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Sample records for anatomically detailed mri-derived

  1. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  2. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali, Y.; Z. Khaksar; A.R. Sharaki; B. Rasouli; Kajbafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect.

  3. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Y.; Khaksar, Z.; Sharaki, A.R.; Rasouli, B.; Kajbafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect. PMID:26623352

  4. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect.

  5. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  6. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  7. Anatomical Details of the Rabbit Nasal Passages and Their Implications in Breathing, Air Conditioning, and Olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A; Kim, Jongwon; Zhang, Yu; Jacob, Richard E; Kabilan, Senthil; Corley, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    The rabbit is commonly used as a laboratory animal for inhalation toxicology tests and detail knowledge of the rabbit airway morphometry is needed for outcome analysis or theoretical modeling. The objective of this study is to quantify the morphometric dimension of the nasal airway of a New Zealand white rabbit and to relate the morphology and functions through analytical and computational methods. Images of high-resolution MRI scans of the rabbit were processed to measure the axial distribution of the cross-sectional areas, perimeter, and complexity level. The lateral recess, which has functions other than respiration or olfaction, was isolated from the nasal airway and its dimension was quantified separately. A low Reynolds number turbulence model was implemented to simulate the airflow, heat transfer, vapor transport, and wall shear stress. Results of this study provide detailed morphological information of the rabbit that can be used in the studies of olfaction, inhalation toxicology, drug delivery, and physiology-based pharmacokinetics modeling. For the first time, we reported a spiral nasal vestibule that splits into three paths leading to the dorsal meatus, maxilloturbinate, and ventral meatus, respectively. Both non-dimensional functional analysis and CFD simulations suggested that the airflow in the rabbit nose is laminar and the unsteady effect is only significantly during sniffing. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio, the maxilloturbinate is highly effective in warming and moistening the inhaled air to body conditions. The unique anatomical structure and respiratory airflow pattern may have important implications for designing new odorant detectors or electronic noses. Anat Rec, 299:853-868, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145450

  8. An Image-Based Model of the Whole Human Heart with Detailed Anatomical Structure and Fiber Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongdong Deng; Peifeng Jiao; Xuesong Ye; Ling Xia

    2012-01-01

    Many heart anatomy models have been developed to study the electrophysiological properties of the human heart. However, none of them includes the geometry of the whole human heart. In this study, an anatomically detailed mathematical model of the human heart was firstly reconstructed from the computed tomography images. In the reconstructed model, the atria consisted of atrial muscles, sinoatrial node, crista terminalis, pectinate muscles, Bachmann’s bundle, intercaval bundles, and limbus of ...

  9. A guide to modelling cardiac electrical activity in anatomically detailed ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R H; Panfilov, A V

    2008-01-01

    One of the most recent trends in cardiac electrophysiology is the development of integrative anatomically accurate models of the heart, which include description of cardiac activity from sub-cellular and cellular level to the level of the whole organ. In order to construct this type of model, a researcher needs to collect a wide range of information from books and journal articles on various aspects of biology, physiology, electrophysiology, numerical mathematics and computer programming. The aim of this methodological article is to survey recent developments in integrative modelling of electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart, and to provide a practical guide to the resources and tools that are available for work in this exciting and challenging area. PMID:17825362

  10. Anatomically Detailed and Large-Scale Simulations Studying Synapse Loss and Synchrony Using NeuroBox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Markus; Stepniewski, Martin; Grein, Stephan; Gottmann, Pascal; Reinhardt, Lukas; Queisser, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic, or reconstruction) to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio) and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g., new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations. PMID:26903818

  11. [Andreas Vesalius: his rich imagination and colorful detail account in his book: 'Research of the anatomical observations of Gabriel Falloppius'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilias, Guy

