Sample records for anatomists

  1. Anatomy meets architecture: designing new laboratories for new anatomists. (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B


    General notions of architecture are familiar to anatomists, and they frequently use the word in describing the functional structures of cells, tissues, and whole organisms. Beyond concepts relating to orderly structure, anatomists infrequently encounter the profession of architecture and practicing architects. Significantly, anatomists can work with architects in the design and building of laboratories and classrooms, efforts that can have sustained effects on the practice of anatomy. In this paper, we consider cooperative interactions between anatomists and architects in designing new laboratories that accommodate educational innovations and increasingly valuable dissection resources. We begin by introducing architecture and architects in their roles in design and building. We next consider essential features and technologies for new laboratories that support a combination of classical dissection, prosection, models, and computer-based information. Different working conditions are reviewed for designing renovations of existing facilities, long-term planning for new, same-institution buildings, and extramural planning and construction for new medical schools. Whatever the project, anatomists work with architects in repeated interactive planning meetings that arrive at working laboratory designs by a process similar to successive approximation. In consulting on designs for extramural institutions, anatomists must balance client administration and faculty needs with objective oversight of practice-side design features, constraints, and capacity for innovative uses with new curricula. Architects are the key agents in producing laboratories designed for flexible and innovative anatomical education, although client-favored models for Internet-based technology can limit future use of cadavers in multiyear teaching of medical and health sciences students.

  2. Frequency in Usage of Terminologia Anatomica Terms by Clinical Anatomists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford D. Martin


    Full Text Available Almost 16 years since the publishing of Terminologia Anatomica (TA by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT, there has yet to be a unified adoption of TA-recommended anatomical terms by anatomists. A survey was sent to members of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA to determine the frequency of TA term usage. Most respondents (70.3% received their terminal degrees in anatomy, with 23.4% in clinical and anthropological areas. Academically ranked, most respondents were professors (38.4% and most were from North America (81.1%. Almost 40% of respondents were textbook authors. Overall results indicate that the TA preferred term had the highest frequency of usage in only 53% of the anatomical structures/features surveyed. Compliance with TA preferred terms ranged from 98.2% to 3.6% usage. Almost 25% of AACA anatomists were not familiar with the FCAT and over 75% were concerned about synonymity in anatomical terminology. Data demonstrates that clinical anatomists of the AACA are not consistent in how they use anatomical terminology, as well as how they conform to TA terminology.

  3. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, S


    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  4. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective. (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth


    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process.

  5. Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883)--drawing master and anatomist. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; El-Sedfy, Abraham; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartman, Christopher


    Jules Germain Cloquet, the famed French anatomist, surgeon, and professor, may not be remembered as one of the pioneers of hernia surgery; however, his contributions have provided surgeons with detailed anatomical descriptions that have been useful in developing innovative surgical techniques. Cloquet has many eponyms associated with him, including: Cloquet's fascia, Cloquet's gland or lymph node of Cloquet, Cloquet's hernia, Cloquet's ligament, Cloquet's canal, and Cloquet's septum. A man blessed with artistic talents, Cloquet was the author of many theses, as well as anatomical volumes that were comparable to the works of other great anatomists of his time. His first thesis, entitled Recherches Anatomiques sur les Hernies de l'Abdomen, described the locations where inguinal and crural herniae are more likely to occur in terms of the cremaster muscle, the peritoneum, and the spermatic vessels. Wax sculpture training required extensive knowledge in the natural sciences, anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as were acquired by Jules Cloquet as a pupil of Achille-Cléophas Flaubert, the father of the famous French novelist Gustave Flaubert (author of Madame Bovary). Cloquet attracted many pupils with his innovative teaching style and implementation of anatomical preparations, drawings, and sketches on the black board with chalk. The legacy of this famed individual lives on today in the anatomical structures described by Cloquet.

  6. John Browne (1642-1702): anatomist and plagiarist. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Akiyama, Matthew; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Yalçin, Bulent; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A


    In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642-1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined.

  7. Emerico Luna, an anatomist and a fervid intellectual. (United States)

    Gerbino, Aldo


    On 11 March 2004, the Section of Human Anatomy of Palermo was dedicated and registered to the anatomist Emerico Luna (Palermo 1882-1963) with a ceremony (moderated by Giovanni Zummo) with the participation of institutional personalities and Italian anatomists. Luna, who was an acute morphologist and a scholar of Riccardo Versari (1865-1943), was the continuator of Francesco Todaro's Anatomical School and occupied the Chair at the University of Palermo that had belonged to Levi since 1919. His wide histo-anatomical culture culminates in the collaboration to the "Trattato di Neurologia", the richly composed treatise by Bertelli (1931). Then his studies and his teaching reached to the Anatomia Clinica Regionale (1951). In charge of Histology and Normal Human Anatomy in 1920-21, he became a full professor and a master till 1952. He had so many students: among them Ignazio Fàzzari (1889-1986) who had the chair in the University of Florence, Alberto Monroy who had the charge of Compared Anatomy in the University of Palermo and Arcangelo Pasqualino from Marineo. Luna was co-founder and leader of the "Italian Society of Anatomy". He developed an intense research above all on the nervous system, the connective tissues, the arteries of the brain, and the experimental embryology, developing the radiological and clinical anatomy. He also dedicated himself to literature writing in 1953, among the scientific and literary works, a booklet titled Alla Fiera Delle Fantasie where he discuss the fantasy in a style that recall the literary evasion of the last period of crepuscolarism.

  8. Andrew Cunningham, The Anatomist Anatomis’d: An Experimental Discipline in Enlightenment Europe


    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence


    After his fascinating The Anatomical Renaissance: The Resurrection of the Anatomical Projects of the Ancients (1997), Andrew Cunningham offers us a new study of anatomy, The Anatomist Anatomis’d: An Experimental Discipline in Enlightenment Europe. This time, Cunningham looks at how anatomists contributed to the creation of anatomy as a discipline in the long eighteenth century, the “Enlightenment” being a time when the discipline flourished as never before or since. Thus anatomy, throughout t...

  9. [The anatomists who started anthropology in Turkey and their contributions]. (United States)

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N; Başağaoğlu, J


    The Turkish Institute of Antropology was estabilished in 1925 as a unit of the Medical School of Istanbul University (Darülfünun), named the Antropology Research Center (Antropoloji Tetkikat Merkezi). It was a part of the medical faculty until 1932. After the university reform it was connected to the School of Science and in late 1935 it was transfered to the School of Languages History and Geography (Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi) in Ankara. The center started to publish "The Journal of Turkish Anthropology" with Dr. Nuretttin Ali Berkols researches in 1925. It was published in two languages, Turkish and French. The faculty members of the institute, Dr. Mouchet, Dr. Süreyya Ali and Dr. Ismail Hakki formed the editorial board of the journal. We see that from the first issue of the journal in 1925 until the special issue prepared for the XVIII. Anthropology and Prehistorical Archealogy Congress in 1939, Dr. Nurettin Ali Berkol and Dr. Mouchet were members of the administrative committee of the journal. In this article; we studied the contributions of the anatomists to the development of anthropology in Turkey.

  10. Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566): Cardinal physician and anatomist who dissected his own son. (United States)

    Mian, Asma; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane


    The 16th century French anatomist Guillaume Rondelet will be remembered as a great naturalist and a founder of ichthyology. Little known to most is that Rondelet was a proficient anatomist and contemporary to Vesalius and in fact, both studied anatomy under Johannes Guinter. Even less known is that he established the first dissecting theatre at Montpellier and it was here that he would dissect his infant son in an attempt to identify the cause of death. In this article, we review the life and contributions to anatomy of Rondelet.

  11. Anatomists' views on human body dissection and donation: an international survey. (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José Luis; Moxham, Bernard John


    A survey was conducted to test three hypotheses: anatomists believe that dissection by students conveys not just anatomical knowledge but also essential skills and attitudes, including professionalism; anatomists approve of the donation of their own bodies or body parts/organs for medical/health-care training and research; attitudes towards body dissection and donation are not dependent upon gender or upon the extent of teaching experience, but are related to transcendental convictions relating to beliefs in the afterlife. Eighty-one anatomists, from 29 countries responded to the survey; 80% indicated that they required medical/health-care students to dissect human cadavers (60% females-86% males, p=0.02). Most teachers recorded that dissection was an instrument for training undergraduate students, an instrument for the development of professional skills, and an instrument to help to control emotions in the future doctor rather than being only a means of teaching/learning anatomy facts. Males were more receptive to the concept that dissection helps to control emotions in the future doctor (p=0.02). Most teachers (75%) said they were willing to donate their bodies, 41% saying they would donate body organs only, 9% would donate their entire bodies only, 25% would separately donate organs and also the entire body. The willingness to donate increased significantly with the years of teaching experience (p=0.04). Teachers who were not believers in the afterlife were more likely to donate their organs/bodies than were believers (p=0.03). Our findings showed that anatomists' attitudes towards body dissection and donation are dependent upon gender, upon the extent of teaching experience, and upon transcendental convictions.

  12. Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist. (United States)

    Guttmann, G D


    The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.

  13. Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836-1921): an anatomist who left his mark. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    Wilhelm Waldeyer was anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist during the German Empire (the so-called Second Reich). His scientific career left many traces still noticeable today. Not only is he commemorated in "his" pharyngeal lymphoid ring and other eponyms, but he also coined an impressive range of successful medical terms, including "chromosome" and "neuron." Moreover, Waldeyer left truly physical traces by donating parts of his body to his own Institute of Anatomy in Berlin. His scientific production does, however, also include "pseudoscientific" works, notably his questionable research on African brains.

  14. Sexism within anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists and in comparison with the perceptions of medical students. (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J


    Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. We recommend that teachers of anatomy should become more aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. Clin. Anat. 29:892-910, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894): physician, jurist, poet, inventor, pioneer, and anatomist. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Carmichael, Stephen W


    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was a physician, dean of the Harvard Medical School, one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century, father of a future United States Supreme Court Justice, inventor and - unknown to many - an anatomist. His friends included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Louis Pasteur. He trained with some of the most influential anatomists/surgeons of his day including Lisfranc, Larrey, Velpeau, Bigelow, and Dupuytren. As a teacher of anatomy, he had strong feelings regarding medical curricular reform and to some, was considered one of the best lecturers in the discipline. As dean, he pioneered social reform by admitting both white women and free black men to Harvard Medical School. He coined the term "anesthesia," was the first American to introduce microscopy to a medical curriculum, and made important contributions to the understanding of the spread of infectious disease. Herein, we review the life of this influential American academic and focus on his contributions to the field of anatomy.

  16. The 'electric stroke' and the 'electric spark': anatomists and eroticism at George Baker's electric eel exhibition in 1776 and 1777. (United States)

    Plumb, Christopher


    In 1776 and 1777 five living electric eels exhibited in London became a sensational spectacle that appealed to anatomists, electricians and connoisseurs of erotica. George Baker's exhibition made visible the 'electric spark' of the electrical eel and a series of experiments were both witnessed by and participated in by members of the Royal Society and the metropolitan elite. Some participants even grasped the eels firmly in their hands and felt the 'electric stroke' of the eel in addition to observing the spark. In their observation of the electric eel some of these spectators transposed the vivid electric spark from the sphere of electricians and anatomists into that of satirical and erotic literature. Here the erotic electric eel proliferated in the literature and the eel took on quite different connotations that nonetheless were reliant on readers knowledge and experience of the exhibition, experiments and the preoccupations of anatomists. George Baker's electric eel exhibition of 1776 and 1777 is then instructive in exploring the production and circulation of knowledge in Georgian Britain. The story of the electric eel in Georgian culture charts the creation of the electric spark and stroke as objects of observation and encounter, their exhibitionary context, and finally their divergent meanings as the electric eel became erotically charged for a metropolitan masculine elite.

  17. Daniel Mollière (1848-1890): the French anatomist-surgeon who introduced Robin's pioneering osteoclast for the genu valgum observed in adolescents. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George


    Inside the pages of the French medical treatises of the 19th century a forgotten osteoclast apparatus for the genu valgum observed in adolescents remained hidden waiting to be unearthed. It was Victor Robin's osteoclast, which has been used by the supreme French anatomist and surgeon Daniel Mollière. With the purpose to share a significant heritage on orthopaedics, a thorough research of the literature of the era was conducted. Our study resulted in the illumination of both Mollière's prolific figure and osteoclast's impact on orthopaedic surgery at that time. Having in mind Mollière's perseverance towards surgical apparatuses, his antiseptic measures inside his operating theatre, his published treatises, his surgical skills, we may effortlessly conclude that he stands among Lyon's best surgeons with an important contribution to orthopaedics.

  18. Daniel Mollière (1848-1890), the French anatomist and surgeon, and his encounters with nosocomial infections in the operating theatre. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George


    Daniel Mollière, was a French anatomist and surgeon, born in Lyon, who succeeded in his short life in making his mark in surgery. He was a prolific writer who left a series of medical treatises and a committed surgeon who was responsible for various significant innovative apparatuses in the medical sper. As he lived in an era when the role of microbe had already been recognized, he was among the first to use antisepsis and install extreme measures against microbes, both in the air and on the skin'. Fountains with fresh clean water, carbonic acid, cross ventilation, medical blouses, combined with Valette's apparatus for the dressing of amputations, were some of his precautions to reduce surgical infections and post-operative mortality.

  19. Anatomy curriculum for medical students: what can be learned for future curricula from evaluations and questionnaires completed by students, anatomists and clinicians in different countries? (United States)

    Pabst, Reinhard


    In recent years an international debate has culminated in the questions "How much anatomy is necessary in the medical curriculum?" and "Should dissection be replaced by prosection or computer-aided learning?". This article will deal with data published on evaluations of the anatomical knowledge of students, on experience with different teaching forms documented by anatomists, and on the assessment of the anatomical knowledge of young doctors by clinicians responsible for residency programmes. Due to the great variability in the number of teaching hours, type of teaching methods, previous qualifications of medical students, number and qualification of demonstrators and several other parameters it is impossible to assume experiences in one institute and/or country to be valid for another. However, there is an urgent need to fund research programmes evaluating the anatomy curriculum including long-term studies, as the aim of the medical curriculum is the well-trained medical doctor. No convincing data have been published on the advantages or disadvantages of problem-based learning curricula. Congresses of anatomical associations/societies should include sessions on teaching aspects, and the decision makers in medical faculties should be informed about internationally documented pro and cons of anatomy, not only for the undergraduates but also for the specialization of physicians.

  20. William Harvey, an Aristotelian anatomist. (United States)

    Fara, Patricia


    William Harvey has long been celebrated as the founding father of physiology for refuting Galen and demonstrating that blood circulates round the body. Yet after his training at Padua, he became a committed Aristotelian: although strongly influencing the new observational sciences of the seventeenth century, Harvey himself looked back towards the classical past.

  1. Antonio Gimbernat y Arbós: an anatomist-surgeon of the Enlightenment (in the 220th anniversary of his "A new method of operating the crural hernia"). (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-Luis


    This article focuses on Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós (1734-1816), with particular attention paid to his famous publication "Nuevo método de operar en la hernia crural" (2013 marking its 220 anniversary), which was translated into English by Thomas Beddoe two years later (A new method of operating for the femoral hernia Translated from the Spanish of Don Antonio de Gimbernat, To which are added, with plates by the translator, queries respecting a safer method of performing inoculation). Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós, a Spanish anatomist and surgeon, was one of the pioneers during the "Age of Dissection" (late 18th Century). He was a man of great willpower, bright, thorough, and unique. From his careful anatomical study in the inguinal region, he made a detailed description of the lacunar ligament, which John Hunter called the Gimbernat's ligament in his honor. Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós also proposed an advanced treatment for strangulated femoral hernias. He acquired extraordinarily broad surgical skills with therapeutic orientation, conservative, not aggressive, based on the knowledge he had gained through dissection. Furthermore, though this is less well known nowadays, Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós was also relevant organizer of education and health-services - as it was the custom of the great physician of this time. Consequently, Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós is truly representative of the great figures of the anatomists-surgeons of the Enlightenment.

  2. Form and Function; The Anatomists View. (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1979


    Provides a look at the methods of paleoanthropology. The shape of a bone, the location of a muscle, or the wear on a tooth can help define environmental context and the course of species evolution. (BB)

  3. William Cheselden: anatomist, surgeon, and medical illustrator. (United States)

    Sanders, M A


    William Cheselden was Great Britain's foremost surgeon/scientist in the first half of the 18th century. Cheselden directly challenged the Company of Barber-Surgeons' exclusive right to control dissection in London by being the first to conduct a regular series of anatomy lectures and demonstrations outside of the Company's Hall. He incorporated his lecture syllabus into a handbook of anatomy, The Anatomy of the Humane Body, which was used by students for nearly 100 years. Cheselden also wrote the text and drew the illustrations for a majestic atlas of comparative osteology, the Osteographia, or the Anatomy of the Bones. Cheselden used his superior knowledge of anatomy to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with perineal lithotomy, one of the few operations possible in his era. Sagacious and pragmatic, Cheselden recognized that the enlightened practice of surgery beginning to take root in 18th-century London could flourish only under an autonomous body of surgeons. Cheselden used his personal funds and political skills to urge Parliament to pass legislation for the dissolution of the combined Company of Barber-Surgeons and the establishment of separate and distinct Surgeons' and Barbers' Companies. After disjoinder of the two groups on May 2, 1745, Cheselden served as one of the Wardens of the new Company of Surgeons--a predecessor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. In 1746, Cheselden, who helped design the first Surgeons' Hall, served as the Company's Master.

  4. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century. (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando


    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  5. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation. (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 171st scientific meeting of the Dutch Anatomical Society in 2009 to see to what extent anatomical professionals are willing to donate their own body. The results reveal that none of the survey participants are registered as a whole body donor and that only a quarter of them would consider the possibility of body donation. We argue that the two main constraints preventing Dutch anatomical professionals from donating their own body are their professional and their social environments. In contrast to the absence of registered body donors, half of the anatomical professionals are registered as an organ donor. This figure far exceeds the proportion of registered organ donors among the general Dutch population.

  6. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  7. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.


    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  8. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas. (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert


    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy.

  9. [Dr. Jovan Andrejević Jols, the first Serbian anatomist life, work and achievement]. (United States)

    Sakač, Dejan; Sakač, Vladimir; Čabarkapa, Velibor; Bugarski, Vojislava


    Doctor Jovan Andrejević Joles was one of the most educated Serbs of the 19th century, a medical doctor, scientist, journalist and translator. He was born in 1883 in Novi Sad. Even as a student of medicine he was active in scientific work, which resulted in a paper entiteled "The fine structure of the liver," later published in one of the most eminent medical journals in Europe. He completed the study of medicine in Vienna. He did not accept the position at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, and returned to Novi Sad, where he quickly gained an excellent reputation as a physician. He participated in the founding of the Serbian National Theatre in 1861, he was also one of the most active contributors of Matica Srpska, wrote many articles, critics and reviews, and was also regarded as the founder of aesthetic romanticism in Serbs. With Laza Kostić, he was the first among the Serbs to translate Shakespeare. At that time, when he was only 30 years old, he wrote about a brand-new art - photography. He lived in a harmonious marriage with Jelena - Ilka Bajić, who after Joles' death remarried to a captain of the Serbian army, and after his murder, became famous for the assassination attempt of King Milan Obrenović (recorded in history textbooks as the "Rebellion of Ilka"). Dr. Jovan Andrejevć died prematurely of tuberculosis, at that time an incurable disease, in 1864 in Novi Sad.

  10. Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons (United States)

    DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.


    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

  11. André Latarjet (1877-1947). Anatomist and surgeon specialized in sports medicine. (United States)

    Romero-Reverón, Rafael A


    André Latarjet (1877-1947), physician and surgeon, outstanding professor of anatomy, made important contributions to the study of human anatomy. He was the disciple and successor of Dr. Leo Testut and continued the diffusion of his work. He was a member of the French Academy of Medicine and President of the International Federation of Sports Medicine.

  12. The naturalist and the nuances: Sentimentalism, moral values, and emotional expression in Darwin and the anatomists. (United States)

    Dupouy, Stéphanie


    Comparing Charles Darwin's account of emotional expression to previous nineteenth-century scientific studies on the same subject, this article intends to locate the exact nature of Darwin's break in his 1872 book (as well as in his earlier notebooks). In contrast to a standard view that approaches this question in the framework of the creationism/evolutionism dichotomy, I argue that Darwin's account distinguishes itself primarily by its distance toward the sentimentalist values and moral hierarchies that were traditionally linked with the study of expression--an attitude that is not an inevitable ingredient of the theory of evolution. However, Darwin's approach also reintroduces another kind of hierarchy in human expression, but one based on attenuation and self-restraint in the exhibition of expressive signs.

  13. Jean Falcon (1491-1541), a great surgeon and anatomist of the 16th century. (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkou, Maria; Skandalakis, Panagiotis; Androutsos, George


    Jean Falcon, an Aragon native, became a famous surgeon at the Faculty of Montpellier. He was a Royal physician, wealthy enough to live a luxurious life and treat influential patients. His lectures were legendary, and his works gave him fame among the surgeons' class. Of all his manuscripts stands the "Guidon", which became an anatomical surgeons' handbook, worthy of reference from the scientific community for centuries.

  14. Dissecting the Dissectors: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Body Bequests by Nigerian Anatomists (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.


    Anatomy education in most African countries is limited by an insufficient number of cadavers for students to undertake dissection. This already significant shortage is exacerbated by an increasing number of medical schools and students. Virtual dissections are impractical in alleviating such a shortfall in African anatomy education, and further…

  15. [Constant Duméril (1774-1860) anatomist doctor and naturalist, about a portrait by G. Devers]. (United States)

    Le Floch-Prigent, P


    André, Marie, Constant Duméril (1774-1860) served as a professor in the from 1801 to 1855. He was also chairman of herpetology and ichthyology of the in Paris. The Paris-Descartes University (department of anatomy) owns a great, framed portrait which is an oil painting by Giuseppe Devers, 1855, representing C. Duméril sat on a chair. The study of his portrait, biography and bibliography brings precisions on a noticeable scholar of the anatomical and naturalistic field in Paris in the first half of the 19th century.

  16. Daniel John Cunningham (1850-1909): anatomist and textbook author, whose sons achieved distinction in the Army, Navy and Indian Medical Service. (United States)

    Kaufman, Matthew H


    Daniel John Cunningham was a son of the manse. His father John (1819-93) was the parish priest at Crieff, Perthshire from 1845 and was to remain there for 41 years. In 1886 he was appointed Principal of St Mary's College of the University of St Andrews and Moderator of the Church of Scotland. Daniel was educated at Crieff Academy before he progressed to the University of Edinburgh. He graduated MB CM with First-class Honours in 1874 and then proceeded MD in 1876 when he was awarded a Gold Medal for his thesis. He acted as Demonstrator to Professor Turner (1832-1916) in Edinburgh for eight years until 1882 and was then appointed to the Chair of Anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland, in Dublin. After only one year there, he transferred to Trinity College, Dublin, where he occupied a similar position for 20 years. In 1903, on the appointment of Sir William Turner to the post of Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, Daniel was invited to succeed him as Professor of Anatomy in Edinburgh. Daniel held this post until his premature death in 1909. He had three sons and two daughters. Each of his three sons achieved distinction in different fields - one in the Army, another in the Navy and the third in the Indian Medical Service. One of Daniel's daughters married Dr Edwin Bramwell (1873-1952), who was later to occupy the Moncrieff Arnott Chair of Clinical Medicine in the University of Edinburgh.

  17. New journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.


    IAWA Bulletin, New Series. Quarterly periodical of the International Association of Wood Anatomists. Annual subscriptions Dfl. 40.00 (Dfl. 30.00 for personal members of IAWA). Volume 1, 1980. From its foundation in 1931 the International Association of Wood Anatomists has promoted international cont

  18. [Michel Latarjet (1913-1999), surgeon explorer!]. (United States)

    Awada, T; Liverneaux, P


    In 1954, Michel Latarjet, anatomist and surgeon of Lyon, developed an original surgical technique to treat the unstable shoulder . This technique since kept his name: "Latarjet". He was a character in 1000 facets: highly skilled anatomist, skillful surgeon, talented sportsman, accomplished musician, big traveler, and many others... An eclectic life, symbol of an abundant XXth century.

  19. Wolfgang Bargmann (1906-1978) and Heinrich von Hayek (1900-1969): careers in anatomy continuing through German National Socialism to postwar leadership. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    None of the existing studies on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has yet explored the careers of those younger anatomists, whose professional development continued through NS times and who attained prominence in postwar German and Austrian anatomy. As they became modern anatomists' teachers and role models, the revelation that men like Wolfgang Bargmann and Heinrich von Hayek had used bodies of the executed for research in their early careers has recently led to some consternation. This study contributes to the analysis of the moral challenges inherent to a science that relies on work with "material" from human bodies and its interaction with its political environment. The results reveal that Bargmann and Hayek behaved like most other anatomists at the time, in that they used bodies of the executed for research and in that they joined the NS party or other NS political groups. As ambitious and successful young anatomists they may have felt that an early joining of NS affiliations was inevitable for the advancement of their careers. They and most of their colleagues became in some measure complicit with the NS regime. The complicated biographical realities of such luminous postwar figures as Bargmann and Hayek should lead modern anatomists to the questioning of their own ethical and political decisions in politically less demanding times.

  20. Genealogy of John and Charles Bell: their relationship with the children of Charles Shaw of Ayr. (United States)

    Kaufman, M


    The Reverend William Bell had six children who survived infancy. Two of his sons entered the legal profession and two other sons became distinguished anatomists and surgeons--John Bell, said for 20 years to have been the leading operating surgeon in Britain and throughout the world--and Sir Charles Bell, possibly the most distinguished anatomist and physiologist of his day. Information is not known about the fifth son or their sister. Charles Shaw, a lawyer of Ayr, had four sons and two daughters who survived infancy. Two of his sons, John and Alexander, became anatomists and later surgeons at the Middlesex Hospital, and both worked closely with Charles Bell at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy. His third son entered the law and his fourth son became a distinguished soldier. The two daughters of Charles Shaw married into the Bell family: Barbara married George Joseph Bell and Marion married Mr (later Sir) Charles Bell.

  1. The naming game: A discrepancy among the medical community. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Aly, Islam; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H


    As anatomists we rely on the nomenclature of structures in order to describe them appropriately, particularly their orientation in respect to their surrounding. The terminology used by the anatomist to describe an organ, muscle, or nerve within the body is taught to medical students as law. Students learn to describe structures in the "anatomical position", which has been accepted in the literature since the original Latin Nomina Anatomica. They therefore familiarize themselves with the use of terms such as superior, inferior, posterior and anterior to describe all anatomical structures, except in respect of the heart. The heart is still described in the original Valentine position. As anatomists we owe it to the medical and research community to correct the nomenclature to minimize confusion, and to describe the heart properly in respect to its surrounding structures.

  2. [Anatomy in National Socialism: stages of an ethical transgression]. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    Systematic research on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has only started in recent years. It has shown that anatomists used the bodies of NS victims for anatomical teaching and research purposes. In this they became complicit with the NS regime. There was a high percentage of Nazi party members among the anatomists, but at the same time there were anatomists whose careers were disrupted for so-called "racial" and political reasons. Decisive aspects of this history are first, the fact that traditional sources of anatomical body procurement included increasing numbers of NS victims and second, the gradual change of the traditional anatomical paradigm of working with the dead to a new paradigm of working with the "future dead" in human experimentation. This history has importance for the development of new ethical guidelines in anatomy.

  3. The role of ultrasound in graduate anatomy education: Current state of integration in the United States and faculty perceptions. (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F


    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and Doctoral programs. Survey results sampled 71% of anatomy graduate degree programs nationally. Of the faculty surveyed, 65% report little to no experience with US. Thirty-six percent of programs surveyed incorporate exposure to US, while only 15% provide hands-on US training. Opportunities for anatomy trainees to teach with US were found in 12% of programs. Likert responses indicated that anatomists hold overwhelmingly positive views on the contributions of US to anatomy education: 91% agreed US reinforces anatomical concepts (average 4.33 ± 0.68), 95% agreed it reinforces clinical correlates (average 4.43 ± 0.65). Anatomists hold moderately positive views on the value of US to the future careers of anatomy graduates: 69% agreed US increases competitiveness on the job market (average 3.91 ± 0.90), 85% agreed US is a useful skill for a medical school teaching career (average 4.24 ± 0.75), and 41% agreed that US should be required for a medical education career (average 3.34 ± 1.09). With continued improvements in technology and the widespread adoption of US into diverse areas of clinical practice, medical education is on the cusp of a paradigm shift with regards to US. Anatomists must decide whether US is an essential skills for the modern anatomist. Anat Sci Educ 9: 453-467. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Mona Lisa syndrome: solving the enigma of the Gioconda smile. (United States)

    Adour, K K


    The Mona Lisa smile is presented as a possible example of facial muscle contracture that develops after Bell's palsy when the facial nerve has undergone partial wallerian degeneration and has regenerated. The accompanying synkinesis would explain many of the known facts surrounding the painting and is a classic example of Leonardo da Vinci as the compulsive anatomist who combined art and science.

  5. Skeletal muscle (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  6. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.


    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  7. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel


    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  8. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael


    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display…

  9. Personal Stories in Applied Theatre Contexts: Redefining the Blurred Lines (United States)

    Kandil, Yasmine


    Personal stories have been utilised in a variety of ways in Applied Theatre practices. The author problematises their use when the teller's safety is at stake within a given context. Inspired by neuro-anatomist Jill Bolte-Taylor's process of enlightenment through observing her stroke from the inside out, the author uses her personal experience of…

  10. Subtrochanteric hip fractures treated with cerclage cables and long cephalomedullary nails: a review of 17 consecutive cases over 2 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Muiris T


    The conflict between the anatomist and biologist surgeons is exemplified by the debate about subtrochanteric hip fractures. Closed intramedullary nailing is biologically friendly but may result in prolonged procedures and malunion. By contrast, accurate anatomical open reduction may disturb the biological composition of the fracture environment.

  11. Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.


    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…

  12. The Student's Dilemma, Liver Edition: Incorporating the Sonographer's Language into Clinical Anatomy Education (United States)

    Hall, M. Kennedy; Mirjalili, S. Ali; Moore, Christopher L.; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.


