WorldWideScience

Sample records for anatomy animal

  1. STUDY ON MULTIMEDIA ANIMATION SYSTEM OF ACUPOINT ANATOMY WITH FLASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  2. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael;

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal an...... digital models of animal soft and hard tissue anatomy in quality similar or superior to time consuming dissection, and we propose MRI and CT as valuable tools in future studies of animal anatomy in research and education.......Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal and...... imaging (MRI) and CT. Various species (tarantula, horseshoe crab, carp, haddock, lungfish, axolotl) were subjected to multi-slice MRI and CT protocols to produce 2D images of body slices, followed by volume rendering producing 3D digital models of animal anatomy with applications for visualising specific...

  3. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  4. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  5. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias;

    2011-01-01

    blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different...

  6. A professional view as zootomists about latinized names in animal anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Parés-Casanova, Pere M.; Kucherova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria represents a general agreement on the nomenclature of veterinary anatomy. This article compiles some archaic and irrational terms extracted from the latest version of the Nomina. This has led the authors to advocate the choosing of terms that can be more easily adapted to the vernacular, regardless of whether they are of Latin or Greek origin. Animal anatomists should consider the usefulness of Latinized words in nomenclature, even if they involv...

  7. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  8. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  9. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-fei

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springe...

  10. Considerations and Suggestions on Biological Safety of Animal Anatomy Experiments%动物解剖学实验的生物安全思考与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自强; 刘玉梅; 朱雪敏; 位兰

    2015-01-01

    Animal Anatomy Experiment is an experimental course and its content is mainly involved in animal operating. The biological safety problems existing in animal anatomy experiment are indispensable. In order to avoid the occurrence of biological safety problems in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching, some suggestions were proposed in this paper based on the experiences in Animal Anatomy Experiments teaching.%动物解剖学实验是以剖解动物为主体的一门实验课程,动物剖解过程中生物安全问题不容忽视。根据多年来从事动物解剖学实验教学的切身经验,从多个方面提出了控制生物安全事故发生的有效措施,以期能够杜绝动物解剖学实验过程中生物安全事故的发生。

  11. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  12. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  13. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  14. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  15. Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review ...

  16. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  17. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  20. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  1. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  2. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  3. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  4. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  5. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  8. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  9. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  10. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  11. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  13. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  14. A comparison of the effects of animal dissection and a computer simulation dissection program on students' knowledge of frog anatomy and attitudes toward dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Clark, Isabella

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of computer-simulated dissection versus the effectiveness of true dissection related to student achievement and attitude. Student achievement was measured by post-dissection and delayed post-dissection tests which measured students' knowledge on frog anatomy. Students' attitudes were measured by pre-dissection and post-dissection attitude surveys. The sample used consisted of 115 high school biology students from four classes taught by two teachers. The site had a student enrollment of 1243 with a minority population of 58%. Each teacher had one class that conducted a true dissection of a frog and another class that completed the Digital Frog 2 computer simulation program. Each group conducted their dissection for two days and then took a test on a real specimen. Two weeks later, each group was tested again on the same structures that were on the first test. Data were analyzed using t-tests for independent means and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results indicated that students who participated in the true dissection scored significantly higher on both the post and delayed post-dissection achievement tests. The academic achievements were consistent across gender, grade level, and previous science grade. Student attitude was also analyzed by calculating frequencies of the survey questions. Results indicated differences in attitudes between students in the true dissection group versus students in the computer-simulated dissection group.

  15. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  16. Neutron anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  17. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  18. Dorsal fin anatomy (Cetacean dorsal fin Anatomy)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cetacean dorsal fin Anatomy for ONR. Comparison within populations to ascertain phenotypic differences. Findings corroborate field observation. dorsal fin description

  19. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Kristoffersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  20. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  1. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  2. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  3. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  4. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  5. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  6. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye View complete NEI image albums ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

  7. Anatomy of The Anatomy of Racial Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Raphael

    2002-01-01

    In this review, I summarize and offer thoughts about two arguments key to Glenn Loury's analysis of the anatomy of racial inequality. The first concerns the idea that many negative stereotypes held about blacks in the United States are self-fulfilling, despite little evidence of inherent differences between the races in human potential. The second argument concerns the proposition that the racial stigmatization of blacks is deeply embedded in the public consciousness and that such stigma raci...

  8. [Viennese school of anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angetter, D C

    1999-10-01

    Anatomical science played a minor role in Vienna for centuries until Gerard van Swieten, in the 18th century, recognized the importance of anatomy for medical education. In the 19th century the anatomical school at the University of Vienna development to its height. A new building and a collection of preparations attracted a large number of students. Finally, a second department of anatomy was established. Political ideologies started to affect this institution in the beginning of the 20th century. Anti-Semitism emerged and caused uproars and fights among the students of the two departments. In 1938 both were united under Eduard Pernkopf, a dedicated Nazi and chairman of the department of anatomy, Decan of the medical faculty (1938-1943) and later on President of the University of Vienna (1943-1945). He was suspected of using cadavers of executed persons for the purpose of research and education. PMID:10546321

  9. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  10. An interactive anatomy dissection DVD

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sabah, Fadel YS

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy remains the cornerstone of medical education. Human anatomy has not changed, yet our understanding of the topic and the methods by which we teach anatomy continue to evolve. At present lectures, tutorials and human cadaveric dissection in the anatomy room remain central to anatomical education in the Republic of Ireland and throughout many parts of the world. With the emergence of new technologies, new teaching methods can be explored. In-house and on-line teaching of Radiology and...

  11. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  12. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  13. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  14. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  15. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  16. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile sk...

  17. The Madagascar Hissing Cockroach: A New Model for Learning Insect Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyborne, William H.; Fast, Maggie; Goodding, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning animal anatomy has a long history in the biology classroom. As in many fields of biology, decades of experience teaching anatomy have led to the unofficial selection of model species. However, in some cases the model may not be the best choice for our students. Our struggle to find an appropriate model for teaching and…

  18. Design and Validation of a Novel Learning Tool, the "Anato-Rug," for Teaching Equine Topographical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Francesca; Williams, Sarah B.; Weller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of anatomical landmarks in live animals (and humans) is key for clinical practice, but students often find it difficult to translate knowledge from dissection-based anatomy onto the live animal and struggle to acquire this vital skill. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate the use of an equine anatomy rug "Anato-Rug")…

  19. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  20. Who is repeating anatomy? Trends in an undergraduate anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F

    2016-03-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study, remediation rates and trends in an undergraduate anatomy course with over 400 students enrolled each semester at a large Midwestern university were identified. Demographic data was collected from spring 2004 to spring 2010, including students' age, ethnicity, major of study, class standing, college admission tests (ACT and SAT®) scores, anatomy laboratory and lecture examination scores, and final anatomy grades for each semester. Eleven percent of the students repeated the course at least once. Gender, ethnicity, major of study and SAT scores were all shown to be associated with whether or not a student would need to repeat the course. On average, students who repeated anatomy demonstrated significant improvements in lecture and laboratory scores when comparing first and second enrollments in anatomy, and therefore also saw improved final course grades in their second enrollment. These findings will aid future instructors to identify and assist at-risk students to succeed in anatomy. Instructors from other institutions may also find the results to be useful for identifying students at risk for struggling. Anat Sci Educ 9: 171-178. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26179910

  1. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority. PMID:18770971

  2. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  3. TEACHING ANATOMY TO UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  4. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  5. Carpal Ligament Anatomy and Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulos, Nicholas; Bozentka, David J

    2015-08-01

    A fundamental understanding of the ligamentous anatomy of the wrist is critical for any physician attempting to treat carpal instability. The anatomy of the wrist is complex, not only because of the number of named structures and their geometry but also because of the inconsistencies in describing these ligaments. The complex anatomy of the wrist is described through a review of the carpal ligaments and their effect on normal carpal motion. Mastery of this topic facilitates the physician's understanding of the patterns of instability that are seen clinically. PMID:26205699

  6. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  7. OLFACTION: ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  8. Surgical Anatomy of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jordan P; Zhu, Bovey Z; Desai, Shaun C

    2016-05-01

    Slight alterations in the intricate anatomy of the upper and lower eyelid or their underlying structures can have pronounced consequences for ocular esthetics and function. The understanding of periorbital structures and their interrelationships continues to evolve and requires consideration when performing complex eyelid interventions. Maintaining a detailed appreciation of this region is critical to successful cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. This article presents a current review of the anatomy of the upper and lower eyelid with a focus on surgical implications. PMID:27105794

  9. Anatomie et identification des bois

    OpenAIRE

    Jourez, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Anatomie des bois Structure anatomique des résineux et des feuillus Structure de la membrane cellulaire structure submicroscopique Anatomie du bois des essences feuillues tropicales Caractères anatomiques servant à l'identification des essences Reconnaissance microscopique du bois des essences résineuses et feuillues Duramen et duraminisation Formations anormales ( bois de compression et bois de tension) Chimie du bois Composition générale Cellulose, hé...

  10. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  11. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  12. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  13. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-01

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26669269

  14. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  15. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  16. Anatomy adventure: a board game for enhancing understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy Adventure, a board game on anatomy was designed to reduce some of these pressures, emphasize student centered and collaborative learning styles, and add fun to the process of learning while promoting understanding and retention of the subject. To assess these objectives, 95 out of over 150 medical and dental students who expressed willingness to be part of the study were recruited and divided into a Game group and a Non-game group. A pretest written examination was given to both groups, participants in the Game group were allowed to play the game for ten days, after which a post-test examination was also given. A 20-item questionnaire rated on a three-point scale to access student's perception of the game was given to the game group. The post-test scores of the game group were significantly higher (P game counterparts. Also the post-test score of the game based group was significantly better (P game was interesting, highly informative, encouraged team work, improved their attitude, and perception to gross anatomy. PMID:23878076

  17. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  18. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. PMID:23564745

  19. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdi, Madhuri S.; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H.

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  20. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  1. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  2. Computed tomography of the llama head: technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was performed on the head of 6 normal adult llamas. The animals were under general anesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency on the scanning table. The area scanned was from the external occipital protuberance to the rostral portion of the nasal passage, and the images are presented in both a bone window and a soft tissue window to allow evaluation and identification of the anatomy of the head. Computed tomography of the llama head can be accomplished by most computed tomography scanners utilizing a technique similar to that used in small animals with minor modification of the scanning table

  3. The name cranial ovarian suspensory ligaments in mammalian anatomy should be used only to indicate the structures derived from the foetal cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Schoot, P.

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe term ovarian suspensory ligament appears ambiguous when human adult anatomy textbooks are compared with human embryology or with general mammalian anatomy textbooks. The term ovarian suspensory ligament in laboratory rodents and domestic animals indicates homologous structures during foetal (the cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments) and later life (the cranial mesonephric ligament derivatives). In human foetal anatomy textbooks ovarian suspensory ligament is generally app...

  4. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  5. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost comple...

  6. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  7. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  8. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  9. Anatomy Live : Performance and the Operating Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Gross anatomy, the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unassisted vision, has long been a subject of fascination for artists. For most modern viewers, however, the anatomy lesson hardly seems the proper breeding ground for the hybrid workings of art and theory. We forget that, in its early stages, anatomy pursued the highly theatrical spirit of Renaissance science, as painters such as Rembrandt and Da Vinci and medical instructors shared audiences devoted to the workings of the...

  10. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Orebaugh, Steven L.; Williams, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "b...

  11. High precision anatomy for MEG

    OpenAIRE

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and ...

  12. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  13. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H

    2011-05-01

    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way. PMID:21601815

  14. THE VEGETATIVE ANATOMY OF KOSTERMANSIA MALAYANA SOEGENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of leaves, twigs, wood and seedling of Kostermansia Soegeng is described. A comparison with some species of Coelostegia and Durio indicates the close affinities between the three taxa, but also shows some differences in leaf anatomy, probably valuable for diagnostic purposes. The stomata in Kostermansia show a very remarkable arrangement in circles around the insertions of the scales.

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  16. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  18. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  19. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that emphasised on special features of the museum with special emphasis on sectional variety. Observations: The various techniques of specimen preparation, preservation, mounting and display were observed and photographed. The sectional variety was noted. Moreover the various methods of maintaining specimen related information in pictorial and computerised catalogues was observed. Results and Conclusion: A design of a contemporary anatomy museum can now be conceived that incorporates all aspects of anatomy from history, evolution, embryology, cross-sectional anatomy, comparative anatomy, teratology, genetics and clinical anatomy to sections with modern techniques like plastination. Such a museum will certainly have a more holistic approach to anatomy and will be more educative and scientific.