    2015-03-01

    In a long letter, Andreas Vesalius reacts to the comments made by Gabriel Falloppius to his work 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica'. In this letter, he proves Falloppius wrong in a number of assertions and corrects him on more than one occasion. In doing so, Vesalius as a renaissance humanist uses a classic Latin language with long elegant sentences in the style of the old Roman orator Cicero. Remarkably interesting is the fact that this whole argumentation is spiced with comparisons and examples from daily life. To make it clear to the reader what a certain part of the skeleton looks like, he compares this part with an object everybody knows. All parts of the human body are depicted in such an almost graphic way that even an interested reader without any medical or anatomic education can picture them. And Vesalius is very creative in doing so, an artist as it were with a very rich imagination. Moreover, it's remarkable how the famous anatomist manages to put himself on the level of any ordinary person, using comparative images on that level. This last work of Vesalius, which he himself considers to be a supplement to his De Humani Corporis Fabrica, deserves special attention, not only because it illustrates the scientific evolution of the anatomist Vesalius, but also because it offers an insight in the psychology of that fascinating scientist Andreas Vesalius. PMID:26137670

  12. Data on correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived myocardial extracellular volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Kurita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes data related to a research article titled “Estimation of myocardial extracellular volume fraction with cardiac CT in subjects without clinical coronary artery disease: A feasibility study”, Kurita et al. (in press [1]. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV is an imaging biomarker that can elevate in various heart diseases. This article describes correlation between CT-derived and MRI-derived ECV in 24 myocardial segments in 8 patients. CT-derived ECV was obtained from pre-contrast and delayed-phase images acquired by using dual-source CT system. MRI-derived ECV was obtained by using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence implemented on a 3 T MRI system.

  13. CT and MRI derived source localization error in a custom prostate phantom using automated image coregistration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetric evaluation of completed brachytherapy implant procedures is crucial in developing proper technique. Additionally, accurate dosimetry may be useful in predicting the success of an implant. Accurate definition of the prostate gland and localization of the implanted radioactive sources are critical to attain meaningful dosimetric data. MRI is recognized as a superior imaging modality in delineating the prostate gland. More importantly, MRI can be used for source localization in postimplant prostates. However, the MRI derived source localization error bears further investigation. We present a useful tool in determining the source localization error as well as permitting the fusion, or coregistration, of selected data from multiple imaging modalities. We constructed a custom prostate phantom of hydrocolloid material precisely implanted with I-125 seeds. We obtained CT, the accepted modality, and MRI scans of the phantom. Subsequently, we developed an automated algorithm that employs a sequential translation of data sets to initially maximize coregistration and minimize error between data sets. This was followed by a noniterative solution for the necessary rotation transformation matrix using the Orthogonal Procrustes Solution. We applied this algorithm to CT and MRI scans of the custom phantom. CT derived source locations had source localization errors of 1.59 mm±0.64. MRI derived source locations produced similar results (1.67 mm±0.76). These errors may be attributed to the image digitization process

  14. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  15. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grossmann, Patrick; Alexander, Brian M. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cooper, Lee A.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Holder, Chad A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ligon, Keith L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Aerts, Hugo J.W.L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  16. Can MRI-derived factors predict the survival in glioblastoma patients treated with postoperative chemoradiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic developments may yield novel prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Purpose: To validate the predictive values of pretreatment quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI performed within 72 h after surgery in patients with GBM. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2009, 138 patients with GBM underwent postoperative chemoradiation therapy (chemo-RT) and longitudinal MRI before surgery, in the early postoperative period, and at 1-month intervals thereafter. The role of the patient age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on pretreatment DW-MRI, and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI were assessed by factor analysis of overall survival (OS). Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the influence of prognostic factors. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG-RPA) criteria were used to validate the predictive value of the MRI-derived factors. Results: Substantial independent prognostic factors were the KPS score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.812), minimum ADC (HR, 2.365), and gross residual tumor (HR, 1.777). Based on MRI-derived factors, we assigned the patients to different prognostic groups in the RTOG-RPA classification and grouped them according to the level of risk, i.e. a high-risk group with low minimum ADCs (-3 mm2/s) with gross residual tumor and a low-risk group with high minimum ADCs (≥0.93 X 10-3 mm2/s) without gross residual tumor; the other patients were assigned to the intermediate-risk group. Median OS for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 28.2, 14.7, and 10.8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The minimum ADC on pretreatment DW-MRI and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI can predict the survival in GBM