    Anatomy students are often confused by multiple names ascribed to the same structure by different clinical disciplines. Increasingly, sonography is being incorporated into clinical anatomical education, but ultrasound textbooks often use names unfamiliar to the anatomist. Confusion is worsened when ultrasound names ascribed to the same structure…

  13. How the Distinctive Cultures of Osteopathic and Allopathic Medical Schools Affect the Careers, Perceptions, and Institutional Efforts of Their Anatomy Faculties: A Qualitative Case Study of Two Schools (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; Byram, Jessica N.; Traser, Courtney J.; Arbor, Tafline C.


    Anatomy faculties are integral to basic science instruction in medical schools, particularly given the preponderance of anatomic instruction in the preclinical curriculum. Recent years have witnessed major curricular restructuring and other emerging national trends that pose significant challenges to anatomists. An examination of anatomy faculty…

  14. Postmortem procedure and diagnostic avian pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello


    Full Text Available This review paper will highlight the basic systematic procedures involve from submission of carcass for the investigation of disease to diagnosis and will serve as a guide to veterinarians (anatomist and pathologist on postmortem proceedures in clinical practice.

  15. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 4: the professionalization of orthodontics (concluded). (United States)

    Wahl, Norman


    Angle's legacy was assured when his disciples, both in the United States and abroad, boarded the joiners' bandwagon. The first 2 cornerstones of the professional pyramid were laid (education and organization), and the specialty began to pour the third cornerstone: orthodontic literature. Anthropologists, anatomists, histologists, and health professionals laid the foundation for the study of craniofacial growth.

  16. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.


    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  17. Interactive Anatomical and Surgical Live Stream Lectures Improve Students' Academic Performance in Applied Clinical Anatomy (United States)

    Shiozawa, Thomas; Butz, Benjamin; Herlan, Stephan; Kramer, Andreas; Hirt, Bernhard


    Tuebingen's "Sectio Chirurgica" (TSC) is an innovative, interactive, multimedia, and transdisciplinary teaching method designed to complement dissection courses. The Tuebingen's "Sectio Chirurgica" (TSC) allows clinical anatomy to be taught via interactive live stream surgeries moderated by an anatomist. This method aims to…

  18. Posterior Approach to Kidney Dissection: An Old Surgical Approach for Integrated Medical Curricula (United States)

    Daly, Frank J.; Bolender, David L.; Jain, Deepali; Uyeda, Sheryl; Hoagland, Todd M.


    Integrated medical curricular changes are altering the historical regional anatomy approach to abdominal dissection. The renal system is linked physiologically and biochemically to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems; yet, anatomists often approach the urinary system as part of the abdomen and pelvic regions. As part of an integrated…

  19. Foundations for a Lifetime: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Recollection, Reconstruction and Meaning-Making Process of Cadaver Dissection (United States)

    Skinner, Michelle D.


    Cadaver dissection has been a central part of the education of medical professionals for centuries. Throughout that time, anatomists have claimed that dissection is a learning experience rich with life lessons encompassing more than simply gross anatomy. Yet, no published empirical data exist of the long-term impact that dissection has on medical…

  20. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands. (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel


    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  1. How legitimate is the use of human cadavers in modern-day anatomy?


    Winkelmann, Andreas


    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  2. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie


    Winkelmann, Andreas


    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  3. Anatomical arrangement of the lobar bronchi, broncho-pulmonary segments and their variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathidevi V. K.


    Conclusions: In man there is an increase in the number of bronchial generations and alveoli after birth. An increase in their size was noted as well. Thus the study of variations in the pattern of bronchopulmonary segments aids the clinician very much. It is necessary for Thoracic Surgeons, Anaesthetists, Chest physicians, Radiologists, Ultrasonologists, Pathologists and Anatomists for investigative procedures, diagnosis and various treatment modalities including surgeries like segmentectomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4928-4932

  4. The Maze of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Herbowski


    Full Text Available The author analyzes a historical, long, and tortuous way to discover the cerebrospinal fluid. At least 35 physicians and anatomists described in the text have laid the fundamentals of recognition of this biological fluid’s presence. On the basis of crucial anatomical, experimental, and clinical works there are four greatest physicians who should be considered as equal cerebrospinal fluid’s discoverers: Egyptian Imhotep, Venetian Nicolo Massa, Italian Domenico Felice Cotugno, and French François Magendie.

  5. Topografía del espacio retroestíleo en fetos humanos


    Manrique García, Carlos


    The retrostyloid space has attracted the attention of numerous investigators, anatomists and surgeons, who have studied and described its location and the structures that compose it. He has received various names such as posterior parapharyngeal space (Lang, 1995), posterior laterofaringeo (Testut y Latarjet, 1983), and posterior subparotideo of Sébileau (Paturet, 1951). The limits of the retrostyloid space have not been studied during the fetal period, therefore, an analysis has been unde...

  6. Insights into the Freiburg Anatomical Institute during National Socialism, 1933-1945. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    The Anatomical Institute at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg is among the anatomical departments for which a comprehensive account of its history during National Socialism (NS) is still missing. Previous investigations (such as in: Grün et al., 2002) have revealed the political activities of some anatomists, but, in the absence of relevant body-registers, a more comprehensive examination of the anatomical body procurement has not been attempted. The inspection of records in university and municipal archives allows insight into the activities in the institute within the historical context. The Freiburg Institute shared the experience of the impact of NS politics with other German anatomies. Four anatomists were dismissed because of NS racial discrimination, and chairman von Möllendorf left for political reasons. His successor Nauck's appointment was politically motivated, as he was a staunch Nazi. His colleagues were also members of NS political organizations. Body procurement was controversial between the public and the anatomists in Freiburg prior to and following the Third Reich, and much of the anatomists' efforts focused on the improvement of the body supply. In 1935, and, again during the war, the number of bodies was sufficient for anatomical education. Among the traditional sources of body procurement were increasing numbers of NS victims. Forty-four of them can be identified, among them 21 forced laborers and their children who died of so-called natural causes, and 22 men who had been executed at Stuttgart prison on April 6, 1943. While the victims' names have been ascertained, their biographies still need restoration to ensure an appropriate commemoration.

  7. [Caspar Friedrich Wolff: the emergence of epigenesis]. (United States)

    Muzrukova, E B; Pomelova, M A


    The role of C.F. Wolff, an outstanding anatomist and embryologist, in the development of embryology is described to mark the 280th anniversary of his birth. His life and work were fully elucidated in the book of A.E. Gaisinovich, a famous historian of biology. Although the alternation of preformation and epigenesis is accompanied by a succession of ideas, the boundary between these concepts is clearly retained and depends on many social and cultural factors.



    Asra Anjum; D.Suseelamma; S. Saritha; T V Ramani; D. Nagajyothi


    Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, patholog...

  9. The muscle pattern of the Drosophila abdomen depends on a subdivision of the anterior compartment of each segment


    Krzemień, Joanna; Fabre, Caroline C. G.; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A


    In the past, segments were defined by landmarks such as muscle attachments, notably by Snodgrass, the king of insect anatomists. Here, we show how an objective definition of a segment, based on developmental compartments, can help explain the dorsal abdomen of adult Drosophila. The anterior (A) compartment of each segment is subdivided into two domains of cells, each responding differently to Hedgehog. The anterior of these domains is non-neurogenic and clones lacking Notch develop normally; ...

  10. The Equine Distal Limb. An Atlas of Clinical Anatomy and Comparative Imaging (7th impression, J-M. Denoix : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gottschalk


    Full Text Available Originally published in 2000, this 7th impression is testimony to the ongoing relevance of a classical reference 11 years after its original publication. The book is authored by Jean-Marie Denoix who is well known in South Africa, having been the main speaker at an annual SAEVA congress. He is internationally recognised as a leading equine anatomist and diagnostic imager.

  11. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison. (United States)

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P


    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary.

  12. A core syllabus for the teaching of neuroanatomy to medical students. (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard; McHanwell, Stephen; Plaisant, Odile; Pais, Diogo


    There is increasingly a call for clinical relevance in the teaching of biomedical sciences within all health care courses. However, this presupposes that there is a clear understanding of what can be considered core material within the curricula. To date, the anatomical sciences have been relatively poorly served by the development of core syllabuses, particularly for specialized core syllabuses such as neuroanatomy. One of the aims of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and of the European Federation for Experimental Morphology (EFEM) is to formulate, on an international scale, core syllabuses for all branches of the anatomical sciences using Delphi Panels consisting of anatomists, scientists, and clinicians to initially evaluate syllabus content. In this article, the findings of a Delphi Panel for neuroanatomy are provided. These findings will subsequently be published on the IFAA website to enable anatomical (and other cognate learned) societies and individual anatomists, clinicians, and students to freely comment upon, and elaborate and amend, the syllabuses. The aim is to set internationally recognized standards and thus to provide guidelines concerning neuroanatomical knowledge when engaged in course development.

  13. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray. (United States)

    Kemp, Martin


    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine.

  14. Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the recurrent laryngeal nerves: medical illustration and reintroduction of a physiological demonstration from Galen. (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J


    The purpose of this article is to review the anatomical illustrations and physiological demonstrations of sixteenth-century Flemish-born anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Although Vesalius was primarily an anatomist, he also used vivisection as a pedagogical device to help his students understand the function of structures within the fabric of the body that they had previously studied in anatomical detail. Vesalius's masterwork, De humani corporis fabrica or simply the Fabrica (1543, 1555), was ostensibly an anatomy text, but Vesalius included textual and figural references to his use of vivisection to explicate the function of specific structures. Even as he began to criticize the errors in Galen's anatomical works, Vesalius nevertheless adopted some of Galen's classic physiological demonstrations, in particular the ligation (and subsequent release) of the recurrent laryngeal nerves of a pig to demonstrate their role in generating the pig's squeal. Vesalius's illustrations concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the Fabrica were of two types: elegant anatomical woodcut plates-unsurpassed for their clarity, accuracy, and detail - and the distinctly inelegant historiated initial Q, depicting a throng of putti busily engaged in vivisecting a pig. Vesalius' anatomical plates were heavily plagiarized while the historiated initials, showing the rough work of an anatomist or surgeon, were largely ignored and remain little recognized today. While Vesalius' anatomical illustrations of the recurrent laryngeal nerves contained some errors, they were a dramatic departure from prior meager efforts at medical illustration and indeed far surpassed all contemporary published illustrations by others. Vesalius was also influential in reviving Galen's approach to vivisection, at least for pedagogical purposes, if not really then yet as a full-fledged investigative technique.

  15. From cradle to grave via the dissection room: the role of foetal and infant bodies in anatomical education from the late 1700s to early 1900s. (United States)

    Dittmar, Jenna M; Mitchell, Piers D


    The preponderance of men in the narrative of anatomical education during the 1800s has skewed the historical perception of medical cadavers in favour of adult men, and stifled the conversation about the less portrayed individuals, especially children. Although underrepresented in both the historical literature and skeletal remains from archaeological contexts dated to the 1800s, these sources nevertheless illustrate that foetal and infant cadavers were a prized source of knowledge. In the late 1700s and 1800s foetal and infant cadavers were acquired by anatomists following body snatching from graveyards, from the child's death in a charitable hospital, death from infectious disease in large poor families, or following infanticide by desperate unwed mothers. Study of foetal and infant remains from the 1800s in the anatomical collection at the University of Cambridge shows that their bodies were treated differently to adults by anatomists. In contrast to adults it was extremely rare for foetal and infant cadavers to undergo craniotomy, and thoracotomy seems to have been performed through costal cartilages of the chest rather than the ribs themselves. However, many infants and foetuses do show evidence for knife marks on the cranium indicating surgical removal of the scalp by anatomists. These bodies were much more likely to be curated long term in anatomical collections and museums than were adult males who had undergone dissection. They were prized both for demonstrating normal anatomical development, but also congenital abnormalities that led to an early death. The current findings show that the dissection of foetal and infant cadavers was more widespread than previous research on anatomical education suggests. This research details the important role of the youngest members of society in anatomical education during the long 19th century, and how the social identity of individuals in this subgroup affected their acquisition, treatment and disposal by elite medical

  16. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

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    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  17. The methodology of natural sciences in antiquity and the second book of Galen’s De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis

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    Koptseva, Natalia


    Full Text Available In this article, based on the second book of Galen’s De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis, we analyze scientific method of the famous anatomist and philosopher. We discuss experimental, logical and philosophical argumentation that Galen employs in his proof that the rational part of the soul situated in human brain. We study his polemics with Chrysippus, who declares that the rational part of the soul is located in the heart, and conclude that the treatise by Galen sets the standards of scientific studies in antiquity, which combines medical, philosophical and moral components.

  18. Significance of Mechnikov’s scientific inheritance for development of medicine

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    Semenova L.S.


    Full Text Available Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov is an outstanding scientist, zoologist, anatomist, embryologist, microbiologist, parasitologist, pathologist, bacteriologist, physiologist, cytologist, and immunologist. He was a resourceful and skilful biologist-experimenter, the author of the phagocytic theory of immunity. In 1908 I.I. Mechnikov together with the apologist of the humoral concept of immunity Paul Ehrlich was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine «for research in the theory of immunity». The paper tells about the life and research of this scientist, importance of his researches for modern medicine.

  19. [Medicine and its museums]. (United States)

    Acerbi Cremades, N


    There are described in this article the historical patrimonies belonging to five museums of Cordoba city, Argentina: the Museo de anatomia, which was named after Pedro Ara, notable Spanish Anatomist; the Museo de Anatomia Patologica; the Museo de Historia de la Medicina, created by Prof. Enrique P. Aznarez; the Museo "Obispo Salguero" of the Hospital San Roque; and the Museo Historico del Hospital Nacional de Clinicas, declared national historic monument. All these museums have a rich historic hoard, reflecting one of the important cultural aspects of this province.

  20. Entre la ambigüedad y la audacia: la vivisección alejandrina y los anatomistas del Renacimiento

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    Conde Parrado, Pedro


    Full Text Available We study the reception, amongst Renaissance anatomists, of the passage where Celsus talks about human vivisection at Alexandria. We aime to know to what extent the question of vivisection was still alive.

    Estudiamos la recepción, entre los anatomistas del Renacimiento, de la noticia sobre las vivisecciones humanas en Alejandría transmitida por Cornelio Celso, intentando conocer hasta qué punto se mantenía vigente en la época el debate sobre tal práctica.

  1. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause. (United States)

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina


    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke.

  2. Study of supracondylar process of humerus

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    Ravi Vandana


    Full Text Available The supra condylar process is occasional beak like projection from anteromedial surface of distal 1/3 rd of humerus. It appears to be phylogenetic remnant of complete osseous bridge found in reptiles, marsupials, cats, lemurs and new world monkeys. Among 133 dried humeri studied only one right humerus showed SCP (incidence 0.75% whose dimensions were recorded and photographed. SCP is usually clinically silent but can be the cause for median or ulnar nerve and brachial artery compression syndrome especially when associated with Struthers ligament. Therefore the knowledge of presence of SCP is important for clinicians and radiologists along with anatomists and anthropologists.

  3. [The wanderings of Jules Cloquet and Gustave Flaubert]. (United States)

    Dumont, M


    This is the story of a picaresque journey in France and in Corsica of Jules Cloquet (1790-1883), the French anatomist who described the well-known Cloquet's node and of Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), the famous author of "Madame Bovary" and of many others novels. They were two vagabonds, Cloquet watching with slackness the young womanizering Flaubert. At 64 years of age, the lazy and meddlesome Cloquet stopped operating and writing. Surrounded by honors, he died at the age of 93, leaving his eponym to the Cloquet's node.

  4. [Medical photography and cinematography before 1914: privileged rapport with the neurosciences]. (United States)

    Aubert, M G


    Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, professor at the Université catholique de Louvain, was an enthusiastic user of photography and a pioneer of medical cinematography. He used these techniques widely in order to illustrate his lectures, papers and his neurological textbook. His films and photographic plates are at the present time being studied and restored. The nitrate films are the oldest belgian films surviving. Neuroscientists have played a major role in the development of medical photography and cinematography and in the use of these techniques for clinical, research or didactic purposes.

  5. An entire universe of the Roman world's architecture found in the human skull. (United States)

    Turliuc, Dana; Turliuc, Șerban; Cucu, Andrei; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Costea, Claudia


    Today's neuroanatomical terminology has its origins in the Romans' way of life, in their civil and military house architecture, as well as in the fields of engineering and technology. Despite the fact that they did not know how the nervous system worked and what the role of each neuroanatomic structure was, over time, especially in Renaissance and early modern times, the anatomists sought descriptive names for the nervous structures they have identified by way of similarity with some ancient items. This study aims to briefly review the influence of Roman architecture, engineering, and technology on neuroanatomic nomenclature, the precursor of modern neuroanatomical terminology.

  6. The first anatomy professors in the medical school of the University of Athens. (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Androutsos, Georgios; Demesticha, Theano; Lappas, Dimitrios; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Piagkos, Konstantinos


    The purpose of this historical review is to add new elements to the international literature in relation to the birth and progress of the science of anatomy in modern Greece. Step by step, it outlines the efforts of prominent Greek anatomists to establish the course of the basic science of anatomy in the newly founded Medical School, the laborious effort to collect cadaveric material to compile museum anatomical collections and to gradually build the foundations of modern anatomy science at the Medical School of the Athenian University.

  7. Bilateral Tensor Fasciae Suralis Muscles in a Cadaver with Unilateral Accessory Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle

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    Logan S. W. Bale


    Full Text Available Muscle variants are routinely encountered in the dissection laboratory and in clinical practice and therefore anatomists and clinicians need to be aware of their existence. Here we describe two different accessory muscles identified while performing educational dissection of a 51-year-old male cadaver. Tensor fasciae suralis, a rare muscle variant, was identified bilaterally and accessory flexor digitorum longus, a more common muscle variant, was present unilaterally. Tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus are clinically relevant muscle variants. To our knowledge, the coexistence of tensor fasciae suralis and accessory flexor digitorum longus in the same individual has not been reported in either cadaveric or imaging studies.

  8. "With much nausea, loathing, and foetor": William Harvey, dissection, and dispassion in early modern medicine. (United States)

    Payne, Lynda


    In early modern England accumulating knowledge of normal and morbid anatomy through dissecting the human body not only led to a better understanding of nature, but also defined the identity of the people who engaged in this activity. This essay analyses the relationship between systemically dismembering the dead and how this pursuit shaped the attitudes and emotions of early modern medical men toward the living. I focus on the most famous anatomist in early modern Britain - the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, William Harvey (1578-1657).

  9. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena. (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel


    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  10. Consent and consensus-ethical perspectives on obtaining bodies for anatomical dissection. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    Biomedical research and education benefit from the use of human cadavers. These are usually acquired from donors who have willed their body to science during their lifetime. This concept of donation through "informed consent" respects the personal autonomy of the donor and the dignity of the dead body (extended from the dignity of the living person). The concept of informed consent is taken from research on living human subjects regulated in the Helsinki Declaration. This transfer to the domain of anatomical donation, however, has several problems. For example, the dead cannot speak for themselves and the ethical status of the human cadaver remains ambiguous. It is therefore suggested that an element of consensus is added to the concept of consent, a consensus between donors, relatives, anatomists, and the wider community. A consensus can give difficult decisions surrounding body donation and dissection a broader basis and can help bridge the gap between donors and families on the one side and anatomists, researchers and students on the other side. This approach can help to establish relationships of trust with local communities, on which body donation programs depend.

  11. [History of anatomy - academy history. On the development of scientific academies in the Third Reich exemplified by anatomy]. (United States)

    Steger, Florian; Schütz, Mathias


    Research on the history of National Socialism has for decades ignored the German academies of sciences as well as the subject of anatomy. This was due to the rather minor roles the societies played in the scientific policy of the Third Reich and role anatomy played in medicine during this period of time. Recent investigations in both subjects were able to show how worthwhile the dealing with seemingly minor aspects of National Socialist policies is: Those aspects can especially help to sharpen the historical judgment of scientific and political actions. On the basis of recent archival research this article tries to present and analyze the subject of anatomy and the academies of sciences regarding their reciprocal relationship between 1933 and 1945. Besides the Leopoldina, the Prussian and the Bavarian Academies of Sciences will be focused on: By the examples of the anatomists represented in these societies it can be shown how anatomy as well as the societies developed under National Socialism and which general tendencies, entanglements and differences are relevant for the matter. The insight in this relationship focuses on the one hand on the anatomists represented in the societies. On the other hand it deals with the presence of anatomical research in the society, their meetings and publications, and especially with ideology and crimes reflected in this research.

  12. Ultrasound imaging in medical student education: Impact on learning anatomy and physical diagnosis. (United States)

    So, Sokpoleak; Patel, Rita M; Orebaugh, Steven L


    Ultrasound use has expanded dramatically among the medical specialties for diagnostic and interventional purposes, due to its affordability, portability, and practicality. This imaging modality, which permits real-time visualization of anatomic structures and relationships in vivo, holds potential for pre-clinical instruction of students in anatomy and physical diagnosis, as well as providing a bridge to the eventual use of bedside ultrasound by clinicians to assess patients and guide invasive procedures. In many studies, but not all, improved understanding of anatomy has been demonstrated, and in others, improved accuracy in selected aspects of physical diagnosis is evident. Most students have expressed a highly favorable impression of this technology for anatomy education when surveyed. Logistic issues or obstacles to the integration of ultrasound imaging into anatomy teaching appear to be readily overcome. The enthusiasm of students and anatomists for teaching with ultrasound has led to widespread implementation of ultrasound-based teaching initiatives in medical schools the world over, including some with integration throughout the entire curriculum; a trend that likely will continue to grow. Anat Sci Educ 10: 176-189. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. History of the current understanding and management of tethered spinal cord. (United States)

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Mapstone, Timothy B; Archer, Jacob B; Wilson, Christopher; Theodore, Nicholas; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C


    An understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of tethered cord syndrome (TCS) and modern management strategies have only developed within the past few decades. Current understanding of this entity first began with the understanding and management of spina bifida; this later led to the gradual recognition of spina bifida occulta and the symptoms associated with tethering of the filum terminale. In the 17th century, Dutch anatomists provided the first descriptions and initiated surgical management efforts for spina bifida. In the 19th century, the term "spina bifida occulta" was coined and various presentations of spinal dysraphism were appreciated. The association of urinary, cutaneous, and skeletal abnormalities with spinal dysraphism was recognized in the 20th century. Early in the 20th century, some physicians began to suspect that traction on the conus medullaris caused myelodysplasia-related symptoms and that prophylactic surgical management could prevent the occurrence of clinical manifestations. It was not, however, until later in the 20th century that the term "tethered spinal cord" and the modern management of TCS were introduced. This gradual advancement in understanding at a time before the development of modern imaging modalities illustrates how, over the centuries, anatomists, pathologists, neurologists, and surgeons used clinical examination, a high level of suspicion, and interest in the subtle and overt clinical appearances of spinal dysraphism and TCS to advance understanding of pathophysiology, clinical appearance, and treatment of this entity. With the availability of modern imaging, spinal dysraphism can now be diagnosed and treated as early as the intrauterine stage.

  14. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    K. Lakshmi Kumari


    Full Text Available Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The parameters are useful for plastic surgeons during treatment of congenital and traumatic deformities, identification of individuals in medicolegal cases by forensic scientists and identifying craniofacial deformities of genetic syndromes by geneticist. Methods: 170 males and 110 female adults from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India region are included in this study. Anthropometric points for cephalic index were measured by using spreading calipers. Facial index measurements were taken by measuring tape. All measurements were taken in subjects sitting in relaxed condition and subjects head is in anatomical position. Cranial index and facial index were calculated as per the formula. Results: Maximum number of males with mean cephalic index values of 80.21 were observed as mesocephalic and female with mean value of 79.25 observed as brachycephalic. Regarding facial index males were leptoprosopic and females were mesoprosopic. Conclusion: Cephalic index and facial index were terms used by anthropologists, anatomists, plastic surgeons and forensic scientists to identify individual's race and sex for treatment of craniofacial deformities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 656-658


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    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is the widely used chemical for embalming cadavers, for fixation of tissues in histology, for fumigation of op eration theatres and sterilization of surgical instruments . Formaldehyde cannot be absorbed through the skin but becomes vapor at room temperature. Anatomists, pathologists, forensi c surgeons, staff of dissection hall , embalming laboratory , histology laboratory and medical students will get exposure of formaldehyde gas. It is estimated that an anatomist gets expo sed to formaldehyde (gas for about 30,000 - 60,000 hours in his / her life time. Formaldehyde is the “drug of choice” for above purpose if it is used with proper precaut ions , but it can produce harmful effects on many systems as on skin, respiratory system, ce ntral nervous system , gastro intestinal system and produce minor to major problems ran ging from burning of eyes to carcinomas. A cross sectional survey is conducted by sel ecting 120 members of anatomy staff (Both teaching and nonteaching who are work ing in colleges in and around Hyderabad city. The effect of formalin on above group is st udied. Results of this survey are grouped system wise and known protective measures are discussed.

  16. Sex determination of Joseon people skeletons based on anatomical, cultural and molecular biological clues. (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Jun Bum; Kim, Myeung Ju; Shin, Dong Hoon


    Sex determination is very integral to examinations conducted by anatomists on human skeletons discovered in the archaeological field. In Korea, as in other countries, cultural or anatomical information has been the tool of first resort in making such determinations. In cases in which anatomical examination has revealed only borderline characteristics, PCR-based analysis of X/Y-chromosome genes has been employed. Even so, there are as yet very few reports on how accurately the respective results correspond with each other. In this study on 34 examined medieval Korean skeletons, 11 (32.3%) showed perfectly matching results for the three methods of sex determination. In the cases in which the cultural and anatomical findings were discordant, the amelogenin assay corroborated either the former or the latter. Although we must admit the relatively limited role of aDNA analysis, when only very small amounts of amplifiable DNA remain, we believe that the amelogenin assay can be very meaningful to Korean anatomists when employed in adjunct to conventional anatomically or culturally based sex determination.

  17. [The intermaxillary bone and Goethe's Mephistopheles]. (United States)

    Hellmich, S; Hellmich, J


    The greatest anatomist of the second half of the 18th century was considered to be Petrus Camper from Holland. His theory - widespread as a dogma - stated that the anatomical difference between man and animal was the missing intermaxillary bone in man, this being the distinguishing feature between man and monkey. Against this theory Goethe set hs own reflections and observations, and on March 27th 1784 he found, by "reflection and coincidence", the intermaxillary bone in the human skull. In order to present his exciting discovery to the famous anatomist, he wanted to use as an intermediary his good friend Johann Heinrich Merck from Darmstadt who was in contact with Petrus Camper. But Merck delayed the requested forwarding of the manuscript, belittled Goethe and the significance of his treatise considerably in an accompanying letter, did not forward Camper's replies, and in the meantime even took advantage of Goethe's treatise for his own publications. It as only late that Goethe became aware of the scheming and mean behaviour of his "good friend", and he felt disappointed and betrayed by Merck. In Goethe's dramatic poem "Faust", Dr. Faust is confronted with the figure of Mephistopheles--the spirit who always plans evil and always denies. There is enough evidence to believe that the person of J. H. Merck can be recognized in this figure, and that Goethe's discovery of the human intermaxillary bone had its part in creating the figure of Mephistopheles as we know it today.

  18. [Baron Gijom Dipitren, Guillaume Dupuytren (1777-1835)]. (United States)

    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Palibrk, Tomislav; Lesić, Aleksandar R; Durasić, Ljubomir M


    Baron Dupuytren, Guillaume (1777-1835), French anatomist, pathologyst and surgeon, although was a personal doctor of Napoleon, Lui XVI and Sharles X, remain known for Dupuytrene contracture, due to his name, after he described this disease of palmar fascia in 1833. He started his education at Paris at age of 12, at 18 he was chief demostrator of anatomist prosectors. In 1802. he become surgeon assistant and in 1812 professor of surgery. At age of 38 he become surgeon-in-chief in Hôtel-Dieu the most famous hospital in Europe of that time. Dipitren was a dostor of Lui VIII, who gave him the title of baron in 1823. Also, he was the doctor of Sharles X, and from Napoleon he was decorated by Legue of the Honour. He was the richest doctor of the France, and that time was named Dupuytrens time. He was working the whole day, and was dealing with all parts of surgery, but he become most prominent in orthopaedics, making connections between anatomy, pathology and surgery, what make him popular and famous. Dupuytren dies in age of 58 due to the pleural empyema, but he refused surgery. Before that he had brain stroke, from which he never recover, although he continue with lectures.


    Beshkenadze, E; Chipashvili, N


    Incomplete and superficial knowledge of morphological types and anatomical variations of the root canal system will become the reason leading to the failure of endodontic treatment. cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) - it is a technologically more sophisticated, interesting, reliable, non-invasive imaging technique with high degree of visualization, considered as a particularly important and useful tool to study complexity and variability of canal system. 2753 teeth of 228 patients have been studied by CT. Ages of the patients varied within 25-55 years. Among them 122 men and 106 women. Maxillary teeth - 1394 and mandibular - 1359, respectively. The aim of our study was investigation and evaluation of: tooth length, number of roots and canals, type of configuration, root canal curvature and degree of curvature in Georgian population. The results of the study revealed interesting data and anatomical characteristics, those replicating the racial signs and differs from the data recorded by the other researchers, became evident. In studying of dental form variations were interested anatomists (description and comparison) anthropologists, biologists, palaeontologists and stomatologists. The field of human dental anatomy has not been completely explored so, the modern human teeth still remain a matter of continual curiosity and research. The knowledge of anatomical characteristics of dental root canals will help clinicians to optimize the algorithm of endodontic treatment. Thus, statistic data are not the universal criterias, however, basing on these indicators anthropometrical data of roots and canals vary according to the geographic zones and nationalities. The study of variations in tooth form has interested anatomists (description and comparison), anthropologists, biologists, palaeontologists and dentists. The field of human dental anatomy has not been completely explored and the dentition of modern man still remains a matter of continual curiosity and research

  20. Significance of Pirogov`s scientific ideas for modern organization of Public Health

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    Semenova L.S.


