm)supported by intermuscular branches of the peroneal artery was transferred for reconstruction of foot and ankle wounds in 4 cases.Results There were 2 ~4 anastomoses connecting the axis of small saphenous vein and sural nerve to the sural muscular branches before sural nerve pierced out of the deep fascia,and 2 ~3 anastomoses were observed after the piercing.Furthermore,at a location 2 ~4 cm proximal to the junction between tendon and belly(the midpoint of the lower limb

  12. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea and skull shape in Testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E H Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea turtles (Chelonoidea are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii, for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex.

  13. Congenital frontonasal masses: developmental anatomy, malformations, and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The newborn, infant, or young child who presents with a midline frontonasal mass often poses a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. The most pressing issue is whether the mass extends intracranially. The development of the frontonasal region or anterior neuropore is complex. Aberrant embryogenesis leads to three main types of anomalies: nasal dermal sinus, anterior cephalocele, and nasal glioma. Understanding the developmental anatomy of the anterior neuropore and postnatal maturation will serve the radiologist well when it comes to imaging frontonasal masses. Pitfalls particularly common to CT imaging interpretation include the evolving ossification of the frontal, nasal and ethmoid bones in the first year of life, morphology and size of the foramen cecum, and the natural intumescence of the anterior nasal septum. Determination of the presence of a connection between the frontonasal mass and the anterior cranial fossae is crucial in the imaging assessment and clinical management. In the case of the nasal dermal sinus, failure to appreciate the intracranial components of the malformation can lead to fatal meningitis. MR imaging is the modality of choice for assessing the pediatric frontonasal region. Its advantages include multiplanar imaging, distinguishing the interface among cartilage, bone, brain and fluid, diffusion imaging to detect epidermoid tumors, and the capacity to evaluate the brain for associated cerebral anomalies. (orig.)

  14. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing professional. Many things contribute to learning spatial relationships; this project focuses on a few key elements: (1) the type of multimedia resources, particularly computer-aided instructional (CAI) resources, medical students used to study and learn; (2) the influence of spatial ability on medical and veterinary students' gross anatomy grades and their mental models; and (3) how medical and veterinary students think about anatomy and describe the features of their mental models to represent what they know about anatomical structures. The use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) by gross anatomy students at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) was assessed through a questionnaire distributed to the regional centers of the IUSM. Students reported using internet browsing, PowerPoint presentation software, and email on a daily bases to study gross anatomy. This study reveals that first-year medical students at the IUSM make limited use of CAI to study gross anatomy. Such studies emphasize the importance of examining students' use of CAI to study gross anatomy prior to development and integration of electronic media into the curriculum and they may be important in future decisions regarding the development of alternative learning resources. In order to determine how students think about anatomical relationships and describe the features of their mental models, personal interviews were conducted with select students based on students' ROT scores. Five typologies of the characteristics of students' mental models were identified and described: spatial thinking, kinesthetic approach, identification of anatomical structures

  15. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  16. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  17. The root of dental anatomy: a case for naming Eustachius the "father of dental anatomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the names of those whose affect on dentistry reached far beyond their lifetimes, one may think of Fauchard, Wells, Morton and Black. One name that deserves to be called among the pantheon of the greats is Bartholomaeus Eustachius. Eustachius was not the first to study the anatomy of the teeth and jaws, having been preceded by Da Vinci; however, he was the first to publish a treatise devoted entirely to this subject, Libellus de Dentibus, in 1563. As Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, stated: "In Science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to whom the idea first occurs." The purpose of this paper is to show that Eustachius deserves to be named the father of dental anatomy.

  18. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  19. What impact does anatomy education have on clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional practice. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in practice. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to practice requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.

  20. Undergraduate perspectives on the teaching and learning of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Batty, Lachlan

    2009-03-01

    The volume of time dedicated to anatomy teaching has steadily decreased in the context of increasingly dense undergraduate curricula. We examine the complex topic of anatomical education from the undergraduate perspective, with a focus on student perceptions, their origins and their potential solutions. A limited dataset suggests students perceive their tuition in anatomy may be suboptimal. Multiple factors (including the intensity of pre-clinical studies, academic criticism of modern courses, surgical culture and misinformation) may account for the unrest. It is difficult to objectively measure the impact of modified anatomy curriculum on clinical performance and patient safety. While there is a case (on the basis of student perception at least) for reinvigorating elements of undergraduate anatomy education, the modern medical educational framework is here to stay, and students and clinicians must learn to adapt. Anatomy must be linked with contemporary approaches to medical education and it should be integrated, continuous and guided. It is critical that clinicians engage in the teaching of anatomy in the clinical environment and they must be adequately resourced to do so. Graduates must emerge with a core understanding of anatomy, but not an encyclopaedic knowledge of the human form. Undergraduate programme should simply strive to equip their graduates with a foundation for lifelong learning and a platform for safe practice as interns.

  1. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school.

  2. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  3. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  4. Aleph : anatomie d'une experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Lynn Silverman

    1993-01-01

    "Aleph, anatomie d'une expérience" est un documentaire ethnologique sur les techniciens et les chercheurs de la physique des particules du Centre européen de recherche nucléaire, le CERN, près de Genève. Le film, dont le tournage s'est échelonné sur quatre années, de 1987 à 1991, retrace les différentes étapes de la mise en œuvre, sur le nouvel accélérateur (le LEP) du projet Aleph ; la construction des différents constituants du détecteur dans les centres de recherche de l'Europe entière, leur arrivée au CERN, l'assemblage… jusqu'à l'annonce des premiers résultats, obtenus en 1990.

  5. Spinal Cord Anatomy and Clinical Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Eric; Morales, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn. Damage to the unilateral corticospinal tract (upper motor neuron information) or gracillis-cuneatus fasciculi (touch and vibration) correlates with ipsilateral clinical findings, whereas damage to unilateral spinothalamic tract (pain-temperature) correlates with contralateral clinical findings. Damage to commissural fibers correlates with a suspended bilateral "girdle" sensory level. Autonomic dysfunction is expected when there is bilateral cord involvement. PMID:27616310

  6. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  7. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  8. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the `time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition -- the `anatomy' -- of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either ...

  9. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially th

  10. [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu, B; Meyronet, D; Simon, E; Streichenberger, N; Sindou, M; Mertens, P

    2009-04-01

    This study reports a review of the literature on the structural anatomy of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves, known to harbor dysfunction syndromes in humans. Because these dysfunctions are hypothesized to be caused by neurovascular conflicts at the root entry/exit zone and the transitional zone between central and peripheral myelinization, this investigation focused on the study and description of this junction. All the cranial nerves, except the optic and olfactory nerves, which are considered to be more a direct expansion of the central nervous system, have a transitional zone between central myelin (coming from oligodendrocytes) and peripheral myelin (produced by Schwann cells). The human studies reported in the literature argue in favor of a dome-shaped transitional zone directed to the periphery. It seems that this junctional region is situated more peripherally in sensory nerves than in motor nerves. The transitional zone is situated very peripherally for the cochlear and vestibular nerves, and on the contrary very close to its exit from the brain stem for the facial nerve.

  11. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  12. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  13. The wood anatomy of Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke; Hogeweg, Pauline

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with the Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae and Rondeletieae, and concludes a study on the anatomy of the secondary xylem of the Cinchonoideae + Ixoroideae. The taxonomically homogeneous Vanguerieae show only little variation. Taxonomically the Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondele

  14. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  15. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  16. SPECT studies of liver and spleen - technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SPECT methodology for liver/spleen imaging is discussed with emphasis on quality control, conduct of study-imaging conduct of study-reconstruction. Normal transaxial anatomy and common artefacts which can masquerade as intrinsic disease are described. Structured artefacts which can be mistaken for real anatomy may occur from three general sources: camera field non-uniformities; statistical noise; attenuation. Each of these has a characteristic appearance which should alert the viewer to their possible presence

  17. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Lauridsen; Kasper Hansen; Tobias Wang; Peter Agger; Andersen, Jonas L.; Knudsen, Peter S.; Rasmussen, Anne S.; Lars Uhrenholt; Michael Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI,...

  18. Comparative anatomy of teeth from past to present.

    OpenAIRE

    Alt K; Tuerp J; Brace C; Radlanski R

    1997-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of teeth has a long tradition in research, starting more than two thousand years ago in antiquity. In the 19th century, Richard Owen′s oeuvre Odontography (1840-45) contributed much to establish odontology as an independent scientific discipline. After a short outline of the historical development of the comparative anatomy of teeth, we describe the contents and importance of Owen′s Odontography. Finally, we sketch the contemporary situation of dental mor...

  19. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, ter, B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Malanea and Chomelia Jacq. are sufficiently similar in their wood anatomical characters to warrant retention in the same tribe. Machaonia, Timonius and Dichilanthe are anomalous. Suggestions are given ...

  20. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  1. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  2. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. PMID:26061143

  3. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214

  4. Surgical endoscopic anatomy of the sphenoid sinus. Structural foundation: tactical and technical.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Marisa A.; Sinagra, Andrea A.; Acuña, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The object of this presentation is to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the sphenoid sinus and its approaches, providing the surgeon with a step to step guide for dissection of then region in lab or everyday surgical practice.The following study was done on cadaveric material and bones with rigid 4mm rigid endoscopes and 0, 30 and 90 grades optics. The chosen approaches were the direct endonasal and transnasal transeptal approach. The sphenoid sinus is the most posterior of all paranasal sin...

  5. US anatomy of the great peritoneal cavity and its recesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peritoneum of the great abdominal cavity and its recesses are a blind radiographical area which can however be easily outlined by US when it contains fluid. The anatomical study of these usually virtual cavities represent the purpose of this paper. The natural contrast of the peritoneal fluid as amplified by the mechanical effect produced by an adequate amount of fluid, allows a clear visualization of the anatomy of various peritoneal structures in either upper (subphrenic, subhepatic, lesser sac, etc.) or lower (pelvic) areas. The sovramesocolic and the infracolic compartments are in comunication through the two external paracolic gutters which are the main passageways for the fluids between upper and lower compartments. In fact, peritoneal fluids are in constant movement due to different factors, such as gravity, statics, which causes the peritoneal fluids to flow into the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity, and hydrostatic pressure. Pressure differences are thought to convey fluids from various sites of the abdomen into different areas. In the lower abdomen, pressure is 3 times as much as in the upper abdomen, which causes the fluids to move into the subhepatic and subphrenic regions. The redistribution of fluids can be influenced by particular anatomical causes. The phrenicocolic ligament, e.g., is a barrier to the advancing of fluds along the left paracolic gutter, which makes the right paracolic gutter the main passageway for the fluids. This pattern explains why abscesses are more frequent in the right than in the upper left abdominal regions. Another example in the tiny Winslow opening, which does not allow inflammatory material to pass into the lesser sac in case of inflammatory processes of the great peritoneal cavity and viceversa. Moreover, pointing out fluid collections and abscesses is important, since an early diagnosis and a topografic map are essential order to plan treatment

  6. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  7. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  8. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  9. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:10496094

  10. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  11. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  12. Anatomy of neck configuration in fission decay

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, S K; Satpathy, L

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of neck configuration in the fission decay of Uranium and Thorium isotopes is investigated in a microscopic study using Relativistic mean field theory. The study includes $^{236}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the valley of stability and exotic neutron rich isotopes $^{250}U$, $^{256}U$, $^{260}U$, $^{240}Th$, $^{250}Th$, $^{256}Th$ likely to play important role in the r-process nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution. Following the static fission path, the neck configurations are generated and their composition in terms of the number of neutrons and protons are obtained showing the progressive rise in the neutron component with the increase of mass number. Strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity in the fission decay and the number of neutrons in the neck is seen. The maximum neutron-proton ratio is about 5 for $^{260}$U and $^{256}$Th suggestive of the break down of liquid-drop picture and inhibition of the fission decay in still heavier isotopes. Neck as precursor of a new mode of fission decay li...