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  1. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum;

    2016-01-01

    to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers...... modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently two-dimensional screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...

  2. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  3. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  4. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  5. Anatomy studies for an artificial heart. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interval from February of 1972 through December of 1977, studies were conducted relating to the anatomical feasibility of implanting a total artificial heart system. These studies included both the calf as an experimental animal as well as the ultimate human recipient of the artificial heart system. Studies with the calf included definition of the thoracic anatomy relative to the size, shape, and vascular connections for implanting the blood pump. To test the animal's tolerance to an implanted engine system, mockups of the thermal converter were implanted chronically in various locations within the calf. No problems developed in retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal implants ranging from 8 to 15 months. A study to determine accelerations experienced by an abdominally implanted thermal converter was performed in calves. Under the most severe conditions, accelerations of a maximum of 34 Gs were experienced. The largest effort was devoted to defining the human anatomy relative to implanting an artificial heart in the thorax. From a number of data sources, including cadavers as well as living patients, a quantitative, statistical analysis of the size and shape of the male thorax was obtained. Finally, an in vivo study of a functional intrathoracic compliance bag in a calf demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  6. Use of synchrotron tomography to image naturalistic anatomy in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the morphology of anatomical structures is a cornerstone of biology. For small animals, classical methods such as histology have provided a wealth of data, but such techniques can be problematic due to destruction of the sample. More importantly, fixation and physical slicing can cause deformation of anatomy, a critical limitation when precise three-dimensional data are required. Modern techniques such as confocal microscopy, MRI, and tabletop x-ray microCT provide effective non-invasive methods, but each of these tools each has limitations including sample size constraints, resolution limits, and difficulty visualizing soft tissue. Our research group at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) studies physiological processes in insects, focusing on the dynamics of breathing and feeding. To determine the size, shape, and relative location of internal anatomy in insects, we use synchrotron microtomography at the beamline 2-BM to image structures including tracheal tubes, muscles, and gut. Because obtaining naturalistic, undeformed anatomical information is a key component of our studies, we have developed methods to image fresh and non-fixed whole animals and tissues. Although motion artifacts remain a problem, we have successfully imaged multiple species including beetles, ants, fruit flies, and butterflies. Here we discuss advances in biological imaging and highlight key findings in insect morphology.

  7. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  8. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Gyu [Seoul District Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  9. From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum; Wang, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional (3D) space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional (2D) illustrations, but in recent years 3D virtual modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low-cost 3D printers. In this communication, we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers in these fields to embrace this emerging technology. PMID:27069653

  10. From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum; Wang, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional (3D) space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional (2D) illustrations, but in recent years 3D virtual modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low-cost 3D printers. In this communication, we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers in these fields to embrace this emerging technology. PMID:27069653

  11. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  12. The zebrafish anatomy and stage ontologies: representing the anatomy and development of Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Bradford, Yvonne M.; Westerfield, Monte; Haendel, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The Zebrafish Anatomy Ontology (ZFA) is an OBO Foundry ontology that is used in conjunction with the Zebrafish Stage Ontology (ZFS) to describe the gross and cellular anatomy and development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, from single cell zygote to adult. The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) uses the ZFA and ZFS to annotate phenotype and gene expression data from the primary literature and from contributed data sets. Results The ZFA models anatomy and development with a sub...

  13. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy. PMID:18825005

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  16. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  18. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like structures called turbinates, ... which cold viruses attach. CAT Scan of the Nose and Sinuses The maxillary sinus (black) is surrounded ...

  19. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.)

  20. The anatomy and pathophysiology of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Geoffrey

    2006-04-28

    A basic knowledge of the anatomy and the interrelationships of the structures that make up the joint is a prerequisite for understanding the pathomechanics of the wrist. In the paper, the anatomy (especially including carpal ligaments) and the mechanics of wrist movements, also under load, are described. The features of the common wrist disorders that occur as a result of injury are also explained. PMID:17603435

  1. DESIGNING A CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY MUSEUM: ANATOMISTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath; Biswabina. Ray; Shakuntala R. Pai; Ramakrishna Avadhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that...

  2. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  3. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali D Deshatty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch of VIMS &RC, Bangalore were divided in 2 groups. Each group was having 50 students. One group was standard note-taking (SNT and other was mind map group (MM.Method: Same gross Anatomy topics were assigned for both groups. MM group was given training for mind mapping and asked them to study topic with mind maps. Theory exam was conducted on the given topic for both groups. Marks scored in the exam were compared. After exam a questionnaire was given to MM group to assess their opinion to mind maps.Result: Students belonging to MM group scored better than SNT group. Majority of students of MM group opinion was mind map as a better learning tool in gross Anatomy. Conclusion: Mind maps helped medical students in learning Anatomy. It should be encouraged as a learning tool in gross Anatomy along with standard note-taking method.

  4. How useful is plastination in learning anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael M; García-Sanz, Mari P; Moreno, Matilde; Hernández, Fuensanta; Gil, Francisco; López, Octavio; Ayala, Maria D; Ramírez, Gregorio; Vázquez, Jose M; Arencibia, Alberto; Henry, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    In recent years plastination has begun to revolutionize the way in which human and veterinary gross anatomy can be presented to students. The study reported here assessed the efficacy of plastinated organs as teaching resources in an innovative anatomy teaching/learning system. The main objective was to evaluate whether the use of plastinated organs improves the quality of teaching and learning of anatomy. For this purpose, we used an interdepartmental approach involving the departments of Veterinary Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Veterinary Surgery, and Education Development and Research Methods. The knowledge base of control and experimental student groups was examined before and after use of the fixed or plastinated resources, respectively, to gather information evaluating the effectiveness of these teaching resources. Significant differences (p plastinated specimens. Using these data, we were able to quantitatively characterize the use of plastinated specimens as anatomy teaching resources. This analysis showed that all the plastinated resources available were heavily used and deemed useful by students. Although the properties of plastinated specimens accommodate student needs at various levels, traditional material should be used in conjunction with plastinated resources. PMID:17446645

  5. The 2008 anatomy ceremony: essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2009-03-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a "diversity of experience," which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another's body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. PMID:19325944

  6. ANATOMY OF THE INGUINAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the inguinal region appears different by laparoscopic approach vs. open technique. There are some laparoscopic landmarks wich are useful for transperitoneal treatment of the groin hernias: in the midline, the median umbilical fold contains the obliterated urachus, the paired medial umbilical folds correspond to the umbilical arteries (obliterated to fibrous remnants and more laterally, the less proeminent paired lateral umbilical folds contain the inferior epigastric artery. Associated with these 5 folds it was described three paired fossae: supravesical (site of a rare type of indirect hernia, medial umbilical fossa (corresponds to Hesselbach's triangle - site of direct hernia and lateral umbilical fossa (corresponds to the deep inguinal ring - site of indirect hernias. The femoral fossa overlies the femoral canal and is below the lateral inguinal fossa, separated from it by the iliopubic tract. The extraperitoneal approach for groin hernia is also described; the landmarks for this technique are: bladder, Cooper's ligament, iliopubic tract, inferior epigastric vessels, gonadal vessels and the ductus deferens. The dissection of the anatomic landmarks, herniorrhaphy technique and Nyhus's classification are also presented. Conclusions: Laparoscopic approach for groin hernia are fesible. Transperitoneal approach is probably less difficult and it is able to performe a correct and "anatomical" herniorrhaphy; the opening of the peritoneum and general anestesia are the inconveniences.

  7. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  8. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  9. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  10. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    greater than 16 years of teaching anatomy and physiology are less likely to use video or animation in their classroom than instructors with fewer years.

  11. Digital dissection – using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard-and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J

    2013-01-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft-and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particula...

  12. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  13. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  14. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  15. Comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Goel; Abhidha Shah; Manu Kothari; Santosh Gaikwad; Prakash L Dhande

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. The variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed. Materials and Methods: Various dimensions of the bones of the craniovertebral junction of the horse, deer, and tiger were quantitatively measured, and their differences with those of human bones were compared and analyzed. Results: Apart from the sizes and weights, there are a number of structural vari...

  16. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  17. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. Susanne [Division of Radiography, School of Health and Social Care, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.s.hall@gcal.ac.uk; Durward, Brian R. [Educational Development, NHS Education for Scotland, Floor 5, Thistle House, 91 Haymarket Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 5HD (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  18. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet. Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions. Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1. The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped. The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris that travels along with the

  19. MIND MAP AS LEARNING TOOL IN ANATOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali D Deshatty; Varsha Mokashi

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: A medical student has to read vast portion of anatomy in short time period. Mind maps are multi-sensory tool that may help medical students organize, integrate and retain information. The purpose of this study is first to see how mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates medical students to learn anatomy better. Whether a relationship existed between mind-mapping and recall of information was assessed.Material: First year medical students (2011 batch) of VIMS &RC,...

  20. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssen, Dylan J. H. A.; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes.

  1. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondelinger, R.F.; Ghysels, M.P.; Brisbois, D.; Donkers, E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Snaps, F.R.; Saunders, J. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege (Belgium); Deviere, J. [Department of Gastroenterology, Erasmus Hospital, Free University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.) With 46 figs., 4 tabs., 24 refs.

  2. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.)

  3. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Papa; Mauro Vaccarezza

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching...

  4. The mouse–human anatomy ontology mapping project

    OpenAIRE

    Hayamizu, Terry F.; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A.; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse–Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-dep...

  5. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  6. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires

    2015-01-01

    Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely...

  7. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  8. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  9. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  10. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  11. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  12. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  14. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  15. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  16. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  17. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  18. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  20. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  1. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  2. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  3. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  4. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  5. Anatomy for blepharoplasty and brow-lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Larrabee, Wayne F

    2010-08-01

    The eyelids and eyebrows provide communicative, emotional, and protective functions through a complex interplay of muscles, tendons, and other local soft tissues. A surgical intervention involving these regions are renowned for their deceptive simplicity and notable complications. With these challenges in mind, this article provides the reader with a detailed and systematic review of the eyelid and brow anatomy. PMID:20524165

  6. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  7. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26003238

  8. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  9. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  10. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  12. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ren Sheng

    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported.To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans.Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs.Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW, vertebral body depth (VBD, vertebral body height (VBH, spinal canal width (SCW, spinal canal depth (SCD, pedicle width (PW, pedicle depth (PD, pedicle inclination (PI, dens width (DW, dens depth (DD, total vertebral width (TVW, and total vertebral depth (TVD.The atlantoaxial (C1-2 joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute.Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  13. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the ...

  14. LAPAROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Târcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of mini-invasive surgery determinates a rapid improvement in laparoscopic regional anatomy. As laparoscopy is becoming common in most surgical departments, basic laparoscopic anatomy is mandatory for all residents in general surgery. Successful general surgery starts in the anatomy laboratory. Successfully minim invasive surgery starts in the operative theatre with laparoscopic exploration. The initial laparoscopic view of the right upper quadrant demonstrates primarily the subphrenic spaces, abdominal surface of the diaphragm and diaphragmatic surface of the liver. The falciform ligament is a prominent dividing point between the left subphrenic space and the right subphrenic space. The ligamentum teres hepatis is seen in the free edge of the falciform. Upward traction on the gallbladder exposes the structures of Calot’s triangle and the hepatoduodenal ligament. The liver is divided into anatomic segments based on internal anatomy that is invisible to the laparoscopist. Surface landmarks include the falciform ligament and the gallbladder fossa. The surgical procedures performed laparoscopically currently include liver biopsy, wedge resection, fenestration of hepatic cysts, laparoscopic approach of the hidatid hepatic cyst, and atypical hepatectomy. We present the laparoscopic anatomy of extrahepatic biliary tract. Once the gallbladder is elevated, inspection reveals Hartmann’s pouch and the cystic duct. The typical angular junction of the cystic duct on the common duct actually occurs in a minority of patients and the length and course of the cystic duct are highly variable. The boundaries of Calot’s triangle are often not well seen. The cystic artery is often visible under the peritoneum as it runs along the surface of the gallbladder. The variations of the structures of the hepatoduodenal ligament may occur to injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cholangiography increases the safety of dissection of biliary tract by

  15. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  16. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  17. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  18. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  19. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  20. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  1. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  2. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function. PMID:21636695

  3. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an exc...