    Full Text Available This article is about Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, a surgeon and anatomist, prominent scientist and educator, founder of field surgery. He was the first to learn field surgery and military administration in practice. He was the first to use famous triage (the wounded were sorted according to the severity of injuries. N.I.Pirogov considered that well organized triage at dressing stations and temporary military hospitals is the main tool to provide proper care and to prevent harmful consequences. He organized training of medical nurses to help the wounded. He also published the work on the problems of pedagogy in which he proposed reforms of education system. The authors of the article have analyzed N.I.Pirogov`s works and showed their significance for modern social medicine and organization of Public Health.

  1. History from the ground up: bugs, political economy, and God in Kirby and Spence's Introduction to Entomology (1815-1856). (United States)

    Clark, J F M


    William Kirby and William Spence's Introduction to Entomology is generally recognized as one of the founding texts of entomological science in English. This essay examines the ideological allegiances of the coauthors of the Introduction. In particular, it analyzes the ideological implications of their divergent opinions on animal instinct. Different vocational pursuits shaped each man's natural history. Spence, a political economist, pursued fact-based science that was shorn of references to religion. Kirby, a Tory High Churchman, placed revelation at the very heart of his natural history. His strong commitment to partisan sectarianism cautions against reference to a homogeneous "natural theology" that was an agent of mediation. Fissures in the "common intellectual context" reached beyond the clash between natural theologians and radical anatomists to render the intellectual edifice of natural theology structurally less sound for the future.

  2. Imaging in the context of replacement heart valve development: use of the Visible Heart(®) methodologies. (United States)

    Bateman, Michael G; Iaizzo, Paul A


    In recent years huge strides have been made in the fields of interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery which now allow physicians and surgeons to repair or replace cardiac valves with greater success in a larger demographic of patients. Pivotal to these advances has been significant improvements in cardiac imaging and improved fundamental understanding of valvular anatomies and morphologies. We describe here a novel series of techniques utilized within the Visible Heart(®) laboratory by engineers, scientists, and/or anatomists to visualize and analyze the form and function of the four cardiac valves and to assess potential repair or replacement therapies. The study of reanimated large mammalian hearts (including human hearts) using various imaging modalities, as well as specially prepared anatomical specimens, has enhanced the design, development, and testing of novel cardiac therapies.

  3. [The alteration of Japanese anatomical terminology in the early Showa period and the Japanese language reform campaign]. (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo


    In the second decade of the Showa period, great changes were made in the Japanese anatomical terms. It has been proposed that the presentation of JNA (Jenaer nomina anatomica) was one of the factors leading to the change. The Japanese language reform campaign, however, played an important role. The party kokugoaigo doumei and its successor kokugo kyokai required concise and unified technical terms. The anatomical nomenclature committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists worked to satisfy this requirement. The committee consulted with nomenclature committees of other medical associations and took account of their opinions. The anatomical nomenclature committee abandoned the literal translation from Latin to Japanese and shaped a succinct Japanese terminology. Modern Japanese anatomical terms are based on this terminology.

  4. Anatomy of the cranial nerves in medieval Persian literature: Esmail Jorjani (AD 1042-1137) and The treasure of the Khwarazm shah. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Ardalan, Mohammad R; Loukas, Marios; Eknoyan, Garabed; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry


    Esmail Jorjani was an influential Persian physician and anatomist of the 12th century who did most of his writing after his seventh decade of life. Jorjani's comprehensive textbook of medicine, Zakhirey-e Khwarazmshahi (The Treasure of the Khwarazm Shah) was written in approximately AD 1112 and is considered to be the oldest medical encyclopedia written in Persian. This was an essential textbook for those studying medicine during this time. We describe the life and times of Jorjani and provide a translation and interpretations of his detailed descriptions of the cranial nerves, which were written almost a millennium ago. Medieval Persian and Muslim scholars have contributed to our current knowledge of the cranial nerves. Some of these descriptions, such as the eloquent ones provided by Jorjani, were original and have gone mostly unknown to post-Vesalian European scholars.

  5. Berengario da Carpi. (United States)

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, L S; De Santo, R M; Di Leo, V A; Papalia, T; Cirillo, M; Touwaide, A


    Berengario da Carpi was magister of anatomy and surgery at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527. Eustachio and Falloppia defined him as 'the restaurator of anatomy'. He was a great surgeon, anatomist and physician of illustrious patients including Lorenzo II dei Medici, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Galeazzo Pallavicini, Cardinal Colonna, and Alessandro Soderini. He had strong links to the intellectuals of his time (Forni, Bonamici, Manuzio, Pomponazzi) as well as with the Medici family. He was respected by the Popes Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII. His main contributions are the Isogogae Breves, De Fractura calvae sive cranei, and the illustrated Commentaria on the Anatomy of Mondino de Liucci, a textbook utilized for more than 200 years, which Berengario aimed to restore to its initial text. The Commentaria constitutes the material for the last part of this paper which concludes with a personal translation of some passages on 'The kidney', where the author gives poignant examples of experimental ingenuity.

  6. Evaluation of an online three-dimensional interactive resource for undergraduate neuroanatomy education. (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K; Eagleson, Roy; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine


    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging subjects in anatomy, and novice students often experience difficulty grasping the complex three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. This study evaluated a 3D neuroanatomy e-learning module, as well as the relationship between spatial abilities and students' knowledge in neuroanatomy. The study's cross-over design divided the participants into two groups, each starting with tests for anatomy knowledge and spatial ability, followed by access to either the 3D online learning module or the gross anatomy laboratory. Participants completed a second knowledge test prior to accessing the other learning modality. Participants in both groups scored significantly higher on Quiz 1 than on the Pretest knowledge assessment (W = 47, P e-learning module, and their learning outcomes significantly improved after accessing the resource. Anat Sci Educ 9: 431-439. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. The Anatomical Society core regional anatomy syllabus for undergraduate medicine. (United States)

    Smith, C F; Finn, G M; Stewart, J; Atkinson, M A; Davies, D C; Dyball, R; Morris, J; Ockleford, C; Parkin, I; Standring, S; Whiten, S; Wilton, J; McHanwell, S


    The Anatomical Society's core syllabus for anatomy (2003 and later refined in 2007) set out a series of learning outcomes that an individual medical student should achieve on graduation. The core syllabus, with 182 learning outcomes grouped in body regions, referenced in the General Medical Council's Teaching Tomorrow's Doctors, was open to criticism on the grounds that the learning outcomes were generated by a relatively small group of anatomists, albeit some of whom were clinically qualified. We have therefore used a modified Delphi technique to seek a wider consensus. A Delphi panel was constructed involving 'experts' (n = 39). The revised core syllabus of 156 learning outcomes presented here is applicable to all medical programmes and may be used by curriculum planners, teachers and students alike in addressing the perennial question: 'What do I need to know ?'

  8. Andreas Vesalius as a renaissance innovative neuroanatomist: his 5th centenary of birth. (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Moscovici, Mauricio; Engelhardt, Eliasz


    Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is considered the Father of Modern Anatomy, and an authentic representative of the Renaissance. His studies, founded on dissection of human bodies, differed from Galeno, who based his work on dissection of animals, constituted a notable scientific advance. Putting together science and art, Vesalius associated himself to artists of the Renaissance, and valued the images of the human body in his superb work De Humani Corporis Fabrica.This paper aims to honor this extraordinary European Renaissance physician and anatomist, who used aesthetic appeal to bind text and illustration, science and art. His achievements are highlighted, with an especial attention on neuroanatomy. Aspects about his personal life and career are also focused.

  9. Physical anthropology and the dental and medical specialties. (United States)

    Krogman, W M


    The rise of two sub-specialties in Physical Antrhopology traces back to the Anatomy Departments of Schools of Medicine in Germany and France during the nineteenth century. The study of human diversity in bones and bodies was largely by medically-trained anatomists. There developed Medical Antropology and Dental Anthropology, employing osteometry and craniometry on the skeleton, somatometry and cephalometry on the living body. As a result cross-sectional studies gave way to longitudinal studies and X-ray techniques were added to purely mensurational procedures. In Medical Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pediatrics, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and orthopaedics. In Dental Anthropology the specialties most directly concerned are pedodontics, orthodontics, oral surgery, and prosthodontics. The contributions of Physical Anthropology to each is discussed.

  10. Morphology of the heart associated with its function as conceived by ancient Greeks. (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George


    According to their writings, ancient Greek physicians had explored the anatomy of the heart. Although pre-Hippocratic medicine, which relied on religion and mysticism, has nothing more to present than implausible theories and speculations, younger physicians thanks to their animal dissections were able to depict the heart with detail. Hippocratic "On the Heart", Aristotle's, Herophilus', Erasistratus' and Galen's writings provide us with the necessary data to take a look at the anatomy of the heart as it was described back then. Despite of some confusing passages in their writings and some erroneous notions, the heart was described with relative accuracy. In the years after antiquity and in the Middle Age the only information about the anatomy of the heart could be derived from the ancient Greek works and only anatomists of the Renaissance managed to displace them. In this paper we present the knowledge of all known ancient Greek physicians about the heart, with emphasis on its anatomy.

  11. Sphincter of Oddi Function and Risk Factors for Dysfunction (United States)

    Afghani, Elham; Lo, Simon K.; Covington, Paul S.; Cash, Brooks D.; Pandol, Stephen J.


    The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol. Lack of proper recognition and treatment of SOD may be associated with clinical events, including pancreatitis and biliary symptoms with hepatic enzyme elevation. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches are discussed to help recognize, prevent, and treat SOD. Future studies are needed to assess the treatment benefit of agents such as calcium-channel blockers, glyceryl trinitrate, or tricyclic antidepressants in patients with SOD. PMID:28194398

  12. Medieval neuroanatomy: the text of Mondino dei Luzzi and the plates of Guido da Vigevano. (United States)

    Olry, R


    The Italian anatomists Mondino dei Luzzi (c. 1275-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (c. 1280-1349) must be regarded as pivotal figures in the history of medieval anatomy. Mondino's book (written in 1316 and published in 1478) was the first treatise of anatomy based on the dissection of human cadavers, whereas the plates of Vigevano's manuscript (1345) marked the beginning of a new trend which became increasingly widespread during the following centuries: the use of anatomical illustration in textbooks. Though their neuroanatomical descriptions are rather simple and somewhat difficult to correlate with current descriptions, analysis of these works sheds new light on the knowledge of brain and spinal cord anatomy in the Middle Ages (Olry, 1996). Vigevano's contribution to neuroanatomy, however, appears more important than that of Mondino dei Luzzi, probably because his anatomical illustrations often compelled the draftsman to break free from Galen's dominating influence.

  13. Eustachio and "Libellus de dentibus" the first book devoted to the structure and function of the teeth. (United States)

    Shklar, G; Chernin, D


    Bartolomeo Eustachio (1520-1574), a major anatomist and physician of the Italian Renaissance, made very significant contributions toward our knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the dentition, including the first descriptions of the structure of the dental pulp and of the periodontal membrane. His treatise on the teeth, "Libellus de Dentibus", published in 1563, has just been translated into English, and the remarkable descriptions of the dental pulp, the periodontal membrane, the development of both sets of teeth from dental follicles, the trigeminal nerve, and other oral structures have not been fully appreciated. We offer extensive translated material from his treatise to establish the unique insight that Eustachio had into the structure and function of the human dentition, based upon extensive dissections of both human and animal material. Eustachio also had very modern ideas concerning the treatment of periodontitis, including the curettage of granulation tissue to promote reattachment of the gingival tissue.

  14. [The history of myasthenia gravis. Men and ideas. (United States)

    Mimenza-Alvarado, A; Tellez-Zenteno, Jf; Garcia-Ramos, G; Estañol, B


    The first description of a patient with myasthenia gravis was done by Thomas Willis (1621-1675). He was an eminent professor of natural history at Oxford University who also described the arteries of the brain and made the first precise drawings of it. At the present time myasthenia gravis is considered one of the most well described autoimmune diseases with great advances in its diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment. In this review we summarize the most important events and ideas in the history of this disease since the original description by Willis; mention the most important clinicians, anatomists and physiologists that were concerned with its understanding and make reference of some the most recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment and finally discuss some present controversies. Neurología 2007;22(0):0-0.

  15. Oral anatomy in the sixteenth century: Juan Valverde de Amusco. (United States)

    López-Valverde, A; Gómez de Diego, R; De Vicente, J


    In 1554 Juan Valverde de Amusco, a Spanish anatomist, wrote the History of the composition of the human body, a complete anatomical treatise that took as its model the Vesalius school of thought (La fábrica of Vesalius). Considered one of the most complete anatomical treatises of the Renaissance and one of the most widely read books of the sixteenth century, it was translated into four languages in its day. The first chapter, devoted to bones, provides a meticulously detailed analysis of the bones of the facial structures and of the teeth, their supporting structures, vascularisation and innervation. Juan Valverde de Amusco even describes techniques for reducing mandibular luxations. Even with the imprecise observations typical of the time the treatise must be considered an exceptional document.

  16. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael


    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  17. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s. (United States)

    Jones, Ross L


    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period.

  18. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part I. Mythology, miracles and fantasy: from Chimera to the Miracle of the Black Leg of Saints Cosmas and Damian and the cock of John Hunter. (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe


    The replacement of diseased organs and tissues by the healthy ones of others has been a unique milestone in modern medicine. However, even though cloning, member transplantation and regenerative therapies with stem cells are available in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, one should remember that all these techniques were in the imagination more than 2,000 years ago. For centuries, transplantation remained a theme of mythology, miracle or fantasy and was found only in literature and arts. This first paper explains the concept of tissue transplantation from the period when it was relegated to the imagination to the work of the Scottish surgeon and anatomist, John Hunter, who demonstrated the viability of bone allograft.

  19. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights. (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir


    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaleel


    Full Text Available Vertebral anomalies are of interest not only to anatomist, but also to orthopedician, neurologist & neurosurgeons. Various vertebral anomalies of anatomic interest have been reported namely; occipitalisation, sacralisation, lumbarisation, absence of posterior elements of vertebral arch & vertebral s ynostosis. The fusion of vertebral column is rare anomalies usually congenital in origin. The fusion of thoracic vertebrae can present many clinical sign including congenital scoliosis. A study on 594 dry adult human vertebrae of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The study was done over a period of 6 months (July to December 2014 during routine osteology classes for 1 year MBBS, we found the fusion of typical thoracic vertebrae between T 3 & T 4 . The cause could be failure of re - segmentation of somitomeres or acquired.

  1. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays. (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis


    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  2. Marie-François Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) and his contributions to the foundations of pathological anatomy and modern medicine. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ardalan, Mohammad R


    Marie-François Xavier Bichat (1771-1802) was a prominent French anatomist during a time of revolution and one of the founders of French scientific medicine. He conducted several experimental studies, which laid the foundation for modern physiology. Based on autopsy findings, Bichat introduced 21 tissues as the basic elements of organs. His name is carried on by several eponyms in anatomy and histology; Bichat's fossa (pterygopalatine fossa), Bichat's protuberance (buccal fat pad), Bichat's foramen (cistern of the vena magna of Galen), Bichat's ligament (lower fasciculus of the posterior sacroiliac ligament), Bichat's fissure (transverse fissure of the brain) and Bichat's tunic (tunica intima vasorum). This paper deals with the life and works of this early pioneer in anatomy and physiology.

  3. A very nervous inguinal floor: report of a case. (United States)

    Kulacoglu, H; Sen, T; Ozyaylali, I; Elhan, A


    Chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair with prosthetic meshes is recorded in some patients. Although the exact etiology of the pain is not fully understood, it can be related to the trauma to the regional nerves. It is possible to involve these nerves by injuring, suturing, stapling, tacking or compressing them during the operation. Therefore, a delicate surgical approach to the inguinal floor with correct identification of three nerves is necessary for patient comfort at early and late postoperative period. We herein report a surgical view of an inguinal floor which are very rich of neural structures in a patient undergo an elective inguinal hernia repair. The number of the main nerve bundles was excessive, and they were thicker than generally met. This kind of anatomic variations may create a difficulty for repair with prosthetic material. The identification of the nerve structures was hard at first sight and the correct identification was only made by consulting the surgical picture with a senior anatomist.

  4. The monarch and the master: Peter the Great and Frederik Ruysch. (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Skandalakis, John E


    The extraordinary European journey of Tsar Peter the Great and his passage to Amsterdam, The Netherlands, allowed him to meet a great figure of medical history who offered insight into the mysteries surrounding the structure of the human body. The famous Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch, preeminent in dissection and anatomical preservation, impressed the emperor and inspired his love for anatomy and surgery. Peter the Great was fascinated by the study of the structure of the human body and spent many hours in the anatomical cabinet of Ruysch. This impressive collection of cadavers and anatomical specimens, described as "a perfect necropolis," was both a laboratory for teaching anatomy and a bizarre and unique form of art. The profound and enduring impression that the West made on the emperor also led him to modernize the medical services in his homeland, Russia.

  5. Retrogressive development: transcendental anatomy and teratology in nineteenth-century Britain. (United States)

    Bates, Alan W H


    In 1855 the leading British transcendental anatomist Robert Knox proposed a theory of retrogressive development according to which the human embryo could give rise to ancestral types or races and the animal embryo to other species within the same family. Unlike monsters attributed to the older theory of arrested development, new forms produced by retrogression were neither imperfect nor equivalent to a stage in the embryo's development. Instead, Knox postulated that embryos contained all possible specific forms in potentia. Retrogressive development could account for examples of atavism or racial throwbacks, and formed part of Knox's theory of rapid (saltatory) species change. Knox's evolutionary theorizing was soon eclipsed by the better presented and more socially acceptable Darwinian gradualism, but the concept of retrogressive development remained influential in anthropology and the social sciences, and Knox's work can be seen as the scientific basis for theories of physical, mental and cultural degeneracy.

  6. Multiple unilateral variations in medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus and their branches. (United States)

    Goel, Shivi; Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Kumar, Ashwani; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar


    During routine dissection of the upper extremity of an adult male cadaver, multiple variations in branches of medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus were encountered. Three unique findings were observed. First, intercordal neural communications between the lateral and medial cords were observed. Second, two lateral pectoral nerves and one medial pectoral nerve were seen to arise from the lateral and medial cord respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Finally, the ulnar nerve arose by two roots from the medial cord. Knowledge of such variations is of interest to anatomists, radiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The aim of our study is to provide additional information about abnormal brachial plexus and its clinical implications.

  7. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor. (United States)

    Baum, Neil


    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  8. [Cardiology in the Morgagni's anatomo pathological work]. (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde, Pedro; Aranda Fraustro, Alberto


    In the XVIII century, under the influence of the "systematic spirit", characteristic of the Enlightenment age, pathological anatomy was systematized in the Morgagni's fundamental treatise De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published as letters in 1761. Certain biographical data of the author are reported here as well as some his more important contributions to cardiology such as the Morgagni's, Adams', Stokes' syndrome. His points of view on sudden death and his observations on post-infarct myocardial rupture, are related also. In his global evaluation of these facts, the speculative approach always predominates. Indeed, in these anatomist's works, we find a good example of the application of epistemologic principles to the medical field.

  9. Andreas Vesalius as a renaissance innovative neuroanatomist: his 5th centenary of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes


    Full Text Available Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 is considered the Father of Modern Anatomy, and an authentic representative of the Renaissance. His studies, founded on dissection of human bodies, differed from Galeno, who based his work on dissection of animals, constituted a notable scientific advance. Putting together science and art, Vesalius associated himself to artists of the Renaissance, and valued the images of the human body in his superb work De Humani Corporis Fabrica.This paper aims to honor this extraordinary European Renaissance physician and anatomist, who used aesthetic appeal to bind text and illustration, science and art. His achievements are highlighted, with an especial attention on neuroanatomy. Aspects about his personal life and career are also focused.

  10. Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841): The man and his personality. (United States)

    Doganay, Emre


    The most acclaimed surgeon of his time, Astley Cooper, a man from Norfolk and a student of the eminent John Hunter, was an outstandingly successful surgeon. With his accomplishments in surgery and experiments in dissection he soon became a prominent figure and received recognition worldwide. At the young age of 21 he was appointed Demonstrator in Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital in London and two years later was made Joint Lecturer in Anatomy and Surgery. With his passion for anatomy, his love for surgery and his expanding knowledge he became Surgeon to Guy's Hospital in 1800 and in the same year was elected a Fellow to the Royal Society. His attainments led him to become surgeon to three successive British monarchs as well as receiving a bestowal of Baronetcy. Through his edifying lectures, fastidious experiments and publications on anatomy and pathology he has inspired and enlightened many budding anatomists and surgeons and the principles of his teachings still prevail in practice today.

  11. [The anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp: The beginning of a medical utopia]. (United States)

    Rosler, Roberto; Young, Pablo


    The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp was painted by Rembrandt Harmen-szoon van Rijn at the early age of 26 years. In the XVII century these paintings were very popular in the Netherlands, and in this country the cities flourished as cultural centers searching the anatomy knowledge. Nicolaes Tulp was one of the persons in the center of Amsterdam's scene during XVII century. In 1632 Tulp was 39 years old, and he was an anatomist and a surgeon. Rembrandt masterly shows an autopsy performed by Dr. Tulp. This picture is the description of the beginning of a medical intellectual utopia: the absolute visibility of the disease. Unfortunately this utopia is blind to the complete visibility of the psycho-socio-cultural dimensions of the ill.

  12. Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić (1921-2008): contributions to human neuroanatomy. (United States)

    Judas, Milos; Petanjek, Zdravko; Kostović, Ivica


    Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić (1921-2008) was a world-famous anatomist, internationally distinguished otolaryngologist, a member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences & Arts and appreciated professor at the School of Medicine University of Zagreb. The founding influence in her scientific career came from her mentor Drago Perovid who was a student of Ferdinand Hochstetter, the leading authority in the field of human developmental neuroanatomy and embryology. Such an influence was obviously important in early shaping of the research agenda of Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić, and it remains important in a long series of studies on developing human telencephalon initiated by Ivica Kostović and his collaborators - with an always present and active support of Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić. The aim of this mini review is to briefly describe her numerous contributions to the anatomy of the human peripheral and central nervous system.

  13. The science prior to the crime--August Hirt's career before 1941. (United States)

    Uhlmann, Angelika; Winkelmann, Andreas


    August Hirt (1898-1945) has achieved macabre renown for atrocities perpetrated during his years as professor of anatomy at the Reichsuniversität Straßburg 1941-1945. Little, however, is known about his preceding scientific career. To fill this gap and to scrutinise whether he really was a mediocre scientist during his early years, as some have purported, we perused relevant historical archives and the available literature. In 1921, after medical school, Hirt started to research and teach at the Institute of Anatomy in Heidelberg, forging a steady career until becoming interim chair in 1935. He then became director of anatomical institutes in Greifswald 1936 and Frankfurt 1938 before going to Straßburg in 1941. Hirt seems to have been well-established in the community of anatomists. Some of his career advancements after 1933 were nevertheless facilitated by Nazi support. His main scientific fields were the autonomic nervous system, in which he produced a relevant contribution to anatomical knowledge, and fluorescence microscopy. His development of a special "luminescence microscope", in cooperation with pharmacologist Ellinger, was an important advancement in the history of microscopic technique. His early research was funded by national and international sponsoring bodies and was neither unethical nor racist. As Hirt did not publish anything after 1940, those who only knew his publications might think of him as a "good" scientist. To simply dismiss Hirt as a "pseudoscientist" would avoid the question-still difficult to answer-of how he could develop from an accepted, successful anatomist to a criminal "in the name of science".

  14. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    While it is known that bodies of the executed were used for anatomical research in Germany during the Third Reich, it is unclear whether this type of work was unique to the time period or more common in Germany than elsewhere. The dissected persons and the anatomists involved have not been fully investigated. This study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951 shows that 166 out of 7,438 [2.2%] German language articles mentioned the use of "material" from the bodies of executed persons. In comparison, only 2 out of 4,702 English language articles explicitly mentioned bodies of the executed. From 1924 to1932, 33 of a total of 3,734 [1%] German articles listed the use of the executed. From 1933 to 1938 the number rose to 46 out of 2,265 [2%], and increased again from 193/span>9 to 1945 to 73 out of 984 [7%]. After the war 15 out of 455 [3%] still dealt with "material" from the executed. German anatomists' familiarity with the use of the executed as a standard for healthy tissues even before 1933 may have contributed to the ease with which they accepted the "opportunities" (large-scale studies and research on women) presented to them by unlimited access to bodies of the executed provided by the abusive National Socialist (NS) legislation and continued using them for some years after the war. German postwar anatomy was built in part on the bodies of NS victims. Information given in some publications will help with further identification of these victims.

  15. Googling in anatomy education: Can google trends inform educators of national online search patterns of anatomical syllabi? (United States)

    Phelan, Nigel; Davy, Shane; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Barry, Denis S


    The role of e-learning platforms in anatomy education continues to expand as self-directed learning is promoted in higher education. Although a wide range of e-learning resources are available, determining student use of non-academic internet resources requires novel approaches. One such approach that may be useful is the Google Trends(©) web application. To determine the feasibility of Google Trends to gain insights into anatomy-related online searches, Google Trends data from the United States from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed. Data collected were based on the recurrence of keywords related to head and neck anatomy generated from the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the Anatomical Society suggested anatomy syllabi. Relative search volume (RSV) data were analyzed for seasonal periodicity and their overall temporal trends. Following exclusions due to insufficient search volume data, 29 out of 36 search terms were analyzed. Significant seasonal patterns occurred in 23 search terms. Thirty-nine seasonal peaks were identified, mainly in October and April, coinciding with teaching periods in anatomy curricula. A positive correlation of RSV with time over the 6-year study period occurred in 25 out of 29 search terms. These data demonstrate how Google Trends may offer insights into the nature and timing of online search patterns of anatomical syllabi and may potentially inform the development and timing of targeted online supports to ensure that students of anatomy have the opportunity to engage with online content that is both accurate and fit for purpose. Anat Sci Educ 10: 152-159. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Anatomical practice at Göttingen University since the Age of Enlightenment and the fate of victims from Wolfenbüttel prison under Nazi rule. (United States)

    Ude-Koeller, Susanne; Knauer, Wilfried; Viebahn, Christoph


    This report briefly summarises anatomical practice at Göttingen University from its founding in 1737 until the Nazi period and gives a detailed account of how Nazi death penalty legislation and execution practice at Wolfenbüttel prison influenced the decision-making of the anatomists in charge at that time. Problems in the procurement of corpses, encountered almost continuously throughout Europe since the broad introduction of dissection into medical training in the early 18th century, were absent in Göttingen during periods of overt progress in anatomical sciences, e.g. under Albrecht von Haller (in office 1736-1753) and Jacob Henle (1853-1885), and at times when existing regulations were rigorously enforced by the authorities (1814-1851). Ample availability of corpses in the wake of more than 600 executions in Wolfenbüttel between 1935 and 1945 was curtailed only by transportation fuel shortages and resulted in the dissection of more than 200 Nazi victim corpses in the Göttingen anatomy course. Apparently, neither individual offers of voluntary body donation (dating from 1932 to 1937 and published here as the earliest documents of this kind), nor the strong tradition of high-level anatomical research, nor even the awareness of the University's Age of Enlightenment origin, prevented the unethical use of corpses of Nazi victims for medical teaching. The Göttingen example may add "historical and moral detachment" under unusual political and wartime pressures to the "clinical and emotional detachment" thought to prevail amongst anatomy personnel (Hildebrandt, in this issue); together with the other reports it calls for all anatomists to bear in mind their ever present ethical obligations in respect to activities involving the use of corpses, both in medical schools and in the public domain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Mandal


    Full Text Available Anatomy and dissection have long been considered a cornerstone in medical education, irrespective of nation, racial background or medical school. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Anatomy teaching methodology has been revolutionized in the 2Ist century, due to time constraints, less availability of cadavers, stress on computer aided learning, scarcity of qualified teachers, changes in the demands of medical profession and neglect of vertical integration of anatomy teaching. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy, worldwide. But over the last few decades, traditional anatomy teaching based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a vivid range of study modules like problem based learning(PBL and computer assisted learning(CAL,and curricula integration. Though the anatomy curriculum is undergoing international reformation but it lacks uniformity among institutions. The available modern international literature, describing various methodologies for teaching/learning anatomy conclude that Anatomists are constantly debating over the following questions-How much to teach, when to teach and how to teach gross anatomy. We endeavor to answer these questions and contribute to the debate on the ideal methodology for teaching /learning anatomy. Alternative strategies and resources are also discussed so that we can re establish more effective teaching /learning tools while maintaining the beneficial values of orthodox dissection .If we are not concentrating on optimum anatomy education, it will inevitably lead to incompetent anatomists and healthcare professionals, leaving patients to face unwanted consequences of medical error.

  18. From chalkboard, slides, and paper to e-learning: How computing technologies have transformed anatomical sciences education. (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B


    Until the late-twentieth century, primary anatomical sciences education was relatively unenhanced by advanced technology and dependent on the mainstays of printed textbooks, chalkboard- and photographic projection-based classroom lectures, and cadaver dissection laboratories. But over the past three decades, diffusion of innovations in computer technology transformed the practices of anatomical education and research, along with other aspects of work and daily life. Increasing adoption of first-generation personal computers (PCs) in the 1980s paved the way for the first practical educational applications, and visionary anatomists foresaw the usefulness of computers for teaching. While early computers lacked high-resolution graphics capabilities and interactive user interfaces, applications with video discs demonstrated the practicality of programming digital multimedia linking descriptive text with anatomical imaging. Desktop publishing established that computers could be used for producing enhanced lecture notes, and commercial presentation software made it possible to give lectures using anatomical and medical imaging, as well as animations. Concurrently, computer processing supported the deployment of medical imaging modalities, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound, that were subsequently integrated into anatomy instruction. Following its public birth in the mid-1990s, the World Wide Web became the ubiquitous multimedia networking technology underlying the conduct of contemporary education and research. Digital video, structural simulations, and mobile devices have been more recently applied to education. Progressive implementation of computer-based learning methods interacted with waves of ongoing curricular change, and such technologies have been deemed crucial for continuing medical education reforms, providing new challenges and opportunities for anatomical sciences educators. Anat Sci Educ 9: 583-602. © 2016 American

  19. Prof-in-a-Box: using internet-videoconferencing to assist students in the gross anatomy laboratory

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    Moorman Stephen J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal learning environment for gross anatomy is the dissection laboratory. The Prof-in-a-Box (PiB system has been developed where an anatomist using distance-learning technologies 'helps' students in a dissection laboratory at a different site. Methods The PiB system consists of: (1 an anatomist in his/her office with a computer and video camera; (2 a computer and 2 video cameras in the lab; (3 iChat AV software; (4 a secure server to host the PiB-student 'consultation'. The PiB system allows the students and faculty to interact via audio and video providing an environment where questions can be asked and answered and anatomical structures can be identified 'at a distance' in real-time. The PiB system was set up at a prosected cadaver and made available for student use during 'office hours'. Results 25–30% of the students used the PiB system. Anatomical structures were identified, questions answered and demonstrations given 'at a distance' using the system. Students completed an optional questionnaire about the PiB system at the end of the semester. Results of the questionnaire indicate that the students were enthusiastic about the PiB system and wanted its use to be expanded in the future. Conclusion Many of the functions of a faculty member in the gross anatomy dissection laboratory can be performed 'at a distance' using the PiB system. This suggests that a geographically dispersed faculty could assist in providing instruction in the dissection labs at multiple medical schools without needing to be physically present.