  13. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  14. Definition and automatic anatomy recognition of lymph node zones in the pelvis on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Guo, Shuxu; Attor, Rosemary; Reinicke, Danica; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Currently, unlike IALSC-defined thoracic lymph node zones, no explicitly provided definitions for lymph nodes in other body regions are available. Yet, definitions are critical for standardizing the recognition, delineation, quantification, and reporting of lymphadenopathy in other body regions. Continuing from our previous work in the thorax, this paper proposes a standardized definition of the grouping of pelvic lymph nodes into 10 zones. We subsequently employ our earlier Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) framework designed for body-wide organ modeling, recognition, and delineation to actually implement these zonal definitions where the zones are treated as anatomic objects. First, all 10 zones and key anatomic organs used as anchors are manually delineated under expert supervision for constructing fuzzy anatomy models of the assembly of organs together with the zones. Then, optimal hierarchical arrangement of these objects is constructed for the purpose of achieving the best zonal recognition. For actual localization of the objects, two strategies are used -- optimal thresholded search for organs and one-shot method for the zones where the known relationship of the zones to key organs is exploited. Based on 50 computed tomography (CT) image data sets for the pelvic body region and an equal division into training and test subsets, automatic zonal localization within 1-3 voxels is achieved.

  15. Morphology and functional anatomy of the growing thorax; Morphologie und funktionelle Anatomie des wachsenden Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weninger, W.J.; Meng, S.; Geyer, S.H.; Weninger, S.U.G. [Integrative Morphology Group, Unversitaet Wien (Austria); Institut fuer Anatomie, Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Morphogenesis of most thoracic organs and structures is not finished with birth but perpetuates in postnatal life. The postnatal growth is partly associated with enormous changes in structure, morphology, and function. Our study presents an overview of morphological, topological and functional peculiarities of thoracic anatomy during infancy, childhood and adolescence. It focuses on the development of the mammary gland, osseous structures of the chest wall, thymus, heart, and lungs. Most of the presented data are based on post-mortem studies. Measurements and numerical data are mainly included for illustration of growth-associated changes. (orig.) [German] Die Morphogenese mancher thorakaler Strukturen und Organe ist zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt noch nicht vollstaendig abgeschlossen. Ihr postpartales Wachstum geht mit teils enormen strukturellen, morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen einher. Die hier praesentierte Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber morphologische, topologische und funktionelle Besonderheiten der Anatomie des Thorax und seiner Organe im Neonatus, Saeugling, Kind und Jugendlichen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der Entwicklung der Brustdruese, des knoechernen Thorax, des Thymus, des Herzen und der Lunge. Die vorgestellten Daten stammen grossteils aus Post-mortem-Studien und dienen vorwiegend dazu, das Ausmass wachstumsassoziierter Veraenderungen und Relationen zu illustrieren. (orig.)

  16. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  17. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  18. Occipital lobe morphological anatomy: anatomical and surgical aspects Anatomia morfológica do lobo occipital: aspectos anatômicos e cirúrgicos

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Pretto Flores

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The occipital lobe is an important region of the central nervous system and site of a wide variety of lesions. Different from others regions of the brain, whose anatomy has been already meticulously detailed, controversies about occipital lobe morphology can occasionally hinder the surgical approaches to it. METHOD: Twenty-six hemispheres were dissected, examining the distances of the medial structures of the posterior interhemispheric fissure region; identifying the sulci and gyr...

  19. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools. PMID:21804185

  20. Single-shot T1 mapping of the corpus callosum: A rapid characterization of fiber bundle anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHofer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Using diffusion-tensor MRI and fiber tractography the topographic organization of the corpus callosum (CC has been described to comprise 5 segments with fibers projecting into prefrontal (I, premotor and supplementary motor (II, primary motor (III, and primary sensory areas (IV, as well as into parietal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas (V. In order to more rapidly characterize the underlying anatomy of these segments, this study used a novel single-shot T1 mapping method to quantitatively determine T1 relaxation times in the human CC. A region-of-interest analysis revealed a tendency for the lowest T1 relaxation times in the genu and the highest T1 relaxation times in the somatomotor region of the CC. This observation separates regions dominated by myelinated fibers with large diameters (somatomotor area from densely packed smaller axonal bundles (genu with less myelin. The results indicate that characteristic T1 relaxation times in callosal profiles provide an additional means to monitor differences in fiber anatomy, fiber density, and gray matter in respective neocortical areas. In conclusion, rapid T1 mapping allows for a characterization of the axonal architecture in an individual CC in less than 10 s. The approach emerges as a valuable means for studying neocortical brain anatomy with possible implications for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative processes.

  1. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  2. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  3. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  4. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  5. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  6. Content-Specific Auditing of a Large Scale Anatomy Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Ira J.; Mejino, Jose L. V.; Wang, Vania; Whipple, Mark; Brinkley, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies are envisioned to be useable in a range of research and clinical applications. The requirements for such uses include formal consistency, adequacy of coverage, and possibly other domain specific constraints. In this report we describe a case study that illustrates how application specific requirements may be used to identify modeling problems as well as data entry errors in ontology building and evolution. We have begun a project to use the UW Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) in a clinical application in radiation therapy planning. This application focuses mainly (but not exclusively) on the representation of the lymphatic system in the FMA, in order to predict the spread of tumor cells to regional metastatic sites. This application requires that the downstream relations associated with lymphatic system components must only be to other lymphatic chains or vessels, must be at the appropriate level of granularity, and that every path through the lymphatic system must terminate at one of the two well known trunks of the lymphatic system. It is possible through a programmable query interface to the FMA to write small programs that systematically audit the FMA for compliance with these constraints. We report on the design of some of these programs, and the results we obtained by applying them to the lymphatic system. The algorithms and approach are generalizable to other network organ systems in the FMA such as arteries and veins. In addition to illustrating exact constraint checking methods, this work illustrates how the details of an application may reflect back a requirement to revise the design of the ontology itself. PMID:19248842

  7. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  8. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V

    1996-04-01

    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  9. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  10. Scimitar syndrome: Surgical approach to an unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair strategies in scimitar syndrome are varied and need to be individualized to the surgical anatomy. This report focuses on the repair achieved in a case with unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein.

  11. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  12. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  13. Morden and traditional approaches to teaching students at the department of normal anatomy of BSMU

    OpenAIRE

    Давыдова, Л. А.; Чайка, Л. Д.; Жарикова, О. Л.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the most difficult basic disciplines in the medical curriculum. Use of modern teaching modalities and electronic technologies provides more efficient specialist training. At the department of anatomy of BSMU modern technologies are introduced in different forms of anatomy training: lectures, self study, and test control. Our experience supports the opinion that modern and traditional approaches should be integrated to optimize teaching anatomy.

  14. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  15. MRI of the Achilles tendon: A comprehensive review of the anatomy, biomechanics, and imaging of overuse tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Moncayo, Valeria; Terk, Michael R. (Dept. of Radiology, Emory Univ. Orthopedics and Spine Center, Atlanta, GA (United States)), e-mail: cpierr3@emory.edu

    2010-05-15

    The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body; it plays an important role in the biomechanics of the lower extremity. It can withstand great forces, especially during sporting exercises and pivoting. The pathologies related to the Achilles tendon are diverse and many carry undesirable consequences. We retrospectively analyzed the images of patients who underwent examinations of the ankle/foot region to review the anatomy of the Achilles tendon and its surroundings and to search for pathologies consistent with overuse injuries. The anatomy of the tendon is described from origin to insertion. The imaging characteristics of the Achilles tendon including pitfalls are reviewed. We also describe the Achilles overuse injuries: paratenonitis, tendinosis, tendon tear, atypical tear, tendon re-tear, retrocalcaneal bursitis, retro-Achilles bursitis, Haglund's deformity, and tendon calcification. We present other entities like tendon ossification and failed transplanted Achilles tendon, with emphasis on MRI

  16. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  17. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  18. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  19. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  20. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  1. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  2. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  3. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  4. VIX: AN OPEN SOFTWARE FOR THE 3D VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTIVE STUDY OF ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Prats Galino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the functional characteristics and applications in the field of anatomy of a 3D visualization software called ViX, short for directX viewer. This is an open software, i.e not limited to the representation of a particular anatomical region. It can be configured externally through the modification of text files that define the elements composing the scene graph. It consists of a 3D viewer, developed in Visual C, and supports two types of graphic elements: (1 simultaneous display of images in the three orthogonal planes of space, and (2 surface solid models defined by polygon meshes of triangles, coregistered with the images. Models can be associated with a short description that is displayed in a text window. The functionality of the software has been tested in different topographic regions and functional systems.

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Search Utility menu Contact Stay Connected Privacy Policy FTC en español Search form Search Main Menu ... Director Office of the General Counsel Office of Policy Planning Regional Offices Office of Administrative Law Judges ...

  6. The effect of local anatomy on the electric field induced by TMS: evaluation at 14 different target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Arno M; Oostendorp, Thom F; Stegeman, Dick F

    2014-10-01

    Many human cortical regions are targeted with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The stimulus intensity used for a certain region is generally based on the motor threshold stimulation intensity determined over the motor cortex (M1). However, it is well known that differences exist in coil-target distance and target site anatomy between cortical regions. These differences may well make the stimulation intensity derived from M1 sub-optimal for other regions. Our goal was to determine in what way the induced electric fields differ between cortical target regions. We used finite element method modeling to calculate the induced electric field for multiple target sites in a realistic head model. The effects on the electric field due to coil-target distance and target site anatomy have been quantified. The results show that a correction based on the distance alone does not correctly adjust the induced electric field for regions other than M1. In addition, a correction based solely on the TMS-induced electric field (primary field) does not suffice. A precise adjustment should include coil-target distance, the secondary field caused by charge accumulation at conductivity discontinuities and the direction of the field relative to the local cerebrospinal fluid-grey matter boundary.

  7. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  8. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan M Gilbert

    Full Text Available The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function.Computed tomography (CT reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy-Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics-FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches.High safety factors suggest that bone densities and anatomy of the ostrich tarsometatarsus

  9. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  10. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  11. The changing face of anatomy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B M

    1999-08-01

    Over the past decade, the discipline of anatomy has undergone significant changes in the United States. Some of these changes are specific to the discipline of anatomy; others reflect the evolution of the basic biomedical sciences; still others reflect societal changes in the United States. One of the most important trends is the homogenization of basic biomedical research, with scientists in many fields using very similar approaches. This trend is accompanied by an increasing disparity between what anatomy faculty teach and what they do in their research. American medical education is well into a major phase of curricular reform, with greater emphasis on self-learning and problem-oriented approaches. Nevertheless, there is currently a wide spectrum of educational approaches, ranging from very traditional disciplinary teaching to the complete abandonment of the traditional basic science disciplines in totally problem-oriented approaches. Along with the homogenization of basic biomedical research is a much greater intermingling of disciplines represented by new faculty members. Many new anatomy faculty (and faculty of other basic science departments, as well) have been trained in other disciplines. Because of this, they do not have the traditions or loyalty to their discipline of new faculty of previous eras; on the other hand, they introduce an element of "hybrid vigor" that is essential for the evolution of any discipline. Ph.D. programs themselves are increasingly becoming merged into common programs in American medical schools. Adapting to rapid change is the dominant theme in American medical education today. PMID:10496096

  12. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  13. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating

  14. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  15. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  16. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  17. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  18. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Golanó; J. Vega; P.A.J. de Leeuw; F. Malagelada; M.C. Manzanares; V. Götzens; C.N. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  19. Anatomy education in Namibia: balancing facility design and curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed toward simplification of work flow and ease of use by faculty, staff, and students. From the onset, the integration of state of the art technology was pursued to facilitate teaching and promote a student-centered pedagogical approach to dissections. The program, as realized, is comprised of three 16-week semesters with seven hours of contact time per week, namely three hours of lectures and four hours of dissection laboratory and microscopy time. Set outcomes were established, each revolving around clinical cases with integrated medical imaging. The design of the facility itself was not constrained by a legacy structure, allowing the School of Medicine, in collaboration with architects and contractors, to design the building from scratch. A design was implemented that allows for the sequential processing of cadaveric material in a unidirectional flow from reception, to preparation, embalming, storage, dissection, and maceration. Importantly, the odor of formaldehyde typically associated with anatomy facilities was eliminated outside of the dissection areas and minimized within via a high-performance ventilation system. By holistically incorporating an integrated curriculum, facility design, and teaching at an early stage, the authors believe they have created a system that might serve as a model for new anatomy programs. PMID:22213639

  20. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  1. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  2. The Evolving Neuroanatomical Component of the Foundational Model of Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Richard F.; Rickard, Kurt; Mejino, José L.V.; Agoncillo, Augusto V.; Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the need for an expressive ontology in neuroinformatics, we have integrated the extensive terminologies of NeuroNames and Terminologia Anatomica into the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). We have enhanced the FMA to accommodate information unique to neuronal structures, such as axonal input/output relationships.