  4. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. PMID:27278888

  5. Sacral arcuate lines: Anatomy and pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sacrum is one of the most commonly radiographed bones of the human body as part of abdominal and pelvic radiologic examinations. This paper describes the radiologic anatomy of the sacral arcuate lines and presents a systematic approach to identifying pathologic conditions, for example, primary and metastatic malignancies, traumatic and osteoporotic fractures, vascular erosions from aneurysms, changes from neural tumors, and changes following radiation therapy

  6. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  7. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  8. Scaphoid fractures: anatomy, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Buijze, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in anatomy, diagnosis and treatment of scaphoid fractures. Anatomical inconsistencies are elucidated by accurate 3D imaging. Sophisticated diagnostic imaging cannot solve the problem of the suspected scaphoid fracture because there is no gold standard for a true fracture, and there likely never will be. Acknowledging that we can only deal in probabilities, the development of clinical prediction rules will help to better define and narrow those probabiliti...

  9. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, J; Baas, P

    1981-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the arms are important characters to separate the Asiatic genera. The hairs of Knema can be classified further into different types. Many species of Myristicaceae have a layer of cutinaceous, alveolar m...

  10. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, P; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the leaf margin. Outline and thickness of anticlinal epidermal cell walls, cuticle thickness, crystal complement, and stomatal size also vary, but often below the species level. The leaf anatomical div...

  11. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. PMID:27065241

  12. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  13. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  14. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  15. Veterinary science student preferences for the source of dog cadavers used in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, Catherine; Lloyd, Shan; Morton, John

    2011-10-01

    Live animals and cadavers are integral to veterinary education. In the year of this survey (2008), and in at least the five preceding years, cadavers obtained by euthanasia of healthy pound dogs and ex-racing greyhounds were dissected by students, during their veterinary anatomy classes at the University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science. Students may have ethical concerns about this. An alternative approach was to use donated dog cadavers. These are owned pet dogs that have died of natural causes or have been euthanised for medical reasons, and have been donated by their owners for the purposes of veterinary education. Veterinary students at the School were surveyed in 2008, in order to determine their preferences for cadaver source. Data from 406 questionnaires were analysed. Third-year and fifth-year veterinary students were more likely than first-year students to prefer pound-dog/greyhound cadavers over donated cadavers for anatomy dissection (p ≤ 0.002). Between 32% and 45% of the students had no preference for either source of cadaver. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that veterinary students become more accepting of the euthanasia of unwanted healthy animals for education as they progress through the veterinary programme, in contexts such as the current study. This could occur due to increased acceptance of the euthanasia of healthy animals generally, a decline in moral development, desensitisation, and/or the belief that healthy animal cadavers offer a superior learning experience. PMID:22103939

  16. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  17. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  18. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  20. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  1. Cognitive learning: new media to visualize human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Soliz, E; Sinav, A; Ambron, R; Molholt, P.

    2000-01-01

    The knowledge of anatomy is essential for all health care professionals. However, it has become extremely difficult to find qualified instructors who can fit into an academic environment that stresses research funding and publications for promotion. In addition, dissection, which is the best way to learn anatomy, is expensive, labor intensive and time consuming. We are developing electronic visualization media to augment the teaching and learning of human anatomy. We are creating programs tha...

  2. Vegetative anatomy and taxonomy of Berberidopsis and Streptpthamnus (Flacourtiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, P

    1984-01-01

    The leaf and twig anatomy of Berberidopsis and Streptothamnus are described in detail. The two genera are very similar in most aspects of their vegetative anatomy and together take a very isolated position in the Flacourtiaceae on account of their xylem anatomy and stomatal type. Differences in indumentum, crystal complement and epidermal cell morphology (whether or not papillate) support the distinction of Streptothamnus moorei from Berberidopsis sensu Veldkamp, i.e., including Berberidopsis...

  3. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  4. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  5. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  6. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  7. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal. PMID:27278889

  8. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  9. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA)

  10. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  11. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  12. Check Lists for Anatomy Learning by Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendersky, Mariana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a gradual restructuring of anatomy teaching strategies throughout the world, towards a more clinical orientation of the subject. To accomplish this, the basic theoretical information and cadaveric working is now complemented with the study of clinical cases and medical imaging. The information that can be obtained from the last ones is often so abundant that an effective and tidy learning becomes difficult. Many medical specialties use "checklists", as those routinely used in aviation, to ensure that the complexity of the task does not impede to remember every detail. Checklists have also been used in medical education, including anatomical dissectors courses, with good results. Their utility for learning anatomy through medical images has not been investigated yet. The aim of this work is to investigate whether the use of checklists can improve the recognition of normal anatomic structures using medical imaging. We have randomly selected 108 students belonging to the Third Normal Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (UBA. Checklists for each practical lesson were distributed by the web. Every student had access to normal images in the classroom, supervised by an assistant, but the use of the checklists was optional. Students were separated in two groups depending on whether the checklists were used or not, the latter was considered as a control group. We performed two separate evaluations in the first and the second third of the course, in which 15 structures were asked to be identified in normal Rx, CT and MRI. Scores were compared between the group using the lists and the control group, employing a Student's t test and considering as statistically significant p ≤ 0.05. Only 37 students chose to use the checklists. The average score in this group was 9.85 (65.66% correct answers, while the control group obtained 5.95 (39.66%: a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0002. No

  13. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  14. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  15. Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, free-living and fed baled timothy silage in summer and winter

    OpenAIRE

    Tove H. Aagnes; Svein D. Mathiesen

    1996-01-01

    The gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was investigated in reindeer calves (Rangtfer tarandus tarandus), free-living and fed two different qualities of timothy silage in September 1992 (summer) and April 1993 (winter) and related to the body condition. At both seasons nine male reindeer calves were taken from a natural pasture. Three animals were slaughtered directly (NP reindeer), three offered first cut (FC) silage and three regrowth (RG) silage ad lib., for 46 days. The FC si...

  16. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  17. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  18. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  19. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.

  20. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  1. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures. PMID:26589693

  2. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  3. The Use of Creative Projects in a Gross Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent; Mourra, Sarah; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung; Leonard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students often describe the gross anatomy course as both stressful and a rite of passage. Research differs as to whether the stress it engenders is significant or transitory. This qualitative study of first year anatomy student reports on the use of optional creative projects to promote reflection and reduce stress. Methods:…

  4. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  5. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  6. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  7. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  8. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  9. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  10. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  11. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  12. Molecular anatomy and physiology of exocytosis in sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Mark A; Pangršič, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Hair cells mediate our senses of hearing and balance by synaptic release of glutamate from somatic active zones (AZs). They share conserved mechanisms of exocytosis with neurons and other secretory cells of diverse form and function. Concurrently, AZs of these neuro-epithelial hair cells employ several processes that differ remarkably from those of neuronal synaptic terminals of the brain. Their unique molecular anatomy enables them to better respond to small, graded changes in membrane potential and to produce unsurpassed rates of exocytosis. Here, we focus on the AZs of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs). As in other hair cells, these AZs are occupied by a cytoplasmic extension of the presynaptic density, called the synaptic ribbon: a specialized protein complex required for normal physiological function. Some proteins found at IHC synapses are uniquely expressed or enriched there, where their disruption can beget deafness in humans and in animal models. Other proteins, essential for regulation of conventional neuronal Ca(2+)-triggered fusion, are apparently absent from IHCs. Certain common synaptic proteins appear to have extra significance at ribbon-type AZs because of their interactions with unique molecules, their unusual concentrations, or their atypical localization and regulation. We summarize the molecular-anatomical specializations that underlie the unique synaptic physiology of hair cells. PMID:22682011

  13. MR and CT anatomy of the axilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, K. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria); Morrigl, B. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Anatomy; Kathrein, A. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Trauma Surgery; Buchberger, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Judmaier, W. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Peer, S. [Univ. Hospital, Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Oser, W. [Central Inst. of Radiology, County Hospital, Feldkirch (Austria)

    1997-03-01

    Purpose: To depict the complex anatomy of the axilla with CT and MR imaging. Material and Methods: The axillary regions of 2 cadavers (with arms hyperabducted) were examined by means of CT and MR. In this position the cadavers were frozen and cryosectioned. The anatomical sections documented by the MR and CT images were compared and anatomical structures were designated. To show the reproducibility of the anatomical structures and to find variations, 20 volunteers were also examined by MR, and 20 consecutive patients without axillary symptoms were examined by CT. Results: The complexity of the axilla was excellently shown by both CT and MR, but MR was able to demonstrate more detail in the small vessels and in the brachial plexus. The comparability of the examinations of the different individuals was best in the axial plane. Some differences appeared in the coronal and sagittal planes caused by different positions of the arm. Conclusion: Axillary anatomy was demonstrated in detail and was reproducible with CT and MR imaging. (orig.).

  14. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  15. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. PMID:22334502

  16. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  17. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  18. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  19. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  20. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  1. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  2. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Shirley; Alves, Marccus; Scatena, Vera L

    2015-01-01

    Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid) have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis) in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed in Eleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments. PMID:26628020

  3. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  4. Aleph : anatomie d'une experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Lynn Silverman

    1993-01-01

    "Aleph, anatomie d'une expérience" est un documentaire ethnologique sur les techniciens et les chercheurs de la physique des particules du Centre européen de recherche nucléaire, le CERN, près de Genève. Le film, dont le tournage s'est échelonné sur quatre années, de 1987 à 1991, retrace les différentes étapes de la mise en œuvre, sur le nouvel accélérateur (le LEP) du projet Aleph ; la construction des différents constituants du détecteur dans les centres de recherche de l'Europe entière, leur arrivée au CERN, l'assemblage… jusqu'à l'annonce des premiers résultats, obtenus en 1990.

  5. Anatomy of a Lactococcal Phage Tail†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Grath, Stephen; Neve, Horst; Seegers, Jos F. M. L.; Eijlander, Robyn; Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Heller, Knut J.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Vogensen, Finn K.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family utilize a long noncontractile tail to recognize, adsorb to, and inject DNA into their bacterial host. The tail anatomy of the archetypal Siphoviridae λ has been well studied, in contrast to phages infecting gram-positive bacteria. This report outlines a detailed anatomical description of a typical member of the Siphoviridae infecting a gram-positive bacterium. The tail superstructure of the lactococcal phage Tuc2009 was investigated using N-terminal protein sequencing, Western blotting, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy, allowing a tangible path to be followed from gene sequence through encoded protein to specific architectural structures on the Tuc2009 virion. This phage displays a striking parity with λ with respect to tail structure, which reenforced a model proposed for Tuc2009 tail architecture. Furthermore, comparisons with λ and other lactococcal phages allowed the specification of a number of genetic submodules likely to encode specific tail structures. PMID:16707689

  6. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  7. PET/CT Interpretation: Abdominal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detail knowledge of abdominal anatomy is essential for accurate interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. The objective of this lecture is to provide the core knowledge and guidance about, peritoneal cavity, vessels, nodal, internal organ, especially liver segmental anatomy, and retroperitoneal spaces to nuclear medicine physicians in their interpretation of oncologic PET/CT. Peritoneal Cavity: The peritoneal spaces are easiest to recognize when there is ascites. The right subphrenic space communicates with anterior and posterior subhepatic (Morrison's) space. The left subphrenic space freely communicate with the left subhepatic space. The right and left subphrenic spaces are separated by falciform ligament and do not communicate directly. The lesser sac is the isolated peritoneal compartment between the stomach and pancreas. It communicates with the rest of the peritoneal cavity (greater sac) through the Foramen of Winslow. The right subphrenic and subhepatic spaces communicate freely with the pelvic peritoneal cavity thru the right paracolic gutter. The phrenicocolic ligament prevents free communication between the left subphrenic / subhepatic space and left paracolic gutter. Free fluid and peritoneal metastases commonly settles in pelvis as the most dependent portion of the peritoneal cavity. The small mesentery suspends the jejunum and ileum and extends obliquely from the left upper quadrant to right lower quadrant. Disease originating above the ligament is directed towards the right lower quadrant and below the ligament can spread to pelvis. The greater omentum hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach and descends in front of the abdominal viscera and serves as a fertile ground for peritoneal metastases. Vessels: The abdominal aorta descends anterior to the left side of the spine to its bifurcation at the level of the iliac crest. The normal aorta does not exceed 3 cm diameter and tapers progressively as it descends distally. The common iliac arteries

  8. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance. PMID:26909917

  9. Radiographic gastrointestinal anatomy of the foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate a technique for contrast gastrointestinal (GI) radiography and to define the normal radiographic anatomy of the foal GI tract as demonstrated by survey and contrast radiography. GI studies were performed in five normal foals. Right lateral standing, right and left lateral recumbent, and ventrodorsal (dorsal recumbent) radiographs were evaluated. The recumbent lateral and ventrodorsal positions were preferred, although the right lateral standing position demonstrated most structures. Radiographic positions that clearly identified a specific GI region were determined. The dosage of contrast medium used (5 ml/kg of a 30% wt/vol barium suspension) was adequate to outline the GI tract. Transit times allowed evaluation of the large colon within eight hours

  10. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the `time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition -- the `anatomy' -- of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either ...