  20. [The neuroanatomy of Juan Valverde de Amusco and medicine at the time of the Spanish renaissance]. (United States)

    Martín Araguz, A; Bustamante Martínez, C; Toledo León, D; López Gómez, M; Moreno Martínez, J M

    Juan Valverde de Amusco (c. 1525-c. 1564) is considered to have been the most important Spanish anatomist of the XVI century. A follower of Vesalius, he increased and divulged knowledge of anatomy during the Renaissance and his book The history of the composition of the human body was printed in Rome in 1556. The objective of this paper is to study the neuroanatomy in this book and present unpublished biographical data and describe the main contributions of this Castilian doctor to the neurosciences, in the context of Spanish medicine during the Renaissance period. He was born in the town of Hamusco (today Amusco) in the province of Palencia, which belonged to the Crown of Castile. Juan Valverde emigrated to Italy to improve his scientific knowledge. He carried out anatomical studies using the then revolutionary method of direct observation, as opposed to the Galenic criteria of authority inherited from the Medieval period. He trained in Padua under Realdo Colombo and lived in Rome where he practiced medicine until his death, becoming deservedly famous. He did not return to Spain since in the Spanish universities of the time there was a mentality which was reactionary to modern anatomy. His works, published in Italy but in the Spanish language, give an idea of the power of the Crown of Castile in the Europe of that period. The book is profusely illustrated with the first illustrations ever published in the history of printing, drawn by Nicolas Beatrizet. The book was sold widely and was translated and reedited on many occasions, until well into the XVIII century. For the first time Valverde made precise references to the minor circulation. He was the first anatomist to describe the muscles for movement of the eye correctly and the intracranial course of the carotid arteries. In his work he made the first drawing of the stapes, described by the Valencian Luis Collado. Vesalius and Valverde contributed decisively to the beginnings of modern neuroanatomy. Thanks to

  1. [Max Brödel (1870-1941): his life and contribution to the development of modern surgery]. (United States)

    Wolff, M; Radwan, H


    Max Brödel (1870-1941), from Leipzig, Germany, is often referred to in the USA as the father of modern medical illustration and mentioned in the same breath as Leonardo da Vinci or Andreas Vesal. After a classical formal art education in Leipzig he worked in Carl Ludwig's laboratory of physiology and anatomy, where he came in contact with American physicians. In 1894, the anatomist F.P. Mall convinced him to work for the recently inaugurated Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, where he collaborated with world-famous surgeons such as H.A. Kelly, W.S. Halsted, and H. Cushing. His illustrations were characterized by meticulous observation, both realistic and explanatory intention, technical superiority, and artistic merit. In 1911 he established the first "Department of Art as applied to Medicine". Here, he proved to be an innovative artist, a creative scientist, and an inspiring and skillful instructor. By the time of Brödel's retirement in 1939, 160 students had graduated as medical illustrators. His pupils spread his principles and style throughout the USA and Canada, and several similar academic programs for medical illustration have been founded in these countries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu. N


    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of malformations are included under the description of Neural tube defects (NTDs. These are abnormalities of the embryonic neuralization process. The congenital malformations of human structure and are of great interest to anatomists, obstetricians, pediatricians and radiologists. NTDs are among the commonest and most severe disorders, affecting 0.5-2 per 1000 established pregnancies, and are second commonest group of birth defects, after congenital heart defects. A valuable contribution of this study, the neural tube defects aimed at clinical methods and refined for the prenatal diagnosis in utero. Materials and Methods: This comprehensive study was undertaken to know the incidence of detail knowledge of neural tube defects in KIMS Narketpally and KAMS & RC Hyderabad, among 1000 births during the period of two years. We found seven fetuses with neural tube defects involving brain and spinal cord. A detailed study was done emphasizing on embryology and genetic and non-genetic concepts. Results & Conclusion: The seven fetuses were stillbirths and aborted babies between 20 to 40 weeks, presented with neural tube defects (0.7%. Five fetuses were females and two fetuses were males. The spinal defects were 0.4%, cranial defects 0.2% and complete neural tube defects is 0.1%. This review article discusses the classification, clinical research and epidemiological understanding of NTDs and correlated with the available literatures.

  3. The evolution, morphology and development of fern leaves

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    Alejandra eVasco


    Full Text Available Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearl all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

  4. Neurohumoral System is the Main Pathway for Transmitting Acupuncture and Moxibustion Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangPei; WangShaorong


    Abundant nerve ending distribution in the acupoint: Anatomists from 10 medical colleges and institutes as Shanghai Medical University, etc observed that there existed abundant nerve endings within about 5 mm-diameter range of the acupoint area in majority of 2444 acupoints in the dead human body. In above 90% of the observed acupoints, there were some nerve trunks or nerve branches to pass through. Results of the observations on 371 acupoints by scholars from France, Japan, Canada, the former Soviet Union, etc was very similar to those of Chinese scholars. The relationship between acupoint locations and forms of nerve distribution are ① acupoints are located in the superficial layer of the muscles where the nerves go out from the deep part. Most of them are acupoints on the head; ② the distribution of majority of the acupoints along the meridian track is basically identical to the route running of nerve trunk; ③ some acupoints are located at the converging sites of the cutaneous nerve branches on the bilateral sides of the midline of the body trunk; and ④ some acupoints distribute in the nerve branches.

  5. Unraveling the multiscale structural organization and connectivity of the human brain: the role of diffusion MRI

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    Matteo eBastiani


    Full Text Available The structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain show different organizational principles at distinct spatial scales. Histological staining and light microscopy techniques have been widely used in classical neuroanatomical studies to unravel brain organization. Using such techniques is a laborious task performed on 2-dimensional histological sections by skilled anatomists possibly aided by semi-automated algorithms. With the recent advent of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast mechanisms, cortical layers and columns can now be reliably identified and their structural properties quantified post mortem. These developments are allowing the investigation of neuroanatomical features of the brain at a spatial resolution that could be interfaced with that of histology. Diffusion MRI and tractography techniques, in particular, have been used to probe the architecture of both white and gray matter in three dimensions. Combined with mathematical network analysis, these techniques are increasingly influential in the investigation of the macro-, meso- and microscopic organization of brain connectivity and anatomy, both in vivo and ex vivo. Diffusion MRI-based techniques in combination with histology approaches can therefore support the endeavor of creating multimodal atlases that take into account the different spatial scales or levels on which the brain is organized. The aim of this review is to illustrate and discuss the structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain at different spatial scales and how recently developed diffusion MRI techniques can help investigate these.

  6. Pterygospinous Bar and Foramen in the Adult Human Skulls of North India: Its Incidence and Clinical Relevance

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    Anjoo Yadav


    Full Text Available Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time to time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygospinous process, from which the pterygospinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygospinous bar and a foramen is then formed, named pterygospinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygospinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations, and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 500 skulls were observed, belonging to the Anthropology Museum of Department of Anatomy, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. Pterygospinous bars were found to be present in 51 skulls (10.2%, out of which completely ossified pterygospinous bony bridges were present in 20 skulls (4% while 31 skulls (6.2% had incompletely ossified pterygospinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillofacial and dental surgeons, and anaesthetists, too.

  7. Was Darwin a creationist? (United States)

    Cosans, Chris


    Throughout the Origin of Species, Darwin contrasts his theory of natural selection with the theory that God independently created each species. This makes it seem as though the Origin offers a scientific alternative to a theological worldview. A few months after the Origin appeared, however, the eminent anatomist Richard Owen published a review that pointed out the theological assumptions of Darwin's theory. Owen worked in the tradition of rational morphology, within which one might suggest that evolution occurs by processes that are continuous with those by which life arises from matter; in contrast, Darwin rested his account of life's origins on the notion that God created one or a few life forms upon which natural selection could act. Owen argued that Darwin's reliance on God to explain the origins of life makes his version of evolution no less supernatural than the special creationist that Darwin criticizes: although Darwin limits God to one or a few acts of creation, he still relies upon God to explain life's existence.

  8. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review. (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A


    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. [History of pneumology in antiquity (part 2)]. (United States)

    Demaeyer, Ph


    Nowadays, Hippocrate, "The Father of Medicine", still influences our medicine. He was famous because of the great medical corpus texts preserved in his name. Only recently, our universities have updated the famous Hippocratic Oath to avoid contradictions with our modern ethics. Hippocrate was a great clinician but a poor anatomist. Hippocratical humourism remained accurate until the age of the enlightenment (18th century). Furthermore, it is difficult to distinguish medicine from philosophy in Greek antiquity. So we have to contextualize Greek ancient medicine in this philosophical field. In the 3rd century before Christus (BC), the centre of gravity in medicine shifted to Alexandria. Indeed, a famous academic library was created in 288 BC. At the same time, dissection of human cadavers was authorized until the first century BC. This enabled the evolution of the knowledge in anatomy and physiology. Rome was still polytheistic population until the end of ancient times. Rome integrated Greek gods in his pantheon. Asclepios became Aesculapius. Rome despises physicians in the first ancient age of Rome. The family's father provided medical cares. A lot of Greek physicians settled then in Rome. Again, roman medicine grew in parallel with philosophical trends. These trends were called "sects" but in fact, they were rather medical schools. In this review, we will especially talk about three physicians of this period: Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, Arétée of Cappadocia and Galenus of Pergamon. Thereafter, medical knowledge did not really change significantly until Renaissance period.


    Velenciuc, I; Minea, Raluca; Duceac, Letiţia; Vlad, T


    The present paper aims, exploring the history of Renaissance medicine, to evoke the figure and work of the priest, surgeon and anatomist, Guido Guidi (Vidus Vidius) (1509-1569). The XVIth century is considered a period marked by artistic and scientific effervescence in the western part of Europe and Guido Guidi was a first order personality, grandson of Domenico Ghirlandaio and friend of Benvenuto Cellini. He was appointed by the King Francis I the first professor of anatomy and surgery at the newly founded College de France. On demand of the King, he wrote Chirurgia j Graeco in Latinum conversa Vido Vidio Florentino interprete, cum nonnullis eiusdem Vidii comentariis (1544), a beautifully illustrated original surgery book that became for the following two centuries the main source in teaching surgery. Our study realized a detailed assessment of the book and especially of its illustrations belonging to Francesco Salviati. Exploring the life of Guido Guidi, we were also able to point out other significant contributions in the field of anatomy and clinical medicine as De anatome the first book where are presented disarticulated, the bones of the skull base and also the discovery of the chickenpox. Some surgical personalities attributed to him both the elaboration of the term appendix vermiformis and the first description of an aneurysm, he treated with the help of Fallopio. Although forgotten today, Guido Guidi was a leading figure of the Renais sance medicine both in France and Italy.

  11. [Claudio Galeno and the lateral ventricles]. (United States)

    Martínez, F; Decuadro-Sáenz, G


    Galen of Pergamon is considered one of the fathers of occidental medicine. Because of cultural and religious precepts at his time, many authors hypothesize that the anatomical concepts of Galen were derived from dissection of monkeys. In this paper, the authors analyzed the ventricular system, according to the anatomic and functional concepts described by Galen's early work. Knowing that his work was derived and or influenced from other preceding anatomists and physicians (specially Hipocrates of Cos), we present our investigation in two parts. In the first part, we present the influences of previous religious, philosophic, medical and anatomical theories over the galenic work. The "pregalenic era" can be divided in three periods: 1) the pretecnic era (ending in VI BC) in which the man have only a rudimentary knowledge of human anatomy, 2) the hellenistic science (from VI to III BC) and 3) the period comprised between III BC to Galenic period. In each of the three periods, we analyzed the neuroanatomic knowledge of the most important cultures.

  12. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes. (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan


    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes.

  13. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges. (United States)

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali


    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy.

  14. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of head and neck anatomy to medical students. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Sorenson, Edward P; Sharma, Amit; Benninger, Brion; Norton, Neil; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard J


    The study of human anatomy has traditionally served as a fundamental component in the basic science education of medical students, yet there exists a remarkable lack of firm guidance on essential features that must be included in a gross anatomy course, which would constitute a "Core Syllabus" of absolutely mandatory structures and related clinical pathologies. While universal agreement on the details of a core syllabus is elusive, there is a general consensus that a core syllabus aims to identify the minimum level of knowledge expected of recently qualified medical graduates in order to carry out clinical procedures safely and effectively, while avoiding overloading students with unnecessary facts that have less immediate application to their future careers as clinicians. This paper aims to identify consensus standards of essential features of Head and Neck anatomy via a Delphi Panel consisting of anatomists and clinicians who evaluated syllabus content structures (greater than 1,000) as "essential", "important", "acceptable", or "not required." The goal is to provide guidance for program/course directors who intend to provide the optimal balance between establishing a comprehensive list of clinically relevant essential structures and an overwhelming litany, which would otherwise overburden trainees in their initial years of medical school with superficial rote learning, which potentially dilutes the key and enduring fundamental lessons that prepare students for training in any medical field.

  15. Anatomical Society core regional anatomy syllabus for undergraduate medicine: the Delphi process. (United States)

    Smith, C F; Finn, G M; Stewart, J; McHanwell, S


    A modified Delphi method was employed to seek consensus when revising the UK and Ireland's core syllabus for regional anatomy in undergraduate medicine. A Delphi panel was constructed involving 'expert' (individuals with at least 5 years' experience in teaching medical students anatomy at the level required for graduation). The panel (n = 39) was selected and nominated by members of Council and/or the Education Committee of the Anatomical Society and included a range of specialists including surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. The experts were asked in two stages to 'accept', 'reject' or 'modify' (first stage only) each learning outcome. A third stage, which was not part of the Delphi method, then allowed the original authors of the syllabus to make changes either to correct any anatomical errors or to make minor syntax changes. From the original syllabus of 182 learning outcomes, removing the neuroanatomy component (163), 23 learning outcomes (15%) remained unchanged, seven learning outcomes were removed and two new learning outcomes added. The remaining 133 learning outcomes were modified. All learning outcomes on the new core syllabus achieved over 90% acceptance by the panel.

  16. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?]. (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T


    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  17. History of the discovery of neuronal death in embryos. (United States)

    Hamburger, V


    The German anatomists, M. Ernst and A. Glücksmann, deserve credit for the discovery of widespread cell death in embryonic tissues, including the nervous tissue. In 1934, V. Hamburger described a significant hypoplasia in dorsal root ganglia (DGR) and lateral motor columns, following the extirpation of limb buds in chick embryos. In the early 1940s, Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini in Turin (Italy) repeated the experiment and suggested that the hypoplasia might result from the death of young differentiated neurons. In a joint reinvestigation, published in 1949, large numbers of degenerating neurons were described in brachial DRG, following wing bud extirpations. In the same embryos, Dr. Levi-Montalcini observed massive neuronal death in cervical and thoracic DRG which had not been affected by the operation. This was the discovery of naturally occurring neuronal death. Long after the discovery of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) it was recognized that NGF and natural neuronal death are two sides of the same coin: the latter results from an insufficient supply of the former by the target tissues.

  18. Giambattista Canano and his myology

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    G Štrkalj


    Full Text Available Giambattista Canano was a sixteenth century Italian anatomist and physician. He was educated at the University of Ferrara where, upon graduation, he was appointed professor of anatomy. While at the university, Canano carried out a pioneering study of skeletal muscles. This study was to be published in a multi-volumed book entitled Musculorum Humani Corporis Picturata Dissectio. However, only the section on the muscles of the upper limb was published, as Canano stopped the printing of his book. It is hypothesized that he met Vesalius at the time and saw the proofs of his Fabrica which he assessed as far superior and, consequently, decided to abort his project. The preserved copies of the Dissectio, however, show that the standards of Canano′s work surpassed most of the anatomical studies published up to that time. Canano subsequently left the academic position and made a notable career as a physician. His appointments included prestigious positions of physician to the Pope and protomedicus of the House of Este in Ferrara.

  19. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji


    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  20. Anatomical transformation in mammals: developmental origin of aberrant cervical anatomy in tree sloths. (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Stepien, Courtney C


    Mammalian cervical count has been fixed at seven for more than 200 million years. The rare exceptions to this evolutionary constraint have intrigued anatomists since the time of Cuvier, but the developmental processes that generate them are unknown. Here we evaluate competing hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of cervical variants in Bradypus and Choloepus, tree sloths that have broken the seven cervical vertebrae barrier independently and in opposite directions. Transitional and mediolaterally disjunct anatomy characterizes the cervicothoracic vertebral boundary in each genus, although polarities are reversed. The thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, and sacrocaudal boundaries are also disrupted, and are more extreme in individuals with more extreme cervical counts. Hypotheses of homologous, homeotic, meristic, or associational transformations of traditional vertebral column anatomy are not supported by these data. We identify global homeotic repatterning of abaxial relative to primaxial mesodermal derivatives as the origin of the anomalous cervical counts of tree sloths. This interpretation emphasizes the strong resistance of the "rule of seven" to evolutionary change, as morphological stasis has been maintained primaxially coincident with the generation of a functionally longer (Bradypus) or shorter (Choloepus) neck.

  1. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model. (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R


    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed.

  2. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain. (United States)

    del Río, E


    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  3. Ossified pterygo-spinous ligament: incidence and clinico-anatomical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India

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    Yogesh Yadav


    Full Text Available Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time-to-time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygo-spinous process, from which the pterygo-spinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygo-spinous bar and a foramen is then formed named pterygo-spinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygo-spinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 50 skulls were observed, pterygo-spinous bars were found to be present in 7 skulls, out of which completely ossified pterygo-spinous bony bridges were present in 2 skulls while 5 skulls had incompletely ossified pterygo-spinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillo-facial and dental surgeons and anaesthetists, too. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 847-851

  4. Gyration of the feline brain: localization, terminology and variability. (United States)

    Pakozdy, A; Angerer, C; Klang, A; König, E H; Probst, A


    The terminology of feline brain gyration is not consistent and individual variability has not been systematically examined. The aim of the study was to identify the gyri and sulci of cat brains and describe them using the current terminology. The brains of 15 cats including 10 European shorthairs, 2 Siamese, 2 Maine coons and one Norvegian forest cat without clinical evidence of brain disease were examined post-mortem and photographed for documentation. For description, the terms of the most recent Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV, 2012) were used, and comparisons with previous anatomical texts were also performed. In addition to the lack of comparative morphology in the NAV, veterinary and human nomenclature are used interchangeably and inconsistently in the literature. This presents a challenge for neurologists and anatomists in localizing gyri and sulci. A comparative analysis of brain gyration showed only minor individual variability among the cats. High-quality labelled figures are provided to facilitate the identification of cat brain gyration. Our work consolidates the current and more consistent gyration terminology for reporting the localization of a cortical lesion based on magnetic resonance imaging or histopathology. This will facilitate not only morphological but also functional research using accurate anatomical reporting.

  5. On the purported discovery of the bronchial circulation by Leonardo da Vinci. (United States)

    Mitzner, W; Wagner, E


    Among modern physiologists and anatomists, there has been a nearly universal acceptance that Leonardo da Vinci was the first to identify the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. However, because of certain ambiguities in both his anatomic drawing that was supposed to have shown this circulation and the accompanying descriptive text, we questioned whether he really could have been the first to discover this small but important vasculature. To address this question, we set out to repeat Leonardo's dissections in the ox. We reasoned that perhaps the normally tiny bronchial vessels would be considerably more noticeable in this very large species. Our dissections, however, failed to provide any evidence that Leonardo's drawing was that of the bronchial circulation. Furthermore we observed a set of distinct small pulmonary veins to the left upper and right middle lobes that Leonardo, given his lack of understanding of the function of the lung and its circulation, could have easily mistaken for a separate circulation. We thus conclude that Leonardo da Vinci did not describe the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. We believe that the first person to clearly and unequivocally describe the anatomy of this circulation was the Dutch Professor of Anatomy and Botany, Frederich Ruysch.


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    Dr. Gurbachan Singh Gindha


    Full Text Available The variations in origin of femoral nerve from lumbar plexuses is very much common. The normal root value of origin of femoral nerve is L2, L2 and L4. It can be prefixed or postfixed. Mostly the femoral nerve is used for the nerve block in several surgeries and is vulnerable to compression in tight ilio-psoas compartment. The knowledge of origin and variations of femoral nerve in iliac fossa is important for anatomists, anaesthetists and surgeons to prevent iatrogenic femoral nerve injuries.3 0 embalmed with 10% formal in and fixed cadavers were dissecte donboth sides and 60 lumbar plexuses with their branches formed the mat e r i a l f o r t h e study. The p s oas major muscle was dissected to see the formation of femoral nerve from theroots and to observe the variations in the formation of femoral nerve. The aim of this study was to look for the variations in origin and branching pattern of the femoral nerve in the iliac fossa and proper exposure of the femoral nerve in the femoral triangle.


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    Dr. Gurbachan Singh Gindha


    Full Text Available The variations in origin of femoral nerve from lumbar plexus is very much common. The normal root value of origin of femoral nerve is L2, L3 and L4. It can be prefixed or postfixed. Mostly the femoral nerve is used for the nerve block in several surgeries and is vulnerable to compression in tight ilio-psoascompartment. The knowledge of origin and variations of femoral nerve in iliac fossa is important for anatomists, anesthetists and surgeons to prevent iatrogenic femoral nerve injuries. 3 0 embalmed and 10% forma l in f i x e d c a d ave r s w e r e d is s e c ted on b o th s ides and 60 lumba r pl exus e s with their branches formed the material for the study. Thepsoas major muscle was dissected to see the formation of femoral nerve from theroots and to observe the variations in formation of femoral nerve. The aim of this study was to look for the variations in origin and branching pattern of the femoral nerve in the iliac fossa.

  8. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena


    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  9. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum]. (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto


    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  10. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart. (United States)

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H


    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  11. Association between learning style preferences and anatomy assessment outcomes in graduate-entry and undergraduate medical students. (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Sbayeh, Amgad; Horgan, Mary; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P


    An improved understanding of the relationship between anatomy learning performance and approaches to learning can lead to the development of a more tailored approach to delivering anatomy teaching to medical students. This study investigated the relationship between learning style preferences, as measured by Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) inventory style questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's learning style questionnaire (LSQ), and anatomy and clinical skills assessment performance at an Irish medical school. Additionally, mode of entry to medical school [undergraduate/direct-entry (DEM) vs. graduate-entry (GEM)], was examined in relation to individual learning style, and assessment results. The VARK and LSQ were distributed to first and second year DEM, and first year GEM students. DEM students achieved higher clinical skills marks than GEM students, but anatomy marks did not differ between each group. Several LSQ style preferences were shown to be weakly correlated with anatomy assessment performance in a program- and year-specific manner. Specifically, the "Activist" style was negatively correlated with anatomy scores in DEM Year 2 students (rs = -0.45, P = 0.002). The "Theorist" style demonstrated a weak correlation with anatomy performance in DEM Year 2 (rs = 0.18, P = 0.003). Regression analysis revealed that, among the LSQ styles, the "Activist" was associated with poorer anatomy assessment performance (P learning styles contribute little to variation in academic performance in medical students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 391-399. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" learning process. (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D


    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P  0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.


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    Rakesh Kumar Shukla


    Full Text Available Background: The mental foramen is one of the two holes ("foramina" located on the anterior surface of the mandible. It permits passage of the mental nerve and vessels. The mental foramen descends slightly in edentulous individuals. Methods: The present study was carried out in the department of anatomy on 70 Adult North Indian dry Mandibles of unknown age and sex which were obtained from the osteology section of Integral Institute of Medical Sciences and Research & King George medical university. The Mandibles were observed macroscopically for the presence of mental foramen. Results: In our study we observed that the oval shape of mental foramen was 87.1% on right side and 88.6% on left side. Round mental foramen was observed to be 12.9% on the right side and 11.4% on left side. The Position of Mental foramen in relation to borders left side were found Central (87.1%, upper border (7.1%, lower side (5.7% and right side Central (85.7% , upper border (10% and lower side (4.3%. Conclusions: Knowledge of the mental foramen and it’s variation in different population is essential for dentists, orthopedicians and anatomists. A future prospect of interest lies in their possible contribution to the maxillofacial anthropologic characteristic identification for different population and races.

  14. Anatomical sciences: A foundation for a solid learning experience in dental technology and dental prosthetics. (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Thompson, C Mark; Massadiq, Magdalena


    Basic science courses are extremely important as a foundation for scaffolding knowledge and then applying it in future courses, clinical situations as well as in a professional career. Anatomical sciences, which include tooth morphology, oral histology, oral embryology, and head and neck anatomy form a core part of the preclinical courses in dental technology programs. In this article, the importance and relevance of anatomical sciences to dental personnel with no direct contact with patients (dental technicians) and limited discipline related contact with patients (dental prosthetists) is highlighted. Some light is shed on the role of anatomical sciences in the pedagogical framework and its significance in the educational process and interprofessional learning of dental technicians and prosthetists using oral biology as an example in the dental curriculum. To conclude, anatomical sciences allow dental technicians and prosthetists to a gain a better insight of how tissues function, leading to a better understanding of diagnosis, comprehensive treatment planning and referrals if needed. Patient communication and satisfaction also increases as a result of this deep understanding of oral tissues. Anatomical sciences bridge the gap between basic science, preclinical, and clinical courses, which leads to a holistic approach in patient management. Finally, treatment outcomes are positively affected due to the appreciation of the macro and micro structure of oral tissues. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. In dogs we trust? Intersubjectivity, response-able relations, and the making of mine detector dogs. (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W


    The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of "animal studies," it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence.

  16. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

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    Tallapaneni S


    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  17. Aspects of the history of the nerves: Bell's theory, the Bell-Magendie law and controversy, and two forgotten works by P.W. Lund and D.F. Eschricht. (United States)

    Jørgensen, C Barker


    The French physiologist François Magendie showed, in 1822, that the anterior roots of the spinal nerves are motor and the posterior sensory. The English anatomist Charles Bell claimed the discovery, but his claim was based on republications of papers in which the wording had been altered to be consistent with Magendie's findings. Bell also appropriated Herbert Mayo's discoveries of the functions of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. Bell repeated his claims in a number of influential publications, supported by his brothers-in-law John and Alexander Shaw. And for a century and a half, Bell figured as the discoverer in most references to the subject. During this period, several reviewers did go back to Bell's original papers, disclosing Bell's falsifications in the republished texts. But Magendie was not definitely acknowledged as the discoverer of the function of the spinal nerve roots until Cranefield's (1974) treatise. Cranefield, as did all other reviewers, overlooked accounts from 1825 by P.W. Lund and F.D. Eschricht. They critically reviewed Bell's early publications and reached conclusions similar to those of Cranefield concerning the roles of Bell and Magendie in the discovery of the function of the spinal nerve roots.

  18. Toward a molecular catalogue of synapses. (United States)

    Grant, Seth G N


    1906 was a landmark year in the history of the study of the nervous system, most notably for the first 'neuroscience' Nobel prize given to the anatomists Ramon Y Cajal and Camillo Golgi. 1906 is less well known for another event, also of great significance for neuroscience, namely the publication of Charles Sherrington's book 'The Integrative Action of the Nervous system'. It was Cajal and Golgi who debated the anatomical evidence for the synapse and it was Sherrington who laid its foundation in electrophysiological function. In tribute to these pioneers in synaptic biology, this article will address the issue of synapse diversity from the molecular point of view. In particular I will reflect upon efforts to obtain a complete molecular characterisation of the synapse and the unexpectedly high degree of molecular complexity found within it. A case will be made for developing approaches that can be used to generate a general catalogue of synapse types based on molecular markers, which should have wide application.


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    Leena Khobragade,


    Full Text Available Background: Hip joint represents an unique functional unit and has complex biomechanical construction. In today’s era where total hip replacement surgeries have made their way it has become imperative for the anatomists to know the variations in acetabular dimensions. Reconstruction of acetabulum in patients with significant acetabular bone deficiency remains a challenge. Hence the present study was carried out with the aim to study the morphometric measurement of volume of acetabulum in both the sexes. Materials and Methods: Material of the study consisted of 110 human hip bones (60 males and 50 females. Volume of Acetabulum (VA was measured on these hip bones on both the sides. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: The mean volume of acetabulum in male was 23.13 ml and female was 17.88 ml. The mean volume of acetabulum on right side was 20.55 ml and left side was 20.91 ml. Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females and the differences were statistically significant. Volume was greater on the left side as compared to the right side but the difference was statistically non significant. Discussion: Analysing the differences on human acetabulum is helpful in understanding not only morphological but also medicolegal aspects. Conclusion: Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females.