  3. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  4. Diffusion of Innovations: Smartphones and Wireless Anatomy Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular…

  5. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  6. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  7. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  8. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. PMID:25762466

  9. Development of a Synergistic Case-Based Micro anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Prayson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an interactive approach to teaching and assessing a micro anatomy curriculum in an innovative medical school program. As an alternative to lectures and labs, students are engaged in interactive seminars focused on discussion of clinical and research-based cases matched with normal histology and pathology…

  10. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  11. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  12. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations.

  13. A STUDY OF VARIANT HEPATIC ARTERIAL ANATOMY AND ITS RELEVANCE IN CURRENT SURGICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Kamath. B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increase in the number of laparoscopic procedures, oncologic surgical interventions and organ transplant cases, anatomy and variations of hepatic arterial system have become increasingly important. Variations in these vessels may predispose the patients to inadvertent injury during open surgical procedures or percutaneous interventions. Aims: The present study is intended to contribute to the pre-existing data regarding the variations in the branching pattern of hepatic artery and throw light on their clinical implications. Methods: Extrahepatic branching pattern of hepatic arteries were studied in 40 embalmed cadavers of both sexes by dissection method. Results: Classical text book pattern of hepatic arterial anatomy was seen in 30(75% cases and ten (25% cases showed the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries. 12 aberrant hepatic arteries were seen in these ten cases, eight (20% cases with single aberrant hepatic artery and two (5% with combination of aberrant right and left hepatics. Aberrant right hepatic arteries were seen in four (10% cases and all of them were replaced right hepatics arising directly from celiac trunk. Aberrant left hepatic arteries were seen in eight (20% cases, of which six (15% were accessory, two (5% were replaced and all of them arose from the left gastric artery. Conclusion: Because of high incidence of variations in branching pattern of hepatic artery it is very important to have a thorough knowledge of these variants and identify them so as to prevent iatrogenic injuries and increase rate of success of the surgical and interventional procedures in hepatobiliary region.

  14. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro; Rebouças, Rafael Batista; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; de Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. PMID:27403020

  15. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-05-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  16. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando de Mello Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations.

  17. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; García-González, Ignacio; Eilmann, Britta; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Gärtner, Holger; Eckstein, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the lifetimes of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.

  18. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the renal arteries: normal anatomy and its variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Junior, Carlos Fernando de; Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; Carvalho Junior, Arlindo Monteiro de; Negromonte, Gustavo Ramalho Pessoa; Oliveira, Carollyne Dantas de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Reboucas, Rafael Batista, E-mail: severinoaires@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Conventional angiography is still considered the gold standard for the study of the anatomy and of vascular diseases of the abdomen. However, the advent of multidetector computed tomography and techniques of digital image reconstruction has provided an alternative means of performing angiography, without the risks inherent to invasive angiographic examinations. Therefore, within the field of radiology, there is an ever-increasing demand for deeper knowledge of the anatomy of the regional vasculature and its variations. Variations in the renal vascular system are relatively prevalent in the venous and arterial vessels. For various conditions in which surgical planning is crucial to the success of the procedure, knowledge of this topic is important. The aim of this study was to familiarize the general radiologist with variations in the renal vascular system. To that end, we prepared a pictorial essay comprising multidetector computed tomography images obtained in a series of cases. We show patterns representative of the most common anatomical variations in the arterial blood supply to the kidneys, calling attention to the nomenclature, as well as to the clinical and surgical implications of such variations. (author)

  19. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  20. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  1. Resident Perceptions of Anatomy Education: A Survey of Medical School Alumni from Two Different Anatomy Curricula and Multiple Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…

  2. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan

    2009-01-01

    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  3. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  4. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  5. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  6. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  7. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  8. The evolving anatomy of a collapsing orogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    The Tethys Oceans separated Africa and Arabia from Eurasia, and India from Asia. Closure of the Tethys started in the Jurassic and led to the Alpine-Himalayan mountain chain. This thesis will focus on the Aegean segment of this mountain belt. The Aegean region is occupied by a stack of nappes that

  9. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Christina S. Verdam; Débora T. Ohana; Maria Gracimar P. Araújo; Fernanda Guilhon-Simplicio; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça; Maria de M. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Justicia acuminatissima (Miq.) Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfac...

  10. Metabolic anatomy of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven patients with acquired cerebellar degeneration (10 of whom had paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration [PCD]) were evaluated using neuropsychological tests and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography to (1) quantify motor, cognitive, and metabolic abnormalities; (2) determine if characteristic alterations in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) are associated with PCD; and (3) correlate behavioral and metabolic measures of disease severity. Eighteen volunteer subjects served as normal controls. Although some PCD neuropsychological test scores were abnormal, these results could not, in general, be dissociated from the effects of dysarthria and ataxia. rCMRGlc was reduced in patients with PCD (versus normal control subjects) in all regions except the brainstem. Analysis of patient and control rCMRGlc data using a mathematical model of regional metabolic interactions revealed two metabolic pattern descriptors, SSF1 and SSF2, which distinguished patients with PCD from normal control subjects; SSF2, which described a metabolic coupling between cerebellum, cuneus, and posterior temporal, lateral frontal, and paracentral cortex, correlated with quantitative indices of cerebellar dysfunction. Our inability to document substantial intellectual impairment in 7 of 10 patients with PCD contrasts with the 50% incidence of dementia in PCD reported by previous investigators. Widespread reductions in PCD rCMRGlc may result from the loss of cerebellar efferents to thalamus and forebrain structures, a reverse cerebellar diaschisis

  11. Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila; Dececchi, T Alexander; Ibrahim, Nizar; Lapp, Hilmar; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-by-taxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required ∼40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological

  12. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  13. Effectiveness of a radiology-anatomy instructional module in a clinical course on oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insufficient knowledge of anatomy often complicates the interpretation of radiological findings by students learning clinical medicine. During a 3-week clinical course in oral radiology, students attended lectures on anatomy for half of each day. Our objectives were to evaluate this program and determine why some students remained unmotivated to learn anatomy. Surveys were carried out using two questionnaires, one for evaluating the students' beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy and their understanding of radiology and anatomy, and the other for determining the value of the educational program. In total, 126 questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modeling and decision analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. Beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy were explained by three variables: the necessity of knowing imaging anatomy, the necessity of knowing gross anatomy, and understanding of anatomy. Awareness of the necessity of knowing anatomy and understanding of graphical images were not strongly correlated. The educational program was characterized by two factors: 'value' and 'appropriateness' These were strongly correlated. Student interest in the content of the course was found to be the most important factor in student evaluations of the educational program. Students who answered 'agree', 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' to three items, interested in the content of the course', 'obtained knowledge through the course' and 'expected the course to be useful in the near future were likely to have insufficient understanding of and awareness of the necessity of radiology and anatomy. The inclusion of lectures on anatomy is beneficial for improving student understanding of oral radiology. Student interest in the content is important in evaluations of radiology-anatomy programs. (author)

  14. Visualization Cardiac Human Anatomy using Augmented Reality Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Hamidy Hazidar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is currently widely researched and rapidly evolving. This technology supplements the real world with composite 3D virtual objects that are integrated into the real world. This technology is very interesting and interactive. Augmented reality and Smartphone used as well as the interactive media and rarely used as a medium for the introduction of the human bodies. The aim of Cardiac Learning Detection (CLD assists students in the medical field in understanding the concepts of learning materials presented interactively by the system, especially cardiac anatomy human bodies and is able to provide more information than delivered through conventional teaching methods. For this reason, in this research were made augmented reality on visual technique as a medium to introduce the cardiac anatomy human

  15. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael;

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal...... and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates. Biological visualisation libraries such as www.digimorph.org hold terabytes of images of various species, with its core focus on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) cranial imaging. Although impressive, CT imaging is mostly suited to visualise...... bone anatomy, and there is a considerable lack of non-interpreted soft-tissue visualisation in figures of anatomical literature and databases. This study aims to present the endless possibilities of high resolution visualisation of both soft and hard structures in animals using magnetic resonance...

  16. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  17. Clinical implications of the surgical anatomy of the sural nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L

    1994-11-01

    The exact anatomy of the sural nerve remains important for many clinical situations. To better understand this anatomy, 25 embalmed and 10 fresh cadaver pairs were studied. The origin of the common sural nerve in relation to the fibular head and its medial and lateral sural components were investigated. The lateral sural nerve was absent in 4 percent of the embalmed cadavers. The lateral and medial sural nerves united in the popliteal fossa in 12 percent and in the lower third of the leg in 84 percent of the cadavers. A site was identified where the lateral sural and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf pierced the deep fascia. This site was centered about the fibular head and may be viewed as a potential site of nerve compression. There is application of these findings to nerve grafting, neuroma prevention and treatment, and sural nerve biopsy.

  18. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  19. [Clinical anatomy of the horse: teeth and dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszyk, C

    2015-01-01

    The routine inspection of the equine oral cavity allows a numerical assessment of the teeth and provides information about positional changes within the dentition. By use of appropriate dental equipment, the occlusal surfaces of all teeth can be inspected and diagnosed. However, neither the teeth nor their occlusal surfaces are constant structures. Instead, equine teeth and, in particular, their occlusal surfaces are subjected to continuous morphological and positional changes due to the effects of aging and the equine-specific high amount of occlusal wear. Therefore, it is mandatory to define anatomical criteria, which allow us to distinguish between anatomical variations and pathological conditions. Moreover, an unambiguous nomenclature with regard to the equine-specific dental anatomy is essential. This article provides a tutorial overview of the equine dental anatomy as well as recent findings in the field of equine dentistry. Special attention is paid to dynamic changes within both individual teeth and dentition.

  20. Magnetic resonance and the human brain: anatomy, function and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talos, I-F; Mian, A Z; Zou, K H; Hsu, L; Goldberg-Zimring, D; Haker, S; Bhagwat, J G; Mulkern, R V

    2006-05-01

    The introduction and development, over the last three decades, of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy technology for in vivo studies of the human brain represents a truly remarkable achievement, with enormous scientific and clinical ramifications. These effectively non-invasive techniques allow for studies of the anatomy, the function and the metabolism of the living human brain. They have allowed for new understandings of how the healthy brain works and have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying multiple disease processes which affect the brain. Different MR techniques have been developed for studying anatomy, function and metabolism. The primary focus of this review is to describe these different methodologies and to briefly review how they are being employed to more fully appreciate the intricacies associated with the organ, which most distinctly differentiates the human species from the other animal forms on earth. PMID:16568243

  1. [Anatomy in National Socialism: stages of an ethical transgression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Systematic research on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has only started in recent years. It has shown that anatomists used the bodies of NS victims for anatomical teaching and research purposes. In this they became complicit with the NS regime. There was a high percentage of Nazi party members among the anatomists, but at the same time there were anatomists whose careers were disrupted for so-called "racial" and political reasons. Decisive aspects of this history are first, the fact that traditional sources of anatomical body procurement included increasing numbers of NS victims and second, the gradual change of the traditional anatomical paradigm of working with the dead to a new paradigm of working with the "future dead" in human experimentation. This history has importance for the development of new ethical guidelines in anatomy.