  11. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    the two images. To elaborate further: a computational atlas of the average anatomy was constructed. Using non-rigid registration, image data from a subject is automatically transformed into the coordinate space of the atlas. In this process, all knowledge built into the atlas is transferred to the......The topic of this thesis is automatic analysis of craniofacial images with respect to changes due to growth and surgery, inter-subject variation and intracranial volume estimation. The methods proposed contribute to the knowledge about specific craniofacial anomalies, as well as provide a tool for...... detailed analyses for clinical and research purposes. Most of the applications in this thesis rely on non-rigid image registration by the means of warping one image into the coordinate system of another image. This warping results in a deformation field that describes the anatomical correspondence between...

  12. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  13. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r2=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p2=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  14. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  15. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. PMID:23625344

  16. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  17. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  18. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  19. A sculpture masterpiece for the teaching of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRASCU, DINU IULIU; CRIVII, CARMEN BIANCA; OPINCARU, IULIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The study of anatomy remains the backbone of medical education in the first years. There is a constant need for educational materials that enable the assimilation of knowledge by students. The casts after human bodies have not lost the value, even in the era of virtual education. We present in this paper a museal item destined to improve the anatomy teaching. Methods Given the existence in the department of anatomy from Cluj –Napoca of an item of exceptional artistic and sc...

  20. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  1. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  2. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  3. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  4. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  5. SPECT studies of liver and spleen - technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A SPECT methodology for liver/spleen imaging is discussed with emphasis on quality control, conduct of study-imaging conduct of study-reconstruction. Normal transaxial anatomy and common artefacts which can masquerade as intrinsic disease are described. Structured artefacts which can be mistaken for real anatomy may occur from three general sources: camera field non-uniformities; statistical noise; attenuation. Each of these has a characteristic appearance which should alert the viewer to their possible presence

  6. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was ...

  7. Comparative anatomy of teeth from past to present.

    OpenAIRE

    Alt K; Tuerp J; Brace C; Radlanski R

    1997-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of teeth has a long tradition in research, starting more than two thousand years ago in antiquity. In the 19th century, Richard Owen′s oeuvre Odontography (1840-45) contributed much to establish odontology as an independent scientific discipline. After a short outline of the historical development of the comparative anatomy of teeth, we describe the contents and importance of Owen′s Odontography. Finally, we sketch the contemporary situation of dental mor...

  8. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, ter, B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Malanea and Chomelia Jacq. are sufficiently similar in their wood anatomical characters to warrant retention in the same tribe. Machaonia, Timonius and Dichilanthe are anomalous. Suggestions are given ...

  9. The teleost anatomy ontology: anatomical representation for the genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Lundberg, John G; Midford, Peter E; Balhoff, James P; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J; Haendel, Melissa A; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  10. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, K.; Płachno, B. J.; Świątek, P.; Marciniuk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ...

  11. Building a Cell and Anatomy Ontology of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Y. N. Lee; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    We are endowed with a rich knowledge about Caenorhabditis elegans. Its stereotyped anatomy and development has stimulated research and resulted in the accumulation of cell-based information concerning gene expression, and the role of specific cells in developmental signalling and behavioural circuits. To make the information more accessible to sophisticated queries and automated retrieval systems, WormBase has begun to construct a C. elegans cell and anatomy ontology. Here we present our stra...

  12. Neuron anatomy structure reconstruction based on a sliding filter

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Gongning; Sui, Dong; Wang, Kuanquan; Chae, Jinseok

    2015-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of neuron anatomy structure is a challenging and important task in neuroscience. However, few algorithms can automatically reconstruct the full structure well without manual assistance, making it essential to develop new methods for this task. Methods This paper introduces a new pipeline for reconstructing neuron anatomy structure from 3-D microscopy image stacks. This pipeline is initialized with a set of seeds that were detected by our proposed Sliding Volume Filte...

  13. Vesalius and the emergence of veridical representation in Renaissance anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gül A

    2013-01-01

    The Renaissance marks the introduction of veridical representation of anatomical structure into printed books. For centuries, anatomy that had relied solely on textual description and the authority of the written word was transformed. An existing graphic tradition only visualized function within a humoral theory, schematically "naming the parts" or mapping the "uses of the parts" for mnemonic purposes. In the sixteenth century, anatomists and artist began to apply their knowledge and skills to present the "fabric" of the dissected human body with increasing detail and accuracy, exemplified by the naturalistic illustrations of the brain in Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (Basel, 1543). How did this transformation occur? Among the causal factors, the importance the humanist textual scholarship will be shown not only in the recovery of the anatomical writings of Galen (129-ca. 216), in particular, but also in providing a model in establishing anatomical "truth" by a method of "comparison." It will be argued that Vesalius' comparative approach in dissection, using both human and animal preparations against Galen's textual description, paved the way for cumulative observations of greater detail, which in turn required the representational skills of artists. An analysis of Vesalius' views between 1538 and 1543 shows a shift in the use of illustrations from serving as a visual record to compensate for limited access to cadavers in teaching, to becoming an indispensable tool to accurately convey detailed anatomical structure through the medium of printing. With the Fabrica, morphology became divorced from humoral function and enduring paradigms established that dominated until the nineteenth century. PMID:24041275

  14. Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhaus, R S; Burke, J M; Delori, F C; Snodderly, D M

    1995-07-01

    Recent anatomic work has shown that the capillary network of the fovea is multilaminar. We have identified the elements of this network that are visualized by fluorescein angiography and those that are missed. Fluorescein angiograms of monkey retinas (Macaca fascicularis) with good visualization of individual capillaries were obtained by standard clinical techniques. Retinal whole mounts were prepared from the same animals. Anatomic drawings made from the whole mounts were used to identify which parts of the capillary network were visualized angiographically. Angiographic estimates of dimensions of the foveal avascular zone corresponded closely to the anatomy. Capillary visibility declined rapidly from near perfect visualization at the edge of the foveal avascular zone to less than 40% by 900 microns eccentricity. While all the widest capillary segments (diameter 6.1-7.0 microns) were visualized, only 43% of the modal group of capillary segments (diameter 4.1-4.5 microns) were detected. When a relatively homogeneous population of capillaries was analyzed (diameters limited to the narrow range of 4.0-5.0 microns), visualization declined monotonically with depth in the retina. Capillary segments in the nerve fiber plane were visualized more than four times as effectively as segments of comparable diameter in the deepest vascular plane. High quality angiograms accurately delineate the foveal avascular zone, but they visualize only a fraction of the adjacent multilaminar network. Therefore, current techniques may not detect the earliest nonperfusion of capillaries in vaso-occlusive diseases. Capillary visibility is a joint function of diameter and of retinal depth. The decline in visualization with retinal depth implies that light scattering in the retina degrades the angiographic image. PMID:7556462

  15. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  16. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. PMID:24249485

  17. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. PMID:26061143

  18. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  19. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. PMID:21381214

  20. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  1. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  2. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  3. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.)

  4. Root anatomy of nine orchidaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia del Carmem Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the root anatomy of nine Orchidaceae species presented a multisseriated velamen, a parenchymatous cortex and a definided endodermis, in all the studied species (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara(Lindl. Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr. and Vanda tricolor Lindl. Structural characters, which could be considered root adaptations to an epiphytic habit, were also common for all species.As raízes possuem um velame multisseriado, um córtex parenquimático e uma endoderme bem definida, em todas as Orchidaceae estudadas (Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl., Dichaea bryophila Rchb. f., Encyclia calamara (Lindl.Pabst, Epidendrum campestre Lindl., Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Miltonia flavescens Lindl., Pleurothallis smithiana Lindl., Stanhopea lietzei (Regel Schltr.e Vanda tricolor Lindl.. Caracteres estruturais, que podem ser considerados adaptações ao hábito epífito, são comuns nas raízes estudadas.

  5. Monte Carlo dose mapping on deforming anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a Monte Carlo-based energy and mass congruent mapping (EMCM) method to calculate the dose on deforming anatomy. Different from dose interpolation methods, EMCM separately maps each voxel's deposited energy and mass from a source image to a reference image with a displacement vector field (DVF) generated by deformable image registration (DIR). EMCM was compared with other dose mapping methods: energy-based dose interpolation (EBDI) and trilinear dose interpolation (TDI). These methods were implemented in EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, validated using a numerical deformable phantom and compared for clinical CT images. On the numerical phantom with an analytically invertible deformation map, EMCM mapped the dose exactly the same as its analytic solution, while EBDI and TDI had average dose errors of 2.5% and 6.0%. For a lung patient's IMRT treatment plan, EBDI and TDI differed from EMCM by 1.96% and 7.3% in the lung patient's entire dose region, respectively. As a 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation technique, EMCM is accurate and its speed is comparable to 3D Monte Carlo simulation. This method may serve as a valuable tool for accurate dose accumulation as well as for 4D dosimetry QA.

  6. Anatomy of neck configuration in fission decay

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, S K; Satpathy, L

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of neck configuration in the fission decay of Uranium and Thorium isotopes is investigated in a microscopic study using Relativistic mean field theory. The study includes $^{236}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the valley of stability and exotic neutron rich isotopes $^{250}U$, $^{256}U$, $^{260}U$, $^{240}Th$, $^{250}Th$, $^{256}Th$ likely to play important role in the r-process nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution. Following the static fission path, the neck configurations are generated and their composition in terms of the number of neutrons and protons are obtained showing the progressive rise in the neutron component with the increase of mass number. Strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity in the fission decay and the number of neutrons in the neck is seen. The maximum neutron-proton ratio is about 5 for $^{260}$U and $^{256}$Th suggestive of the break down of liquid-drop picture and inhibition of the fission decay in still heavier isotopes. Neck as precursor of a new mode of fission decay li...

  7. The pathologic anatomy of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph considers pathologic anatomy and some problems of injury pathogenesis from external and incorporated radiation sources. The book is based on the generalized results of perennial authors investigations and literary data. The general characteristic of existing knowledge of the material substrate of different forms and types of radiation injuries, as well as of the dependence of structural changes on the nature and type of radiation, is given. Pathomorphology of organic manifestations of acute radiation sickness is thoroughly studied. The dynamics of structural alterations in blood ressels and their role in delayed trophic derangements due to radiation sickness are considered in detail; the peculiarities of infections and noninfections inflammatory changes in an irradiated organism and in the case of injuries due to the effect of incorporated radioactive substances, are described. Special attention is paid to the nonuniform external irradiation. Structural violations due to injuries caused by various radioactive substances and the peculiarities of their microdistribution in the case of different ways of administration into the organism, are described. Spectral attention is paid to delayed consequences of the organism injury by incorporated radioactive substances. The concluding chapter of the book presents the problems of differential pathoanatomical diagnostics of radiation injuries and their delayed effect due to generally spread nosologic forms of disease

  8. Arterial anatomy of the hallucal sesamoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bjoern; Notermans, Hans-Peter; Frank, Daniel; Walpert, Juergen; Deschner, James; Luering, Christian M; Koeck, Franz X; Koebke, Juergen

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones of the hallux. Twenty-two feet from adult cadavers were injected with epoxide resin or an acrylic polymer in methyl methacrylate (Acrifix) and subsequently processed by two slice plastination methods and the enzyme maceration technique. Afterwards, the arterial supply of the sesamoid bones was studied. The first plantar metatarsal artery provided a medial branch to the medial sesamoid bone. The main branch of the first plantar metatarsal artery continued its course distally along the lateral side of the lateral sesamoid and supplied it. The supplying arteries penetrated the sesamoid bones on the proximal, plantar, and distal sides. The analysis and cataloging of the microvascular anatomy of the sesamoids revealed the first plantar metatarsal artery as the main arterial source to the medial and lateral sesamoid bones. In addition, the first plantar metatarsal artery ran along the lateral plantar side of the lateral sesamoid bone, suggesting that this artery is at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as hallux valgus surgery. PMID:19644971