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    Vidyullatha Shetty


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  1. Impact of introduction of blended learning in gross anatomy on student outcomes. (United States)

    Green, Rodney A; Whitburn, Laura Y


    Blended learning has become increasingly common, in a variety of disciplines, to take advantage of new technology and potentially increase the efficiency and flexibility of delivery. This study aimed to describe blended delivery of a gross anatomy course and to evaluate the effectiveness of the delivery in terms of student outcomes. A gross anatomy course for second-year physiotherapy students across two campuses was delivered in traditional face-to-face teaching mode in 2013 (n = 150 students), some online content was introduced in 2014 (n = 160) and the subject was fully blended in 2015 (n = 151). The final 'blend' consisted of one lecture per week with most content delivered using online video resources (prepared by staff using a structured peer-reviewed process) and retention of face-to-face practical classes. Outcomes evaluated included student grades, student engagement with content through online discussion forums and student feedback using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Grades were higher in 2014 and 2015 than in 2013 (P learning. Blended learning appears to be well-suited to gross anatomy teaching on the proviso that face-to-face practical classes are maintained, but may result in higher perceived workloads. Anat Sci Educ 9: 422-430. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. What anatomy is clinically useful and when should we be teaching it? (United States)

    Leveritt, Simon; McKnight, Gerard; Edwards, Kimberley; Pratten, Margaret; Merrick, Deborah


    Anatomy teaching, once thought of as being the cornerstone of medical education, has undergone much change in the recent years. There is now growing concern for falling standards in medical graduates' anatomical knowledge, coupled with a reduction in teaching time and appropriately qualified teaching staff. With limited contact hours available to teach this important discipline, it is essential to consider what anatomy is taught within the medical curriculum to ensure it is fit for clinical practice. The views of medical students, junior doctors, and consultants were obtained from the University of Nottingham and the Trent Deanery in Nottingham, United Kingdom, to establish what core anatomical knowledge they feel medical students should study and assimilate during preclinical training. All participants felt strongly that medical students should be adept at interpreting modern diagnostic images before entering their clinical placement or specialty. Respondents proposed more teaching emphasis should be placed on specific anatomical areas (including lymphatic drainage and dermatome innervation) and illustrated other areas where less detailed teaching was appropriate. Recommendations from our study highlight a need for greater clinical emphasis in anatomy teaching during preclinical years. To successfully achieve this, it is essential that clinicians become integrally involved in the design and delivery of future medical undergraduate anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 468-475. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  4. Introduction to provocative questions in left–right asymmetry (United States)

    Klar, Amar J. S.; Ramsdell, Ann F.


    Left–right asymmetry is a phenomenon that has a broad appeal—to anatomists, developmental biologists and evolutionary biologists—because it is a morphological feature of organisms that spans scales of size and levels of organization, from unicellular protists, to vertebrate organs, to social behaviour. Here, we highlight a number of important aspects of asymmetry that encompass several areas of biology—cell-level, physiological, genetic, anatomical and evolutionary components—and that are based on research conducted in diverse model systems, ranging from single cells to invertebrates to human developmental disorders. Together, the contributions in this issue reveal a heretofore-unsuspected variety in asymmetry mechanisms, including ancient chirality elements that could underlie a much more universal basis to asymmetry development, and provide much fodder for thought with far reaching implications in biomedical, developmental, evolutionary and synthetic biology. The new emerging theme of binary cell-fate choice, promoted by asymmetric cell division of a deterministic cell, has focused on investigating asymmetry mechanisms functioning at the single cell level. These include cytoskeleton and DNA chain asymmetry—mechanisms that are amplified and coordinated with those employed for the determination of the anterior–posterior and dorsal–ventral axes of the embryo. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821529

  5. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic? (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R


    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  6. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course. (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael


    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography. (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève


    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.


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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: 44 fetuses of varying gestational ages, ranging fr om 33m.m C.R.L. to 270m.m.C.R.L. (i.e. from 8weeks to 32weeks of intrauterine life were studied to note the developmental sequence of mammary gland. Tissues were prepared for microtomy by Paraffin wax embedding method. Serial sections were stained by Haematoxyli n & Eosin (H & E and Masson’s Trichome method(1. It was observed that the organ is subjec t to fluctuations in its development. In the present study the primary bud, secondary bud, & terti ary bud formation is seen at11th week ,14th week & 18 th week of gestation respectively .The canalization appeared at 20 th week of gestation. Variation is seen in the mode of canal ization as well as in the time of start of canalization. In the present study an endeavour has been made to establish the time of appearance of mammary buds and their time of canaliza tion .The observations are compared with the findings of other workers and discussed in the light of literature. Mammogenesis or development of mammary gland is of great importance for anatomists, surgeons, pathologists, physicians, obstetricians etc. A large number of dev elopmental anomalies like amastia, athelia, polymastia, polythelia, etc are of interest to them w hich can be understood more if thorough understanding of development of mammary gland is th ere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram


    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  10. [Hemobilia]. (United States)

    Galun, D; Basarić, D; Lekić, N; Raznatović, Z; Barović, S; Bulajić, P; Zuvela, M; Milićević, M


    The phenomenon now known as haemobilia was first recorded in XVII century by well known anatomist from Cambridge, Francis Glisson and his description was published in Anatomia Hepatis in 1654. Until today etiology, clinical presentation and management are clearly defined. Haemobilia is a rare clinical condition that has to be considered in differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In Western countries, the leading cause of haemobilia is hepatic trauma with bleeding from an intrahepatic branch of the hepatic artery into a biliary duct (mostly iatrogenic in origin, e.g. needle biopsy of the liver or percutaneous cholangiography). Less common causes include hepatic neoplasm; rupture of a hepatic artery aneurysm, hepatic abscess, choledocholithiasis and in the Orient, additional causes include ductal parasitism by Ascaris lumbricoides and Oriental cholangiohepatitis. Clinical presentation of heamobilia includes one symptom and two signs (Quinke triad): a. upper abdominal pain, b. upper gastrointestinal bleeding and c. jaundice. The complications of haemobilia are uncommon and include pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis. Investigation of haemobilia depends on clinical presentation. For patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is the first investigation choice. The presence of blood clot at the papilla of Vater clearly indicates the bleeding from biliary tree. Other investigations include CT and angiography. The management of haemobilia is directed at stopping bleeding and relieving biliary obstruction. Today, transarterial embolization is the golden standard in the management of heamobilia and if it fails further management is surgical.

  11. Paleodysmorphology and paleoteratology: Diagnosing and interpreting congenital conditions of the skeleton in anthropological contexts. (United States)

    Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Boer, Lucas; van der Merwe, Alie E


    Most congenital conditions have low prevalence, but collectively they occur in a few percent of all live births. Congenital conditions are rarely encountered in anthropological studies, not least because many of them have no obvious effect on the skeleton. Here, we discuss two groups of congenital conditions that specifically affect the skeleton, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) interfere with the histological formation, growth and maturation of skeletal tissues leading to diminished postural length, but the building plan of the body is unaffected. Well- known skeletal dysplasias represented in the archeological record include osteogenesis imperfecta and achondroplasia. Dysostoses, in contrast, interfere with the building plan of the body, leading to e.g. missing or extraskeletal elements, but the histology of the skeletal tissues is unaffected. Dysostoses can concern the extremities (e.g., oligodactyly and polydactyly), the vertebral column (e.g., homeotic and meristic anomalies), or the craniofacial region. Conditions pertaining to the cranial sutures, i.e., craniosynostoses, can be either skeletal dysplasias or dysostoses. Congenital conditions that are not harmful to the individual are known as anatomical variations, several of which have a high and population-specific prevalence that could potentially make them useful for determining ethnic origins. In individual cases, specific congenital conditions could be determinative in establishing identity, provided that ante-mortem registration of those conditions was ensured. Clin. Anat. 29:878-891, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Anatomy published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Clinical Anatomists.

  12. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang


    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  13. The discovery of lymphatic system in the seventeenth century. Part I: the early history. (United States)

    Suy, Raphael; Thomis, Sarah; Fourneau, Inge


    The early history of lymphatic anatomy from Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 B.C.) to Eustachius (1510-1574). The presence of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes was reported by ancient anatomists without any accurate knowledge of their true functions. Lymph nodes were described as spongy structures, spread over the whole body for the support of vulnerable body parts. Digestion was explained as being the resorption of clear chyle from digested food by the open endings of chyle vessels. The first insights into the place of lymphatic components within nutrition emanated from the medical school of Alexandria (fourth century B.C.) where vivisection was a common practice. Herophilus and Erasistratus described mesenteric veins full of clear liquid, air or milk. For Galen of Pergamum, (104-210) mesenteric lymph nodes also had a nutritional function. He described three different types of mesenteric vessels, namely, the arterial vessels, for the transport of spirituous blood to the intestines; the venous side branches of the portal vein, for the transport of nutritive blood from the liver to the intestines; and small vessels, from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes (serous lymph vessels?). According to Galen, chyle was transported via the above-mentioned mesenteric venous vessels from the intestines to the portal vein and liver, where it was transformed into nutritive blood. This doctrine would be obliterated in the seventeenth century by the discovery of systemic circulation and of the drainage of chyle through a thoracic duct to the subclavian veins.

  14. Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a large enrollment gateway course. (United States)

    Fournier, Kimberly A; Couret, Jannelle; Ramsay, Jason B; Caulkins, Joshua L


    Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as "high stakes" because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in "C" students when compared to "A" students: P test anxiety were not significantly associated with the group portion of the examinations. Patterns of changes in test anxiety over the course of the semester underscore a complex interaction between test anxiety, student background, and student performance. Results suggest that pathways for test anxiety in "high stakes" courses may be separate from the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of collaborative testing. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Attitudes of Australian chiropractic students toward whole body donation: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Alexander, Michelle; Marten, Mathew; Stewart, Ella; Serafin, Stanley; Štrkalj, Goran


    Cadavers play an important role in anatomy education. In Australia, bodies for anatomy education are acquired only through donations. To gain insight into educational dynamics in an anatomy laboratory as well as to facilitate body donation programs and thanksgiving ceremonies, it is important to understand students' attitudes toward body donation. In this cross-sectional study, the attitudes of Macquarie University's first, second, and fifth year chiropractic students toward body donation were investigated. Macquarie University chiropractic students have a four semester long anatomy program, which includes cadaver-based instruction on prosected specimens. A questionnaire was used to record respondents' demographics and attitudes toward body donation: personal, by a relative, and by a stranger. It was found that ethnicity and religion affect attitudes toward body donation, with Australian students being more willing to donate a stranger's body and atheists and agnostics being more willing to donate in general. Furthermore, willingness to donate one's own or a family member's body decreases as year of study increases, suggesting a possible negative impact of exposure to cadavers in the anatomy laboratory. This was only true, however, after controlling for age. Thus, the impact of viewing and handling prosected specimens, which is the norm in anatomy classes in Australia, may not be as strong as dissecting cadavers. It is suggested that anatomists and educators prepare students for cadaver-based instruction as well as exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in how students approach working with cadavers, when informing different communities about body donation programs and in devising thanksgiving ceremonies.

  16. The effect of images on item statistics in multiple choice anatomy examinations. (United States)

    Notebaert, Andrew J


    Although multiple choice examinations are often used to test anatomical knowledge, these often forgo the use of images in favor of text-based questions and answers. Because anatomy is reliant on visual resources, examinations using images should be used when appropriate. This study was a retrospective analysis of examination items that were text based compared to the same questions when a reference image was included with the question stem. Item difficulty and discrimination were analyzed for 15 multiple choice items given across two different examinations in two sections of an undergraduate anatomy course. Results showed that there were some differences item difficulty but these were not consistent to either text items or items with reference images. Differences in difficulty were mainly attributable to one group of students performing better overall on the examinations. There were no significant differences for item discrimination for any of the analyzed items. This implies that reference images do not significantly alter the item statistics, however this does not indicate if these images were helpful to the students when answering the questions. Care should be taken by question writers to analyze item statistics when making changes to multiple choice questions, including ones that are included for the perceived benefit of the students. Anat Sci Educ 10: 68-78. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Cerebral localization in the eighteenth century--an overview. (United States)

    Karenberg, Axel


    At the beginning of the eighteenth century, attempts to localize cerebral functions generated a wide range of different ideas. Ancient theories and their revisions stood next to new doctrines; anatomical, pathological, and surgical observations stood beside philosophical conjectures or conclusions from physiological experiments. Echoing Descartes and Willis, many scholars placed the sensorium commune in structures such as corpus callosum, cerebellum, or meninges. Since the explanatory power of these ideas was limited, a strictly holistic approach gained momentum around 1750. The key neurophysiological concept of the second half of the eighteenth century was Haller's doctrine of the equipotentiality of all cerebral structures including the cortex. However, shortly before 1800, one final effort to reconcile philosophy and science was made. The anatomist Samuel Thomas Soemmerring contended that ventricular fluid was the immediate organ of the soul. The refutation of this hypothesis and the rise of Gall's doctrine mark the end of the premodern era of cerebral localization. This paper reconstructs the era's principle arguments and contemporary experiments. It demonstrates that some current controversies regarding the mind-body problem are repetitions of eighteenth-century neuro-philosophical debates.

  18. A histological study of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan


    Full Text Available The work of anatomists and pathologists in the role of study of prostate has been significant. Starting from earlier times till modern time, the study of prostate has been a dynamic one and the basic anatomical knowledge of the prostate has undergone much change apart from the new techniques, micro invasive procedures and the chemotherapeutic approach for various disorders of the gland. The present study was based on the microscopic examination of Prostatic tissue of individuals with individual tissues of different age groups. The present study involved 40 cases which were further subdivided into various age groups and characteristic histological changes were noted. The study presents an assessment of age changes in prostate in elderly in Kashmiri population with pathological significance. Besides the histological study is of great importance in staging of diseases of prostate and especially in modern era where the incidence and prevalence of prostatic diseases is on rise. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 557-562

  19. Report of an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations in a cadaveric upper limb. (United States)

    Troupis, Theodore G; Michalinos, Adamantios; Manou, Vasiliki; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panayiotis


    In this study an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations discovered during dissection of cervical, axillary and brachial area of a cadaver is described. Variations are thoroughly described and literature is briefly reviewed. Lateral cord of brachial plexus was not formed; Eight Cervical root divided into anterior and posterior division before uniting with First Thoracic root and Upper Trunk was unusually short. Axillary artery gave origin to a superficial brachial artery and then continued as deep brachial artery. Multiple variations in typical axillary artery branches were present including existence of inferior pectoral artery. Cephalic vein was absent. A variety of interventions, from relative simple as central venous catheter placement to most complicated as brachial plexus injury repair demand thorough knowledge of area's regional anatomy. Familiarity with anatomic variations allows more precise and careful interventions. Research on these variations is valuable for anatomists and embryologists but also for clinicians because it may provide useful information for non - typical cases but also helps in raising a high level of suspicion.

  20. Scalenus minimus muscle: overestimated or not? An anatomical study. (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Didagelos, Matthaios; Tsakotos, George; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    The wide range of scalenus minimus muscle incidence reported in the literature along with the plethora of fibromuscular structures that may appear in the interscalene triangle, having various terminologies, were the reasons to conduct the present study questioning the reported high incidence of this supernumerary scalene muscle. Seventy-three Greek cadavers were dissected and examined for the presence of a scalenus minimus muscle. It was found unilaterally in three of 73 (4.11%) cadavers studied. The literature review, concerning its incidence, revealed a wide range between 7.8 and 71.7 per cent, which cannot be attributed only to racial variation. Thus, there is a matter whether other variations of the scalene muscles are considered as a true scalenus minimus muscle. Recognition of this muscle is important not only for anatomists, but also has clinical significance for the diagnosis of the thoracic outlet syndrome. Surgeons performing scalenectomy and anesthesiologists during interscalene brachial plexus block should keep in mind the anatomical variations of this region.

  1. A magpie with a card-index mind – Charles Davies Sherborn 1861–1942 (United States)

    Shindler, Karolyn


    Abstract Charles Davies Sherborn was geologist, indexer and bibliographer extraordinaire. He was fascinated by science from an early age and like so many Victorians, the young Sherborn was a passionate natural history collector and was obsessed with expanding his collection of land and freshwater shells. He later described himself as being a ‘thorough magpie’ and having ‘a card-index mind’, and these two traits coalesced in his monumental Index Animalium, the compilation of which occupied 43 years of his life. One of the first visitors through the doors of the Natural History Museum in South Kensington when it opened in 1881, Sherborn began work there seven years later as one of the small band of unofficial scientific workers, paid by the number of fossils he prepared. By the time of his death in 1942, Sherborn’s corner in the Museum was the first port of call for generations of scientists seeking advice, information – or an invitation to one of his famous ‘smoke and chat’ parties. In addition to his work on the Index, Sherborn is also responsible for rescuing from damp and probable destruction the huge archive of Sir Richard Owen, the great comparative anatomist and the prime mover behind the creation of the Natural History Museum, London. Without Sherborn, this invaluable resource of correspondence, manuscripts and books may well have been irretrievably ruined. PMID:26877651

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the cervical spine musculature. (United States)

    Au, John; Perriman, Diana M; Pickering, Mark R; Buirski, Graham; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L


    The anatomy of the cervical spine musculature visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images is poorly described in the literature. However, the correct identification of individual muscles is clinically important because certain conditions of the cervical spine, for example whiplash associated disorders, idiopathic neck pain, cervical nerve root avulsion and cervical spondylotic myelopathy, are associated with different morphological changes in specific muscles visible on MR images. Knowledge of the precise structure of different cervical spine muscles is crucial when comparisons with the contralateral side or with normal are required for accurate description of imaging pathology, management and assessment of treatment efficacy. However, learning the intricate arrangement of 27 muscles is challenging. A multi-level cross-sectional depiction combined with three-dimensional reconstructions could facilitate the understanding of this anatomically complex area. This paper presents a comprehensive series of labeled axial MR images from one individual and serves as a reference atlas of the cervical spine musculature to guide clinicians, researchers, and anatomists in the accurate identification of these muscles on MR imaging. Clin. Anat. 29:643-659, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Freud and evolution. (United States)

    Scharbert, Gerhard


    The essay analyzes the influence of evolutionary thought in the work of Sigmund Freud. Based on Freud's initial occupation as a neuro-anatomist and physiologist certain aspects stemming from the history of nature and developmental biological reasoning that played a role in his endeavours to find a new basis for medical psychology will be pointed out. These considerations are to be regarded as prolegomena of the task to reread Freud once again, and in doing so avoiding the verdict that holds his neuro-anatomic and comparative-morphological works as simply "pre-analytic." In fact, the time seems ripe to reconsider in a new context particularly those evolutionary, medical, and cultural-scientific elements in Freud's work that appear inconsistent at first sight. The substantial thesis is that Freud, given the fact that he was trained in comparative anatomy and physiology in the tradition of Johannes Müller, had the capability of synthesizing elements of this new point of view with the findings and interrogations concerning developmental history and the theory of evolution. More over, this was perceived not merely metaphoric, as he himself stressed it (Freud 1999, XIII, 99), but in the sense of Ubertragung, that inscribed terms and methods deriving from the given field into the realm of psychology. The moving force behind this particular Ubertragung came from a dynamically-neurological perception of the soul that emerged in France since 1800, which Freud came to know trough the late work of Charcot.

  4. Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842): contributions to neuro-ophthalmology. (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Kaufman, Matthew H


    Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was a Scottish anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist and surgeon, who enjoyed a distinguished career in teaching and clinical practice in London between 1804 and 1836. In 1814, he was appointed to the surgical staff of the Middlesex Hospital. In 1824, he was elected Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, and shortly afterwards was elected Professor of Physiology at the University of London. In 1831, he was knighted on the accession of William IV. In 1836, he was elected to the Chair of Surgery in the University of Edinburgh, and remained there until his death in 1842, at 68 years of age. During his career, Bell was a prolific medical author, a brilliant medical researcher and a skilled artist. In 1811, he discovered the distinct functions of the motor and sensory nerves, findings that were initially published in a pamphlet entitled 'Ideas of a New Anatomy of the Brain'. In 1821, Bell described the long thoracic nerve, which supplies the serratus anterior muscle, and which now bears his name. In the same paper he showed that lesions of the seventh cranial nerve produce facial paralysis (now termed Bell's palsy). He also demonstrated that the fifth cranial nerve is of sensory importance to the face and controls the muscles of mastication, whereas the seventh cranial nerve principally controls the muscles of facial expression. Bell published research on a number of ophthalmological subjects. This paper reviews some of these latter achievements.

  5. Studies on the Estimation of Stature from Hand and Foot Length of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Saka


    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the estimation of stature from hand and foot length of an individual are essential study in personal identification. Aim and Objectives: This study is to find out correlation between statures with hand and foot dimensions in both sexes and gender comparison from an individual in Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A sample of 140 students and staff; 70 male and 70 female Students and staff of Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, between 16-35years were considered and measurements were taken for each of the parameters. Gender differences for the two parameters were determined using Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was used to examine the relationship between two anthropometric parameters and standing height (stature. All these measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and standard anthropometric techniques. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the males mean values are not significantly difference when compared with females mean values in all measured parameters. The study showed significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the stature with hand lengths and foot lengths. The hand and foot length provide accurate and reliable means in establishing the height of an individual. Conclusion: This study will be useful for forensic scientists and anthropologists as well as anatomists in ascertain medico-legal cases

  6. The platypus in Edinburgh: Robert Jameson, Robert Knox and the place of the Ornithorhynchus in nature, 1821–24 (United States)

    Jenkins, Bill


    SUMMARY The duck-billed platypus, or Ornithorhynchus, was the subject of an intense debate among natural historians in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Its paradoxical mixture of mammalian, avian and reptilian characteristics made it something of a taxonomic conundrum. In the early 1820s Robert Jameson (1774–1854), the professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and the curator of the University's natural history museum, was able to acquire three valuable specimens of this species. He passed one of these on to the anatomist Robert Knox (1791–1862), who dissected the animal and presented his results in a series of papers to the Wernerian Natural History Society, which later published them in its Memoirs. This paper takes Jameson's platypus as a case study on how natural history specimens were used to create and contest knowledge of the natural world in the early nineteenth century, at a time when interpretations of the relationships between animal taxa were in a state of flux. It shows how Jameson used his possession of this interesting specimen to provide a valuable opportunity for his protégé Knox while also helping to consolidate his own position as a key figure in early nineteenth-century natural history. PMID:27671001

  7. Educational software usability: Artifact or Design? (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Eagleson, Roy; Rogers, Kem A


    Online educational technologies and e-learning tools are providing new opportunities for students to learn worldwide, and they continue to play an important role in anatomical sciences education. Yet, as we shift to teaching online, particularly within the anatomical sciences, it has become apparent that e-learning tool success is based on more than just user satisfaction and preliminary learning outcomes-rather it is a multidimensional construct that should be addressed from an integrated perspective. The efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction with which a user can navigate an e-learning tool is known as usability, and represents a construct which we propose can be used to quantitatively evaluate e-learning tool success. To assess the usability of an e-learning tool, usability testing should be employed during the design and development phases (i.e., prior to its release to users) as well as during its delivery (i.e., following its release to users). However, both the commercial educational software industry and individual academic developers in the anatomical sciences have overlooked the added value of additional usability testing. Reducing learner frustration and anxiety during e-learning tool use is essential in ensuring e-learning tool success, and will require a commitment on the part of the developers to engage in usability testing during all stages of an e-learning tool's life cycle. Anat Sci Educ 10: 190-199. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course. (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A


    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. "Applying anatomy to something i care about": Authentic inquiry learning and student experiences of an inquiry project. (United States)

    Anstey, Lauren M


    Despite advances to move anatomy education away from its didactic history, there is a continued need for students to contextualize their studies to make learning more meaningful. This article investigates authentic learning in the context of an inquiry-based approach to learning human gross anatomy. Utilizing a case-study design with three groups of students (n = 18) and their facilitators (n = 3), methods of classroom observations, interviews, and artifact collection were utilized to investigate students' experiences of learning through an inquiry project. Qualitative data analysis through open and selective coding produced common meaningful themes of group and student experiences. Overall results demonstrate how the project served as a unique learning experience where learners engaged in the opportunity to make sense of anatomy in context of their interests and wider interdisciplinary considerations through collaborative, group-based investigation. Results were further considered in context of theoretical frameworks of inquiry-based and authentic learning. Results from this study demonstrate how students can engage anatomical understandings to inquire and apply disciplinary considerations to their personal lives and the world around them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. [Andres Vesalio, Francisco Díaz, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and the birth of urology in the 16th Century]. (United States)

    Carrillo Esper, Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Luis Daniel; Carrillo Córdova, Dulce María; Carrillo Córdova, Carlos Alberto; Carrillo Córdova, Jorge Raúl


    In the sixteenth century there were great advances in science, literature, and the arts. During this century, urology as a specialty was conceived, thanks to the contributions of Andreas Vesalius, anatomist and leading physician to the court of Charles V, and Dr. Francisco Diaz, a native of Alcala de Henares, surgeon and clinician. Dr. Diaz had a close relationship with Miguel de Cervantes, who at one point in his life suffered from renal colic. In his masterpiece "Re-Printed Treaty of all diseases of the kidneys, bladder and wattles of the Cock and Urina, divided into three books," of which the first book of urology is the History of Medicine, describes in detail the clinical and therapeutic aspects of urological diseases, known as the "bad stone" and urethral strictures known as "wattles", in addition to describing the different surgical techniques and the development of new instruments for urological procedures, which include the cisorio instrument and the Speculum pudendi. For the above, Dr. Francisco Diaz is considered the father of urology.

  11. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E


    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  12. Skulls, brains, and memorial culture: on cerebral biographies of scientists in the nineteenth century. (United States)

    Hagner, Michael


    In this paper, I will argue that the scientific investigation of skulls and brains of geniuses went hand in hand with hagiographical celebrations of scientists. My analysis starts with late-eighteenth century anatomists and anthropologists who highlighted quantitative parameters such as the size and weight of the brain in order to explain intellectual differences between women and men and Europeans and non-Europeans, geniuses and ordinary persons. After 1800 these parameters were modified by phrenological inspections of the skull and brain. As the phrenological examination of the skulls of Immanuel Kant, Wilhelm Heinse, Arthur Schopenhauer and others shows, the anthropometrical data was interpreted in light of biographical circumstances. The same pattern of interpretation can be found in non-phrenological contexts: Reports about extraordinary brains were part of biographical sketches, mainly delivered in celebratory obituaries. It was only in this context that moral reservations about dissecting the brains of geniuses could be overcome, which led to a more systematic investigation of brains of geniuses after 1860.

  13. The infrabranchial musculature and its bearing on the phylogeny of percomorph fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei). (United States)

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David


    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.

  14. ["Dieu et cerveau, rien que Dieu et cerveau!" Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) and the neurosciences of this time]. (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank


    The impact of Johann Gottfried von Herder on the broad spectrum of the history of ideas can hardly be estimated by separate categories derived from individual disciplines. It transcends the spheres of philosophy, theology, historiography and even medical anthropology--also because Herder, unlike many of his contemporary philosophers and hommes de lettres, was particularly interested in the neurophysiological and -anatomical investigations of his time. Herder's universal interest in human learning is reflected in numerous personal contacts to contemporary academic scholars and natural scientists, such as the Swiss theologian Johann Caspar Lavater, whose physiognomic doctrine mapped out a comprehensive research programme on character analysis, or the Mainz anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering. Herder tightly received the latter's assumption about the interplay between the human soul and the anatomy of the brain. In this article, it shall be demonstrated that Herder's neurophilosophy was primarily influenced by a "pandynamic assumption of nature" and that it designated the brain centrally as a "working tool of God"--right between the human faculties of rationality, feeling and bodily development. The attractiveness of this concept to both basic brain research and clinical neurology was a result of his anthropological approach which combined latest developments in the natural sciences with a central perspective on the human sciences.

  15. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education. (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R


    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P structures (2.97 ±0.86 versus 4.03 ±0.59), demonstrating the success of the ACUS curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. The perception of place and the 'origins of handedness' debate: towards a cognitive cartography of science in late-Victorian Dublin. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Tanya


    In 1884, a medical paper entitled 'Consideration of the Structural and Acquisitional Elements in Dextral Pre-Eminence' penned by the Dublin physician George Sigerson, appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. A number of years later, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland presented a similar piece by Dublin anatomist Daniel John Cunningham, on the topic of 'Right-Handedness and Left-Brainedness'. For the late nineteenth-century scientific community, these articles represented two Dublin-based contributions to a long-running and wide-ranging debate on the origins of handedness. However, by building on the geographical premise that scientific knowledge bears the imprint of its location and that place matters in the way scientific claims come to be sanctioned, this paper probes, not merely an encounter with evolutionary science in the less well explored domain of fin de siècle Dublin, but more crucially, how these local reviews of manual dexterity were in part shaped by the scientists' differing perceptions of their city. By attending to the lives of Sigerson and Cunningham and focusing on the interplay between life-space, city-space and science, it underscores the critical role of place and space in the reception, circulation and mobilisation of scientific knowledge in the city.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During routine osteology demonstration class of 100 numbers of Under Graduate M . B . B . S . S tudents at the Department of Anatomy , Regional Institute of Medical Sciences , Imphal , Manipur , we have come across one unique and unusual finding that one right human femur was found to be p resent with an elongated bony projection along the superior border of the gluteal tuberosity . It was found to be present about 7cm below the tip of the greater trochanter and the bony projection was about 1 . 70cm in length . It was localised laterally to the line connecting the tip of greater trochanter with superior bifurcation to the linear aspera . No any other anatomical abnormality was found in the above mentioned femur . The other remaining portion of the said femur was fo und with their normal anatomical features . The photograph of the right human femur mentioned above was taken for proper documentation and for ready reference . This case report has provided some additional evidence to the researchers and anatomists to enhan ce the understanding of the human femur more particularly the third trochanter and its significance . The present case study revealed an unusual finding as referred to above .

  18. Interprofessional approach for teaching functional knee joint anatomy. (United States)

    Meyer, Jakob J; Obmann, Markus M; Gießler, Marianne; Schuldis, Dominik; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Strohm, Peter C; Sandeck, Florian; Spittau, Björn


    Profound knowledge in functional and clinical anatomy is a prerequisite for efficient diagnosis in medical practice. However, anatomy teaching does not always consider functional and clinical aspects. Here we introduce a new interprofessional approach to effectively teach the anatomy of the knee joint. The presented teaching approach involves anatomists, orthopaedists and physical therapists to teach anatomy of the knee joint in small groups under functional and clinical aspects. The knee joint courses were implemented during early stages of the medical curriculum and medical students were grouped with students of physical therapy to sensitize students to the importance of interprofessional work. Evaluation results clearly demonstrate that medical students and physical therapy students appreciated this teaching approach. First evaluations of following curricular anatomy exams suggest a benefit of course participants in knee-related multiple choice questions. Together, the interprofessional approach presented here proves to be a suitable approach to teach functional and clinical anatomy of the knee joint and further trains interprofessional work between prospective physicians and physical therapists as a basis for successful healthcare management.