  2. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    are in their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical......This article presents results from a longitudinal study following a cohort of medical students. Semistructured interviews are conducted every year, in which the students tell about their experiences learning medicine, their daily life, and their social activities in relation to university. The aim...... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students...

  3. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, S., E-mail: shaun.quigley@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of the vestibular end organs. [morphological indexes of inner ear anatomy and microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, H. H.; Ades, H. W.; West, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vestibular end organs, after chemical fixation, were freeze dried, coated with gold and palladium, and studied in the scanning microscope. Scanning microscopy gives a good three dimensional view of the sensory areas and allows study of both gross anatomy and microstructures. Cross anatomical features of the structure of the ampullae are demonstrated. The form of the statoconia in different species of animals is shown. New aspects of the structure of the sensory hairs are revealed. The hair bundles in the central areas of the cristae and in the striola of the maculae differ structurally from the hair bundles at the periphery of the sensory regions. Furthermore, some hair bundles consisting of very short stereocilia were observed. The relationship between the cupula and the statoconial membrane to the epithelial surface is discussed.

  5. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  6. Ultrasound of the sural nerve: Normal anatomy on cadaveric dissection and case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsack, Dries, E-mail: dries.belsack@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd, E-mail: tjeerd.jager@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Scafoglieri, Aldo, E-mail: aldo.scafoglieri@vub.ac.be [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Free University Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Jette (Belgium); Vanderdood, Kurt, E-mail: kvanderd@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Maaslandziekenhuis, Dr H van der Hoffplein 1, 6162 Sittard-Geleen, Sittard (Netherlands); Van Hedent, Eddy, E-mail: eddy.vanhedent@asz.be [Department of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Merestraat 80, 9300 Aalst (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip, E-mail: filip.vanhoenacker@telenet.be [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Maarten, Duffel-Mechelen, Rooienberg 25, 2570 Duffel (Belgium); Marcelis, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan.marcelis@sintandriesstielt.be [Department of Radiology, Sint Andriesziekenhuis, Krommewalstraat 11, 8700 Tielt (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-11-01

    The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n = 10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot.

  7. Ultrasound of the sural nerve: Normal anatomy on cadaveric dissection and case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sural nerve is a small sensory nerve innervating the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot. Clinical symptoms of pathology may present as atypical sensory changes in this region. We present the normal anatomy and ultrasound technique for examination of the sural nerve based on an anatomical dissection, as well as imaging in a normal volunteer. We also present a case series (n = 10) of different conditions of the sural nerve that we encountered based on a review of interesting cases from 4 institutions. The pathological conditions included neuropathy related to stripping or venous laser surgery, compression by abscess, Lyme disease, nerve tumors, traumatic transsection, and encasement by fibrous plaque and edema. Ultrasound with its exquisite resolution is the preferred imaging method for examining the sural nerve in patients with unexplained sensory changes at the lateral aspect of the ankle and foot

  8. Study on Quantitative Character for Anatomy in Tomato Seedling Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuheng; WEI Liyan; YU Longfeng; QI Donglai; ZHANG Da

    2009-01-01

    The results of quantitative characters for anatomy in stems of three varieties tomatoes seedlings showed that the cell population between vascular bundle and epidermis, the cellular layers among vascular bundles and the cell population in an unit area(mm2) of no vascular bundle areas were similar and there had small difference among three varieties. On the foundation of these studies, the developmental mechanism of tomato seedling stem was discussed.

  9. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  10. Comparative Wood Anatomy of Epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    LENS, F.; Gasson, P.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 16 of the 37 genera within the epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) is investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features in the secondary xylem occur consistently at the tribal level: arrangement of vessel-ray pits, distribution of axial parenchyma, ray width, and the presence and location of crystals. The primitive nature of Prionoteae and Archerieae is supported by the presence of scalariform perforation plates with many bars and scalariform t...

  11. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  12. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrou...

  13. The visible human and digital anatomy learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Senger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative initiative is starting within the Internet2 Health Science community to explore the development of a framework for providing access to digital anatomical teaching resources over Internet2. This is a cross-cutting initiative with broad applicability and will require the involvement of a diverse collection of communities. It will seize an opportunity created by a convergence of needs and technical capabilities to identify the technologies and standards needed to support a sophisticated collection of tools for teaching anatomy.

  14. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ)

  15. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structu...

  16. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan eDraganski; Ferath eKherif; Antoine eLutti

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure cha...

  17. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  18. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  19. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  20. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  1. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    OpenAIRE

    Polverino Mario; Polverino Francesca; Fasolino Marco; Andò Filippo; Alfieri Antonio; De Blasio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the...

  2. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter, B.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating from the existing morphological classification, is presented. Finally, the relationship within the Urticaceae, as well as the relationships with the Ulmaceae and Moraceae (including Cecropiaceae) a...

  3. Normal anatomy and aneurysms of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the existing anatomical knowledge and the nomenclature used in describing the normal anatomy of the MCA and its main and cortical branches. The different classifications now available have led to anatomical and terminological confusion and inaccuracy. In this study, it is proposed to make out a new classification and to correlate this with the radiological and operative findings in patients with MCA aneurysms. (orig.)

  4. Clinical anatomy of greater petrosal nerve and its surgical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards greater petrosal nerve has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomy of the facial nerve. The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify for identification of the greater petrosal nerve so as to avoid injury to the structures in the middle cranial fossa. Observation and Results: The present study is carried out on 100 temporal bones by examining the following measurements of the right and t...

  5. The eye and visual nervous system: anatomy, physiology and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaa, C S

    1982-01-01

    The eyes are at risk to environmental injury by direct exposure to airborne pollutants, to splash injury from chemicals and to exposure via the circulatory system to numerous drugs and bloodborne toxins. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

  6. OntoAna: Domain Ontology for Human Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vashisth, Archana; Mathur, Iti; Joshi, Nisheeth

    2012-01-01

    Today, we can find many search engines which provide us with information which is more operational in nature. None of the search engines provide domain specific information. This becomes very troublesome to a novice user who wishes to have information in a particular domain. In this paper, we have developed an ontology which can be used by a domain specific search engine. We have developed an ontology on human anatomy, which captures information regarding cardiovascular system, digestive syst...

  7. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  8. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  9. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  10. Antenatal Three-Dimensional Printing of Aberrant Facial Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKoevering, Kyle K; Morrison, Robert J; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Torres, Maria F Ladino; Mychaliska, George B; Treadwell, Marjorie C; Hollister, Scott J; Green, Glenn E

    2015-11-01

    Congenital airway obstruction poses a life-threatening challenge to the newborn. We present the first case of three-dimensional (3D) modeling and 3D printing of complex fetal maxillofacial anatomy after prenatal ultrasound indicated potential upper airway obstruction from a midline mass of the maxilla. Using fetal MRI and patient-specific computer-aided modeling, the craniofacial anatomy of the fetus was manufactured using a 3D printer. This model demonstrated the mass to be isolated to the upper lip and maxilla, suggesting the oral airway to be patent. The decision was made to deliver the infant without a planned ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. The neonate was born with a protuberant cleft lip and palate deformity, without airway obstruction, as predicted by the patient-specific model. The delivery was uneventful, and the child was discharged without need for airway intervention. This case demonstrates that 3D modeling may improve prenatal evaluation of complex patient-specific fetal anatomy and facilitate the multidisciplinary approach to perinatal management of complex airway anomalies. PMID:26438708

  11. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector

  12. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. PMID:25091417

  13. Anatomy "steeplechase" online: necessity sometimes is the catalyst for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in WebCT™ and Moodle™. This article chronicles how we conceived and developed this method within the peculiar nature of our medical school setting. Over a five year period, practical summative examinations were organized as "steeplechase" online. The online examinations were administered using WebCT™ and later Moodle™ learning management software. Assessment "objects" were created from the materials available for anatomy teaching. These were digital images of cadaveric materials, radiological, and prosected specimens. In addition, short video clips of 30 seconds duration demonstrating muscle action were produced. These objects were optimized for online viewing and then uploaded onto the learning management software. A bank of questions (multiple choice or short answer type) was then created and linked to the assessment objects. These were used in place of the steeplechase in the computer laboratory. This method serves a crucial purpose in places like ours where continuous availability of human cadavers is impossible. Although time consuming initially, once questions are setup online, future retrieval, and administration becomes convenient especially where there are large batches of students. In addition, the online environment offers distinct advantages with regards to image quality, psychometric analysis of the examination and reduction of staff preparation time compared to traditional "steeplechase." PMID:21438159

  14. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  15. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides practice test material and tips for the FRCR part 1 Anatomy exam in its new format. Covers all core topics in the exam. Assists readers in identifying the level of knowledge of anatomical detail expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. Three years after the publication of the first edition, Radiological Anatomy for FRCR Part 1 remains the best seller in its category based on its faithful representation of the examination. This second edition is designed to reflect the change in exam format introduced in spring 2013. It includes two new chapters as well as some new cases in the remaining chapters and tests. Under the new exam format, candidates will be presented with 100 cases, with a single question per case and a single mark for the correct answer. This book covers all core topics addressed by the exam in a series of tests and includes chapters focussing specifically on paediatric cases and normal anatomical variants. The answers to questions, along with explanations and tips, are supplied at the end of each chapter. Care has been taken throughout to simulate the exam itself. The book aims not to replace the already available literature on radiological anatomy but rather to complement it as a revision guide. It will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  17. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  18. Mapping brain function to brain anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Imaging the human brain, MRI is commonly used to reveal anatomical structure, while PET is used to reveal tissue function. This paper presents a protocol for correlating data between these two imaging modalities; this correlation can provide in vivo regional measurements of brain function which are essential to our understanding of the human brain. The authors propose a general protocol to standardize the acquisition and analysis of functional image data. First, MR and PET images are collected to form three-dimensional volumes of structural and functional image data. Second, these volumes of image data are corrected for distortions inherent in each imaging modality. Third, the image volumes are correlated to provide correctly aligned structural and functional images. The functional images are then mapped onto the structural images in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations. Finally, morphometric techniques can be used to provide statistical measures of the structure and function of the human brain

  19. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina S. Verdam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia acuminatissima (Miq. Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfaces, and pubescent, with a lanceolate shape, crenate margin, pinnate venation and decussate phyllotaxy. The parenchyma is palisade and spongy, and its vascular system is bilateral. Glandular and non-glandular trichome and cystoliths were also detected. There are diacytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of epidermis. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, amide and protein. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, catechins, saponins and steroids.

  20. Anatomy of the ATLAS diboson anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B C; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-01-01

    We perform a general analysis of new physics interpretations of the recent ATLAS diboson excesses over Standard Model expectations in LHC Run I collisions. Firstly, we estimate a likelihood function for the true signal in the $WW$, $WZ$, and $ZZ$ channels, finding that the maximum has zero events in the $WZ$ channel, though the likelihood is sufficiently flat to allow other scenarios. Secondly, we survey the possible effective field theories containing the Standard Model plus a new resonance that could explain the data, finding just two possibilities, viz., a vector that is either a left- or right-handed $SU(2)$ triplet. Finally, we compare these models with other experimental data and determine the parameter regions in which they provide a consistent explanation.

  1. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, J F; Horner, N T; Robinson, N E; Stick, J A

    2001-05-01

    Six normal, healthy horses age 3-10 years underwent left and right thoracoscopic examination using a rigid telescope. A minimum of 30 days was allowed between procedures. Horses were restrained in stocks and sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. After surgical preparation of the hemithorax elected for surgery, and administration of local or regional anaesthesia of the surgery sites, thoracoscopy was completed during two 15 min pneumothorax periods. During the procedures, the thoracic structures were viewed using a 57 cm, 10 mm diameter, 30 degrees rigid telescope connected to a digital camcorder to allow computer capture of digital images. The telescope was inserted into the thoracic cavity via 3 different intercostal spaces. The 8th, 10th and 12th intercostal spaces were randomly selected and used among horses. The exploration of each hemithorax started from the dorsal-caudal quadrant continued toward the cranial thorax and was completed by observing the diaphragmatic and caudal pulmonary region. Collapsed lung, aorta, oesophagus and diaphragm were viewed readily in either hemithorax. On exploration of the right hemithorax, the azygos vein, thoracic duct and pulmonary veins were also identified. Horses tolerated thoracoscopy well. Signs of discomfort, such as increased respiratory rate, coughing and decreased level of sedation, were associated with lung collapse in one horse, with pneumothorax on 2 occasions, and when the thorax was approached through the 8th intercostal space. Surgery performed via the 8th intercostal space was hindered by the rigidity of the 8th and 9th ribs, and by the presence of a greater musculature, which did not allow easy cranial and caudal movements of the telescope. PMID:11352343

  2. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians.