  17. Can MRI-derived factors predict the survival in glioblastoma patients treated with postoperative chemoradiation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideo Nakamura, Hideo [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, (Japan); Murakami, Ryuji [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)], e-mail: murakami@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic developments may yield novel prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Purpose: To validate the predictive values of pretreatment quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI performed within 72 h after surgery in patients with GBM. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2009, 138 patients with GBM underwent postoperative chemoradiation therapy (chemo-RT) and longitudinal MRI before surgery, in the early postoperative period, and at 1-month intervals thereafter. The role of the patient age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on pretreatment DW-MRI, and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI were assessed by factor analysis of overall survival (OS). Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the influence of prognostic factors. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG-RPA) criteria were used to validate the predictive value of the MRI-derived factors. Results: Substantial independent prognostic factors were the KPS score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.812), minimum ADC (HR, 2.365), and gross residual tumor (HR, 1.777). Based on MRI-derived factors, we assigned the patients to different prognostic groups in the RTOG-RPA classification and grouped them according to the level of risk, i.e. a high-risk group with low minimum ADCs (<0.93 X 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) with gross residual tumor and a low-risk group with high minimum ADCs ({>=}0.93 X 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) without gross residual tumor; the other patients were assigned to the intermediate-risk group. Median OS for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 28.2, 14.7, and 10.8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The minimum ADC on pretreatment DW-MRI and gross residual tumor on early

  18. Prognostic value of MRI-derived masticator space involvement in IMRT-treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study reassessed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine the significance how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived masticator space involvement (MSI) affected patients’ prognosis. One thousand one hundred ninety seven NPC patients who had complete set of MRI and medical records were enrolled. Basing on their MRI findings, the T-categories of tumors were identified according to the seventh edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, which considers MSI a prognostic indicator for NPCs. Rates of overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Log-Rank test compared their differences. Cox regression analysis was employed to evaluate various prognostic factors systematically. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 18.0 software, P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Medial pterygoid muscle (MPM) was involved in 283 (23.64 %) cases, of which lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) was concurrently affected in 181 (15.12 %) and infratemporal fossa (ITF) in 19 (1.59 %). Generally, MSI correlated with an OS, LRFS, and DMFS consistent with a T4-stage diagnosis (P > 0.05). Although different degrees of MSI presented a similar OS and DMFS (P > 0.1), tumors involving LPM had a relatively poorer LRFS than those affected the MPM only (P = 0.027), even for subgroup of patients composed of T3 and T4 classifications (P = 0.035). A tumor involving MPM brought an LRFS consistent with a T2 or T3-stage disease (P > 0.1). If the tumor affected LPM or ITF concurrently, the survival outcomes were more consistent with a T4-stage disease (P > 0.1). Nevertheless, compared to tumor infiltrating MPM, those invading LPM or ITF more frequently spread into other concurrent sites that earned higher T-staging categories. Moreover

  19. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  20. Anatomical details of the brainstem and cranial nerves visualized by high resolution readout-segmented multi-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted images using unidirectional MPG at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with readout-segmented multi-shot echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) and single-shot EPI, both using unidirectional motion-probing gradient, in 10 patients for visualization of the anatomical structures in the brainstem. DWI by rs-EPI was significantly better than DWI by single-shot EPI for visualizing the medial longitudinal fasciculus, lateral lemniscus, corticospinal tract, and seventh/eighth cranial nerves and offered significantly less distortion of the brainstem. (author)

  1. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Philip M [Joint Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: phil.evans@icr.ac.uk

    2008-06-21

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  2. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  3. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: ... you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital ...

  4. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English. PMID:17585563

  5. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few ...

  6. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be ... and version variability which allows adaptability to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., ...

  7. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a patient's unique anatomical makeup. Dr. Gerald R. Williams, Jr., a shoulder specialist from the Rothman ... That might help. Could you raise the O.R. table, please? 00:28:35 WOMAN: Can you ...

  8. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available GLOBAL AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy Orthopedics is continually advancing the standard of orthopedic patient ...

  9. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AP ANATOMIC TOTAL SHOULDER SYSTEM METHODIST HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PA April 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: DePuy ... you don't make a bunch of small passes at the lesser tuberosity and make it a ...

  10. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomic Total Shoulder surgery, which featured the latest innovation in shoulder surgery from DePuy Orthopedics. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the "Request Information" button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. 01:21: ...