  19. The intelligent anatomy spotter: A new approach to incorporate higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy. (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L


    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of Manchester study the functional anatomy of the eye in the first semester of their first year. Included in the assessment of this unit is a spotter examination worth 45% of the total unit mark. Due to the factors listed above, a new spotter format was designed. Students had to answer three questions per specimen where the answers to the questions were the labeled structures themselves (A, B, C, or D). They had to work out the answer to the question and then work out which of the labeled structures was the correct structure, negating the "cueing effect" of standard multiple choice questions. Examination results were analyzed over a six-year period (control groups 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011; treatment groups 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014). There were no significant differences between marks obtained for the new spotter format when compared with the traditional format. The new format spotter tested comprehension rather than just knowledge, and facilitated marking because subjectiveness was erased, and less time was spent determining whether an answer was correct or not. Anat Sci Educ 9: 440-445. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. An MRI Von Economo - Koskinas atlas. (United States)

    Scholtens, Lianne H; de Reus, Marcel A; de Lange, Siemon C; Schmidt, Ruben; van den Heuvel, Martijn P


    The cerebral cortex displays substantial variation in cellular architecture, a regional patterning that has been of great interest to anatomists for centuries. In 1925, Constantin von Economo and George Koskinas published a detailed atlas of the human cerebral cortex, describing a cytoarchitectonic division of the cortical mantle into over 40 distinct areas. Von Economo and Koskinas accompanied their seminal work with large photomicrographic plates of their histological slides, together with tables containing for each described region detailed morphological layer-specific information on neuronal count, neuron size and thickness of the cortical mantle. Here, we aimed to make this legacy data accessible and relatable to in vivo neuroimaging data by constructing a digital Von Economo - Koskinas atlas compatible with the widely used FreeSurfer software suite. In this technical note we describe the procedures used for manual segmentation of the Von Economo - Koskinas atlas onto individual T1 scans and the subsequent construction of the digital atlas. We provide the files needed to run the atlas on new FreeSurfer data, together with some simple code of how to apply the atlas to T1 scans within the FreeSurfer software suite. The digital Von Economo - Koskinas atlas is easily applicable to modern day anatomical MRI data and is made publicly available online.

  1. [Diprosopus triophthalmus. From ancient terracotta sculptures to spiral computer tomographic reconstruction]. (United States)

    Sokiranski, R; Pirsig, W; Nerlich, A


    A still-born male fetus from the 19th century, fixed in formalin and presenting as diprosopia triophthalmica, was analysed by helical computer tomography and virtually reconstructed without damage. This rare, incomplete, symmetrical duplication of the face on a single head with three eyes, two noses and two mouths develops in the first 3 weeks of gestation and is a subset of the category of conjoined twins with unknown underlying etiology. Spiral computer tomography of fixed tissue demonstrated in the more than 100 year old specimen that virtual reconstruction can be performed in nearly the same way as in patients (contrast medium application not possible). The radiological reconstruction of the Munich fetus, here confined to head and neck data, is the basis for comparison with a number of imaging procedures of the last 3000 years. Starting with some Neolithic Mesoamerican ceramics, the "Pretty Ladies of Tlatilco", diprosopia triophthalmica was also depicted on engravings of the 16th and 17th century A.D. by artists as well as by the anatomist Soemmering and his engraver Berndt in the 18th century. Our modern spiral computer tomography confirms the ability of our ancestors to depict diprosopia triophthalmica in paintings and sculptures with a high level of natural precision.

  2. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism - A preliminary analysis based on the society proceedings. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    The Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG) is an international society for the anatomical sciences and at the same time the main organising body for German anatomists. This study analyses how the AG went through the years of National Socialism. As the society does not possess archival material from that time, the analysis is mainly based on the society proceedings (Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft) published annually after each meeting from 1934 to 1939 and again in 1950. During the period of National Socialism, the AG kept its international status against demands to make it a purely German society. It did not introduce anti-Jewish regulations or the Führer principle into its bylaws. The membership directories reveal that it was at least possible for members whose career was disrupted by Nazi policies to remain on the membership lists throughout the Nazi period. However, in contrast to later assumptions that no persecuted member of the AG was ever struck from its register, 17 of 57 persecuted members left the society between 1933 and 1939. The membership of six of these members was cancelled, officially for unpaid fees. However, other members with much longer arrears were not cancelled. To date, no additional historical information is available to assess the circumstances of these cancellations. In general, it remains remarkable that, in contrast to many other societies, the AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience towards the new rulers. More archival sources need to be uncovered to elucidate the external influences and internal negotiations behind the published documents.

  3. Josef Klingler's models of white matter tracts: influences on neuroanatomy, neurosurgery, and neuroimaging. (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Kapfhammer, Josef P; Kress, Annetrudi; Wichers, Hermann; Deep, Aman; Feindel, William; Sonntag, Volker K H; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C


    During the 1930s, white matter tracts began to assume relevance for neurosurgery, especially after Cajal's work. In many reviews of white matter neurobiology, the seminal contributions of Josef Klingler (1888-1963) and their neurological applications have been overlooked. In 1934 at the University of Basel under Eugen Ludwig, Klingler developed a new method of dissection based on a freezing technique for brain tissue that eloquently revealed the white matter tracts. Klingler worked with anatomists, surgeons, and other scientists, and his models and dissections of white matter tracts remain arguably the most elegant ever created. He stressed 3-dimensional anatomic relationships and laid the foundation for defining mesial temporal, limbic, insular, and thalamic fiber and functional relationships and contributed to the potential of stereotactic neurosurgery. Around 1947, Klingler was part of a Swiss-German group that independently performed the first stereotactic thalamotomies, basing their targeting and logic on Klingler's white matter studies, describing various applications of stereotaxy and showing Klingler's work integrated into a craniocerebral topographic system for targeting with external localization of eloquent brain structures and stimulation of deep thalamic nuclei. Klingler's work has received renewed interest because it is applicable for correlating the results of the fiber-mapping paradigms from diffusion tensor imaging to actual anatomic evidence. Although others have described white matter tracts, none have had as much practical impact on neuroscience as Klinger's work. More importantly, Josef Klingler was an encouraging mentor, influencing neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, and brain imaging for more than three quarters of a century.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Incidence of liver and Gallbladder diseases are significantly increasing in recent years. Cholecystectomy either by laparoscopic or open is the commonest surgical procedure performed by General surgeon. Liver Transplantation is emerging as one of the top most transplantation surgery as well. Variations in anatomy of Gallbladder, bile ducts and the arteries that supply them and liver are important to the surgeon, because failure to recognize them may lead to inadvertent ductal ligation, biliary leaks, haemobilia, haemorrhage and strictures after cholecystectomy and may complicate Liver transplantation surgeries. Recognition of these anomalies and normal variants may avoid diagnostic errors, aid in surgical planning and prevent inadvertent ductal injury. OBJECTIVES To study the variations in Extrahepatic Biliary Ductal system with its clinical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Extrahepatic biliary ductal system studying under various methods are established; many variations in this region and understanding of these variations is undoubtedly important for operating surgeons. Starting from open cholecystectomy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy to cadaveric liver harvesting to recent advances like “Living donor liver transplantation with duct-toduct anastomosis” (LDLT, grading of tumours like hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires definitive knowledge of the anatomy of the ductal and arterial system. Hence, we believe this study is not only confined to anatomists, but definitely be a useful guideline for general and laparoscopic surgeons, oncosurgeons and to transplant surgeons.

  5. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction. (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter


    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.

  6. Outcomes and satisfaction of two optional cadaveric dissection courses: A 3-year prospective study. (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J; Goyri-O'Neill, João


    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum. These courses were named Regional Anatomy I (RAI) and Regional Anatomy II (RAII). In RAI, students focus on dissecting the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and perineum. In RAII, the focus shifts to the head, neck, back, and upper and lower limbs. This study prospectively analyzes students' academic achievement and perceptions within the context of these two, newly-introduced, cadaveric dissection courses. Students' satisfaction was assessed anonymously through a questionnaire that included items regarding students' perception of the usefulness of the courses for undergraduate teaching, as well as with regards to future professional activity. For each of the three academic years studied, the final score (1 to 20) in General Anatomy (GA), RAI, and RAII was on average 14.26 ± 1.89; 16.94 ± 1.02; 17.49 ± 1.01, respectively. The mean results were lower in GA than RAI or RAII (P Educ 10: 127-136. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Analysis of traditional versus three-dimensional augmented curriculum on anatomical learning outcome measures. (United States)

    Peterson, Diana Coomes; Mlynarczyk, Gregory S A


    This study examined whether student learning outcome measures are influenced by the addition of three-dimensional and digital teaching tools to a traditional dissection and lecture learning format curricula. The study was performed in a semester long graduate level course that incorporated both gross anatomy and neuroanatomy curricula. Methods compared student examination performance on material taught using lecture and cadaveric dissection teaching tools alone or lecture and cadaveric dissection augmented with computerized three-dimensional teaching tools. Additional analyses were performed to examine potential correlations between question difficulty and format, previous student performance (i.e., undergraduate grade point average), and a student perception survey. The results indicated that students performed better on material in which three-dimensional (3D) technologies are utilized in conjunction with lecture and dissection methodologies. The improvement in performance was observed across the student population primarily on laboratory examinations. Although, student performance was increased, students did not perceive that the use of the additional 3D technology significantly influenced their learning. The results indicate that the addition of 3D learning tools can influence long-term retention of gross anatomy material and should be considered as a beneficial supplement for anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 529-536. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity? (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R


    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes. (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M


    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity. (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H


    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy.

  11. A new morphometric method for the sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa and its clinical relevance. (United States)

    Venieratos, D; Anagnostopoulou, S; Garidou, A


    The sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa should be considered different entities, the latter being part of the former. Their morphology and dimensions correlate to some extent with those of the contained pituitary gland and have, for this reason, attracted the interest of anatomists and radiologists. With the application of MRI, however, these data are of limited use in the diagnosis of pituitary disorders, although they remain valuable with regard to a microsurgical approach to the hypophysis. The proposed morphometric method was applied to 20 dry skulls. We first made casts of the corresponding sellae. Their volumes were then measured by immersion. The frontal section of each hypophyseal fossa was obtained through its deepest point and magnified. The Cartesian co-ordinates of the contour of the section were used to evaluate the corresponding area and centroid. The volume of each fossa was finally obtained by the use of Pappus' theorem applied to solids of rotation. The volumes of the sellae obtained as above ranged from 460 mm3 to 1570 mm3 with a mean value of 835 mm3. These figures are comparable to those reported from previous authors. To our knowledge the method described has enabled a close approximation of the volumes of the hypophyseal fossae to be made for the first time. These volumes ranged from 24 mm3 to 300 mm3, with a mean value of 157 mm3. Similar numerical methods might be applicable in vivo by the use of MR imaging.

  12. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students. (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M


    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Social media and anatomy education: Using twitter to enhance the student learning experience in anatomy. (United States)

    Hennessy, Catherine M; Kirkpatrick, Emma; Smith, Claire F; Border, Scott


    Neuroanatomy is a difficult subject in medical education, with students often feeling worried and anxious before they have even started, potentially decreasing their engagement with the subject. At the University of Southampton, we incorporated the use of Twitter as a way of supporting students' learning on a neuroanatomy module to evaluate how it impacted upon their engagement and learning experience. The #nlm2soton hashtag was created and displayed (via a widget) on the university's virtual learning environment (VLE) for a cohort of 197 Year 2 medical students studying neuroanatomy. Student usage was tracked to measure levels of engagement throughout the course and frequency of hashtag use was compared to examination results. Student opinions on the use of Twitter were obtained during a focus group with eleven students and from qualitative questionnaires. The hashtag was used by 91% of the student cohort and, within this, more students chose to simply view the hashtag rather than make contributions. The completed questionnaire responses (n = 150) as well as focus group outcomes revealed the value of using Twitter. A negligible correlation was found between student examination scores and their viewing frequency of the hashtag however, no correlation was found between examination scores and contribution frequency. Despite this, Twitter facilitated communication, relieved anxieties and raised morale, which was valued highly by students and aided engagement with neuroanatomy. Twitter was successful in creating and providing a support network for students during a difficult module. Anat Sci Educ 9: 505-515. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Henry Gray, plagiarist. (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth


    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis.

  15. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.


    images are captured automatically, and then processed to generate a Quicktime VR sequence, which permits users to view an object from multiple angles by rotating it on the screen. This provides 3-D visualizations of anatomy for students without the need for special '3-D glasses' that would be impractical to use in a laboratory setting. In addition, a digital video camera may be mounted on the rig for capturing video recordings of selected dissection procedures being carried out by expert anatomists for playback by the students. Anatomists from the Department of Anatomy at Mayo have captured several sets of dissection sequences and processed them into Quicktime VR sequences. The students are able to look at these specimens from multiple angles using this VR technology. In addition, the student may zoom in to obtain high-resolution close-up views of the specimen. They may interactively view the specimen at varying stages of dissection, providing a way to quickly and intuitively navigate through the layers of tissue. Electronic media has begun to impact all areas of education, but a 3-D interactive visualization of specimen dissections in the laboratory environment is a unique and powerful means of teaching anatomy. When fully implemented, anatomy education will be enhanced significantly by comparison to traditional methods.

  16. Cultural acceptability and personal willingness of Iranian students toward cadaveric donation. (United States)

    Abbasi Asl, Jamal; Nikzad, Hossein; Taherian, Aliakbar; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Homayoun; Mousavi, Gholamabbas; Kashani, Milad Motalebi; Omidi, Abdollah


    Cadaver dissection stands as a crucial component in medical curricula around the world, although computer-based multimedia programs have been introduced in order to replace the need for cadaver donations. Due to a decrease in the number of unclaimed bodies and rather few donations, there is an insufficient number of cadavers for anatomical studies in Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate medical students' awareness and willingness regarding body donation in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In this study, a questionnaire was designed to focus on the cultural acceptability and personal willingness to donate one's body after death. Students from the university's anatomy classes (n = 331) participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent of the students expressed their agreement toward the idea of utilizing body donation services, though only 25.4% of participants were willing to donate their own bodies. None of the demographic factors were associated with cultural acceptability or personal willingness towards body donation. These findings indicated that besides "payment", other factors were associated with students' willingness to become donors. All factors of awareness except "previous awareness of organization" were associated with cultural acceptability. In this study, students suggested that encouraging people to register for body donation using mass media (25.6%) and teaching students to respect cadavers in the dissection environment (24.8%) were the best solutions for addressing the lack of cadavers. These findings indicated that a lack of awareness about body donation might be the main factor responsible for unwillingness towards body donation; therefore, improving the public's awareness and addressing the willingness of students regarding body donation may help overcome the current lack of donated cadavers. Anat Sci Educ 10: 120-126. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity. (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W


    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases.

  18. [Gustav Klimt and the field of medicine. Painting of the medical faculty--relationship with the Zuckerkandl family]. (United States)

    Schultheiss, D


    The art nouveau painter Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), a cofounder of the Vienna Secession movement, was commissioned in 1894 to prepare three ceiling paintings for the Great Hall of the University of Vienna portraying the faculties of "Philosophy," "Medicine," and "Jurisprudence." After the first public presentations of these paintings starting in 1900 fierce protests erupted since the artist had not painted a historical allegory but rather had created a modern symbolic picture in the Secessionism style. The controversy over the so-called faculty paintings escalated to the point that in 1905 Klimt irrevocably distanced himself from the commission and bought back his pictures from the state. The paintings were later purchased by the Austrian Gallery and in 1943 placed in storage in Lower Austria at the Immendorf Castle where they were destroyed by a fire in May 1945 when the German troops withdrew. Besides Klimt's preliminary sketches, only black and white photographs of the three paintings now exist as well as a color reproduction of the section depicting Hygieia from the "Medicine" painting. Due to the public rejection of the faculty paintings, Gustav Klimt broke away from official government-commissioned art and focused on private clients from among Viennese society. One of these intensive associations was with the anatomist Emil Zuckerkandl and his wife Berta, who was very active in cultural affairs. During the dispute over the faculty paintings, Zuckerkandl was one of the few university professors who signed a petition in favor of retaining the paintings. His brother, the industrialist Victor Zuckerkandl, was one of the major collectors and patrons of Secessionist art. The third brother, the well-known urologist Otto Zuckerkandl (1861-1921), president of the Second and Third Congresses of the German Society of Urology in 1909 and 1911, was also in close contact with Klimt. A portrait of his wife Amalie was a work in progress between 1913 and 1917, but it remained

  19. The eye of the beholder: Can patterns in eye movement reveal aptitudes for spatial reasoning? (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A; Fraser, Graham M; Kryklywy, James H; Mitchell, Derek G V; Wilson, Timothy D


    Mental rotation ability (MRA) is linked to academic success in the spatially complex Science, Technology, Engineering, Medicine, and Mathematics (STEMM) disciplines, and anatomical sciences. Mental rotation literature suggests that MRA may manifest in the movement of the eyes. Quantification of eye movement data may serve to distinguish MRA across individuals, and serve as a consideration when designing visualizations for instruction. It is hypothesized that high-MRA individuals will demonstrate fewer eye fixations, conduct shorter average fixation durations (AFD), and demonstrate shorter response times, than low-MRA individuals. Additionally, individuals with different levels of MRA will attend to different features of the block-figures presented in the electronic mental rotations test (EMRT). All participants (n = 23) completed the EMRT while metrics of eye movement were collected. The test required participants view pairs of three-dimensional (3D) shapes, and identify if the pair is rotated but identical, or two different structures. Temporal analysis revealed no significant correlations between response time, average fixation durations, or number of fixations and mental rotation ability. Further analysis of within-participant variability yielded a significant correlation for response time variability, but no correlation between AFD variability and variability in the number of fixations. Additional analysis of salience revealed that during problem solving, individuals of differing MRA attended to different features of the block images; suggesting that eye movements directed at salient features may contribute to differences in mental rotations ability, and may ultimately serve to predict success in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 357-366. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  1. Out of sight, out of mind: Do repeating students overlook online course components? (United States)

    Holland, Jane; Clarke, Eric; Glynn, Mark


    E-Learning is becoming an integral part of undergraduate medicine, with many curricula incorporating a number of online activities and resources, in addition to more traditional teaching methods. This study examines physical attendance, online activity, and examination outcomes in a first-year undergraduate medical program. All 358 students who completed the Alimentary System module within the first semester of the program were included, 30 of whom were repeating the year, and thus the module. This systems-based, multidisciplinary module incorporated didactic lectures, cadaveric small group tutorials and additional e-Learning resources such as online histology tutorials. Significant differences were demonstrated in physical attendance and utilization of online resources between repeating students and those participating in the module for the first time. Subsequent analyses confirmed that physical attendance, access of online lecture resources, and utilization of online histology tutorials were all significantly correlated. In addition, both physical attendance and utilization of online resources significantly correlated with summative examination performance. While nonattendance may be due to a variety of factors, our data confirm that significant differences exist in both physical attendance and online activity between new entrants and repeating students, such that all students repeating a module or academic year should be routinely interviewed and offered appropriate supports to ensure that they continue to engage with the program. While the development of complex algorithmic models may be resource intensive, using readily available indices from virtual learning environments is a straightforward, albeit less powerful, means to identify struggling students prior to summative examinations. Anat Sci Educ 9: 555-564. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Terminologia anatomica in the past and the future from perspective of 110th anniversary of Polish Anatomical Terminology. (United States)

    Gielecki, J; Zurada, A; Osman, N


    Professional terminology is commonplace, particularly in the fields of mathematics, medicine, veterinary and natural sciences. The use of the terminology can be international, as it is with Anatomical Terminology (AT). In the early age of modern education, anatomists adopted Latin as the international language for AT. However, at the end of the 20th century, the English language became more predominant around the world. It can be said that the AT is a specific collection of scientific terms. One of the major flaws in early AT was that body structures were described by varying names, while some of the terms was irrational in nature, and confusing. At this time, different international committees were working on preparing a unified final version of the AT, which in the end consisted of 5,640 terms (4,286 originally from the Basle Nomina Anatomica, BNA). Also, each country wanted to have its own nomenclature. In order to accomplish this, each country based their nomenclature on the international AT, and then translated it into their own language. The history of the Polish Anatomical Terminology (PAT) is unique, and follows the events of history. It was first published in 1898, at a time when its neighbours partitioned the territory of Poland. During 150 years, the Polish culture and language was under the Russification and Germanization policy. It is important to note, that even with such difficult circumstances, the PAT was the first national AT in the world. The PAT was a union of the accepted first BNA in Latin and the original Polish anatomical equivalents. This union formed the basis for theoretical and clinical medicine in Poland.

  3. [Readers' position against induced abortion]. (United States)


    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  4. Nose muscular dynamics: the tip trigonum. (United States)

    Figallo, E E; Acosta, J A


    In 1995, the senior author (E.E.F.) published an article in which he described the musculus digastricus septi nasi labialis. In the article presented here, work carried out by anatomists and other researchers who, over the last two centuries, studied nose muscular dynamics is described. The present study is based on Gray's Anatomy, which, in 1858, first described the nasal tip muscles, along with the other nasal muscles. Later works not only used different terminology for these muscles but also ignored some, creating tremendous confusion. The study presented here provides an update of the exact terms, location, insertions, and muscle functions of the muscles of the nose. Each nose muscle is described with regard to the two portions able to produce separate contractions. In this study, the term "dual function" is used and characterizes the nasal mimetic muscles that do not have well-defined fascia. Therefore, there is doubt about the existence of a real nasal superficial muscle aponeurotic system. The musculus myrtiformis seems to have a dual function, inserting in the canine fosse and in the periosteum of the central incisors, forming two portions-one to the septum and the other to the nostril-each of which has specific functions. This study has been based on research in physiognomy, the science of expression. With regard to the basis for nose expressions, common anatomical research is excluded because it provides a different view of the dynamics studied to date. The term trigonum musculare apicis nasi defines the interaction of the musculi compressor narium minor and dilator naris anterior, connecting with the columellar bundle of the musculus digastricus and levering the nasal spine. This muscular trigone creates circular concentric and eccentric movements of the nasal tip.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi


    Full Text Available Lumbosacral transitional vertebra (Sacralization is the fusion of 5Th lumber vertebra with the first segment of the sacrum it may be complete or incomplete. In complete sacralization body of the 5Th lumber vertebra completely fuses with the sacrum, where as in incomplete sacralisation shows a well defined joint line between the transverse process and the sacrum. Both forms may be either unilateral or bilateral. Such kind of abnormalities are importance while reporting the X ray, CT and MRI films, during surgical procedures at the Lumbosacral region and making a differential diagnosis for the low back ache patients. Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the incidence and morphological study of Sacralization (Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in adult Indian sacra and its clinical significance. This study was carried out on 150 dry human sacra irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery-Calicut. It was observed that out of 150 sacra, 57 (38% sacra showed sacralization. Out of 57 sacralized bones, 38 (25.33% bones showed bilateral sacralization, whereas 19 (12.67% bones showed unilateral sacralization. Such Lumbosacral transitional vertebra may increase the ricks of Disc bulge / herniation or pseudarthrosis (nonunions with the ilium, degenerative sclerosis around the false joint, compression of lumber nerve roots, low back pain, and false administration of epidural or intradural anaesthetics in lumbosacral region. Its sound knowledge is not only enlightening for the orthopaedic surgeons, also vital for the clinical anatomists, forensic experts and morphologists

  6. Exploring eye movements of experienced and novice readers of medical texts concerning the cardiovascular system in making a diagnosis. (United States)

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Södervik, Ilona; Österholm-Matikainen, Erika


    This study used the eye-tracking method to explore how the level of expertise influences reading, and solving, two written patient cases on cardiac failure and pulmonary embolus. Eye-tracking is a fairly commonly used method in medical education research, but it has been primarily applied to studies analyzing the processing of visualizations, such as medical images or patient video cases. Third-year medical students (n = 39) and residents (n = 13) read two patient case texts in an eye-tracking laboratory. The analysis focused on the diagnosis made, the total visit duration per text slide, and eye-movement indicators regarding task-relevant and task-redundant areas of the patient case text. The results showed that almost all participants (48/52) made the correct diagnosis of the first patient case, whereas all the residents, but only 17 students, correctly diagnosed the second case. The residents were efficient patient-case-solvers: they reached the correct diagnoses, and processed the cases faster and with a lower number of fixations than did the students. Further, the students and residents demonstrated different reading patterns with regard to which slides they proportionally paid most attention. The observed differences could be utilized in medical education to model expert reasoning and to teach the manner in which a good medical text is constructed. Eye-tracking methodology appears to have a great deal of potential in evaluating performance and growing diagnostic expertise in reading medical texts. However, further research using medical texts as stimuli is required. Anat Sci Educ 10: 23-33. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

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    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  8. The anatomy of E-Learning tools: Does software usability influence learning outcomes? (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A


    Reductions in laboratory hours have increased the popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools. It is critical to understand how the functionality of such tools can influence the mental effort required during the learning process, also known as cognitive load. Using dual-task methodology, two anatomical e-learning tools were examined to determine the effect of their design on cognitive load during two joint learning exercises. A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy is a simplistic, two-dimensional tool that presents like a textbook, whereas Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy has a more complex three-dimensional usability that allows structures to be rotated. It was hypothesized that longer reaction times on an observation task would be associated with the more complex anatomical software (Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy), indicating a higher cognitive load imposed by the anatomy software, which would result in lower post-test scores. Undergraduate anatomy students from Western University, Canada (n = 70) were assessed using a baseline knowledge test, Stroop observation task response times (a measure of cognitive load), mental rotation test scores, and an anatomy post-test. Results showed that reaction times and post-test outcomes were similar for both tools, whereas mental rotation test scores were positively correlated with post-test values when students used Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy (P = 0.007), but not when they used A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. This suggests that a simple e-learning tool, such as A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy, is as effective as more complicated tools, such as Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy, and does not academically disadvantage those with poor spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 9: 378-390. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Expanding the scope of anatomical sciences: the case of "Human evolution: The fossil evidence" course at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University. (United States)

    Notzer, Netta; Abramovitz, Ruth


    The Anatomy Department at Tel-Aviv University Medical School offers its students an elective course of 26 didactic hours on human evolution. The course is open to students from all faculties, who must fulfill all academic requirements, without a prerequisite of a background in anatomy. Approximately 120 students attend annually, a third of them are nonmedical students who major in philosophy, archeology, and sociology. This article discusses the course's contributions to students' understanding of a scientific concept that a scientific theory can be contradicted by new evidence, because facts govern science. Also, research methods of applying scientific principles establish the understanding of the human body, which evidently contributes to health and medicine. In the classes, the students are divided into mini-groups of 2-3 students, while the lecturer moves among students to examine fossils. In addition, analogies, open-discussions, and explanations accompany the tangible experiences. The lecturer of the course is an experienced anthropologist-anatomist researcher. He is a role-model and a mentor, sharing with the students his belief that a scientist should be persistent in his research to overcome difficult circumstances. Students, regardless of their backgrounds, express high appreciation of the course in their feedback questionnaires. The message conveyed by this course is that not only knowledge counts but also its integration with scientific principles. This course teaches us that science can bring students from different areas to study together and share ideas. In conclusion, this is a unique course in the eyes of the faculty and students alike.

  10. Functional anatomy of the cardiovascular system: professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a "train and equip" method results in learning opportunities for students. (United States)

    Burns, E Robert


    Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train the teachers in relevant content and also to give them a resource kit of supplies and equipment to facilitate the transference of the training into educational opportunities for their students. The workshop included many role-playing activities and use of all items in the resource kit. A total of 25 workshops were conducted in 14 different community locations with 716 PreK-3 teachers attending from 169 communities representing 59 (79%) of the state's 75 counties. African American (AA) teacher participation was 35%, twice the state AA population rate and 3.5x the AA public school teacher rate. Pre to Posttest scores increased an average of 15%. The results of the evaluation measures regarding the workshop and the transference of the training and use of resource kit items into learning opportunities for students were excellent. Universities have the capability, perhaps the responsibility, to provide the much-needed professional development training to PreK-12 teachers. Anatomists in medical and nonmedical school settings are well positioned to participate in this process and help close the gap between the interest young children have in learning about the human body and the lack of teacher training in this content.

  11. ["Fiction and Truth": Goethe's anatomical research at the University of Jena]. (United States)

    Schäfer, H H; Sivukhina, E; Dölz, W; Oehring, H


    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the most renowned German poets of the late Age of Enlightenment. However, his engagement went far beyond literature especially relating to politics and natural science. Goethe, primarily trained as a lawyer, developed his own theory of colors and even challenged the concepts of Isaac Newton. His discovery of the human intermaxilary bone questioned all the dogmas of the religious-minded world of the 18th century. Together with the anatomy professor Justus Christian Loder, Goethe performed comparative anatomy and proved the conceptual uniformity of humans and animals on 27 March 1784. Even though, Félix Vicq d'Azyr described the intermaxilary bone simultaneously in Catholic France, Goethe's findings were politically accepted due to the liberal Protestantism of the Duchy of Weimar. Nevertheless, leading anatomists of the century (Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Petrus Camper and Samuel Thomas v. Soemmerring) mainly rejected Goethe's postulates which led to a delayed publication in 1820; almost 36 years after writing his original manuscript. Today, Goethe's discovery is known to be a fundamental basis for the development of Charles Darwin's theory of phylogenetic evolution. Nowadays, the Department of Anatomy contains the Museum Anatomicum Jenense which was founded by the Duke of Weimar, Carl August and Goethe and entails Goethe's premaxillary bones as its main attraction. The University values the cultural heritage of Goethe's contribution to Medicine and provides access to the collection to the public and generations of medical students. Still today Goethe's legacy is noticeable in the halls of the Alma Mater Jenensis.