  3. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Arvind Kumar Pandey; Brijesh Kumar; K S Aithal; Antony Sylvan Dsouza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to st...

  4. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Marc E H.; Ingmar Werneburg; Neil Curtis; Rod Penrose; Paul O'Higgins; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatom...

  5. Imaging of Larynx and Pharynx Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekmaryam Afkar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nThe soft tissues of the neck and the mucosal surfaces of the larynx are readily accessible either by indirect visualization using a mirror or direct visualization by an endoscope. Therefore, endolarynx can entirely be seen and most tumors are diagnosed. If voice problems are suspected, videotaping of direct examination allows assessment of subtle movement disorders. Only if initial clinical evaluation is inconclusive, a direct examination under anesthesia is performed. This inspection allows better direct observation of the laryngeal mucosa as well as better direct examination of the laryngeal ventricle and the subglottic region. Deep soft tissue extension or cartilaginous involvement can not be visualized. Consequently, the evaluation is performed by imaging , carried out as an adjunct to direct assessment. The larynx presents one of the true challenges of head and neck imaging. The organ is small and in almost constant motion. Breathing and swallowing create significant artifacts that can be controlled only briefly. The quality of laryngeal images has always been related to acquisition speed. Despite the mentioned drawbacks, multidetector spiral CT scanning and fast MRI techniques can develop excellent images. The information obtained by modern imaging when combined with surface visualization of modern laryngoscopy, provides excellent understanding of laryngeal pathology. A discussion of the laryngopharynx (hypopharynx is included because of its intimate relationship to the posterior aspect of the larynx. Behind the oral cavity and extending from the base of the skull to the level of the caudal cricoid cartilage, is the mucosa-lined musculomembranous tube known as the pharynx. The pharynx has been subdivided into 3 sections: 1-Nasopharynx, which extends from the skull base to the level of the hard palate. 2-Oropharynx, which extends from the level of the hard palate to the level of the hyoid bone. 3-Hypopharynx which extends from the level

  6. NEWS: Paperclip Physics: anatomy of a competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    'Do something about schools' was the request from the Institute of Physics to its branches in 1994. In response the Midland Branch of the Institute of Physics decided to set up a competition that asked sixth-formers to explain some aspect of physics to a non-scientist in five minutes. It was decreed that teams would be expected to do a demonstration but, in order to avoid disadvantaging schools with a small science budget, only items that might be found in the average home would be allowed. So, with a fairly simple set of rules, which also excluded the use of any mains services, and with none of us knowing what to expect, the competition was launched in 1995. Even though we had given careful consideration to the rules and to the matter of the judges (a non-scientist, a physicist and a physics teacher), one thing we had not anticipated was how much fun it would be! The first year's winners used a baby bath and a margarine tub to demonstrate why a boat cannot sail into the wind unless it has a keel. Other contestants used jelly, a kitchen whisk, balloons, talcum powder and sundry kitchen items to demonstrate everything from Archimedes' principle to fusion. And a good time was had by all! And such is the way it has continued, with boiling carrots, a home made van der Graaf generator, a hot air balloon (made from shower curtains!), plenty of acting and dressing-up, rolling pins, plastic guttering, red noses, lots of fun and always a tremendous `buzz' in the room. For four years the competition was run in the Midlands and gradually grew in popularity. In 1998 we decided that it ought to have a proper name and, after much head-scratching, it was named `Paperclip Physics', a name that we hope reflects the ingenious nature of the entries. 1999 was an even more important year for the competition as it was then that the IOP agreed to fund the competition in all its branches in the UK and Ireland. Instead of heats and then a final within the Midlands, now we had regional

  7. Anatomy assisted PET image reconstruction incorporating multi-resolution joint entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A promising approach in PET image reconstruction is to incorporate high resolution anatomical information (measured from MR or CT) taking the anato-functional similarity measures such as mutual information or joint entropy (JE) as the prior. These similarity measures only classify voxels based on intensity values, while neglecting structural spatial information. In this work, we developed an anatomy-assisted maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction algorithm wherein the JE measure is supplied by spatial information generated using wavelet multi-resolution analysis. The proposed wavelet-based JE (WJE) MAP algorithm involves calculation of derivatives of the subband JE measures with respect to individual PET image voxel intensities, which we have shown can be computed very similarly to how the inverse wavelet transform is implemented. We performed a simulation study with the BrainWeb phantom creating PET data corresponding to different noise levels. Realistically simulated T1-weighted MR images provided by BrainWeb modeling were applied in the anatomy-assisted reconstruction with the WJE-MAP algorithm and the intensity-only JE-MAP algorithm. Quantitative analysis showed that the WJE-MAP algorithm performed similarly to the JE-MAP algorithm at low noise level in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) regions in terms of noise versus bias tradeoff. When noise increased to medium level in the simulated data, the WJE-MAP algorithm started to surpass the JE-MAP algorithm in the GM region, which is less uniform with smaller isolated structures compared to the WM region. In the high noise level simulation, the WJE-MAP algorithm presented clear improvement over the JE-MAP algorithm in both the GM and WM regions. In addition to the simulation study, we applied the reconstruction algorithms to real patient studies involving DPA-173 PET data and Florbetapir PET data with corresponding T1-MPRAGE MRI images. Compared to the intensity-only JE-MAP algorithm, the WJE

  8. SU-E-J-237: Real-Time 3D Anatomy Estimation From Undersampled MR Acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments made MRI guided radiotherapy feasible. Performing simultaneous imaging during fractions can provide information about changing anatomy by means of deformable image registration for either immediate plan adaptations or accurate dose accumulation on the changing anatomy. In 3D MRI, however, acquisition time is considerable and scales with resolution. Furthermore, intra-scan motion degrades image quality.In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of registration quality on imageresolution: potentially, by employing spatial undersampling, the acquisition timeof MR images for the purpose of deformable image registration can be reducedsignificantly.On a volunteer, 3D-MR imaging data was sampled in a navigator-gated manner, acquiring one axial volume (360×260×100mm3) per 3s during exhale phase. A T1-weighted FFE sequence was used with an acquired voxel size of (2.5mm3) for a duration of 17min. Deformation vector fields were evaluated for 100 imaging cycles with respect to the initial anatomy using deformable image registration based on optical flow. Subsequently, the imaging data was downsampled by a factor of 2, simulating a fourfold acquisition speed. Displacements of the downsampled volumes were then calculated by the same process.In kidneyliver boundaries and the region around stomach/duodenum, prominent organ drifts could be observed in both the original and the downsampled imaging data. An increasing displacement of approximately 2mm was observed for the kidney, while an area around the stomach showed sudden displacements of 4mm. Comparison of the motile points over time showed high reproducibility between the displacements of high-resolution and downsampled volumes: over a 17min acquisition, the componentwise RMS error was not more than 0.38mm.Based on the synthetic experiments, 3D nonrigid image registration shows little sensitivity to image resolution and the displacement information is preserved even when halving the resolution. This can

  9. SU-E-J-237: Real-Time 3D Anatomy Estimation From Undersampled MR Acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Crijns, S [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, B Denis de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Recent developments made MRI guided radiotherapy feasible. Performing simultaneous imaging during fractions can provide information about changing anatomy by means of deformable image registration for either immediate plan adaptations or accurate dose accumulation on the changing anatomy. In 3D MRI, however, acquisition time is considerable and scales with resolution. Furthermore, intra-scan motion degrades image quality.In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of registration quality on imageresolution: potentially, by employing spatial undersampling, the acquisition timeof MR images for the purpose of deformable image registration can be reducedsignificantly.On a volunteer, 3D-MR imaging data was sampled in a navigator-gated manner, acquiring one axial volume (360×260×100mm{sup 3}) per 3s during exhale phase. A T1-weighted FFE sequence was used with an acquired voxel size of (2.5mm{sup 3}) for a duration of 17min. Deformation vector fields were evaluated for 100 imaging cycles with respect to the initial anatomy using deformable image registration based on optical flow. Subsequently, the imaging data was downsampled by a factor of 2, simulating a fourfold acquisition speed. Displacements of the downsampled volumes were then calculated by the same process.In kidneyliver boundaries and the region around stomach/duodenum, prominent organ drifts could be observed in both the original and the downsampled imaging data. An increasing displacement of approximately 2mm was observed for the kidney, while an area around the stomach showed sudden displacements of 4mm. Comparison of the motile points over time showed high reproducibility between the displacements of high-resolution and downsampled volumes: over a 17min acquisition, the componentwise RMS error was not more than 0.38mm.Based on the synthetic experiments, 3D nonrigid image registration shows little sensitivity to image resolution and the displacement information is preserved even when halving the

  10. The Medial and Posteromedial Ligamentous and Capsular Structures of the Knee: Review of Anatomy and Relevant Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Roar R

    2016-02-01

    The medial and posteromedial regions of the knee are important for knee stability but also frequently injured. Medial ligaments and capsule are primary and secondary stabilizers of valgus, rotation, and anterior and posterior translation. In the setting of rupture of the cruciate ligaments, it is important to identify injuries in this region because it can possibly alter the treatment strategy and even delay or prevent successful reconstruction of the cruciate ligaments. Injuries may occur to the superficial and deep medial collateral ligament, the posterior oblique ligament, the posteromedial capsule, and the semimembranosus tendon and its attachments. Meniscocapsular separation is associated with these injuries, and if normal movement of the meniscus and tension of the capsule and ligaments is altered, instability and eventually osteoarthritis may occur. Injuries to the posteromedial corner may be underdiagnosed. This article reviews the anatomy and imaging findings in the medial and posteromedial regions of the knee. PMID:27077583

  11. Defining the surface anatomy of the central venous system in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Gregory P; Pak, Neda; Taghavi, Kiarash; Iwan, Tom; Dumble, Charlotte; Davies-Payne, David; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric emergency physicians, pediatric critical care specialists, and pediatric surgeons perform central venous catheterization in many clinical settings. Complications of the procedure are not uncommon and can be fatal. Despite the frequency of application, the evidence-base describing the surface landmarks involved is missing. The aim of the current study was to critically investigate the surface markings of the central venous system in children. The superior vena cava/right atrial (SVC/RA) junction, superior vena cava (SVC) formation, and brachiocephalic vein (BCV) formation were examined independently by two investigators. Three hundred computed tomography (CT) scans collected across multiple centers were categorized by age group into: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, and 8-11 years. Scans with pathology that distorted or obscured the regional anatomy were excluded. The BCV formation was commonly found behind the ipsilateral medial clavicular head throughout childhood. This contrasts with the variable levels of SVC formation, SVC length, and SVC/RA junction. In the youngest group, SVC formation was most commonly at the second costal cartilage (CC), but moved to the first CC/first intercostal space (ICS) as the child grew. The SVC/RA junction was at the fourth CC in the youngest group and moved to the third CC/third ICS as the child grew. This study demonstrates the variable anatomy of SVC formation and the SVC/RA junction with respect to rib level. This variability underscores the unreliability of surface anatomical landmarks of the SVC/RA junction as a guide to catheter tip position. PMID:26518452

  12. The anatomy of E-Learning tools: Does software usability influence learning outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-07-01