  9. Animal models for meniscus repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponti, Daniela; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Scotti, Celeste; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Martin, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The meniscus plays an important role in knee function and mechanics. Meniscal lesions, however, are common phenomena and this tissue is not able to achieve spontaneous successful repair, particularly in the inner avascular zone. Several animal models have been studied and proposed for testing different reparative approaches, as well as for studying regenerative methods aiming to restore the original shape and function of this structure. This review summarizes the gross anatomy, function, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the knee meniscus in several animal models in comparison with the human meniscus. The relevance of the models is discussed from the point of view of basic research as well as of clinical translation for meniscal repair, substitution and regeneration. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each model for various research directions are critically discussed. PMID:23712959

  10. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  11. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26580309

  12. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  13. The beauty of anatomy: visual displays and surgical education in early-nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2011-01-01

    The early-nineteenth-century artist, anatomist, and teacher Sir Charles Bell saw anatomy and art as closely related subjects. He taught anatomy to artists and surgeons, illustrated his own anatomical texts, and wrote a treatise on the use of anatomy in art. The author explores the connections among visual displays representing human anatomy, aesthetics, and pedagogical practices for Bell and a particular group of British surgeon-anatomists. Creating anatomical models and drawings was thought to discipline the surgeon's hand, while the study of anatomy and comparative anatomy would discipline the artist's eye. And for Bell, beauty made drawings into better pedagogical tools. PMID:21804185

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  17. Automatic anatomy recognition of sparse objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Wang, Huiqian; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    A general body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology was proposed in our previous work based on hierarchical fuzzy models of multitudes of objects which was not tied to any specific organ system, body region, or image modality. That work revealed the challenges encountered in modeling, recognizing, and delineating sparse objects throughout the body (compared to their non-sparse counterparts) if the models are based on the object's exact geometric representations. The challenges stem mainly from the variation in sparse objects in their shape, topology, geographic layout, and relationship to other objects. That led to the idea of modeling sparse objects not from the precise geometric representations of their samples but by using a properly designed optimal super form. This paper presents the underlying improved methodology which includes 5 steps: (a) Collecting image data from a specific population group G and body region Β and delineating in these images the objects in Β to be modeled; (b) Building a super form, S-form, for each object O in Β; (c) Refining the S-form of O to construct an optimal (minimal) super form, S*-form, which constitutes the (fuzzy) model of O; (d) Recognizing objects in Β using the S*-form; (e) Defining confounding and background objects in each S*-form for each object and performing optimal delineation. Our evaluations based on 50 3D computed tomography (CT) image sets in the thorax on four sparse objects indicate that substantially improved performance (FPVF~2%, FNVF~10%, and success where the previous approach failed) can be achieved using the new approach.

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  19. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  20. Web-delivery of anatomy video clips using a CD-ROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, T; Gilbertson, B; Coultas, J

    2000-04-15

    Until recently, anatomists had no doubt that the teaching of anatomy had to include cadaver dissection. However, due to a changing academic environment as well as challenged financial institutional resources, computer-assisted instruction was introduced into medical curriculum in an attempt to reduce the cost and the time committed to cadaver dissection. Computer-assisted instruction included locally created or commercially available anatomy software, Internet sites, and databases of digital images of cadaveric structures such as the Virtual Human Project. However, until now, bandwidth limitations have not allowed effective visualization in real-time over the Internet of recorded videos or 3D animations reconstructed from a database. We describe how to successfully link and display large video clips stored on a CD-ROM in support of lectures saved in HTML format on the Internet. This process, described in its totality, allows students to access audiovisual files on a CD-ROM through the Internet, from any location, with either Macintosh or Windows computers, using the Netscape browser. This process allowed us to circumvent one of the most significant limitations of the computer-assisted instruction on the Internet by delivering full audio and visual information on demand, as it would happen in a traditional classroom. PMID:10815812

  1. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  2. Anatomy of String Breaking in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Prkacin, Zdravko; Bali, Gunnar S.; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Schilling, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the string breaking mechanism in n_f=2 QCD. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static BBbar|QbarQ two-state system. The string breaking is visualized, by means of an animation of the action density distribution as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation.

  3. The Effect of a Prior Dissection Simulation on Middle School Students' Dissection Performance and Understanding of the Anatomy and Morphology of the Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph Paul; Andre, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Science teachers, school administrators, educators, and the scientific community are faced with ethical controversies over animal dissection in classrooms. Simulation has been proposed as a way of dealing with this issue. One intriguing previous finding was that use of an interactive videodisc dissection facilitated performance on a subsequent actual dissection. This study examined the prior use of simulation of frog dissection in improving students' actual dissection performance and learning of frog anatomy and morphology. There were three experimental conditions: simulation before dissection (SBD); dissection before simulation (DBS); or dissection-only (DO). Results of the study indicated that students receiving SBD performed significantly better than students receiving DBS or DO on both actual dissection and knowledge of the anatomy and morphology. Students' attitudes toward the use of animals for dissection did not change significantly from pretest to posttest and did not interact with treatment. The genders did not differ in achievement, but males were more favorable towards dissection and computers than were females.

  4. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Martone, Maryann E.; Mungall, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have expl...

  5. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  6. Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To design and program the multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment. Methods: By collecting the teaching material and images of 'imaging anatomy', the images were obtained with digital cameras and scanners, and processed with graphic software, and then the multimedia didactic courseware was archived with Dreamweaver MX. Results: Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy with friendly interface for network environment had been completed. Reliable, stable, and flexible operation in campus network and Internet environment was achieved. Conclusion: Being not conditioned by time and space factor, multimedia didactic courseware for network environment with an abundance of information and more freedom in teaching and studying, which saves manpower and material resources and makes an effective disposal of educational resources, will have broad prospects to develop. (authors)

  7. Scimitar syndrome: Surgical approach to an unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair strategies in scimitar syndrome are varied and need to be individualized to the surgical anatomy. This report focuses on the repair achieved in a case with unusual anatomy of the scimitar vein.

  8. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  9. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. Gregorc learning styles and achievement in anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1995-06-01

    Results from the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD), administered to 260 undergraduate nursing students, were compared with achievement scores in a human anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis and VARIMAX rotation demonstrate that there is no relationship between any of the four learning styles allegedly identified by the GSD and achievement in anatomy and physiology. Factor analysis also shows that the GSD measures only a single bipolar scale of sequential vs. random ability rather than two bipolar scales comprising four learning styles, as suggested by Gregorc. These findings question the validity of the GSD and recommend discontinuing its use as an indicator of learning styles. PMID:7598174

  11. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips. PMID:26441104

  12. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  14. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  15. Morden and traditional approaches to teaching students at the department of normal anatomy of BSMU

    OpenAIRE

    Давыдова, Л. А.; Чайка, Л. Д.; Жарикова, О. Л.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the most difficult basic disciplines in the medical curriculum. Use of modern teaching modalities and electronic technologies provides more efficient specialist training. At the department of anatomy of BSMU modern technologies are introduced in different forms of anatomy training: lectures, self study, and test control. Our experience supports the opinion that modern and traditional approaches should be integrated to optimize teaching anatomy.

  16. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  17. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  18. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  19. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  20. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  1. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  2. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  3. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  4. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  5. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  6. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  7. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from ocg@mail.nih.gov.

  8. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  9. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  10. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  11. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  12. Anatomy education in Namibia: balancing facility design and curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed toward simplification of work flow and ease of use by faculty, staff, and students. From the onset, the integration of state of the art technology was pursued to facilitate teaching and promote a student-centered pedagogical approach to dissections. The program, as realized, is comprised of three 16-week semesters with seven hours of contact time per week, namely three hours of lectures and four hours of dissection laboratory and microscopy time. Set outcomes were established, each revolving around clinical cases with integrated medical imaging. The design of the facility itself was not constrained by a legacy structure, allowing the School of Medicine, in collaboration with architects and contractors, to design the building from scratch. A design was implemented that allows for the sequential processing of cadaveric material in a unidirectional flow from reception, to preparation, embalming, storage, dissection, and maceration. Importantly, the odor of formaldehyde typically associated with anatomy facilities was eliminated outside of the dissection areas and minimized within via a high-performance ventilation system. By holistically incorporating an integrated curriculum, facility design, and teaching at an early stage, the authors believe they have created a system that might serve as a model for new anatomy programs. PMID:22213639

  13. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  14. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  15. Alternative Approach to Teaching Veterinary Anatomy: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Ronald; Render, Gary F.

    1975-01-01

    Students in microscopic anatomy at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine selected a self-directed or teacher-directed approach to the course. Adoption of the experimental approach described here increased faculty time for evaluating student progress but was supportive of student development particularly in cognitive skills and affective…

  16. The Case History Method of Testing Students in Gross Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of case histories to test a student's knowledge of the previous weeks' dissection in gross anatomy class is discussed. The test is seen as a way to integrate other basic sciences. An example of this type of test is provided. (MLW)

  17. The Evolving Neuroanatomical Component of the Foundational Model of Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Richard F.; Rickard, Kurt; Mejino, José L.V.; Agoncillo, Augusto V.; Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the need for an expressive ontology in neuroinformatics, we have integrated the extensive terminologies of NeuroNames and Terminologia Anatomica into the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). We have enhanced the FMA to accommodate information unique to neuronal structures, such as axonal input/output relationships.

  18. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  19. The Anatomy of Amnesia: Neurohistological Analysis of Three New Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    The most useful information about the anatomy of human memory comes from cases where there has been extensive neuropsychological testing followed by detailed post-mortem neurohistological analysis. To our knowledge, only eight such cases have been reported (four with medial temporal lobe damage and four with diencephalic damage). Here we present…

  20. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  1. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Golanó; J. Vega; P.A.J. de Leeuw; F. Malagelada; M.C. Manzanares; V. Götzens; C.N. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  2. Temporomandibular joint arthrography: normal anatomy and technique of examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is common. This entity is most often consecutive to internal derangements of the TMJ, which are not recognizable on plain films and tomograms. TMJ arthrography has proved a valuable tool in diagnosing these abnormalities. The technique of examination and normal arthrographic anatomy are reviewed. (author)

  3. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  4. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. PMID:25762466

  5. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically for…

  6. Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…

  7. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  8. Microscopic anatomy of vertebrates - a new course for UVPS students

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorošová, A.; Celá, Petra; Buchtová, Marcela

    Hradec Králové: Czech Anatomical Society, 2012. 54-54. [Morphology 2012 International Congress on Anatomy /47./ and Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /49./. 09.09.2012-12.09.2012, Hradec Králové] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : vertebrates Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  9. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  10. Seed morphology and anatomy of Hypericum elegans Steph. ex Willd.

    OpenAIRE

    Szkudlarz Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Hypericum elegans is a rare perennial distributed primarily in Central and Eastern Europe. Seed morphology and anatomy in H. elegans was studied on the basis of a seed sample from its only locality in Poland. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the seed coat of mature seeds is composed basically of 3 cell layers: epidermal, subepidermal and sclerenchymatic. They are documented graphically here.

  11. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    OpenAIRE

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation Trends in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we give a survey of animation content in education. At present, there is an extensive literature addressing the impact of animation in education and psychology fields. However, in animation field, although some software companies have developed their individual production toolboxes or platforms for animation content in education, there is lack of relevant research from the perspective of animation techniques. This paper first gives a survey of current animation content in educat...

  18. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [German] Die Handwurzel ist ein komplexes Mosaik von Skelettelementen mit einer Vielzahl von Gelenken und einem differenzierten Ligamentsystem. Die gegensaetzlichen Anforderungen aus hoher Belastungsstabilitaet und hoher Bewegungsfreiheit werden durch folgende Funktionsprinzipien realisiert: Die proximale Handwurzelreihe ist ein mobiles Glied, das zwischen die fixen Elemente des Unterarms und der distalen Reihe interponiert ist. Mit ''variabler Geometrie'' passt die proximale Reihe ihre Form entsprechend den aktuellen Raum- und Krafterfordernissen an. Am Handgelenk kommt es zu kombinierten Bewegungen in 2 Raumebenen, wobei die Radialduktion mit einer Flexion und die Ulnarduktion mit einer Extension kombiniert sind. In der Kombination mit den Umwendbewegungen im distalen Radioulnargelenk sowie den karpalen Abduktions- und Flexions

  19. Comparative quantitative analysis of osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of tiger, horse, deer, and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the osseous anatomy of the craniovertebral junction of a horse, deer, and tiger with that of a human being. The variation in the structure of bones in these animals is analyzed. Materials and Methods: Various dimensions of the bones of the craniovertebral junction of the horse, deer, and tiger were quantitatively measured, and their differences with those of human bones were compared and analyzed. Results: Apart from the sizes and weights, there are a number of structural variations in the bones of these animals that depend on their functional needs. The more remarkable difference in joint morphology is noticed in the occipitoatlantal joint. The occipitoatlantal articulation is remarkably large and deep, resembling a ′hinge joint′ in all the three animals studied. The odontoid process is ′C shaped′ in the deer and horse and is ′denslike′ in the tiger and humans. The transverse processes of the atlas are in the form of large wings in all the three animals. The arches of the atlas are large and flat, but the traverse of the vertebral artery resembles, to an extent, to that of human vertebral artery. The rotatory movements of the head at the craniovertebral junction are wider ranged in the horse and deer as compared with those of the tiger and humans. The bones of the craniovertebral junction of all the three animals are adapted to the remarkable thickness and strength of the extensor muscles of the nape of the neck. Conclusions: Despite the wide variations in the size of the bones, the basic patterns of structure, vascular and neural relationship, and joint alignments have remarkable similarities and a definite pattern of differences.