  11. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advancing the standard of orthopedic patient care. In a few moments, you'll be able to watch a live global AP anatomic total shoulder surgery from Methodist Hospital in Philadelphia. A revolution in shoulder orthopedics, the Global AP gives ...

  12. Anatomic Total Shoulder System

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by almost ten years, is shoulders. So by definition, the average shoulder-replacement patient is almost ten ... Anatomic Total Shoulder surgery, which featured the latest innovation in shoulder surgery from DePuy Orthopedics. OR-Live ...

  13. Dynamism & Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  14. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  15. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    to understand the species of timber and mineralogy of brass, anatomical analysis of timber and EPMA analysis of brass carried out. This paper details the state of the shipwrecks, mineralogy of brass and anatomical analysis of timber collected from Minicoy...

  16. Transoral Surgery: An Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Jack P.; Tomecek, Frank J.; Ross, Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    The transoral approaches have become commonplace in modern neurosurgical practice for treatment of ventral midline lesions of the clivus and upper cervical spine. Although the standard technique of transoral surgery is conceptually simple, anatomic relationships are not so readily appreciated. The present study was undertaken in an effort to define more clearly the midline anatomic relationships as they pertain to the standard transoral and transpalatine operations. The anatomic relationships...

  17. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS FOR ROBOTIC NERVE SPARING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Moiseenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed anatomical study of the prostate and pelvic organs has been recently relevant. Their anatomical knowledge is directly associated with the improved procedure of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, which contributes to the preservation of the anatomical structures responsible for postsurgical erection and urinary continence. The main tasks of radical prostatectomy are effective cancer control, early recovery of urinary continence, and recovery of erectile function.The literature on the anatomy of the prostate and its adjacent structures is analyzed in the context of nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

  18. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the native PCL footprint more closely and to restore normal knee kinematics. We detail our technique for an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction using Achilles and anterior tibialis tendon allografts. PMID:27284530

  19. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  20. Anatomical features and clinical relevance of a persistent trigeminal artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Tubbs, R S; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is uncommonly identified, knowledge of this structure is essential for clinicians who interpret cranial imaging, perform invasive studies of the cerebral vasculature, and operate this region. Methods: A review of the medical literature using standard search engines was performed to locate articles regarding the PTA, with special attention with anatomical descriptions. Results: Although anatomical reports of PTA anatomy are very scarce, those were analyzed to describe in detail the current knowledge about its anatomical relationships and variants. Additionally, the embryology, classification, clinical implications, and imaging modalities of this vessel are extensively discussed. Conclusions: Through a comprehensive review of isolated reports of the PTA, the clinician can better understand and treat patients with such an anatomical derailment. PMID:23087827

  1. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  2. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; SINITEAN, Adrian; Aurel FAUR

    2011-01-01

    Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular my...

  3. Task- and stimulus-related cortical networks in language production: Exploring similarity of MEG- and fMRI-derived functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Mia; Stevenson, Claire; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta

    2015-10-15

    Large-scale networks support the dynamic integration of information across multiple functionally specialized brain regions. Network analyses of haemodynamic modulations have revealed such functional brain networks that show high consistency across subjects and different cognitive states. However, the relationship between the slowly fluctuating haemodynamic responses and the underlying neural mechanisms is not well understood. Resting state studies have revealed spatial similarities in the estimated network hub locations derived using haemodynamic and electrophysiological recordings, suggesting a direct neural basis for the widely described functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state networks. To truly understand the nature of the relationship between electrophysiology and haemodynamics it is important to move away from a task absent state and to establish if such networks are differentially modulated by cognitive processing. The present parallel fMRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment investigated the structural similarities between haemodynamic networks and their electrophysiological counterparts when either the stimulus or the task was varied. Connectivity patterns underlying action vs. object naming (task-driven modulations), and action vs. object images (stimulus-driven modulations) were identified in a data driven all-to-all connectivity analysis, with cross spectral coherence adopted as a metric of functional connectivity in both MEG and fMRI. We observed a striking difference in functional connectivity between conditions. The spectral profiles of the frequency-specific network similarity differed significantly for the task-driven vs. stimulus-driven connectivity modulations. While the greatest similarity between MEG and fMRI derived networks was observed at neural frequencies below 30 Hz, haemodynamic network interactions could not be attributed to a single frequency band. Instead, the entire spectral profile should be taken into