    Reductions in laboratory hours have increased the popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools. It is critical to understand how the functionality of such tools can influence the mental effort required during the learning process, also known as cognitive load. Using dual-task methodology, two anatomical e-learning tools were examined to determine the effect of their design on cognitive load during two joint learning exercises. A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy is a simplistic, two-dimensional tool that presents like a textbook, whereas Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy has a more complex three-dimensional usability that allows structures to be rotated. It was hypothesized that longer reaction times on an observation task would be associated with the more complex anatomical software (Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy), indicating a higher cognitive load imposed by the anatomy software, which would result in lower post-test scores. Undergraduate anatomy students from Western University, Canada (n = 70) were assessed using a baseline knowledge test, Stroop observation task response times (a measure of cognitive load), mental rotation test scores, and an anatomy post-test. Results showed that reaction times and post-test outcomes were similar for both tools, whereas mental rotation test scores were positively correlated with post-test values when students used Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy (P = 0.007), but not when they used A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. This suggests that a simple e-learning tool, such as A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy, is as effective as more complicated tools, such as Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy, and does not academically disadvantage those with poor spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 9: 378-390. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  14. Medical missionaries to China and the reformation of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The earliest record of human anatomy in chapters of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic is likely to be based upon proper dissections. The first incident of human dissection for medical purpose documented in the History of Han Dynasty occurred in AD 13. During the Sung dynasty, a physician prepared illustrations of internal organs of executed criminals, published in 1113 as the Images of Truth Successive Chinese medical treatises have plagiarized but preserved the anatomical diagrams without improvements or modifications. China had to wait till the mid-19th century for Anglo-American Protestant medical missionaries to bring about a complete and permanent reformation of anatomical science. PMID:24833543

  15. The anatomy of dreams and bamboo-reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy of dreams and bamboo reality Hemingway used to say "if you want your people to build a boat, don't give them hammers, saws and tools – give them a longing for the sea." Today, we have lots of tools. We have computers, software, virtual reality, smart facades and offices, and various attractive systems... but we're somewhat lacking in longing ... In order to have longings, one has to have dreams, and to have dreams, one has to have courage. Antoon had it. Wanting to design with the...

  16. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. PMID:21601815

  17. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  18. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  19. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way.

  20. Medial patellofemoral ligament: Research progress in anatomy and injury imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is considered as the most important soft tissue restraint providing medial stability of the patellofemoral joint. During patellar dislocation, the MPFL is subjected to severe stretching forces, resulting in injuries of the ligament in the most patients. With the development of medical imaging technology, a variety of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods have been becoming important means in diagnosis of MPFL injury. In this paper, MPFL anatomy, the applications of medical imaging technology in diagnosis of MPFL injury and the distributions of MPFL injury site were reviewed. (authors)

  1. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polverino Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the complex and multiple etiologies of cough.

  2. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  3. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…

  4. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  5. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device in patients with a complex apical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Meindert; Verwey, Harriette F; Haeck, Marlieke L A; Holman, Eduard R; Schalij, Martin J; Klautz, Robert J M

    2012-12-01

    Implantation of a left ventricular assist device can be challenging in patients with an altered apical anatomy after cardiac surgery or as the result of the presence of a calcified apical aneurysm. In this paper we present 2 cases with a challenging apical anatomy and introduce a new surgical technique facilitating left ventricular assist device implantation in these patients.

  6. Correlation Between Ultrasound Imaging, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Brachial Plexus A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Geert J.; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Joergen; Scheffer, Gert J.; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato

  7. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Moayeri, N.; Bruhn, J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Chan, V.W.; Groen, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato

  8. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  9. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  10. The Functional Anatomy of Inspection Time: A Pilot fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Simonotto, Enrico; Marshall, Alan; Marshall, Ian; Goddard, Nigel; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the functional anatomy of inspection time (IT) through functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain while seven healthy adults performed an IT task. Pilot data encourage further studies of the functional anatomy of inspection time and its relation to psychometric intelligence. (SLD)

  11. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  12. The Madagascar Hissing Cockroach: A New Model for Learning Insect Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyborne, William H.; Fast, Maggie; Goodding, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning animal anatomy has a long history in the biology classroom. As in many fields of biology, decades of experience teaching anatomy have led to the unofficial selection of model species. However, in some cases the model may not be the best choice for our students. Our struggle to find an appropriate model for teaching and…

  13. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  14. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  15. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  16. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  17. Development of a Supported Self-Directed Learning Approach for Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlater, Gordon S.; Kristmundsdottir, Fanney; Parson, Simon H.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deliver sufficient core anatomical knowledge and understanding to medical students with limited time and resources remains a major challenge for anatomy educators. Here, we report the results of switching from a primarily didactic method of teaching to supported self-directed learning for students studying anatomy as part of…

  18. Is Student Knowledge of Anatomy Affected by a Problem-Based Learning Approach? A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of anatomy is critical for students on many health science courses. It has been suggested that a problem-based approach to learning anatomy may result in deficits in foundation knowledge. The aim of this review is to compare traditional didactic methods with problem-based learning methods for obtaining anatomy…

  19. Design and Development of a New Facility for Teaching and Research in Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses factors in the design, commissioning, project management, and intellectual property protection of developments within a new clinical anatomy facility in the United Kingdom. The project was aimed at creating cost-effective facilities that would address widespread concerns over anatomy teaching, and support other activities…

  20. Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…

  1. Osseous and Ligamentous Scaphoid Anatomy: Part I. A Systematic Literature Review Highlighting Controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Buijze; S.A. Lozano-Calderon; S.D. Strackee; L. Blankevoort; J.B. Jupiter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The interpretation of scaphoid anatomy and kinematics is confusing and controversial. This results from a lack of consensus on the anatomy of the ligaments attaching to the scaphoid and an overwhelming variety of substantially different anatomic descriptions and classification systems of the

  2. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griksaitis, Michael J.; Sawdon, Marina A.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that…

  3. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  4. Genes and networks regulating root anatomy and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsman, Guy; Sparks, Erin E; Benfey, Philip N

    2015-10-01

    The root is an excellent model for studying developmental processes that underlie plant anatomy and architecture. Its modular structure, the lack of cell movement and relative accessibility to microscopic visualization facilitate research in a number of areas of plant biology. In this review, we describe several examples that demonstrate how cell type-specific developmental mechanisms determine cell fate and the formation of defined tissues with unique characteristics. In the last 10 yr, advances in genome-wide technologies have led to the sequencing of thousands of plant genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes. In parallel with the development of these high-throughput technologies, biologists have had to establish computational, statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the wealth of data generated by them. These resources provide a foundation for posing more complex questions about molecular interactions, and have led to the discovery of new mechanisms that control phenotypic differences. Here we review several recent studies that shed new light on developmental processes, which are involved in establishing root anatomy and architecture. We highlight the power of combining large-scale experiments with classical techniques to uncover new pathways in root development. PMID:25989832

  5. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola". PMID:21287970

  6. Use of synchrotron tomography to image naturalistic anatomy in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the morphology of anatomical structures is a cornerstone of biology. For small animals, classical methods such as histology have provided a wealth of data, but such techniques can be problematic due to destruction of the sample. More importantly, fixation and physical slicing can cause deformation of anatomy, a critical limitation when precise three-dimensional data are required. Modern techniques such as confocal microscopy, MRI, and tabletop x-ray microCT provide effective non-invasive methods, but each of these tools each has limitations including sample size constraints, resolution limits, and difficulty visualizing soft tissue. Our research group at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) studies physiological processes in insects, focusing on the dynamics of breathing and feeding. To determine the size, shape, and relative location of internal anatomy in insects, we use synchrotron microtomography at the beamline 2-BM to image structures including tracheal tubes, muscles, and gut. Because obtaining naturalistic, undeformed anatomical information is a key component of our studies, we have developed methods to image fresh and non-fixed whole animals and tissues. Although motion artifacts remain a problem, we have successfully imaged multiple species including beetles, ants, fruit flies, and butterflies. Here we discuss advances in biological imaging and highlight key findings in insect morphology.

  7. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Zhikun; Donoghue, Philip C J; Zhu, Min; Janvier, Philippe; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-08-17

    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, we describe the cranial anatomy of galeaspids, a 435-370-million-year-old 'ostracoderm' group from China and Vietnam. The paired nasal sacs of galeaspids are located anterolaterally in the braincase, and the hypophyseal duct opens anteriorly towards the oral cavity. These three structures (the paired nasal sacs and the hypophyseal duct) were thus already independent of each other, like in gnathostomes and unlike in cyclostomes and osteostracans (another 'ostracoderm' group), and therefore have the condition that current developmental models regard as prerequisites for the development of jaws. This indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.

  8. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Abigail J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet http://www.fishnet.org.au, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  9. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator.

  10. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  11. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  12. Anatomy of the Gynecomastia Tissue and Its Clinical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Mordecai; Hazani, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a very common entity in men, and several authors estimate that approximately 50% to 70% of the male population has palpable breast tissue. Much has been published with regard to the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecomastia. However, the anatomy of the gynecomastia tissue remains elusive to most surgeons. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to define the shape and consistency of the glandular tissue based on the vast experience of the senior author (MB). Patients and Methods: Between the years 1980 and 2014, a total of 5124 patients have been treated for gynecomastia with surgical excision, liposuction, or a combination of both. A total of 3130 specimens were collected with 5% of the cases being unilateral. Results: The specimens appear to have a unifying shape of a head, body, and tail. The head is semicircular in shape and is located more medially toward the sternum. The majority of the glandular tissue consists of a body located immediately deep to the nipple areolar complex. The tail appears to taper off of the body more laterally and toward the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle onto the humerus. Conclusions: This large series of gynecomastia specimens demonstrates a unique and unifying finding of a head, body, and tail. Understanding the anatomy of the gynecomastia gland can serve as a guide to gynecomastia surgeons to facilitate a more thorough exploration and subsequently sufficient gland excision. PMID:27622122

  13. Lower extremity compartmental anatomy: clinical relevance to radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomayan, Glen A.; Robertson, Fabienne; Major, Nancy M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham (United States)

    2005-06-01

    A thorough understanding of compartmental anatomy is necessary for the radiologist participating in the care of a patient with a lower extremity musculoskeletal malignancy. Localization of tumor to compartment of origin and identification of extracompartmental spread preoperatively are needed to correctly stage a tumor and determine the appropriate surgical management. An understanding of the locations of fascial boundaries, extracompartmental tissues, and neurovascular structures of the thigh and lower leg facilitates this diagnostic process. For the radiologist planning to biopsy a suspicious musculoskeletal lesion, consultation with the referring orthopaedic surgeon is recommended in order to jointly select an appropriate percutaneous biopsy approach. Adequate preprocedural planning ensures selection of an approach which prevents iatrogenic tumor spread beyond the compartment of origin, protects neurovascular structures, and allows complete resection of the biopsy tract and scar at the time of surgical resection without jeopardizing a potential limb-sparing procedure. Cross-sectional anatomic review and case examples demonstrate the importance of a detailed understanding of compartmental anatomy when approaching the patient with a lower extremity musculoskeletal tumor. (orig.)

  14. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  15. [VARIANT ANATOMY OF SPLENIC LIGAMENTS AND ARTERIES PASSING THROUGH THEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaivoronskiy, I V; Kotiv, B N; Alekseyev, V S; Nichiporuk, G I

    2015-01-01

    The research was performed on 15 non embalmed bodies and 32 abdominal complexes of adult individuals. The comparative study of variant anatomy of splenic ligaments and architectonics of arteries passing through them was carried out to substantiate the mobilization of splenopancreatic complex. Anatomical and angiographic restudied were carried out using preparation, morphometry, injection of gastric, pancreatic and splenic vascular bed with red lead suspension. It was established that the form and sizes of splenic ligaments and their interrelation with the branches of the splenic artery were variable. The minimal and maximal sizes of gastrolienal, phrenicosplenic and splenocolic ligaments differed 2-3 times. In most cases, spleen was fixed in abdominal cavity by many short ligaments. It was shown that architectonics and topography of main branches of spleen artery were determined by morphometric characteristics of the spleen proper and its ligaments. The knowledge of splenic ligament variant anatomy allows a new perspective to approach to substantiate different methods of the mobilization of spleno-pancreatic complex during surgical operations on organs of the upper part of the peritoneal cavity and organ-preserving surgery of the spleen.