  20. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. PMID:24616425

  1. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan

    2009-01-01

    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  2. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  3. Resident Perceptions of Anatomy Education: A Survey of Medical School Alumni from Two Different Anatomy Curricula and Multiple Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…

  4. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  5. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  6. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  7. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  8. Modeling respiratory anatomy and physiology in VR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, J.; Metaxas, D.; Primiano, F. P.

    1995-01-01

    In trauma, many injuries impact anatomical structures, which may in turn affect physiological processes--not only those processes within the structures, but ones occurring in physical proximity to them as well. Our goal is to endow a 3D anatomical model with physiological mechanisms to demonstrate such effects. Our approach couples deformable object simulation for organs with physiological modeling, in a way that supports three-dimensional animated simulation. We demonstrate our approach through our current model of respiratory mechanics in a virtual 3D environment. Anatomical models that can capture physiological and pathophysiological changes can serve as an infrastructure for more detailed modeling, as well as benefiting surgical planning, surgical training, and general medical education. Images Figure 1 PMID:8563331

  9. The functional anatomy of impulse control disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Catharina C; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2013-10-01

    Impulsive-compulsive disorders such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, and shopping are side effects of the dopaminergic therapy for Parkinson's disease. With a lower prevalence, these disorders also appear in the general population. Research in the last few years has discovered that these pathological behaviors share features similar to those of substance use disorders (SUD), which has led to the term "behavioral addictions". As in SUDs, the behaviors are marked by a compulsive drive toward and impaired control over the behavior. Furthermore, animal and medication studies, research in the Parkinson's disease population, and neuroimaging findings indicate a common neurobiology of addictive behaviors. Changes associated with addictions are mainly seen in the dopaminergic system of a mesocorticolimbic circuit, the so-called reward system. Here we outline neurobiological findings regarding behavioral addictions with a focus on dopaminergic systems, relate them to SUD theories, and try to build a tentative concept integrating genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral results. PMID:23963609

  10. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  11. The effects of computer simulation models on middle school students' understanding of the anatomy and morphology of the frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Joseph Paul

    Science teachers, school administrators, educators, and the scientific community are faced with ethical controversies over animal dissection in school biology classrooms. Computer simulation has been proposed as a way of dealing with this issue. One intriguing tentative finding in previous research was that use of an interactive videodisc dissection facilitated performance on a subsequent actual dissection. This study was designed to replicate and extend that finding to computer-based dissection. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of a computer simulation model of frog dissection in improving students' actual dissection performance and learning of frog anatomy and morphology and (2) to determine whether the effectiveness of the simulation is dependent upon the sequence in which simulation is presented. Class periods were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: simulation before dissection, dissection before simulation, or dissection-only. Results of the study indicated that students in the simulation before dissection condition (SBD) performed significantly better than the dissection before simulation (DBS) and dissection-only (DO) conditions on both the actual dissection and on knowledge of the anatomy and morphology. There were no significant differences between the latter two conditions. Students attitudes toward the use of animals for dissection did not change significantly from pretest to posttest and did not interact with treatment. The genders did not differ in achievement, but males were more favorable towards dissection and computers than were females. Attitudes were not influenced by the experimental treatments.

  12. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  14. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  17. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  19. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  20. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  1. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  2. Visualization Cardiac Human Anatomy using Augmented Reality Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Hamidy Hazidar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is currently widely researched and rapidly evolving. This technology supplements the real world with composite 3D virtual objects that are integrated into the real world. This technology is very interesting and interactive. Augmented reality and Smartphone used as well as the interactive media and rarely used as a medium for the introduction of the human bodies. The aim of Cardiac Learning Detection (CLD assists students in the medical field in understanding the concepts of learning materials presented interactively by the system, especially cardiac anatomy human bodies and is able to provide more information than delivered through conventional teaching methods. For this reason, in this research were made augmented reality on visual technique as a medium to introduce the cardiac anatomy human

  3. ECOLOGICAL WOOD ANATOMY OF Blepharocalyx salicifolius (H. B. K. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Denardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the comparison of the wood anatomy of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (H. B. K. Berg (Myrtaceae from two provenances in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. There were collected 6 samples of wood; three from “Serra do Sudeste” and the others from “Campos de Cima da Serra”. The wood anatomical features did not express relevant differences between provenances, with the exception of pith flecks. With respect to the quantitative features, on the other hand, there were found important differences in the structure of vessels, axial parenchyma, rays and fibres. For the “Serra do Sudeste” samples, there were found xeric evidences in the wood: a larger number of small vessels, besides shorter vessel members and fibres, in comparison with those from the “Campos de Cima da Serra” region. The differences in the wood anatomy may be interpreted as adaptative responses to environmental conditions.

  4. ANATOMY CURRICULUM DELIVERY TRADITIONAL VS MODULAR (INTEGRATED BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Boddeti,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The main objective to introduce the anatomy in the medical profession is aims at providing com-prehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of human body and to providea basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis forthe disease presentations. Since the decades right from the birth of medicine to till now anatomyis consid-ered as a core subject and its knowledge is very essential to get into the medical profession.As perthe veryrecent updates in medical curriculum, tremendous changes were taken place in the delivery of anatomycur-riculum especially to the undergraduate students, curriculum delivery gradually changing towards thetradi-tional (Regional to the modular basis (Integrated.This paper aims to differentiate the various fitfalls in thetraditional and modular delivery of the curriculum especially in relation to anatomy.

  5. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    students, sharing a unique experience. The implications for curricular development and professionalism are discussed, and this article argues that the issue of professionalism must be addressed in the educational process in the preclinical years and in relation to the basic sciences....... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students are in...... their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical...

  6. Scapholunate Interosseous Ligament Anatomy and Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Prashant V; Day, Charles S

    2015-08-01

    Injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament is one of the most common causes of carpal instability and can impart considerable compromise to the patient's hand function. However, the management of scapholunate ligament injuries remains a dynamic concept, especially with regard to the multitude of options and techniques that exist for its surgical treatment. We present a thorough review of scapholunate anatomy and morphology, and the role of the scapholunate articulations in the kinetics and pathomechanics of wrist instability. We also review the current literature on the biomechanical properties of the scapholunate ligament and its subcomponents. A sound understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapholunate ligament can clarify its instability and may better orient current reconstructive procedures or pioneer better future techniques. PMID:26143029

  7. Upper extremity compartmental anatomy: clinical relevance to radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomayan, Glen A.; Robertson, Fabienne; Major, Nancy M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Malignant tumors of the upper extremity are uncommon, and their care should be referred to specialized facilities with experience treating these lesions. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) staging system is used by the surgeon to determine appropriate surgical management, assess prognosis, and communicate with other healthcare providers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is employed pre-operatively to identify a lesion's compartment of origin, determine extent of spread, and plan biopsy and resection approaches. Involvement of neurovascular structures may result in devastating loss of upper extremity function, requiring amputation. Violation of high-resistance compartmental barriers necessitates more extensive surgical resection. Biopsy may be performed by the radiologist using imaging guidance. Knowledge of compartmental anatomy allows the radiologist or surgeon to use an easily excisable biopsy approach and prevent iatrogenic spread to unaffected compartments. Case examples are presented to illustrate the importance of compartmental anatomy in the management of benign and malignant upper extremity tumors. (orig.)

  8. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. PMID:21919951

  9. Burton's Anatomy and the Intellectual Traditions of Melancholy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Gowland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the ways in which Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy (1621 inherited and transformed the various European traditions of thinking about melancholy. It divides these traditions into four categories—medical, natural-philosophical, moral-philosophical, and theological—and surveys their conceptual contents from antiquity to the late Renaissance. Whilst the Anatomy summarises these traditions, it also modified them in notable ways, fusing medical and moral theory, but also extending the reach of medicine into the religious domain. Paradoxically, however, Burton’s medicalisation of the moral and theological traditions of melancholy gave them a conceptual coherence which they had previously lacked, and contributed to their persistence beyond the seventeenth century.

  10. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  11. Effectiveness of a radiology-anatomy instructional module in a clinical course on oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insufficient knowledge of anatomy often complicates the interpretation of radiological findings by students learning clinical medicine. During a 3-week clinical course in oral radiology, students attended lectures on anatomy for half of each day. Our objectives were to evaluate this program and determine why some students remained unmotivated to learn anatomy. Surveys were carried out using two questionnaires, one for evaluating the students' beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy and their understanding of radiology and anatomy, and the other for determining the value of the educational program. In total, 126 questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modeling and decision analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. Beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy were explained by three variables: the necessity of knowing imaging anatomy, the necessity of knowing gross anatomy, and understanding of anatomy. Awareness of the necessity of knowing anatomy and understanding of graphical images were not strongly correlated. The educational program was characterized by two factors: 'value' and 'appropriateness' These were strongly correlated. Student interest in the content of the course was found to be the most important factor in student evaluations of the educational program. Students who answered 'agree', 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' to three items, interested in the content of the course', 'obtained knowledge through the course' and 'expected the course to be useful in the near future were likely to have insufficient understanding of and awareness of the necessity of radiology and anatomy. The inclusion of lectures on anatomy is beneficial for improving student understanding of oral radiology. Student interest in the content is important in evaluations of radiology-anatomy programs. (author)

  12. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Gali; Hector Campora de Sousa Oliveira; Bruno Cesar Bracher Lisboa; Bruno DiSerio Dias; Fabiana de Godoy Casimiro; Edie Benedito Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained wer...

  13. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  14. Comparative Wood Anatomy of Epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    OpenAIRE

    LENS, F.; Gasson, P.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 16 of the 37 genera within the epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) is investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features in the secondary xylem occur consistently at the tribal level: arrangement of vessel-ray pits, distribution of axial parenchyma, ray width, and the presence and location of crystals. The primitive nature of Prionoteae and Archerieae is supported by the presence of scalariform perforation plates with many bars and scalariform t...

  15. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  16. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrou...

  17. How anatomy can guide ablation in isthmic atrial flutter

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rodríguez, José Ángel; Ho, Siew Yen; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián

    2009-01-01

    Although most ablative procedures undertaken for common atrial flutter target the inferior right atrial isthmus, comparative studies of the morphology of this area are lacking. Our study examines its angiographic anatomy, making correlations with postmortem specimens, to provide a better understanding of the anatomic substrate of this arrhythmia. The gross morphological features and dimensions of the area between the orifice of the inferior caval vein and the attachment of the septal leafl...

  18. On the functional anatomy of the urge-for-action

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R. Jackson; Parkinson, Amy; Kim, So Young; Schüermann, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Proverbio, Alice Mado; Belluscio, Beth A; Tinaz, Sule; Hallett, Mark; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Huepe, David; Ibáñez, Agustín; Nachev, Parashkev; de Haan, Edward H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Several common neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome (TS), autistic spectrum disorder) are associated with unpleasant bodily sensations that are perceived as an urge for action. Similarly, many of our everyday behaviors are also characterized by bodily sensations that we experience as urges for action. Where do these urges originate? In this paper, we consider the nature and the functional anatomy of “urges-for-action,” both in the context of every...

  19. An anatomy of financial crises in Norway, 1830-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Grytten, Ola Honningdal; Hunnes, Arngrim

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a novel dataset, the article investigates the anatomy of financial crises in Norway from 1830 to 2010. First, nine significant crises are identified. Second, the article examines spillover effects on the real economy. We find a clear but not symmetric relationship. Third, the article investigates key patterns in credit and money volumes. Major financial crises typically occurred after substantial money and credit expansion, causing financial instability.

  20. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  1. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    OpenAIRE

    Polverino Mario; Polverino Francesca; Fasolino Marco; Andò Filippo; Alfieri Antonio; De Blasio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the...

  2. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structu...

  3. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan eDraganski; Ferath eKherif; Antoine eLutti

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure cha...