  4. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  5. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  6. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANTAGO ARENARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psammophytes are marked by a number of adaptations that enable them to exist in the hard environmental conditions of the sand habitats. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Plantago arenaria were examined. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity of anatomical adaptations of vegetative organs in this taxa. Results are presented with original photographs. The analysis of leaf anatomy in P. arenaria showed that the leaves contained a contained xeromorphic traits. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis seems to be critical for their survival.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  8. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  9. Digital photography in anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Leong F; Leong A

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and ed...

  10. Lesion Explorer: a video-guided, standardized protocol for accurate and reliable MRI-derived volumetrics in Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joel; Scott, Christopher J M; McNeely, Alicia A; Berezuk, Courtney; Gao, Fuqiang; Szilagyi, Gregory M; Black, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining in vivo human brain tissue volumetrics from MRI is often complicated by various technical and biological issues. These challenges are exacerbated when significant brain atrophy and age-related white matter changes (e.g. Leukoaraiosis) are present. Lesion Explorer (LE) is an accurate and reliable neuroimaging pipeline specifically developed to address such issues commonly observed on MRI of Alzheimer's disease and normal elderly. The pipeline is a complex set of semi-automatic procedures which has been previously validated in a series of internal and external reliability tests(1,2). However, LE's accuracy and reliability is highly dependent on properly trained manual operators to execute commands, identify distinct anatomical landmarks, and manually edit/verify various computer-generated segmentation outputs. LE can be divided into 3 main components, each requiring a set of commands and manual operations: 1) Brain-Sizer, 2) SABRE, and 3) Lesion-Seg. Brain-Sizer's manual operations involve editing of the automatic skull-stripped total intracranial vault (TIV) extraction mask, designation of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF), and removal of subtentorial structures. The SABRE component requires checking of image alignment along the anterior and posterior commissure (ACPC) plane, and identification of several anatomical landmarks required for regional parcellation. Finally, the Lesion-Seg component involves manual checking of the automatic lesion segmentation of subcortical hyperintensities (SH) for false positive errors. While on-site training of the LE pipeline is preferable, readily available visual teaching tools with interactive training images are a viable alternative. Developed to ensure a high degree of accuracy and reliability, the following is a step-by-step, video-guided, standardized protocol for LE's manual procedures. PMID:24797507

  11. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  12. Anatomical Disregard as a Risk Factor in Thoracic Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribalzaga, Eduardo B.

    2012-06-01

    systems are a starting point to improve a system of quality and patient’s safety. The analysis of contributing factors (such as ignorance of thorax anatomy by the surgeon, register or report adverse events occurred in thoracic surgical procedures are used to prevent and reduce risk. The reduction of preventable risks is present using the checklist, however some more detailed items about the need for knowledge of the anatomy of the thorax could be added to further improve efficiency. The continuing medical education about anatomical knowledge for the surgeons, must be stimulated and promoted during their training.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of mouse brain using high-resolution anatomical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, L. J.; Hadimani, R. L.; Kanthasamy, A. G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2014-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases.

  14. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomic...

  15. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  16. Anatomical exploration of a dicephalous goat kid using sheet plastination (E12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Fawzy; Sora, Mircea-Constantin

    2009-06-01

    A dicephalous, 1-day-old, female goat kid was presented for anatomical study. Epoxy plastination slices (E12) were used successfully to explore this condition. They provided excellent anatomic and bone detail, demonstrating organ position, shared structures, and vascular anatomy. Sheet plastination (E12) was used as an optimal method to clarify how the two heads were united, especially the neuroanatomy. The plastinated transparent slices allowed detailed study of the anatomical structures, in a non-collapsed and non-dislocated state. Thus, we anatomically explored this rare condition without traditional dissection. The advantages of plastination extended to the preservation at room temperature of this case for further topographical investigation. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first published report of plastination of a dicephalous goat. PMID:19489957

  17. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  18. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Lavinia; Ielciu, Irina-Ioana; Ramona PĂLTINEAN; Vlase, Laurian; Ştefănescu, Cristina; Crişan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves) and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals) organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of rea...