  16. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  17. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  18. STUDENTS PERCEPTION ON METHODS OF ANATOMY TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Jaiswal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An opinion regarding curriculum, teaching methodology & assessment techniques in anatomy was taken from the first year MBBS students at People’s College of Medical Science & Research Centre, Bhopal with specially designed questionnaire. Materials and Method: Input from the students were collected from the 129 MBBS students of 2013-14 batch who completed first year MBBS. It was done by using a specially designed questionnaire comprising of points relating to the curriculum, teaching methodology and assessment techniques used at People’s College of Medical Science and Research Centre, Bhopal for its effectiveness and capacity to meet specific objectives need. Results: Majority of the students feel the curriculum can be taught in present one year duration. The best method of learning is the chalkboard and dissection hall teaching. Students agreed for multimedia teaching methods for better understanding. Majority students opined that the best method of assessment is part ending tests. Students favoured descriptive & short essay questions with MCQ as examination pattern. Use of visual aids is the best solutions for problems in histology and embryology. Students favoured teacher’s notes as a best source of study material. Majority felt that class attendance and internal assessment both considered for allowing students to appear for university examination. Conclusion: The study concluded that chalkboard teaching and dissection hall teaching would be the best approach for Anatomy teaching and learning and the best method of assessment is part ending tests.

  19. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  20. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  1. The Case Anatomical Knowledge Index (CAKI): A Novel Method Used to Assess Anatomy Content in Clinical Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Sekelani S.

    2009-01-01

    There are concerns in the literature that the use of case-based teaching of anatomy could be compromising the depth and scope of anatomy learned by students in a problem-based learning curriculum. Poor selection of clinical cases that are used as vehicles for teaching/learning anatomy may be the root problem because some clinical cases do not…

  2. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  3. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  4. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. PMID:26940715

  5. Functional anatomy of the mandibular nerve: consequences of nerve injury and entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Johnson, Elizabeth O

    2011-03-01

    Various anatomic structures including bone, muscle, or fibrous bands may entrap and potentially compress branches of the mandibular nerve (MN). The infratemporal fossa is a common location for MN compression and one of the most difficult regions of the skull to access surgically. Other potential sites for entrapment of the MN and its branches include, a totally or partially ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligament, a large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process, the medial fibers of the lower belly of the lateral pterygoid muscle and the inner fibers of the medial pterygoid muscle. The clinical consequences of MN entrapment are dependent upon which branches are compressed. Compression of the MN motor branches can lead to paresis or weakness in the innervated muscles, whereas compression of the sensory branches can provoke neuralgia or paresthesia. Compression of one of the major branches of the MN, the lingual nerve (LN), is associated with numbness, hypoesthesia, or even anesthesia of the tongue, loss of taste in the anterior two thirds of the tongue, anesthesia of the lingual gums, pain, and speech articulation disorders. The aim of this article is to review, the anatomy of the MN and its major branches with relation to their vulnerability to entrapment. Because the LN expresses an increased vulnerability to entrapment neuropathies as a result of its anatomical location, frequent variations, as well as from irregular osseous, fibrous, or muscular irregularities in the region of the infratemporal fossa, particular emphasis is placed on the LN.

  6. 2D and 3D stereoscopic videos used as pre-anatomy lab tools improve students' examination performance in a veterinary gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Sereen M; Coppoc, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis for the research described in this article was that viewing an interactive two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic pre-laboratory video would improve efficiency and learning in the laboratory. A first-year DVM class was divided into 21 dissection teams of four students each. Primary variables were method of preparation (2D, 3D, or laboratory manual) and dissection region (thorax, abdomen, or pelvis). Teams were randomly assigned to a group (A, B, or C) in a crossover design experiment so that all students experienced each of the modes of preparation, but with different regions of the canine anatomy. All students were instructed to study normal course materials and the laboratory manual, the Guide, before coming to the laboratory session and to use them during the actual dissection as usual. Video groups were given a DVD with an interactive 10-12 minute video to view for the first 30 minutes of the laboratory session, while non-video groups were instructed to review the Guide. All groups were allowed 45 minutes to dissect the assigned section and find a list of assigned structures, after which all groups took a post-dissection quiz and attitudinal survey. The 2D groups performed better than the Guide groups (p=.028) on the post-dissection quiz, despite the fact that only a minority of the 2D-group students studied the Guide as instructed. There was no significant difference (p>.05) between 2D and 3D groups on the post-dissection quiz. Students preferred videos over the Guide.

  7. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  8. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-01-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first-and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  9. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-03-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first- and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  10. CT findings of lumbar intervertebral discs: I. normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sectional anatomy of the intervertebral disc and spinal canal can be studied in detail by computed tomography (CT) which is not invasive and is much simpler than conventional myelography. The shape of the normal disc and distribution of epidural fat pad varied at each disc level and CT findings of the normal disc and spinal canal are essential in diagnosis of herniation or bulging. However, there has been no previous publications providing us with the detailed criteria of normal disc and neural canal cross-sectional anatomy. The present study has been carried out to investigate CT anatomy of the normal distribution of the epidural fat at each lumbar disc level to set up a baseline by which one will be able to judge disc herniation or bulging. The materials consisted of 30 adult volunteers. They were sampled randomly from the individual undergoing a CT study for the reasons other than spinal disease and having no symptoms or signs of the lumbar spinal disease. CT scans were performed with a Siemens Somatom 2 Scanner. Technical factors involved were: Tube voltage 125 kVp, exposure time 10 seconds, 460 mAS, 256 x 256 matrix, and pixel size 0.4 mm. Contiguous 2-mm thick slice of each disc were obtained parallel to the disc plane at 3-mm interval for 5 lumbar disc. The results are follows: 1. The shape of the posterior disc margins at L1-2, L2-3, and L3-4 levels were concave anteriorly in over 90% of the cases compared with the disc margins at L4-5 and L5-S1 where were convex or flat in over 85%. 2. None of the convex disc showed focal nodular protrusion nor were more convex than anterior margin of the disc. 3. The lower lumbar levels, the greater the visibility of the epidural fat pad. The visibility of the epidural fat pad in both lateral recesses was 81.5% at the L4-5 level and 100% at the L5-S1 level. There was no single case in which epidural fat pad was visable in only on side. 4. The visibility of the epidural fat just behind the disc was only 18.5% at

  11. Clinical anatomy and 3D virtual reconstruction of the lumbar plexus with respect to lumbar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zi-hai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure of the anterior or lateral lumbar via the retroperitoneal approach easily causes injuries to the lumbar plexus. Lumbar plexus injuries which occur during anterior or transpsoas lumbar spine exposure and placement of instruments have been reported. This study aims is to provide more anatomical data and surgical landmarks in operations concerning the lumbar plexus in order to prevent lumbar plexus injuries and to increase the possibility of safety in anterior approach lumbar surgery. Methods To study the applied anatomy related to the lumbar plexus of fifteen formaldehyde-preserved cadavers, Five sets of Virtual Human (VH data set were prepared and used in the study. Three-dimensional (3D computerized reconstructions of the lumbar plexus and their adjacent structures were conducted from the VH female data set. Results The order of lumbar nerves is regular. From the anterior view, lumbar plexus nerves are arranged from medial at L5 to lateral at L2. From the lateral view, lumbar nerves are arranged from ventral at L2 to dorsal at L5. The angle of each nerve root exiting outward to the corresponding intervertebral foramen increases from L1 to L5. The lumbar plexus nerves are observed to be in close contact with transverse processes (TP. All parts of the lumbar plexus were located by sectional anatomy in the dorsal third of the psoas muscle. Thus, access to the psoas major muscle at the ventral 2/3 region can safely prevent nerve injuries. 3D reconstruction of the lumbar plexus based on VCH data can clearly show the relationships between the lumbar plexus and the blood vessels, vertebral body, kidney, and psoas muscle. Conclusion The psoas muscle can be considered as a surgical landmark since incision at the ventral 2/3 of the region can prevent lumbar plexus injuries for procedures requiring exposure of the lateral anterior of the lumbar. The transverse process can be considered as a landmark and reference in surgical

  12. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  13. Evolution of leaf anatomy in arid environments - A case study in southern African Tetraena and Roepera (Zygophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Maximilian; van der Merwe, Pieter de Wet; Keßler, Lisa; Pirie, Michael D; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Kadereit, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    The dry biomes of southern Africa (Desert, Nama Karoo and Succulent Karoo) are home to a rich and diverse xerophytic flora. This flora includes two morphologically diverse clades of Zygophyllaceae, Tetraena and Roepera (Zygophylloideae), which inhabit some of the most arid habitats in the region. Using a plastid phylogeny of Zygophylloideae we assess whether the evolution of putatively adaptive traits (leaf shape, vasculature, mode of water storage and photosynthetic type: C3 versus C4) coincides with the successful colonisation of environments with different drought regimes within southern Africa. Our results show general niche conservatism within arid habitats in Tetraena, but niche shifts from arid to more mesic biomes with longer and/or cooler growing season (Fynbos and Thicket) in Roepera. However, these distinct broad-scale biogeographical patterns are not reflected in leaf anatomy, which seems to vary at more local scales. We observed considerable variability and multiple convergences to similar leaf anatomies in both genera, including shifts between "all cell succulence" leaf types and leaf types with distinct chlorenchyma and hydrenchyma. Our survey of C4 photosynthesis in the Zygophylloideae showed that the C4 pathway is restricted to Tetraena simplex, which also having an annual life history and a widespread distribution, is rather atypical for this group.

  14. Clinical and Radiological Classification of the Jawbone Anatomy in Endosseous Dental Implant Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review the classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, to evaluate the diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone, as well as to suggest new classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandible; mandibular canal; alveolar nerve, inferior; anatomy, cross-sectional; dental implants; classification. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to March 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies.Results: In total 109 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone were discussed. New classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was suggested. Conclusions: The classification system proposed here based on anatomical and radiological jawbone quantity and quality evaluation is a helpful tool for planning of treatment strategy and collaboration among specialists. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation.

  15. Computed Tomography Imaging of the Topographical Anatomy of Canine Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate the topographical anatomy of canine prostate gland by computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic imaging purposes. ÐœATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven clinically healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years and body weight of 10−15 kg were submitted to transverse computerized axial tomography (CAT) with cross section thickness of 5 mm. RESULTS: The CT image of canine prostate is visualized throughout the scans of the pelvis in the planes through the first sacral vertebra (S1) dorsally; the bodies of iliac bones laterally and cranially to the pelvic brim (ventrally). The body of prostate appears as an oval homogenous relatively hypo dense finding with soft tissue density. The gland is well differentiated from the adjacent soft tissues. CONCLUSION: By means of CT, the cranial part of prostate gland in adult dogs aged 3−4 years exhibited an abdominal localization. (author)

  16. ANATOMI DAUN PIPERACEAE DARI KAWASAN GUNUNG SLAMET, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Fatmawati Tihurua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomy of Piperaceae from Gunung Slamet, Central Java has made with standard  paraffin and paradermal method. The results showed that Piperaceae has dorsiventral leaf, hypostomatatic or amphistomatatic, tetracytic and cyclocytic stomata type. Hypoderm tissue exist in upper and/or lower part of leaf, mesophyll was arranged by 1-2 layers of palisade and 2-7 layers of sponge tissue. There were 3 types of trichome i.e. glandular trichome which had globose cell with short stalk, bicellular glandular trichome and multicellular & uniseriate non-glandular trichome. The shape of the crystal of Piperaceae from gunung Slamet are sand, needle, drusse or prismatic which distributed in hypodermis, mesophyll and midrib. Piperaceae petiole was arranged by open or sometimes closed circle vascular bundles. These open vascular bundles were crescent shape or resemble to U and V shapes. 

  17. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years.