  4. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  5. ANATOMY AND FIBER TYPE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN INTERARYTENOID MUSCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Tellis, Cari M.; Rosen, Clark; Thekdi, Apurva; Sciote, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic laryngeal muscle investigations, especially those of the interarytenoid (IA) muscle, have been primarily teleologically based. We determined IA muscle anatomy and histochemical and immunohistochemical classification of extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibers in 5 patients. Extrafusal fibers were oxidative type I and glycolytic types IIA and IIX. Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles were identified by the presence of tonic and neonatal myosin. The results demonstrate that t...

  6. Flips, flops and foreclosures: anatomy of a real estate bubble

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Depken II; Harris Hollans; Steve Swidler

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the anatomy of a real estate bubble. In the process, the paper identifies three phases of the market's evolution: flips, flops and foreclosures. An examination of the Las Vegas real estate market illustrates the three phases. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines transaction data from the metropolitan Las Vegas area (Clark County) from 1994 to 2009. The first part of the analysis identifies the three phases of the bubble and is descriptive in na...

  7. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  8. Single ventricle anatomy predicts delayed microstructural brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Viyeka; Tabbutt, Sarah; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Harris, Kevin C.; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Campbell, Andrew; Azakie, Anthony; Xu, Duan; Barkovich, Anthony J.; Steven P. Miller; McQuillen, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Term newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) show delayed brain development as early as the third trimester, especially in single ventricle physiology (SVP). Mechanisms causing delayed brain development in CHD are uncertain, but may include impaired fetal brain blood flow. Our objective was to determine if cardiac anatomy associated with obstruction to antegrade flow in the ascending aorta is predictive of delayed brain development measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) an...

  9. Normal anatomy and aneurysms of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the existing anatomical knowledge and the nomenclature used in describing the normal anatomy of the MCA and its main and cortical branches. The different classifications now available have led to anatomical and terminological confusion and inaccuracy. In this study, it is proposed to make out a new classification and to correlate this with the radiological and operative findings in patients with MCA aneurysms. (orig.)

  10. Surgical significance of variations in anatomy in the biliary region

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq Ul Hassan; Showqat A. Zargar; Aijaz Malik; Pervez Shah

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the anatomy of the gallbladder, the bile ducts, and the arteries that supply them and the liver are important to the surgeon, because failure to recognize them can cause iatrogenic injury to the biliary tract. A surgeon should be always be careful while operating in this area. In addition these anomalies are associated with a range of other congenital anomalies, including biliary atresia and cardiovascular or other gastrointestinal malformations, biliary lithiasis, choledochal c...

  11. Clinical anatomy of greater petrosal nerve and its surgical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards greater petrosal nerve has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomy of the facial nerve. The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify for identification of the greater petrosal nerve so as to avoid injury to the structures in the middle cranial fossa. Observation and Results: The present study is carried out on 100 temporal bones by examining the following measurements of the right and t...

  12. Chemistry and anatomy of the frontal gland in termite imagoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Cvačka, Josef; Valterová, Irena

    Tours: ISCE, 2010. s. 299-299. [International Society of Chemical Ecology. Annual Meeting /26./. 31.07.2010-04.08.2010, Tours] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614; GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : frontal gland * termites * anatomy * imagoes * chemical composition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Midsagittal Anatomy of Lumbar Lordosis in Adult Egyptians: MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hegazy, Abdelmonem A.; Hegazy, Raafat A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. Th...

  14. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ)

  15. The eye and visual nervous system: anatomy, physiology and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaa, C S

    1982-01-01

    The eyes are at risk to environmental injury by direct exposure to airborne pollutants, to splash injury from chemicals and to exposure via the circulatory system to numerous drugs and bloodborne toxins. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

  16. OntoAna: Domain Ontology for Human Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vashisth, Archana; Mathur, Iti; Joshi, Nisheeth

    2012-01-01

    Today, we can find many search engines which provide us with information which is more operational in nature. None of the search engines provide domain specific information. This becomes very troublesome to a novice user who wishes to have information in a particular domain. In this paper, we have developed an ontology which can be used by a domain specific search engine. We have developed an ontology on human anatomy, which captures information regarding cardiovascular system, digestive syst...

  17. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  18. Temporal, 3-dimensional, cellular anatomy of corneal wound tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Jester, J V; Petroll, W M; Barry, P. A.; Cavanagh, H D

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated temporally the 3-dimensional cellular anatomy of corneal wound tissue in the rabbit eye using in vivo tandem scanning confocal microscopy. In vivo microscopic studies showed that corneal fibroblast migrated into the wound as an interconnected cellular meshwork with long, thin, randomly oriented cell processes. Interconnection of fibroblasts was further confirmed by localisation of monoclonal antibodies to connexin 43 which demonstrated prominent staining of putative gap junc...

  19. Anatomy of a new B-cell-specific enhancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, W; Benoist, C.; Mathis, D

    1989-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, like the immunoglobulins, are prominent B-lymphocyte markers. Herein, we describe a B-cell-specific enhancer associated with the murine class II gene, Ek alpha. This enhancer has a complex anatomy that suggests interactions between remotely spaced elements. Of particular interest is the finding that two CCAAT boxes spaced one kilobase apart are important for enhancer activity. Somewhat surprisingly, the E alpha and immunoglobulin enhanc...

  20. Proposed Classification of Cells in the Foundational Model of Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Agoncillo, Augusto V.; Mejino, José L.V.; Rickard, Kurt L.; Detwiler, Landon T; Rosse, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    A logical and principled representation of cell types and their component parts could serve as a framework for correlating the various ontologies that are emerging in bioinformatics with a focus on cells and subcellular biological entities. In order to address this need we have extended the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA)1,2 from macroscopic to cellular and subcellular anatomical entities. The poster will provide a live demonstration of this implementation.

  1. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  2. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides practice test material and tips for the FRCR part 1 Anatomy exam in its new format. Covers all core topics in the exam. Assists readers in identifying the level of knowledge of anatomical detail expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. Three years after the publication of the first edition, Radiological Anatomy for FRCR Part 1 remains the best seller in its category based on its faithful representation of the examination. This second edition is designed to reflect the change in exam format introduced in spring 2013. It includes two new chapters as well as some new cases in the remaining chapters and tests. Under the new exam format, candidates will be presented with 100 cases, with a single question per case and a single mark for the correct answer. This book covers all core topics addressed by the exam in a series of tests and includes chapters focussing specifically on paediatric cases and normal anatomical variants. The answers to questions, along with explanations and tips, are supplied at the end of each chapter. Care has been taken throughout to simulate the exam itself. The book aims not to replace the already available literature on radiological anatomy but rather to complement it as a revision guide. It will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists.

  3. Antenatal Three-Dimensional Printing of Aberrant Facial Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKoevering, Kyle K; Morrison, Robert J; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Torres, Maria F Ladino; Mychaliska, George B; Treadwell, Marjorie C; Hollister, Scott J; Green, Glenn E

    2015-11-01

    Congenital airway obstruction poses a life-threatening challenge to the newborn. We present the first case of three-dimensional (3D) modeling and 3D printing of complex fetal maxillofacial anatomy after prenatal ultrasound indicated potential upper airway obstruction from a midline mass of the maxilla. Using fetal MRI and patient-specific computer-aided modeling, the craniofacial anatomy of the fetus was manufactured using a 3D printer. This model demonstrated the mass to be isolated to the upper lip and maxilla, suggesting the oral airway to be patent. The decision was made to deliver the infant without a planned ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. The neonate was born with a protuberant cleft lip and palate deformity, without airway obstruction, as predicted by the patient-specific model. The delivery was uneventful, and the child was discharged without need for airway intervention. This case demonstrates that 3D modeling may improve prenatal evaluation of complex patient-specific fetal anatomy and facilitate the multidisciplinary approach to perinatal management of complex airway anomalies. PMID:26438708

  4. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector

  5. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. PMID:25091417

  6. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  7. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  8. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  9. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  10. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  11. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  13. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  14. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  15. Imaging of Awake Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The 3Rs of reduction, refinement and replacement are the guiding principles of animal research and embedded in national and international legislation regulating the use of animals in scientific procedures. Awake imaging by MRI of rodents can offer a reduction by increasing the quality of scientific data through longitudinal imaging using less animals by avoiding a serial sacrifice design and refinement through reducing the stressful effects animals are exposed to, in comparison to existing mo...

  16. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  17. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students.Methods: Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise.Results: Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped fa...

  18. Current knowledge in the anatomy of the human anterior cruciate ligament

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya Bicer, Elcil; Lustig, Sebastien; Servien, Elvire; AIT SI SELMI, Tarik; Neyret, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently studied structures of the musculoskeletal system and continues to stimulate debate and challenges among researchers and surgeons. The ultimate goal of anatomic reconstruction surgery is to restore the native anatomy as much as possible. However, this requires thorough knowledge of its anatomy. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the anatomy of ACL along with its macrostructural and ultrastructural pro...

  19. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar; Arvind Kumar Pandey; Brijesh Kumar; K S Aithal; Antony Sylvan Dsouza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to st...

  20. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Marc E H.; Ingmar Werneburg; Neil Curtis; Rod Penrose; Paul O'Higgins; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatom...

  1. IMPORTANCE OF DISSECTION IN ANATOMY AND ATTUTUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS IT.

    OpenAIRE

    ANUJ JAIN

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. Dissection in anatomy can be the beginning of a physician's training in how to isolate and restrict their emotional responses to difficult or disturbing clinical situations, or conversely how to deal appropriately with emotions engendered by such exposure.Study of regional anatomy through cadaveric dissection is considered to be a unique feature of medical courses in India. The...

  2. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  4. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  5. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  6. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  7. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  8. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  9. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. XVI. The genus Urochlaena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of Urochlaena pusilla Nees is described and illustrated. The transectional anatomy is non- Kranz with diffuse but uniformly distributed chlorenchyma. The abaxial epidermis has dome-shaped stomata, dumbbell­shaped silica bodies, elongated finger-like microhairs, and cushion-based macrohairs may or may not be present. This type of arundinoid anatomy closely resembles that o f  Tribolium Desv.,  Chaetobromus Nees,  Schismus Beauv., and certain species of Pentaschistis Stapf.  Urochlaena pusilla is very similar to  Tribolium utriculosum (Nees Renv. in leaf anatomy and these two species appear to be closely related.

  10. Investigation of feline brain anatomy for the detection of cortical spreading depression with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; James, M F; Bockhorst, K H; Smith, M I; Bradley, D P; Papadakis, N G; Carpenter, T A; Parsons, A A; Leslie, R A; Hall, L D; Huang, C L

    2001-05-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and peri-infarct depolarisation (PID) are related phenomena that have been associated with the human clinical syndromes of migraine (CSD), head injury and stroke (PID). Nevertheless the existence of CSD in man remains controversial, despite the detection of this phenomenon in the brains of most, if not all, other animal species investigated. This failure to unambiguously detect CSD clinically may be at least partly due to the anatomically complex, gyrencephalic structure of the human brain. This study was designed to establish conditions for the study of CSD in the brain of a gyrencephalic species using the noninvasive technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The 3-dimensional (3D) gyrencephalic anatomy of the cat brain was examined to determine the imaging conditions necessary to detect CSD events. Orthogonal transverse, sagittal and horizontal T1-weighted image slices showed that the marginal and suprasylvian gyri were the most appropriate cortical structures to study CSD. This was in view of (1) their simple geometry: (2) their lengthy extent of grey matter orientated rostrocaudally in the cortex: (3) their separation by a sulcus across which CSD spread could be studied and (4) the discontinuity in the grey matter in these regions between the right and left hemispheres dorsal to the corpus callosum. The structure suggested by the T1-weighted images was corroborated by systematic diffusion tensor imaging to map the fractional anisotropy and diffusion trace. Thus a single horizontal image plane could visualise the neighbouring suprasylvian and marginal gyri of both cerebral hemispheres, whereas its complex shape and position ruled out the ectosylvian gyrus for CSD studies. With the horizontal imaging plane, CSD events were reproducibly detected by animating successive diffusion-weighted MR images following local KCl stimulation of the cortical surface. In single image frames, CSD detection and characterisation required