  12. Understanding brain, mind and soul: Contributions from neurology and neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Pandya


    Full Text Available Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca's area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen's localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville; studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes, and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of 'the cocktail of brain soup and spark' in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here.

  13. Understanding brain, mind and soul: Contributions from neurology and neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya Sunil


    Full Text Available Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca′s area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen′s localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville; studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes, and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of ′the cocktail of brain soup and spark′ in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here.

  14. Arqueobotânica de um sambaqui sul-brasileiro: integrando indícios sobre o paleoambiente e o uso de recursos florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available Resumo Madeiras in natura são testemunhos raros em sítios arqueológicos de tipologia sambaqui. A partir da evidência de estacas encharcadas de madeira na base do sítio, objetivou-se conhecer as espécies vegetais e a sua funcionalidade no contexto arqueológico do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado na região norte de Joinville, Santa Catarina, e com base datada de 3480 ± 60 AP. A caracterização da madeira foi realizada por meio de preparações histológicas e seguiu a terminologia proposta pela International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA. A determinação dos táxons deu-se mediante comparação em coleção de referência. Foram reconhecidas diferentes espécies madeiráveis de ocorrência natural nos ambientes de manguezal, floresta de terras baixas e restinga. Destacaram-se os seguintes táxons: Andira sp. (Fabaceae, Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae, Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae, Buchenavia sp. (Combretaceae, Handroanthus sp. (Bignoniaceae, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, Schinus sp. (Anacardiaceae e Xylopia (Annonaceae. Entre as propriedades físicas que conferem qualidade às madeiras identificadas, destaca-se a densidade básica, com valores médios a altos em sua maioria, indicando seu uso potencial em elementos com função estrutural. Dentre as possíveis interpretações, os resultados evidenciam o uso de madeiras para a construção de uma plataforma projetada para dar sustentação ao sítio, possivelmente em função das características plásticas dos solos de manguezal.

  15. Muscle Logic: New Knowledge Resource for Anatomy Enables Comprehensive Searches of the Literature on the Feeding Muscles of Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Druzinsky

    Full Text Available In recent years large bibliographic databases have made much of the published literature of biology available for searches. However, the capabilities of the search engines integrated into these databases for text-based bibliographic searches are limited. To enable searches that deliver the results expected by comparative anatomists, an underlying logical structure known as an ontology is required.Here we present the Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology (MFMO, a multi-species ontology focused on anatomical structures that participate in feeding and other oral/pharyngeal behaviors. A unique feature of the MFMO is that a simple, computable, definition of each muscle, which includes its attachments and innervation, is true across mammals. This construction mirrors the logical foundation of comparative anatomy and permits searches using language familiar to biologists. Further, it provides a template for muscles that will be useful in extending any anatomy ontology. The MFMO is developed to support the Feeding Experiments End-User Database Project (FEED,, a publicly-available, online repository for physiological data collected from in vivo studies of feeding (e.g., mastication, biting, swallowing in mammals. Currently the MFMO is integrated into FEED and also into two literature-specific implementations of Textpresso, a text-mining system that facilitates powerful searches of a corpus of scientific publications. We evaluate the MFMO by asking questions that test the ability of the ontology to return appropriate answers (competency questions. We compare the results of queries of the MFMO to results from similar searches in PubMed and Google Scholar.Our tests demonstrate that the MFMO is competent to answer queries formed in the common language of comparative anatomy, but PubMed and Google Scholar are not. Overall, our results show that by incorporating anatomical ontologies into searches, an expanded and anatomically comprehensive

  16. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging – the first description of a divided central sulcus (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens


    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation – bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus. PMID:24904304

  17. The History of the Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin M. Scheinman


    Full Text Available While Drs Wolff, Parkinson, and White fully described the syndrome in 1930, prior case reports had described the essentials. Over the ensuing century this syndrome has captivated the interest of anatomists, clinical cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons. Stanley Kent described lateral muscular connections over the atrioventricular (AV groove which he felt were the normal AV connections. The normal AV connections were, however, clearly described by His and Tawara. True right-sided AV connections were initially described by Wood et al., while Öhnell first described left free wall pathways. David Scherf is thought to be the first to describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the WPW syndrome in terms of a re-entrant circuit involving both the AV node–His axis as well as the accessory pathway. This hypothesis was not universally accepted, and many theories were applied to explain the clinical findings. The basics of our understanding were established by the brilliant work of Pick, Langendorf, and Katz who by using careful deductive analysis of ECGs were able to define the basic pathophysiological processes. Subsequently, Wellens and Durrer applied invasive electrical stimulation to the heart in order to confirm the pathophysiological processes. Sealy and his colleagues at Duke University Medical Center were the first to successfully surgically divide an accessory pathway and ushered in the modern era of therapy for these patients. Morady and Scheinman were the first to successfully ablate an accessory pathway (posteroseptal using high-energy direct-current shocks. Subsequently Jackman, Kuck, Morady, and a number of groups proved the remarkable safety and efficiency of catheter ablation for pathways in all locations using radiofrequency energy. More recently, Gollob et al. first described the gene responsible for a familial form of WPW. The current ability to cure patients with WPW is due to the splendid contributions of individuals

  18. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study. (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping


    Educ 9: 265-271. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. History of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. (United States)

    Scheinman, Melvin M


    While Drs. Wolff, Parkinson, and White fully described the syndrome that bears their names in 1930, prior case reports had already described the essentials. Over the ensuing century this syndrome has captivated the interest of anatomists, clinical cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons. Stanley Kent described lateral muscular connections over the atrioventricular (AV) groove, which he felt were the normal AV connections. The normal AV connections were, however, clearly described by His and Tawara. True right-sided AV connections were initially described by Wood et al., while Ohnell first described left free wall pathways. David Scherf is thought to be the first to describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in terms of a reentrant circuit involving both the AV node--His axis as well as the accessory pathway. This hypothesis was not universally accepted and many theories were applied to explain the clinical findings. The basics of our understandings were established by the brilliant work of Pick, Langendorf, and Katz who by using careful deductive analysis of ECGs were able to define the basic pathophysiological processes. Subsequently, Wellens and Durrer applied invasive electrical stimulation to the heart in order to confirm the pathophysiological processes. Sealy and his colleagues at Duke University Medical Center were the first to successfully surgically divide an accessory pathway and ushered in the modern area for curative therapy for these patients. Morady and Scheinman were the first to successfully ablate an accessory pathway (posteroseptal) using high-energy direct-current shocks. Subsequently, Jackman, Kuck, Morady, and a number of groups proved the remarkable safety and efficiency of catheter ablation for pathways in all locations using radiofrequency energy. More recently, Gallob et al. first described the gene responsible for a familial form of WPW. The current ability to cure patients with WPW is

  20. The history of the wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome. (United States)

    Scheinman, Melvin M


    While Drs Wolff, Parkinson, and White fully described the syndrome in 1930, prior case reports had described the essentials. Over the ensuing century this syndrome has captivated the interest of anatomists, clinical cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons. Stanley Kent described lateral muscular connections over the atrioventricular (AV) groove which he felt were the normal AV connections. The normal AV connections were, however, clearly described by His and Tawara. True right-sided AV connections were initially described by Wood et al., while Öhnell first described left free wall pathways. David Scherf is thought to be the first to describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the WPW syndrome in terms of a re-entrant circuit involving both the AV node-His axis as well as the accessory pathway. This hypothesis was not universally accepted, and many theories were applied to explain the clinical findings. The basics of our understanding were established by the brilliant work of Pick, Langendorf, and Katz who by using careful deductive analysis of ECGs were able to define the basic pathophysiological processes. Subsequently, Wellens and Durrer applied invasive electrical stimulation to the heart in order to confirm the pathophysiological processes. Sealy and his colleagues at Duke University Medical Center were the first to successfully surgically divide an accessory pathway and ushered in the modern era of therapy for these patients. Morady and Scheinman were the first to successfully ablate an accessory pathway (posteroseptal) using high-energy direct-current shocks. Subsequently Jackman, Kuck, Morady, and a number of groups proved the remarkable safety and efficiency of catheter ablation for pathways in all locations using radiofrequency energy. More recently, Gollob et al. first described the gene responsible for a familial form of WPW. The current ability to cure patients with WPW is due to the splendid contributions of individuals from diverse

  1. Bronchial anatomy of left lung: a study of multi-detector row CT. (United States)

    Zhao, Xinya; Ju, Yuanrong; Liu, Cheng; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Min; Sun, Jian; Wang, Tao


    Familiarity with prevailing pattern and variations in the bronchial tree is not only essential for the anatomist to explain bronchial variation in bronchial specimens, but also useful for guiding bronchoscopy and instructing pulmonary segmental resection. The purpose of this study was designed to demonstrate various branching patterns of left lung with 3D images, with special attention given to identify the major types at transverse thin-section CT. Two hundred and sixteen patients with routine thorax scans were enrolled. The images of bronchial tree, virtual bronchoscopy were reconstructed using post-processing technique of multi-detector row CT. We attempted to classify the segmental bronchi by interpreting the post-processing images, and identified them in transverse thin-section CT. Our results showed that the segmental bronchial ramifications of the left superior lobe were classified into three types mainly, i.e., common stem of apical and posterior segmental bronchi (64%, 138/216); trifurcation (23%, 50/216); common stem of apical and anterior segmental bronchi (10%, 22/216), and they could be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. There were two major types in left basal segmental bronchi, i.e., bifurcation (75%, 163/216), trifurcation (18%, 39/216), and they could also be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. In conclusion, our study have offered simplified branching patterns of bronchi and demonstrated various unusual bronchial branching patterns perfectly with 3D images, and have also revealed how to identify the main branching patterns in transverse thin-section CT.

  2. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. (United States)

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G


    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. ‘By a Comparison of Incidents and Dialogue’: Richard Owen, Comparative Anatomy and Victorian Serial Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowan Dawson


    Full Text Available Darwin’s extensive reading of literature was a crucial starting point for Gillian Beer’s insights into the interchange between science and culture which have shaped scholarship in the field for the last three decades. However, while the impact of Darwin’s reading on the imaginative development of his theories has continued to be an extremely productive area of study, there has been hardly any consideration of the broader context of nineteenth-century scientists’ reading practices in relation to literature, giving the impression that Darwin’s thought was especially, perhaps uniquely, amenable to the impact of his immersion in fiction and poetry. This paper examines the extensive but relatively little-known literary reading of the comparative anatomist Richard Owen, suggesting that important aspects of other, and even explicitly non-Darwinian, areas of Victorian science were just as likely to be influenced by their practitioners’ enthusiasm for fiction and poetry. That Darwin and Owen frequently read the same literary works, and often in the same or similar locations (whether in metropolitan clubs or out in the field, also permits direct comparisons of their reading practices, which, intriguingly, suggest that, far from being uniquely amenable to it, Darwin’s scientific thought might in fact have been shaped much less by his literary reading than that of contemporaneous naturalists like Owen. In particular, the paper focuses on Owen’s reading of serial fiction, and considers the close parallels between his practices of reading serial novels and his use of comparative anatomy in his renowned reconstructions of the skeletons of prehistoric creatures.

  4. Design, implementation, and evaluation of a postgraduate Diploma in Surgical Anatomy. (United States)

    Stringer, Mark D; Lyall, Patrick


    After careful planning, a postgraduate Diploma in Surgical Anatomy was launched in 2009. This report describes the structure of the program, the challenges encountered in implementing and running the course, and results of evaluations. The qualification is targeted at junior doctors intending to become surgeons or radiologists and aims to equip them with a sound understanding of regional anatomy relevant to common diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, together with an understanding of common/important anatomical variations. The course is delivered by: (1) 24 weeks' distance learning, comprising selected readings, podcasts, multiple choice questions (MCQs), and research informed essays; and (2) two separate two-week periods of intensive campus-based learning and whole body dissection (four students per cadaver) assessed by oral examination, a class presentation of an anatomical variation, and formal MCQ examination. Campus-based instruction is delivered by two surgical anatomists with additional input from a broad range of specialist surgeons and radiologists. Anonymous student evaluations over three successive courses show that all components of the course were highly rated. The success of the program may relate to several factors: an emphasis on clinically relevant anatomy, clear learning objectives, personalized student feedback, a low student to cadaver ratio, restricted class size, a wide range of supportive material, a dedicated team of surgical/radiological instructors, efficient course administration, and endorsement by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Establishing a Diploma in Surgical Anatomy program requires a dedicated team of individuals, the setting and maintenance of appropriate educational standards, and collaboration with the professional body regulating the training of surgeons.

  5. Dinosaurs in the year of Darwin. (United States)

    Dodson, Peter


    This special issue of The Anatomical Record explores the recent advances in the functional morphology and paleobiology of dinosaurs. Although Darwin did not study dinosaurs because paleontology was in its infancy a century and half ago, he considered both paleontology and anatomy as essential subjects for establishing the validity of evolution. The study of dinosaurs constitutes a vigorous subdiscipline within vertebrate paleontology, and anatomists and evolutionary functional morphologists constitute an especially creative subgroup within dinosaur paleontology. The collection of 17 papers presented in this issue encompass cranial anatomy, postcranial anatomy, and paleobiology of dinosaurs and other archosaurs. Soft tissue subjects include studies of brain structure, jaw adductor muscles, and keratinous appendages of the skull. Taxonomically, it includes four papers with a focus on theropods, including Tyrannosaurus, five papers dealing with ceratopsians, three papers on hadrosaurs, and one on ankylosaurs. Modern anatomical techniques such as CT scanning, finite element analysis, and high resolution histology are emphasized. The visual presentation of results of these studies is spectacular. Results include the first-ever life history table of a plant-eating dinosaur; a determination of the head orientation of Tyrannosaurus and its relatives based on interpretation of the semicircular canals. The claws of Velociraptor appear to best adapted for tree climbing, but not for horrific predatory activities. Pachyrhinosaurus evidently used its massive head for head butting. The tail club of the armored dinosaur Euoplocephalus had the structural integrity to be used as a weapon. The pages abound with insights such as these. Dinosaurs once dead for millions of years live again!

  6. Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando De Castro


    Full Text Available The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries. Although known by anatomists since the report included by Von Haller and Taube in the mid XVIIIth century, its detailed study started the first quarter of the XXth. The Austro-German physiologist Heinrich E. Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region. In 1925, Fernando De Castro, one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain, profited from some original novelties in histological procedures to study the fine structure and innervation of the carotid body. De Castro unravelled them in a series of scientific papers published between 1926 and 1929, which became the basis to consider the carotid body as a sensory receptor (or chemoreceptor to detect the chemical changes in the composition of the blood. Indeed, this was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors. Impressed by the novelty and implications of the work of De Castro, Corneille Heymans invited the Spanish neurologist to visit Ghent on two occasions (1929 and 1932, where both performed experiences together. Shortly after, Heymans visited De Castro at the Instituto Cajal (Madrid. From 1932-33, Corneille Heymans focused all his attention on the carotid body his physiological demonstration of De Castro’s hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, just when Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War.

  7. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Chesnel

    Full Text Available Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia.To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers.Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred.Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%: 4 (1% in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7% in nerves and 1 (0.2% in a vessel.This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients.

  8. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma. (United States)

    Drake, M E


    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  9. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load. (United States)

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel


    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. VARK learning preferences and mobile anatomy software application use in pre-clinical chiropractic students. (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J; Stomski, Norman J; Innes, Stanley I; Armson, Anthony J


    Ubiquitous smartphone ownership and reduced face-to-face teaching time may lead to students making greater use of mobile technologies in their learning. This is the first study to report on the prevalence of mobile gross anatomy software applications (apps) usage in pre-clinical chiropractic students and to ascertain if a relationship exists between preferred learning styles as determined by the validated VARK(©) questionnaire and use of mobile anatomy apps. The majority of the students who completed the VARK questionnaire were multimodal learners with kinesthetic and visual preferences. Sixty-seven percent (73/109) of students owned one or more mobile anatomy apps which were used by 57 students. Most of these students owned one to five apps and spent less than 30 minutes per week using them. Six of the top eight mobile anatomy apps owned and recommended by the students were developed by 3D4Medical. Visual learning preferences were not associated with time spent using mobile anatomy apps (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.12-1.40). Similarly, kinesthetic learning preferences (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 0.18-20.2), quadmodal preferences (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.06-9.25), or gender (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.48-4.81) did not affect the time students' spent using mobile anatomy apps. Learning preferences do not appear to influence students' time spent using mobile anatomy apps. Anat Sci Educ 9: 247-254. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology. (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick


    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.

  12. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging - the first description of a divided central sulcus. (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens


    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation - bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  13. Some historical reflections on the neural control of locomotion. (United States)

    Clarac, François


    Thought on the neural control of locomotion dates back to antiquity. In this article, however, the focus is more recent by starting with some major 17th century concepts, which were developed by René Descartes, a French philosopher; Thomas Willis, an English anatomist; and Giovanni Borelli, an Italian physiologist and physicist. Each relied on his personal expertise to theorize on the organization and control of movements. The 18th and early 19th centuries saw work on both the central and peripheral control of movement: the former most notably by Johann Unzer, Marie Jean-Pierre Flourens and Julien-Jean-César Legallois, and the latter by Unzer, Jirí Procháska and many others. Next in the 19th century, neurologists used human locomotion as a precise tool for characterizing motor pathologies: e.g., Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne's description of locomotor ataxia. Jean-Martin Charcot considered motor control to be organized at two levels of the central nervous system: the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord. Maurice Philippson's defined the dog's step cycle and considered that locomotion used both central and reflex mechanisms. Charles Sherrington explained that locomotor control was usually thought to consist of a succession of peripheral reflexes (e.g., the stepping reflexes). Thomas Graham Brown's then contemporary evidence for the spinal origin of locomotor rhythmicity languished in obscurity until the early 1960s. By then the stage was set for an international assault on the neural control of locomotion, which featured research conducted on both invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. These contributions have progressively became more integrated and interactive, with current work emphasizing that locomotor control involves a seamless integration between central locomotor networks and peripheral feedback.

  14. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material. (United States)

    Winkelmann, Andreas


    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical.

  15. [An illustrious unknown. Giuseppe Levi among science, anti-fascism and Nobel Prizes]. (United States)

    Grignolio, Andrea; De Sio, Fabio


    The anatomist Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) is unanimously considered one of the major figures of Italian biomedical sciences in the 20th century. His fame, however, is mainly derived from having nurtured three Nobel Prize winners, namely Salvador E. Luria, Rita Levi Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. In reappraising Levi's role in the development of Italian science and culture in general, this article aims at questioning both the narrowness of earlier accounts and a certain kind of genealogical approach to the history of scientific disciplines and academic schools. We will here consider Giuseppe Levi as an instance of two major cultural phenomena: the development of experimental biology in Italy and continental Europe and the anti-fascist socialist culture expressed by a part of the Italian intellectuals. In so doing, we will reassess the historical specificity of the scientific maturation of Levi's three famous students, on the one hand, while on the other we will consider in some depth the cultural and moral environment in which Levi thrived and his role as a moral example for his students. Such revision, we will argue, have a direct bearing on more general historiographical issues, namely, the need for a stronger contextualization of the birth and consolidation of research traditions, implying a rejection of simplistic genealogical reconstructions, and the role of academic schools and institutional settings in the definition of novel, multidisciplinary scientific approaches. Finally, the following will highlight the importance of a more careful outlook on the master-pupil relationship in academic context, addressing issues of both continuity and rupture. The article is subdivided in two main sections, the first devoted to Levi as a scientist, the second to his Anti-fascism.

  16. The identification and restitution of human remains from an Aché girl named "Damiana": an interdisciplinary approach. (United States)

    Koel-Abt, Katrin; Winkelmann, Andreas


    In June 2010, the postcranial skeleton of an adolescent girl was returned by the Natural History Museum of La Plata, Argentina, to the Aché community in Paraguay. In March 2011 the missing skull was identified in the anatomical collection of Charité in Berlin. We initiated a historical and anthropological investigation to confirm the identity of the human remains and to reconstruct the fate of the individual in question in its historical context. Anthropological publications from Argentina had indicated that the girl named "Damiana" was abducted by colonising settlers in Southern Paraguay in 1897 at the age of 3-4 years, later taken to La Plata in Argentina where she grew up as a "maidservant", and died in 1907 of "galloping consumption". In accordance with these reports, the present palaeopathological investigation confirms tuberculous meningitis as a likely cause of death. It also demonstrates some markers of "stress", the nature of which, however, is difficult to determine. Surviving letters and publications by Berlin anatomist Hans Virchow reveal that the girl's preserved head was sent from La Plata to Berlin in January 1908 for comparative investigations in the context of the racial theories of the time. We were convinced that the justified wishes of the Aché community to bury these remains alongside those restituted in 2010 outweighed any future scientific interest in these remains. In April 2012, the skull and two related specimens were returned from the Charité to the Aché community, mediated by the Paraguayan ambassador in Berlin.

  17. The use of executed Nazi victims in anatomy: Findings from the Institute of Anatomy at Gießen University, pre- and post-1945. (United States)

    Oehler-Klein, Sigrid; Preuss, Dirk; Roelcke, Volker


    There is increasing evidence that both during the time of National Socialism, and in the post-World War II-period, the corpses of executed victims of the Nazi regime, as well as body parts taken from them were used for teaching and research purposes in German anatomical institutes. The paper addresses the related issues by looking at the case of the Institute of Anatomy at Gießen University whose director, Ferdinand Wagenseil, is documented to have had certain political reservations towards the Nazi regime, but at the same time used the situation to get access to more corpses, most likely for teaching purposes. On a second level, new archival sources are used to explore to what extend corpses and body parts of Nazi victims were used in the post-WW II period. One central aim in this context is the reconstruction of the identities of these victims for the purpose of acknowledgment of the atrocities committed to them, appropriate remembrance, and to possibly enable the respectful burial of the remaining body parts. Further, the case raises the question how anatomists during and after the Nazi period justified for themselves the use of corpses from executed political prisoners, and what might be potential explanations for their reasoning. The historical evidence documents an attitude and value hierarchy which is aware of the disregard of dignity or human rights in the case of the Nazi victims, but which perceives this disregard as of minor relevance compared to the needs of medical teaching, or medical research. It is argued that this mental attitude is not specific for the Nazi period, but that it has been brought to an extreme manifestation in this specific context.

  18. Curricular response to increase recall and transfer of anatomical knowledge into the obstetrics/gynecology clerkship. (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Brown, Kirsten; Goldman, Ellen; Galoosian, Artin; Butera, Gisela; Krapf, Jill M


    Deficits in retention of anatomy knowledge from the preclinical years to clinical application on the wards have been well documented in the medical education literature. We developed and evaluated a web and laboratory-based curriculum to address deficits in anatomy knowledge retention and to increase anatomy knowledge recall through repetition and application of clinical concepts during the obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) core clinical clerkship. Using principles of adult learning and instructional design, a curriculum was designed consisting of (1) interactive, case-based e-modules reviewing clinically relevant anatomical topics and (2) a hands-on laboratory session reinforcing the content of the e-modules, with the practice of clinical techniques using anatomical cadaveric dissections. The curriculum's effectiveness was evaluated by using multiple choice testing and comparing baseline and final test scores. For questions testing content directly covered in this curriculum, mean final scores increased by 14.3% (P < 0.001). In contrast, for questions not directly addressed in this curriculum, mean final scores did not increase significantly, only by 6.0% (P = 0.31). Questions related to the uterus showed the greatest gains in final scores (30.3% improvement, P = 0.002). A curriculum with web-based preparatory material and a hands-on gross anatomy laboratory session effectively addresses deficits in anatomy retention and improves anatomical knowledge recall for medical students on a clinical clerkship. In the future, the authors plan to conduct a multicenter study to further evaluate the ability of this curriculum to improve clinically relevant anatomical knowledge. Anat Sci Educ 9: 337-343. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation. (United States)

    Smith, Roger


    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'.

  20. The public display of plastinates as a challenge to the integrity of anatomy. (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth


    Anatomy has been thrust into the public domain by the highly successful public displays of dissected and plastinated human bodies. This is anatomy in modern guise, anatomy as perceived by the general public. If this is the case, the message it is giving the public about the nature of anatomy is that it is an impersonal analysis of the human body of value within a medical and health care environment. While this is in part true, and while it reflects important aspects of anatomy's history, it fails to reflect the humanistic strands within an increasing swathe of contemporary anatomy. These are manifested in growing recognition of the centrality of informed consent in the practice of anatomy, awareness of the personal dimensions and relationships of those whose bodies are being dissected, and manifested in thanksgiving ceremonies involving staff and students. The notion that the bodies undergoing dissection can be students' first teachers and/or patients is gaining ground, another indication of the human dimensions of the anatomical enterprise. Exhibitions such as Body Worlds ignore these dimensions within anatomy by dislocating it from its clinical and relational base. The significance of this is that loss of these dimensions leads to a loss of the human face of anatomy by isolating it from the people whose body bequests made this knowledge possible. What is required is greater transparency and openness in the practices of all who deal with the dead human body, trends that owe much to the writings of scholars from within a range of humanities disciplines as they have responded to the public displays of dissected plastinated bodies. Anatomists have much to learn from these debates.

  1. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging. (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W


    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  2. Novel femoral artery terminology: integrating anatomy and clinical procedures leading to standardized intuitive nomenclature. (United States)

    Benninger, Brion


    The objective of this study is to investigate the terminology of the femoral artery and recommended alternative terminology that satisfies both anatomy and clinical arenas.The femoral artery (FA) is often defined as the continuation of the external iliac artery. Specifically, when the external iliac artery reaches directly beneath the inguinal ligament, it becomes the FA. Currently, Terminologia Anatomica (TA) records the profunda femoris or deep femoral as a terminal branch. Clinicians often use superficial femoral artery (SFA) rather than FA and profunda or deep FA. SFA is actually very deep and well protected for most of its journey. On observation, the terminology in current use is not intuitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the terminology associated with the anatomical and clinical anatomical interpretations of the FA and its terminal branches and to suggest a more appropriate terminology that addresses the points of view of the macro anatomist, as well as that of the clinician. Literature search was conducted regarding the nomenclature of the FA and its terminal branches. Dissection of 89 embalmed cadavers (49F, 40M, ages 47-89) was conducted to analyze the morphology of the FA and its branches. Perusal of the literature revealed a difference in terminology between anatomical and clinical textbooks/atlases/journals regarding the FA and its terminal branch. Our dissections suggested that the FA may be better defined vis-à-vis its relationship to the anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. A difference in terminology exists between the anatomical and clinical arenas. A need for a standardized terminology is necessary because clinicians and their publishers have not adopted TA. This study suggests that the current FA be considered the common FA and the continuation of the FA, the SFA be renamed the anterior FA and the current profunda (the deep FA) be renamed the posterior FA, respectively. The proposed terminology mirrors the lower

  3. Understanding brain, mind and soul: contributions from neurology and neurosurgery. (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil K


    Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca's area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen's localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage) or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville); studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes), and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of 'the cocktail of brain soup and spark' in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here.

  4. [Anatomia practica: features from the history of early patho-anatomy]. (United States)

    Jensen, Olaf Myhre


    Since the anatomy school of Alexandria during the fourth og third century before Christ dissection of the human body seems not to have been practiced until late Medieval or early Renaissance period, undoubtedly due to ethical and religious aversions. The teaching of anatomy was based on Galen using animal dissection. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, however, anatomical examinations of the human body slowly began, seemingly for the purpose of describing both the normal structure and the abnormal structure caused by diseases, maldevelopment or trauma. This latter branch of anatomy was called practical, medical or correlative anatomy and corresponds to what we today name as patho-anatomy. Antonio Benivieni of Florence (1442-1502) is the first one to collect (and publish) a series of clinical observations some of which could be correlated to post mortem findings. It is unknown, however, whether the autopsies were performed by himself; and there is no mentioning of technique or circumstances for sectioning. Studies of the dead body by incision for the purpose of displaying diseased organs (autopsy) seem to have been an accepted practice for which relatives consented in those days. Other medical doctors in the years to follow, as for instance Fernel (1485-1558) in Paris, Eustachius (1524-1574) in Rome, Felix Plater (1536-1614) in Basle and Th. Bartholin (1616-1680) in Copenhagen have used the anatomical method for the study of diseases. Further, Schenck (1530-1598) in Freiburg and Bonet (1620-1689) in Genéva collected and published large series of clinical symptoms which had been related to post mortem findings dating back to ancient observers. This is the scientific background for anatomists as Morgagni, Lieutaud, Baillie, Bichât and others who founded the morbid anatomy on which the study of disease flourished in the classical patho-anatomical era of the nineteenth century with names as Rokitanski and Virchow.


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    Priti Chaudhary


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomical variations in the different parts of brachial plexus in human have been described by many authors. These variations have clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anatomists. A lot of work has been done on the morphology of branching pattern of the different cords of brachial plexus but almost all the workers are silent about their morphometry. That’s why this study is planned on morphology & morphometry of branching pattern of different cords of brachial plexus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs belonging to 30 cadavers (Male:Female = 28:02, (Right:Left = 30:30 obtained from Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. These were dissected to expose the different components of brachial plexus. OBSERVATIONS: Out of 60 limbs, the lateral and the medial cords were formed in the usual way in 56 limbs, while the posterior cord was normal in 57 limbs. The average lengths of lateral, medial & posterior cords were 3.37 cm, 4.05 cm & 1.95 cm respectively. The branches of lateral cord depicted more variations in the form of origin as compared with those of medial & posterior cords. The distance of different branches of all the cords from the point of origin to parent cord varied between the two sides of same cadaver as well as on the same side of different cadavers. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: The present study on the adult human cadavers is an essential prerequisite for the initial built up of the data base at the grass root level. The anatomy has always provided a bedrock for the sound surgical endeavors. It definitely has an upper edge to widely and indiscriminately used radiological and sophisticated CT and MRI observations which carry a margin of error inherent to any diagnostic procedure because no doubt the machines are a good bet but the eyes see the best.


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    Asra Anjum


    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  7. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges. (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das


    American Association of Anatomists.