  18. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g., myelin, iron, and water content) in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences. PMID:25018716

  19. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  20. MR imaging evaluation of neck anatomy in sleep apnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neck anatomy was evaluated by MR imaging in sleep apnea patients and healthy volunteers. The fascial layers of the neck divide the neck into an inner rigid compartment (muscle groups, vertebrae, and pharynx) and an outer flaccid compartment (skin, subcutaneous fat). Although the flaccid compartment doubled in cross-sectional area in patients with sleep apnea, the area of the rigid compartment also increased by over 30% relative to the area in healthy volunteers, resulting in airway narrowing. Rigid compartment enlargement resulted from an increase in the bulk of muscular groups, as well as from increased intermuscular fat. The epiglottis was not enlarged, while the volume of the tongue increased proportionately with the rigid compartment. No significant changes were detected in the relaxation times of either muscle or fat

  1. Clinical anatomy of the canine brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Edmund J; Mackillop, Edward; Robertson, Ian D; Hudson, Lola C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce an magnetic resonsnce (MR) image atlas of clinically relevant brain anatomy and to relate this neuroanatomy to clinical signs. The brain of a large mixed breed dog was imaged in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T MR unit and the following pulse sequences: Turbo (fast) spin echo (TSE) T2, T1, and T2- weighted spatial and chemical shift-encoded excitation sequence. Relevant neuroanatomic structures were identified using anatomic texts, sectioned cadaver heads, and previously published atlases. Major subdivisions of the brain were mapped and the neurologic signs of lesions in these divisions were described. TSE T2-weighted images were found to be the most useful for identifying clinically relevant neuroanatomy. Relating clinical signs to morphology as seen on MR will assist veterinarians to better understand clinically relevant neuroanatomy in MR images. PMID:18418990

  2. Horseshoe kidney: a review of anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Piagkou, Maria; Skotsimara, Antonia; Protogerou, Vassilis; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion, which is characterized by three anatomic anomalies: ectopia, malrotation and vascular changes. Patients with HSK are prone to a variety of complications, genitourinary and non-genitourinary. In this paper, the anatomy of HSK is delineated with a great emphasis on its blood supply. After reviewing the literature, the arterial supply patterns found by each author were categorized according to the classification system proposed by Graves. The majority of HSKs were found to be supplied by renal arteries derived from the abdominal aorta below the isthmus or by vessels originating from the common iliac arteries. In addition, the abnormalities associated with HSK are highlighted and classified in anatomical variations, congenital anomalies as well as in pathologic conditions related to HSK.

  3. Web-based stereoscopic visualization for the global anatomy classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Mathias; Dech, Fred; Parsad, Nigel M; Silverstein, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Many projects have focused on the improvement of virtual education. We have contributed with the global virtual anatomy course for teaching students in multiple locations with stereoscopic volume rendering, audio/video conferencing and additional materials. This year we focused on further simplifying the deployment of the classroom by using the new collaborative and web-based visualization system CoWebViz, to transfer stereoscopic visualization to the classrooms. Besides the necessary hardware installations for stereoscopy, only a web browser is necessary to view and to interact with the remote 3D stereo visualization. This system proved stable, gave higher quality images and increased ease of deployment. Its success within our classroom at the University of Chicago and Cardiff University has motivated us to continue CoWebViz development. PMID:21335801

  4. Peritoneum and mesenterium. Radiological anatomy and extent of peritoneal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abdominal cavity is subdivided into the peritoneal cavity, lined by the parietal peritoneum, and the extraperitoneal space. It extends from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs and part of the pelvic organs. The parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum are in sliding contact; the potential space between them is called the peritoneal cavity and is a part of the embryologic abdominal cavity or primitive coelomic duct. To understand the complex anatomical construction of the different variants of plicae and recesses of the peritoneum, an appreciation of the embryologic development of the peritoneal cavity is crucial. This knowledge reflects the understanding of the peritoneal anatomy, deep knowledge of which is very important in determining the cause and extent of peritoneal diseases as well as in decision making when choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach, whether surgery, conservative treatment, or interventional radiology. (orig.)

  5. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  6. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan eDraganski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g. myelin, iron and water content in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences.

  7. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  8. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in teaching dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth L; Galvis, Diana; Katz, Ralph V

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were: 1. to compare two methods of teaching dental anatomy-CD + lab vs. standard lecture + lab; and 2. to determine whether actively chewing gum during lecture, lab and studying would have an effect on learning. Only the written examination average scores for the gum vs. no gum chewing groups showed differences that appear to be educationally meaningful, though not statistically significant because of the limited number of subjects in this pilot study. This pilot study suggests that: 1. the cost-effective method of using a self-study CD is as educationally effective as a standard lecture; 2. gum chewing resulted in higher scores in the written examination; and 3. future, full-sized studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  9. SLAP lesions: Anatomy, clinical presentation, MR imaging diagnosis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Debra [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); MedRay Imaging and Fraser Health Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu; Mohana-Borges, Aurea; Borso, Maya; Chung, Christine B. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    ABSTRACT: Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are an abnormality of the superior labrum usually centered on the attachment of the long head of the biceps tendon. Tears are commonly caused by repetitive overhead motion or fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP lesions can lead to shoulder pain and instability. Clinical diagnosis is difficult thus imaging plays a key diagnostic role. The normal anatomic variability of the capsulolabral complex can make SLAP lesions a diagnostic challenge. Concurrent shoulder injuries are often present including rotator cuff tears, cystic changes or marrow edema in the humeral head, capsular laxity, Hill-Sachs or Bankart lesion. The relevant anatomy, capsulolabral anatomic variants, primary and secondary findings of SLAP tears including MR arthrography findings, types of SLAP lesions and a practical approach to labral lesions are reviewed.

  10. The use of thoracoscopy to enhance medical students′ interest and understanding of thoracic anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A AlNassar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a video-based educational tool designed for teaching thoracic anatomy and to examine whether this tool would increase students′ stimulation and motivation for learning anatomy. Methods: Our video-based tool was developed by recording different thoracoscopic procedures focusing on intraoperative live thoracic anatomy. The tool was then integrated into a pre-existing program for first year medical students (n = 150, and included cadaver dissection of the thorax and review of clinical problem scenarios of the respiratory system. Students were guided through a viewing of the videotape that demonstrated live anatomy of the thorax (15 minutes and then asked to complete a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire assessing the video′s usefulness. Apart from this, a small group of entirely different set of students was divided into two groups, one group to view the 15-minute video presentation of thoracoscopy and chest anatomy and the other group to attend a 15-minute lecture of chest anatomy using radiological images. Both groups took a 10-item pretest and post-test multiple choice questions examination to assess short-term knowledge gained. Results: Of 150 medical students, 119 completed the questionnaires, 88.6% were satisfied with the thoracoscopic video as a teaching tool, 86.4% were satisfied with the quality of the images, 69.2% perceived it to be beneficial in learning anatomy, 96.2% increased their interest in learning anatomy, and 88.5% wanted this new teaching tool to be implemented to the curriculum. Majority (80.7% of the students increased their interest in surgery as a future career. Post-test scores were significantly higher in the thoracoscopy group (P = 0.0175. Conclusion: Incorporating live surgery using thoracoscopic video presentation in the gross anatomy teaching curriculum had high acceptance and satisfaction scores from first year medical students. The video increased students′ interest in learning, in clinically

  11. The public display of plastinates as a challenge to the integrity of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy has been thrust into the public domain by the highly successful public displays of dissected and plastinated human bodies. This is anatomy in modern guise, anatomy as perceived by the general public. If this is the case, the message it is giving the public about the nature of anatomy is that it is an impersonal analysis of the human body of value within a medical and health care environment. While this is in part true, and while it reflects important aspects of anatomy's history, it fails to reflect the humanistic strands within an increasing swathe of contemporary anatomy. These are manifested in growing recognition of the centrality of informed consent in the practice of anatomy, awareness of the personal dimensions and relationships of those whose bodies are being dissected, and manifested in thanksgiving ceremonies involving staff and students. The notion that the bodies undergoing dissection can be students' first teachers and/or patients is gaining ground, another indication of the human dimensions of the anatomical enterprise. Exhibitions such as Body Worlds ignore these dimensions within anatomy by dislocating it from its clinical and relational base. The significance of this is that loss of these dimensions leads to a loss of the human face of anatomy by isolating it from the people whose body bequests made this knowledge possible. What is required is greater transparency and openness in the practices of all who deal with the dead human body, trends that owe much to the writings of scholars from within a range of humanities disciplines as they have responded to the public displays of dissected plastinated bodies. Anatomists have much to learn from these debates. PMID:26475081

  12. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.

  13. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Indian cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kedia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microanatomy features of cerebral arteries may be variable and may be different in different ethnic groups. Aim: To study the anterior cerebral artery (ACA anatomy in North-West Indian cadavers. Materials and Methods: Microanatomy features of the ACA were studied in 15 formalin fixed human cadaveric brains under microscope. The outer diameter, length, and number of perforating branches with respective anomalies were measured for each of the following vessels: ACA (proximal A1 segment to distal A2 segment, anterior communicating artery (ACoA, Recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH, and callosomarginal artery and photographed for documentation. Results: The mean length and external diameter of right and left A1 segment was 12.09 mm and 12.0 mm and 2.32 mm and 2.36 mm respectively. Narrowing, duplication, and median ACA were seen in 6.6%, 3.3% and 6.6% of the vessels respectively. Complex ACoA type was seen in 40% cadavers. RAH originated at an average point of 0.2 mm distal to ACoA, but in one cadaver it arose 5 mm proximal to ACoA. Double RAH was found in 26.6%. The course of RAH in relation to A1 was superiorly in 60%, in anteriorly 30% and posteriorly in 10% of cadavers. The orbitofrontal artery (OFA and frontopolar artery (FPA arose from A2 in 83.3% to 40% respectively. The mean distance of OFA and FPA from ACoA was 4.17 mm and 8.5 mm respectively. After giving rise to central, callosal and cortical branches, pericallosal artery terminated near the splenium of the corpus callosum or on the precuneus as the inferomedial parietal artery. Conclusion: Knowledge of the microvascular anatomy is indispensable and it is mandatory to be aware of the possible variations in the anomalies to minimize morbidity.

  15. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. PMID:24652648

  16. Roadmap for efficient parallelization of breast anatomy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Joseph H.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    A roadmap has been proposed to optimize the simulation of breast anatomy by parallel implementation, in order to reduce the time needed to generate software breast phantoms. The rapid generation of high resolution phantoms is needed to support virtual clinical trials of breast imaging systems. We have recently developed an octree-based recursive partitioning algorithm for breast anatomy simulation. The algorithm has good asymptotic complexity; however, its current MATLAB implementation cannot provide optimal execution times. The proposed roadmap for efficient parallelization includes the following steps: (i) migrate the current code to a C/C++ platform and optimize it for single-threaded implementation; (ii) modify the code to allow for multi-threaded CPU implementation; (iii) identify and migrate the code to a platform designed for multithreaded GPU implementation. In this paper, we describe our results in optimizing the C/C++ code for single-threaded and multi-threaded CPU implementations. As the first step of the proposed roadmap we have identified a bottleneck component in the MATLAB implementation using MATLAB's profiling tool, and created a single threaded CPU implementation of the algorithm using C/C++'s overloaded operators and standard template library. The C/C++ implementation has been compared to the MATLAB version in terms of accuracy and simulation time. A 520-fold reduction of the execution time was observed in a test of phantoms with 50- 400 μm voxels. In addition, we have identified several places in the code which will be modified to allow for the next roadmap milestone of the multithreaded CPU implementation.

  17. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial. PMID:26970390

  18. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  19. The first anatomy professors in the medical school of the University of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Androutsos, Georgios; Demesticha, Theano; Lappas, Dimitrios; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Piagkos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review is to add new elements to the international literature in relation to the birth and progress of the science of anatomy in modern Greece. Step by step, it outlines the efforts of prominent Greek anatomists to establish the course of the basic science of anatomy in the newly founded Medical School, the laborious effort to collect cadaveric material to compile museum anatomical collections and to gradually build the foundations of modern anatomy science at the Medical School of the Athenian University.

  20. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article.