  11. NEWS: Paperclip Physics: anatomy of a competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    heats, regional finals and then a Grand Final in London. That year 132 teams were whittled down to nine teams who went to London for the grand final. The competition and the top prizes of Psion organizers were won by a team of girls from St~Anne's School, Southampton with an excellent demonstration of static electricity (see Physics World, June 1999, 12 (6) 54). In 2000 the pattern of heats and regional finals was repeated, this time with 160 teams in 11 branches. On this occasion the overall winners were Shrewsbury School, who explained why a cat, when dropped upside down, can turn itself the right way up before reaching the ground, and can do so without violating any laws of physics (see Physics World, May 2000, 13 (5) 52). Their demonstration did not, as they were at pains to point out, involve any live animals (only toy ones!) but did give a very clear explanation of what angular momentum is, and how it must be conserved by the falling cat. Figure 1 Figure 1. Kirby Kendal School show that the tablecloth trick has more to do with inertia than magic. Figure 2 Figure 2. Shrewsbury School, overall winners in 2000, demonstrate why angular momentum is important to falling cats. Figure 3 Figure 3. Pupils from Omagh Academy demonstrating electrostatics. So why do we bother and, perhaps more importantly, why should teachers bother to encourage their pupils to enter? First of all because it all adds to the message that physics can be fun. Judges, organizers, pupils and teachers would all endorse that. Many of the schools are coming back year after year with another group of sixth-formers. And we hear of this year's contestants who did not win their heat going back to the school to help next year's team. Secondly it develops, in a very enjoyable way, some of the skills that we all know are useful and which have recently been labelled as `key skills' in the new A-level syllabuses for the UK---communicating science, team-working, problem solving and personal organization. This

  12. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  13. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  14. Image guided IMRT dosimetry using anatomy specific MOSFET configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Norrlinger, Bern; Heaton, Robert; Islam, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of using a set of multiple MOSFETs in conjunction with the mobile MOSFET wireless dosimetry system, to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance (QA) of IMRT plans. Anatomy specific MOSFET configurations incorporating 5 MOSFETs have been developed for a specially designed IMRT dosimetry phantom. Kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging was used to increase the positional precision and accuracy of the detectors and phantom, and so minimize dosimetric uncertainties in high dose gradient regions. The effectiveness of the MOSFET based dose measurements was evaluated by comparing the corresponding doses measured by an ion chamber. For 20 head and neck IMRT plans the agreement between the MOSFET and ionization chamber dose measurements was found to be within -0.26 +/- 0.88% and 0.06 +/- 1.94% (1 sigma) for measurement points in the high dose and low dose respectively. A precision of 1 mm in detector positioning was achieved by using the X-Ray Volume Imaging (XVI) kV CBCT system available with the Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. Using the anatomy specific MOSFET configurations, simultaneous measurements were made at five strategically located points covering high dose and low dose regions. The agreement between measurements and calculated doses by the treatment planning system for head and neck and prostate IMRT plans was found to be within 0.47 +/- 2.45%. The results indicate that a cylindrical phantom incorporating multiple MOSFET detectors arranged in an anatomy specific configuration, in conjunction with image guidance, can be utilized to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance of IMRT plans. PMID:18716593

  15. Digital dissection - using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-04-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft- and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. PMID:24350638

  16. Digital dissection – using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard-and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J

    2014-01-01

    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft-and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes. PMID:24350638

  17. The anatomy of dreams and bamboo-reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy of dreams and bamboo reality Hemingway used to say "if you want your people to build a boat, don't give them hammers, saws and tools – give them a longing for the sea." Today, we have lots of tools. We have computers, software, virtual reality, smart facades and offices, and various attractive systems... but we're somewhat lacking in longing ... In order to have longings, one has to have dreams, and to have dreams, one has to have courage. Antoon had it. Wanting to design with the...

  18. Medial patellofemoral ligament: Research progress in anatomy and injury imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is considered as the most important soft tissue restraint providing medial stability of the patellofemoral joint. During patellar dislocation, the MPFL is subjected to severe stretching forces, resulting in injuries of the ligament in the most patients. With the development of medical imaging technology, a variety of non-invasive diagnostic imaging methods have been becoming important means in diagnosis of MPFL injury. In this paper, MPFL anatomy, the applications of medical imaging technology in diagnosis of MPFL injury and the distributions of MPFL injury site were reviewed. (authors)

  19. Comparative Leaf Anatomy of Paspalum paspalodes and P. vagirial uni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade and epidermal anatomy of Paspalum paspalodes (Michx. Scribn. (syn.  P. distichum L. and P. vaginatum Swartz is compared and discussed. Numerous anatomical differences are evidentand the species can be separated on the basis of the distribution of sclerenchyma and the shape andthickness of the leaf margin. Another distinct diagnostic difference is the shape of the adaxial ribs and furrows and their associated papillae.  P. paspalodes has two distinct types of abaxial epidermis: cuticular and papillate.

  20. Midface: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Schenck, Thilo L; Trevidic, Patrick; Sykes, Jonathan; Massry, Guy G; Liew, Steven; Graivier, Miles; Dayan, Steve; de Maio, Mauricio; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Andrews, J Todd; Remington, B Kent

    2015-11-01

    The clinical approach towards the midface is one of the most important interventions for practitioners when treating age-related changes of the face. Currently a plethora of procedures are used and presented. However, few of these approaches have been validated or passed review board assigned evaluations. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to establish a guideline manual for practitioners for a safe and effective mid-face treatment based on the most current concepts of facial anatomy. The latter is based on the 5-layered structural arrangement and its understanding is the key towards the favoured outcome and for minimizing complications. PMID:26441102

  1. Medical missionaries to China and the reformation of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The earliest record of human anatomy in chapters of the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic is likely to be based upon proper dissections. The first incident of human dissection for medical purpose documented in the History of Han Dynasty occurred in AD 13. During the Sung dynasty, a physician prepared illustrations of internal organs of executed criminals, published in 1113 as the Images of Truth Successive Chinese medical treatises have plagiarized but preserved the anatomical diagrams without improvements or modifications. China had to wait till the mid-19th century for Anglo-American Protestant medical missionaries to bring about a complete and permanent reformation of anatomical science. PMID:24833543

  2. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  3. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polverino Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the complex and multiple etiologies of cough.

  4. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  5. Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    "Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia. PMID:18382944

  6. Vascular anatomy and physiology studied with MRI techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular anatomy can be evaluated with MRI without the injection of contrast agents. Contrast between moving blood and surrounding tissue can be obtained by effectively using MR relaxation phenomenon, which are different in fluid and solid tissue as well as in moving and static structures. Rapidly moving blood may provide better contrast than slowly moving blood. The aorta and pulmonary vasculature have been effectively evaluated with MRI. Peripheral vasculature (venous and arterial) have also been evaluated using MRI. It may be possible in the near future to evaluate tissue perfusion with MRI techniques

  7. Breast anatomy, physiology and pathology for the physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased awareness of the importance of early breast cancer detection has spurred improvements in mammographic imaging systems and has lead to an ever-increasing role for the medical physicist. This talk will review the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the breast and discuss from a clinician's viewpoint, the proper technical and processing factors required to produce a quality mammographic study. Correct breast positioning for the MLO and CC views, adequate compression, elimination fo motion artifacts, appropriate film density and other important factors that contribute to an optimal diagnostic mammogram will also be examined. (author)

  8. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  9. Applied comparative anatomy of the avian middle ear.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, R.

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the middle ear has been studied in nine species of birds, with particular reference to the structure of the ossicle and its relationship to the tympanic membrane. The morphology of the avian middle ear has been compared to that of the reconstructed human middle ear. Drum to stapes foot plate assemblies created during ossiculoplasty operations differ from the pattern found in the avian middle ear in a number of important respects and this may help to explain why they are often u...

  10. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  11. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  12. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  13. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  14. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  15. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  16. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  17. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  18. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  19. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  20. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  1. The dying animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  2. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  3. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  4. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  5. Anatomy of the skull base and the cranial nerves in slice imaging; Anatomie der Schaedelbasis und Hirnnerven in der Schnittbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bink, A.; Berkefeld, J.; Zanella, F. [Klinikum der Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are suitable methods for examination of the skull base. Whereas CT is used to evaluate mainly bone destruction e.g. for planning surgical therapy, MRI is used to show pathologies in the soft tissue and bone invasion. High resolution and thin slice thickness are indispensible for both modalities of skull base imaging. Detailed anatomical knowledge is necessary even for correct planning of the examination procedures. This knowledge is a requirement to be able to recognize and interpret pathologies. MRI is the method of choice for examining the cranial nerves. The total path of a cranial nerve can be visualized by choosing different sequences taking into account the tissue surrounding this cranial nerve. This article summarizes examination methods of the skull base in CT and MRI, gives a detailed description of the anatomy and illustrates it with image examples. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung der Schaedelbasis sind sowohl die Computertomographie (CT) als auch Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) geeignet. Waehrend mittels CT vorzugsweise die exakte knoecherne Ausbreitung von Pathologien z. B. zur operativen Therapieplanung erfasst werden, dient die MRT sowohl der Darstellung von Pathologien bzgl. ihrer Ausbreitung im Weichteilgewebe als auch dem Nachweis knoecherner Infiltration. Bei der Untersuchung der Schaedelbasis wird eine hochaufloesende Darstellung mit geringer Schichtdicke fuer beide Modalitaeten angestrebt. Die genaue Kenntnis der Anatomie ist bereits bei der Untersuchungsplanung notwendig. Sie ist zudem Voraussetzung fuer das Erkennen und die korrekte Interpretation von Pathologien. Die MRT ist die bildgebende Methode der Wahl zur Abklaerung von Pathologien der Hirnnerven. Dabei ist es durch gezielte Sequenzauswahl, die sich nach den die Hirnnerven umgebenen Strukturen richtet, moeglich, den gesamten Verlauf der Hirnnerven zu beurteilen. Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Untersuchung der Schaedelbasis

  6. In vitro delineation of human brain-stem anatomy using a small resonator: correlation with macroscopic and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the potential of an experimental animal coil using a commercial MRI unit to delineate the anatomical structure of the human brain stem. Three formaldehyde-fixed brain-stem specimens were examined by MRI and sectioned perpendicular to their longitudinal axis. The images were compared with gross anatomy and myelin-stained histological sections. Fibre tracts and nuclei which were not evident on examination of the unstained specimen were readily identified by MRI. Due to its inherent grey/white matter contrast, MRI with a high-resolution coil delineates anatomical structures in a way comparable to the myelin-stained histological sections. However, pigmented structures, readily visible on examination of the unstained specimen were discernible on neither MRI nor on myelin-stained sections. The excellent anatomical detail and grey/white matter contrast provided by these images could make MRI a useful adjunct to the pathologist investigating brain disease. (orig.)

  7. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  8. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  9. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  10. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  11. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  12. Learning of Musculoskeletal Ligament Stress Testing in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David A.; Youdas, James W.; Hollman, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Human anatomy in physical therapy programs is a basic science course serving as a foundation for subsequent clinical courses. Integration of anatomy with a clinical emphasis throughout a curriculum provides opportunities for reinforcement of previously learned material. Considering the human cadaver laboratory as a fixed cost to our program, we…

  13. An Analysis of the Educational Value of Low-Fidelity Anatomy Models as External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the…

  14. A Simple and Efficient Device for Demonstrating Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarioli, Ariane; Demaman, Aline Santos; Bim, Waldeci Roberto; Homem, Jefferson Mallman; Thomazini, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Described in this article is a novel device that facilitates study of the cross-sectional anatomy of the human head. In designing our device, we aimed to protect sections of the head from the destructive action of handling during anatomy laboratory while also ensuring excellent visualization of the anatomic structures. We used an electric saw to…

  15. Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

  16. Design and Development of a New Facility for Teaching and Research in Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses factors in the design, commissioning, project management, and intellectual property protection of developments within a new clinical anatomy facility in the United Kingdom. The project was aimed at creating cost-effective facilities that would address widespread concerns over anatomy teaching, and support other activities…

  17. Anatomy Practical Examinations: How Does Student Performance on Computerized Evaluation Compare with the Traditional Format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Practical examinations in anatomy are usually conducted on specimens in the anatomy laboratory (referred to here as the "traditional" method). Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle[TM]. In this study, we compare student scores between two assessment environments viz. online and…

  18. The Importance of Spatial Ability and Mental Models in Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    2011-01-01

    As a foundational course in medical education, gross anatomy serves to orient medical and veterinary students to the complex three-dimensional nature of the structures within the body. Understanding such spatial relationships is both fundamental and crucial for achievement in gross anatomy courses, and is essential for success as a practicing…

  19. Teaching of anatomy at the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míšek, Ivan; Witter, Kirsti; Pavlíková, H.; Páral, V.

    Brno: Ústav anatomie, histologie a embryologie VFU Brno., 2002. s. 31. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists /24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : anatomy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…