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    I. G. Mikhaylyuk


    Full Text Available The communication between the median and ulnar nerves on the forearm, known as the Martin–Gruber anastomosis, is widespread in the general population. Despite the fact that this connection is described by anatomists in XVIII century, its importance has only recently been appreciated because of the widespread of the electrophysiological techniques in clinical practies. However, in the Russian literature aspects of its practical value described so far is not enough. This article deals with the prevalence of the anastomosis, its anatomical and electrophysiological classification, options innervation of muscles of the hand, is carried out through him, described electrophysiological methods and criteria for its diagnosis, including the collision technique, in healthy subjects and patients with lesions of the median and ulnar nerves, given its practical value. Such a course of nerve fibers through this anastomosis can have a significant impact on the clinical manifestations in patients with lesions of the median and ulnar nerves, as well as the results of an electrophysiological study. Martin–Gruber anastomosis provides variability innervation muscles of the hand, which can make it difficult topic diagnostic damage to the median and ulnar nerves, in addition, because of the connection between the nerves of the clinical presentation may not reflect the extent of their defeat: the hand muscles function can be preserved with full nerve damage or, conversely, significantly disrupted with minimal nerve lesions. Moreover, different electrophysiological findings on patients with pathology of the median or ulnar nerves in the conditions of functioning anastomosis may also complicate the interpretation of the clinical data. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the Martin–Gruber communication as necessary for the electrophysiologist for correct interpretation of the finding and the clinician to accurately diagnose the pathology of the median

  9. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.


    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  10. The muscle pattern of the Drosophila abdomen depends on a subdivision of the anterior compartment of each segment. (United States)

    Krzemien, Joanna; Fabre, Caroline C G; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A


    In the past, segments were defined by landmarks such as muscle attachments, notably by Snodgrass, the king of insect anatomists. Here, we show how an objective definition of a segment, based on developmental compartments, can help explain the dorsal abdomen of adult Drosophila. The anterior (A) compartment of each segment is subdivided into two domains of cells, each responding differently to Hedgehog. The anterior of these domains is non-neurogenic and clones lacking Notch develop normally; this domain can express stripe and form muscle attachments. The posterior domain is neurogenic and clones lacking Notch do not form cuticle; this domain is unable to express stripe or form muscle attachments. The posterior (P) compartment does not form muscle attachments. Our in vivo films indicate that early in the pupa the anterior domain of the A compartment expresses stripe in a narrowing zone that attracts the extending myotubes and resolves into the attachment sites for the dorsal abdominal muscles. We map the tendon cells precisely and show that all are confined to the anterior domain of A. It follows that the dorsal abdominal muscles are intersegmental, spanning from one anterior domain to the next. This view is tested and supported by clones that change cell identity or express stripe ectopically. It seems that growing myotubes originate in posterior A and extend forwards and backwards until they encounter and attach to anterior A cells. The dorsal adult muscles are polarised in the anteroposterior axis: we disprove the hypothesis that muscle orientation depends on genes that define planar cell polarity in the epidermis.

  11. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy. (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D


    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature. (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  13. The contribution of the palmaris longus muscle to the strength of thumb abduction. (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ndou, Robert; Louw, Graham


    The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is described as a weak flexor of the wrist and a tensor of the palmar aponeurosis, but not a thumb abductor. The PLM is believed to aid thumb abduction through its insertion onto the thenar eminence. Two groups, both right hand dominant, were selected from 1,200 sampled participants. The first group comprised of 38 subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM and was used to determine the strength of thumb abduction. The second group comprised of 30 subjects, with bilateral presence of the PLM, and it was used to calculate the effects of hand dominance. A significant number of subjects with bilateral absence of the PLM were observed and undocumented. Using a dynamometer in subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM, the force of thumb abduction was significantly greater on the hand with a PLM than the one without it (P = 0.014), irrespective of hand dominance. In the second sample with bilateral PLM, thumb abduction on the dominant hand was 10% stronger than on the nondominant hand and was similar to the universally accepted average of 10% increase in grip strength of the dominant hand. Thus, 10% was deducted from all the dominant hands, and the force of thumb abduction remained greater on the hand with PLM than the hand without it (P = 0.049). The results of this study demonstrated the PLM to be involved in thumb abduction, and the authors therefore recommend that this action of the muscle be universally accepted by anatomists and hand surgeons.

  14. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm. (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Joachim


    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification.

  15. The integration of brain dissection within the medical neuroscience laboratory enhances learning. (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Cork, R John; Karpinski, Aryn C; Swartz, William J


    The purpose of this study was to design a one-hour brain dissection protocol for a medical neuroscience course and evaluate the short and long-term effects of its implementation on medical students. First-year medical students (n = 166) participated in a brain dissection activity that included dissection of the basal nuclei and associated deep brain structures. Short-term retention was assessed by administering identical pre- and post-activity tests involving identification of brain structures. Following the brain dissection, the students' posttest scores were significantly higher (68.8% ± 17.8%; mean percent score ± SD) than their pretest scores (35.8% ± 20.0%) (P ≤ 0.0001). Long-term retention was evaluated by conducting an identical assessment five months after completion of the course. Students who participated in the dissection activity (n = 80) had significantly higher scores (46.6% ± 23.8%) than the students who did not participate in the dissection activity (n = 85) (38.1% ± 23.9%) (P ≤ 0.05). In addition to the long-term retention assessment, the NBME(®) Subject Examination scores of students who participated in the dissection activity were significantly higher than the students who did not participate in the dissection activity (P ≤ 0.01). Results suggest that this succinct brain dissection activity may be a practical addition to an undergraduate medical neuroscience course for increasing the effectiveness of neuroanatomy training. This effect may have long-term benefits on knowledge retention and may be correlated with higher performance levels on standardized subject examinations. Anat Sci Educ 9: 565-574. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Optimizing the use of cadavers by integrating pathology during anatomy dissection. (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie Helena; van Helden, Paul David; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Kotzé, Sanet Henriët


    An accurate knowledge of anatomy, especially natural variation within individuals, is of vital clinical importance. Cadaver dissection during anatomical training may be a valuable introduction to pathology for undergraduate students, which can contribute greatly to a successful medical career. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and type of pathology lesions in a cadaver population (n = 127) used for medical dissection. This was done to gauge whether sufficient pathology lesions representative of all the organ systems were present in the cadaver population to warrant the use of cadavers as an additional pathology learning resource. This study demonstrated a wide variety of pathology lesions in different organ systems. The respiratory system was most affected with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions being the most common finding (seen in 76% of cadavers) followed by bronchopneumonia and emphysema. Other common pathology findings included atherosclerosis, colonic diverticula, and chronic pyelonephritis. Skeletal fractures and degenerative joint disease were also noted. This study shows that cadaveric dissection offers a chance to alert and expose students to a wide variety of gross pathology and histopathology. It has been suggested that most medical students will practice in primary health care and as such more attention should be given to the pathology of commonly encountered diseases. This is particularly true for developing countries, where diseases such as TB are commonly encountered. The integration of pathology into the dissection hall may therefore be beneficial to student learning while simultaneously optimizing the use of cadaver material. Anat Sci Educ 9: 575-582. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Measuring the impact of the flipped anatomy classroom: The importance of categorizing an assessment by Bloom's taxonomy. (United States)

    Morton, David A; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M


    The flipped classroom (FC) model has emerged as an innovative solution to improve student-centered learning. However, studies measuring student performance of material in the FC relative to the lecture classroom (LC) have shown mixed results. An aim of this study was to determine if the disparity in results of prior research is due to level of cognition (low or high) needed to perform well on the outcome, or course assessment. This study tested the hypothesis that (1) students in a FC would perform better than students in a LC on an assessment requiring higher cognition and (2) there would be no difference in performance for an assessment requiring lower cognition. To test this hypothesis the performance of 28 multiple choice anatomy items that were part of a final examination were compared between two classes of first year medical students at the University of Utah School of Medicine. Items were categorized as requiring knowledge (low cognition), application, or analysis (high cognition). Thirty hours of anatomy content was delivered in LC format to 101 students in 2013 and in FC format to 104 students in 2014. Mann Whitney tests indicated FC students performed better than LC students on analysis items, U = 4243.00, P = 0.030, r = 0.19, but there were no differences in performance between FC and LC students for knowledge, U = 5002.00, P = 0.720 or application, U = 4990.00, P = 0.700, items. The FC may benefit retention when students are expected to analyze material. Anat Sci Educ 10: 170-175. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. [Science and life--the history of Marquis Alfonso Corti]. (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław


    Alfonso Corti was born at Gambarana, near Pavia in 1822. A famous friend of Corti's father, Antonio Scarpa, may have kindled his boyhood interest in anatomy and medicine. As a medical student he enrolled first at the University of Pavia. Corti's favorite study there was microanatomy with Bartolomeo Panizza and Mario Rusconi. In 1845, against paternal wishes, Corti moved to Vienna to complete his medical studies and to work in the anatomical institute of Joseph Hirtl. There he received the degree in medicine in 1847 under the supervision of professor Hyrtl, with a thesis on the bloodstream system of a reptile. He was then appointed by Hyrtl to be his Second Prosector. With the outbreak of the 1848 Revolution he left Vienna, and after brief military service in Italy made visits to eminent scientist in Bern, London and Paris. By the beginning of 1850 Corti had received the invitation of the anatomist Albert Kölliker and had moved to Würzburg, where he made friends with Virchow. At the Kölliker Laboratory he began to work on the mammalian auditory system. A short time Corti spent in Utrecht, where he visited Professors Schroeder van der Kolk and Pieter Harting. In Utrecht Corti learned to use methods to preserve several preparations of the cochlea. From Utrecht he returned to Würzburg to complete his study of at least 200 cochlea's' of man and different animals. His famous paper: "Recherches sur l'organe de l'ouïe des mammiferes" appeared in 1851 in Kölliker's journal "Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie". In the same year, after death of his father, he inherited father's title Marchese de San Stefano Belbo and estate and moved back to Italy. In 1855 Corti married the daughter from a neighboring estate, Maria Bettinzoli. His young wife presented him with a daughter Bianca, and a son Gaspare, but in 1861 she died, leaving him with the responsibility of rearing the children. Unfortunately he was gradually developing arthritis deformans. Corti's last 15


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    Vaseemraja G. Shaikh


    Full Text Available Introduction: The Carotid Canal is an important structure at the base of skull as it conveys the internal carotid artery, along with a sympathetic nerve plexus and a venous plexus. Previous researches done on carotid canal suggest that abnormalities to this canal, such as fractures of carotid canal and carotid sympathetic plexus schwannoma have their effect on the internal carotid artery and the structures passing through it. Cases of absence of carotid canal have also been reported, which causes variations of the internal carotid artery. Attempt has been made in this study to give a detailed view of the ‘external opening of carotid canal’ (EOCC which is the gateway of the carotid canal at the skull base. This study shall be useful for Surgeons, Radiologists, Anatomists, Forensic Experts, Anthropologists, etc. Aim: This study aims at measuring the various dimensions of the external openings of the carotid canal pair present at the base of skull, and to observe the age changes, sexual dimorphism, and symmetry of the external opening of the carotid canal from the analysis of these measurements. Materials and methods: Total 235 dry skulls that included 181 adolescent to adult skulls of known age and sex (age ranging from 13 years up to old age skulls of 60 years or above and 54 foetal skulls were studied for this purpose. The longest & shortest diameter of each carotid canal, was measured using a screw adjusted compass and a Vernier Calliper. Their distance from pharyngeal tubercle and from the X axis and Y axis was measured. Observations and Results: In the present study, it was observed that external opening of each carotid canal was unique in its morphology and morphometry. The dimensions of external opening of carotid canal progressively increased from foetal age to 25 years of age, however after 25 years of age, it did not show any age change within same sex, but it showed age changes when adolescent female skulls of age less than 25 years

  20. 3T magnetic resonance neurography of pudendal nerve with cadaveric dissection correlation

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    Avneesh Chhabra; Courtney A McKenna; Vibhor Wadhwa; Gaurav K Thawait; John A Carrino; Gary P Lees; A Lee Dellon


    AIM: To evaluate the pudendal nerve segments that could be identified on magnetic resonance neurography(MRN) before and after surgical marking of different nerve segments.METHODS: The hypothesis for this study was that pudendal nerve and its branches would be more easily seen after the surgical nerve marking. Institutional board approval was obtained. One male and one female cadaver pelvis were obtained from the anatomy board and were scanned using 3 Tesla MRI scanner using MR neurography sequences. All possible pudendal nerve branches were identified. The cadavers were then sent to the autopsy lab and were surgically dissected by a peripheral nerve surgeon and an anatomist to identify the pudendal nerve branches. Radiological markers were placed along the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. The cadavers were then closed and rescanned using the same MRN protocol as the premarking scan. The remaining pudendal nerve branches were attempted to be identified using the radiological markers. All scans were read by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist.RESULTS: The pre-marking MR Neurography scans clearly showed the pudendal nerve at its exit from the lumbosacral plexus in the sciatic notch, at the level of the ischial spine and in the Alcock’s Canal in both cadavers. Additionally, the right hemorrhoidal branch could be identified in the male pelvis cadaver. The perineal and distal genital branches could not be identified. On post-marking scans, the markers were used as identifiable structures. The location of the perineal branch, the hemorroidal branch and the dorsal nerve to penis(in male cadaver)/clitoris(in female cadaver) could be seen. However, the visualization of these branches was suboptimal. The contralateral corresponding nerves were poorly seen despite marking on the surgical side. The nerve was best seen on axial T1W and T2W SPAIR images. The proximal segment could be seen well on 3D DW PSIF sequence. T2W SPACE was not very useful in

  1. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson. Wilson's disease, Queen Square and neurology. (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Trocello, J-M; Woimant, F; Lachaux, A; Quinn, N


    This historical article describes the life and work of the British physician Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), who was one of the world's greatest neurologists of the first half of the 20th century. Early in his career, Wilson spent one year in Paris in 1903 where he learned from Pierre-Marie at Bicêtre Hospital. He subsequently retained uninterrupted links with French neurology. He also visited in Leipzig the German anatomist Paul Flechsig. In 1904, Wilson returned to London, where he worked for the rest of his life at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (later the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, and today the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery) in Queen Square, and also at Kings' College Hospital. He wrote on 'the old motor system and the new', on disorders of motility and muscle tone, on the epilepsies, on aphasia, apraxia, tics, and pathologic laughing and crying, and most importantly on Wilson's disease. The other objective of our paper is to commemorate the centenary of Wilson's most important work published in 1912 in Brain, and also in Revue Neurologique, on an illness newly recognized and characterized by him entitled "Progressive lenticular degeneration, a familial nervous disease associated with liver cirrhosis". He analyzed 12 clinical cases, four of whom he followed himself, but also four cases previously published by others and a further two that he considered in retrospect had the same disease as he was describing. The pathological profile combined necrotic damage in the lenticular nuclei of the brain and hepatic cirrhosis. This major original work is summarized and discussed in the present paper. Wilson not only delineated what was later called hepato-lenticular degeneration and Wilson's disease, but also introduced for the first time the terms extrapyramidal syndrome and extrapyramidal system, stressing the role of the basal ganglia in motility. The present historical work emphasizes the special

  2. Evaluating the Impact of a Canadian National Anatomy and Radiology Contouring Boot Camp for Radiation Oncology Residents

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    Jaswal, Jasbir [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Tay, KengYeow [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Fung, Kevin; Nichols, Anthony [Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada); Landis, Mark [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, London Health Sciences, London, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, London, Ontario (Canada); Willmore, Katherine [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); D' Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Palma, David A., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)


    Background: Radiation therapy treatment planning has advanced over the past 2 decades, with increased emphasis on 3-dimensional imaging for target and organ-at-risk (OAR) delineation. Recent studies suggest a need for improved resident instruction in this area. We developed and evaluated an intensive national educational course (“boot camp”) designed to provide dedicated instruction in site-specific anatomy, radiology, and contouring using a multidisciplinary (MDT) approach. Methods: The anatomy and radiology contouring (ARC) boot camp was modeled after prior single-institution pilot studies and a needs-assessment survey. The boot camp incorporated joint lectures from radiation oncologists, anatomists, radiologists, and surgeons, with hands-on contouring instruction and small group interactive seminars using cadaveric prosections and correlative axial radiographs. Outcomes were evaluated using pretesting and posttesting, including anatomy/radiology multiple-choice questions (MCQ), timed contouring sessions (evaluated relative to a gold standard using Dice similarity metrics), and qualitative questions on satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Analyses of pretest versus posttest scores were performed using nonparametric paired testing. Results: Twenty-nine radiation oncology residents from 10 Canadian universities participated. As part of their current training, 29%, 75%, and 21% receive anatomy, radiology, and contouring instruction, respectively. On posttest scores, the MCQ knowledge scores improved significantly (pretest mean 60% vs posttest mean 80%, P<.001). Across all contoured structures, there was a 0.20 median improvement in students' average Dice score (P<.001). For individual structures, significant Dice improvements occurred in 10 structures. Residents self-reported an improved ability to contour OARs and interpret radiographs in all anatomic sites, 92% of students found the MDT format effective for their learning, and 93% found the boot camp

  3. The embalming, the scientific method and the paleopathology: the case of Gaetano Arrighi (1836). (United States)

    Ciranni, Rosalba; Caramella, Davide; Nenci, Riccardo; Fornaciari, Gino


    Since the most ancient times the problem of the artificial preservation of dead bodies has been an important object of study. In ancient and classic times the reasons leading to this practice were essentially of a religious and esoteric type, but in the modern age, following the development of medical and biological studies, embalming has assumed a more practical trend which is both medicine and scientific. The discovery of blood circulation has marked the scientific method which, in its various forms, has circulated all over Europe bringing fame to eminent anatomists such as Federico Ruysch (1638-1731), William (1718-1783) and John Hunter (1728-1793), Jean Nicolas Gannal (1791-1852), Giuseppe Tranchina, Laskowky and Brosch, who affirmed the embalming by endoarterial injection of conservation fluids making evisceration useless and obsolete. The advent of formalin and the introduction of new surgical and autoptic methods have made this practice gradually fall into disuse. For this reason, the mummy found in Leghorn (Tuscany, Central Italy) is of particular importance since was obtained applying the intravascular injection following the method, described by the Italian medical Giuseppe Tranchina in 1835. The mummified body belongs to Gaetano Arrighi, a prisoner in the Leghorn fortress. He was born in Arezzo in 1789 and died on March 1836 at the age of 47 in the Civil Hospital of Leghorn following pleurisy, as results in an annexed document. The day after his death Dr. Raimondo Barsanti from Pisa and Superintendent at the Leghorn hospital made up the Tranchina's method, which consisted in the injection of an arsencial -mercury solution inside of the blood vessels, giving rigidity and dark red color to the dead body. The excellent outcome of the intervention has made it possible, more than 160 years later, to study not only the method by which Arrighi's body was embalmed but also to perform a careful paleopathological imaging study by traditional X-rays and by Computer

  4. On the history of deformation phosphenes and the idea of internal light generated in the eye for the purpose of vision. (United States)

    Grüsser, O J; Hagner, M


    Deformation phosphenes are light sensations evoked by deformation of the eyeball in total darkness. They were first reported in Western literature by Alcmaeon of Croton in the fifth century B.C. The phenomenon of deformation phosphenes was instrumental in prompting some pre-Socratic philosophers and Plato to conceive the idea that efferent light is emitted from the eye for the purpose of vision and a 'cone of vision' is formed by interaction with the external light. In the theories of vision this cone of vision played an important role as a signal-transmitting structure and was also used by the Greek opticians as a geometrical construction to explain optical properties of vision. The impact of the deformation phosphene experiment on the ideas of visual sensation can be followed from Greek antiquity through the period of Roman dominance and Galen's medical teaching on to medieval times and up to the late Renaissance when, based on the anatomy of the eye as illustrated by Felix Platter, the image formation on the retina was correctly described for the first time by Johannes Kepler. In the generations following, deformation phosphenes were still employed as an important argument in defence of the theories of vision. However, the idea of physical light generated by eyeball deformation was rejected with increasing frequency during the 17th and 18th centuries. The literature on this topic is discussed, comprising the contributions of the Arabic philosophers and physicians of the 9th and 10th centuries A.D., the Franciscan and Dominican philosophers of the 13th century, Nicolaus Cusanus of the 15th century, several anatomists of the 16th and 17th centuries, Kepler, Plempius, Descartes, Boyle, Newton and others. After Kepler, the mechanical interpretation of the deformation phosphene being caused by direct action of the eyeball deformation onto the retina slowly became dominant, and the idea that physical light is generated in the eye disappeared. The experimentum crucis

  5. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde. (United States)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Santos, Luís Silva; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, João Paulo


    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44+/-0.08ppm (0.04-1.58ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47+/-0.76) when compared with controls (3.27+/-0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the exposed group (6.13+/-0.29) compared with control group (4.49+/-0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00+/-2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85+/-1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA

  6. Anatomical variation of obturator vessels and its practical risk: a case report from an anatomic study Variação anatômica de vasos obturatórios e seu risco prático: relato de caso de um estudo anatômico

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    Somayaji Nagabhooshana


    Full Text Available Obturator artery is frequently a branch of anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It has drawn attention of pelvic surgeons, anatomists and radiologists because of the high frequency of variations in its course and origin. The obturator vein is usually described as a tributary of the internal iliac vein. During routine dissection classes to undergraduate medical students we have observed obturator artery arising from external iliac artery, obturator vein draining into external iliac vein, communicating vein between obturator vein and external iliac vein and inferior epigastric artery arising from the obturator artery. The anomalous obturator vessels and inferior epigastric artery in the present case may be in a dangerous situation in pelvic surgeries that require dissection or suturing along the pelvic rim. Developmental reasons and clinical significances of the variations are discussed.A artéria obturatória é muitas vezes um ramo da divisão anterior da artéria ilíaca interna. Ela tem chamado atenção de cirurgiões pélvicos, anatomistas e radiologistas devido à alta freqüência de variações em seu trajeto e origem. A veia obturatória é geralmente descrita como uma tributária de veia ilíaca interna. Durante aulas de dissecação para estudantes de medicina, observamos a artéria obturatória surgindo a partir da artéria ilíaca externa, veia obturatória drenando para a veia ilíaca externa, veia comunicante entre a veia obturatória e a veia ilíaca externa e artéria epigástrica inferior surgindo a partir da artéria obturatória. Os vasos obturatórios anômalos e a artéria epigástrica inferior no presente caso podem se encontrar em situação perigosa em cirurgias pélvicas que exigem dissecação ou suturas ao longo da borda pélvica. Discutem-se as causas de desenvolvimento e a significância clínica das variações.

  7. 3T magnetic resonance neurography of pudendal nerve with cadaveric dissection correlation (United States)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; McKenna, Courtney A; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thawait, Gaurav K; Carrino, John A; Lees, Gary P; Dellon, A Lee


    AIM To evaluate the pudendal nerve segments that could be identified on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) before and after surgical marking of different nerve segments. METHODS The hypothesis for this study was that pudendal nerve and its branches would be more easily seen after the surgical nerve marking. Institutional board approval was obtained. One male and one female cadaver pelvis were obtained from the anatomy board and were scanned using 3 Tesla MRI scanner using MR neurography sequences. All possible pudendal nerve branches were identified. The cadavers were then sent to the autopsy lab and were surgically dissected by a peripheral nerve surgeon and an anatomist to identify the pudendal nerve branches. Radiological markers were placed along the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. The cadavers were then closed and rescanned using the same MRN protocol as the pre-marking scan. The remaining pudendal nerve branches were attempted to be identified using the radiological markers. All scans were read by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. RESULTS The pre-marking MR Neurography scans clearly showed the pudendal nerve at its exit from the lumbosacral plexus in the sciatic notch, at the level of the ischial spine and in the Alcock’s Canal in both cadavers. Additionally, the right hemorrhoidal branch could be identified in the male pelvis cadaver. The perineal and distal genital branches could not be identified. On post-marking scans, the markers were used as identifiable structures. The location of the perineal branch, the hemorroidal branch and the dorsal nerve to penis (in male cadaver)/clitoris (in female cadaver) could be seen. However, the visualization of these branches was suboptimal. The contralateral corresponding nerves were poorly seen despite marking on the surgical side. The nerve was best seen on axial T1W and T2W SPAIR images. The proximal segment could be seen well on 3D DW PSIF sequence. T2W SPACE was not very useful in

  8. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries. (United States)

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco


    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini's greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana's influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the

  9. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology. (United States)

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni


    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure


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    morphometry of glenoid fossa . Therefore a curious desire developed to conduct this stud y. Our study would provide morphometric data, providing an anatomical baseline, which will be of immense help to anthropologists, osteologists, anatomists, and orthopedicians.

  11. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

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    Srinivasulu Reddy


    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  12. The history of anatomy in Persia. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  13. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution]. (United States)

    Syed, R


    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  14. The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon. (United States)

    Riedel, G


    This paper presents a survey of the cell groups in the telencephalon of the teleost Astyanax hubbsi, based on series of transverse sections stained with the Nissl-Klüver-Barrera and Bodian procedures. The work was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, it was intended to determine the contribution of the forebrain of blind cave fish to certain forms of behavior. An understanding of the anatomy of the telencephalic organization is essential for such a neuroethological approach. The second purpose was to provide the cytoarchitectural basis for the experimental analysis of the fiber connectivity of the telencephalon of A. hubbsi. Furthermore, information about the forebrain of characids is widely lacking, and this study may thus provide important knowledge about the cellular organization of characid forebrains for comparative anatomists. The brain of A. hubbsi is slender and elongated. Both optic nerves and optic tectum are reduced. Three longitudinal sulci-s. ypsiliformis, s. externus and s. limitans telencephali-can be distinguished in the telencephalon. A fiber lamina reaching from the s. externus to the s. limitans telencephali separates the area dorsalis (D) from the area ventralis telencephali (V). The two hemispheres are connected by fibers decussating in the anterior commissure. Although cross sections revealed no distinct fiber laminae between cytoarchitectonic components, 17 cell masses could be delineated: ten of these belong to D, seven to V. The topological analysis yielded the following results. The dorsal telencephalon D consists of three longitudinal columns, termed pars medialis (Dm), pars dorsalis and centralis (Dd and Dc) considered together, and par lateralis (Dl), which converge into a uniform posterior part (Dp). The columns can be divided into several subregions: Dm1 and Dm2, as well as Dlv and Dld, precommissurally, Dm3 and Dm4 postcommisurally. At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. The ventral telencephalon (V) is arranged

  15. A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans. (United States)

    Barteczko, K; Jacob, M


    The discovery of the premaxillary bone (os incisivum, os intermaxillare or premaxilla) in humans has been attributed to Goethe, and it has also been named os Goethei. However, Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d'Azyr (1780) came to the same result with different methods. The first anatomists described this medial part of the upper jaw as a separate bone in the vertebrate skull, and, as we know, Coiter (1573) was the first to present an illustration of the sutura incisiva in the human. This fact, and furthermore its development from three parts:-(1) the alveolar part with the facial process, (2) the palatine process, and (3) the processus Stenonianus-can no longer be found in modern textbooks of developmental biology. At the end of the nineteenth and in the early twentieth century a vehement discussion focused on the number and position of its ossification centers and its sutures. Therefore, it is hard to believe that the elaborate work of the old embryologists is ignored and that the existence of a premaxillary bone in humans is even denied by many authors. Therefore this re-evaluation was done to demonstrate the early development of the premaxillary bone using the reconstructions of Felber (1919), Jarmer (1922) and data from our own observations on SEM micrographs and serial sections from 16 mm embryo to 68 mm fetus. Ossification of a separate premaxilla was first observed in a 16 mm embryo. We agree with Jarmer (1922), Peter (1924), and Shepherd and McCarthy (1955) that it develops from three anlagen, which are, however, not fully separated. The predominant sutura incisiva (rudimentarily seen on the facial side in a prematurely born child) and a shorter sutura intraincisiva argue in this sense. The later growth of this bone and its processes establish an important structure in the middle of the facial skull. Its architecture fits well with the functional test of others. We also focused on the relation of the developing premaxilla to the forming nasal septum moving from

  16. The protective effect of bifid bacteria on roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in rat model of experimental terminal ileitis%双歧杆菌干预对实验性末端回肠炎肠上皮细胞 Toll 样受体2和Toll 样受体4表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国华; 胡咏; 秦稳


    Objective To establish the ileum -caucus side-to-side intestinal anatomists induced SD mouse experimental terminal ileitis (ETI) model and the bifid bacteria intersection model , to study the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in ETI with or without bifid bacteria and study bifid bacteria 's effects in ETI. Methods One hundred healthy male SD rats were randomly assigned into five groups , namely the normal central group (A) , the ETI model group ( B) , the low bifid bacteria given group ( C) , the middle bifid bacteria given group ( D) and the high bifid bacteria given group (E). Firstly, the experimental groups were observed the tissue 's general macroscopic view, then the tissues were fixed 10% neutral formalin, taken HE and imunohistochemistry stain , embedded in paraffin for blinded histological analysis ,to observe the positive expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Results Compared B with other groups the HS score was significant different at the same time (P < 0. 05 ). Compared B with other groups TLR 2 and TLR4 positive expression were increased (P < 0. 05 ) , but the positive expressions of group C -E TLR2 and TLR4 were lower than group B (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Using bifid bacteria can significantly reduce the expression of TLR 2 and TLR4 in ETI intestinal tissue , bifid bacteria has a protective effect in rat of ETI.%目的 建立回肠-盲肠侧侧吻合术导致的实验性末端回肠炎动物模型以及双歧杆菌干预模 型,观察Toll 样受体(TLR)2 和TLR4 在双歧杆菌干预下的表达,研究双歧杆菌对实验性末端回肠炎的保护 作用.方法 清洁级SD 雄性大鼠100 只,随机分为五组:正常对照组(A)、模型对照组(B)、双歧杆菌低剂量 干预组(C)、中剂量干预组(D)及高剂量干预组(E),每组20 只.观察这五组大鼠末端回肠的炎症情况,行 镜下肠组织病理学评分(HS),使用免疫组化法检测各组末端回肠黏膜中TLR2、TLR4 的表达.结果 (1)肉 眼观察,模型对照组与双歧杆菌