  19. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia M. RUS; Irina I. IELCIU; Ramona PĂLTINEAN; Vlase, Laurian; Ştefănescu, Cristina; Gianina C. CRIŞAN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves) and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals) organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of reagents for...

  20. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  1. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  2. Computer tomographic imaging and anatomic correlation of the human brain: A comparative atlas of thin CT-scan sections and correlated neuro-anatomic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of the greatest importance to the radiologist, the neurologist and the neurosurgeon to be able to localize topographically a pathological brain process on the CT scan as precisely as possible. For that purpose, the identification of as many anatomical structures as possible on the CT scan image are necessary and indispensable. In this atlas a great number of detailed anatomical data on frontal horizontal CT scan sections, each being only 2 mm thick, are indicated, e.g. the cortical gyri, the basal ganglia, details of the white matter, extracranial muscles and blood vessels, parts of the base and the vault of the skull, etc. The very precise topographical description of the numerous CT scan images was realized by the author by confrontation of these images with the corresponding anatomical sections of the same brain specimen, performed by an original technique

  3. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  4. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  5. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  6. Detailed balance and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics. (paper)

  7. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  8. Anatomical mapping of the nasal muscles and application to cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschake, Marko; Fritsch, Helga

    2014-11-01

    We present an anatomical mapping of the most important muscles influencing the nose, incorporating constant anatomical structures, and their spatial correlations. At our disposal were the midfaces of 18 bodies of both sexes, obtained by informed consent from body donors aged between 60 and 80 years. Macroscopically, we dissected the nasal regions of eight corpses, six midfaces were prepared according to plastination histology, four by creating plastinated slices. On their way from their periosteal origin to the edge of the skin, the muscles of the nose cross the subcutaneous adipose tissue, dividing it into superficial and deep layers. The individual muscle fibers insert into the skin directly at the reticular corium. Sometimes, they reach the border of the epidermis which represents a special arrangement of corial muscle attachments. The course of the anatomical fibers of individual nasal muscles presented macroscopically and microscopically in this study offers surgeons a detailed overview of the anatomically important muscular landmarks of the midface. PMID:24863980

  9. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  10. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  11. Ultrasound Anatomical Visualization of the rabbit liver

    OpenAIRE

    Kamelia Dimcheva Stamatova-Yovcheva; Rosen Dimitrov; David Yovchev; Krassimira Uzunova; Rumen Binev

    2014-01-01

    The topic was to investigate the anatomical features of the rabbit liver by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography. Eighteen sexually mature healthy clinically New Zealand rabbits aged eight months were studied. Two-dimensional ultarsonographic anatomical image of the rabbit liver presented it in the cranial abdominal region as a relatively hypoechoic finding. Its contours were regular and in close contact with the hyperechoic diaphragm. Liver parenchyma was heterogeneous. The gall bladde...

  12. [Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teimŏ in 1805 and Chŏtei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaibŏgaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaibŏgaku Meishŭ which follows the BNA, by Buntarŏ Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

  13. Anatomical Lecture on a Dishwasher

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The dishwasher died after faithfully serving the household for over seventeen years. One would expect a MacGyver treasure trove of parts to be found inside. Here, we will present what could be salvaged from a dishwasher that could be of use to hydrological research. The dishwasher's demise was too close to the submission deadline to promise anything in detail but there will be pumps, valves, level sensors, temperature sensors and, perhaps, a turbidity sensor. In addition, there may be more generic parts of interest such as timers, transformers and heaters. What will be presented is a hydrology oriented anatomy lesson of a dishwasher that would make Dr. Nicolaes Tulp proud.

  14. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ......' and ava¯rus ‘greedy' and 3) the internal cluster -mpl- of the nouns exemplum and templum....

  15. Superphenix in detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the banks of the Rhone river, 60 km east of Lyon, the Superphenix nuclear power plant is being built. It is the prototype of a reactor line that will make up one fourth of the nuclear capacity in France already at the turn of the century. The principles and experiences of Superphenix are reviewed, taking only the most important of the many technical details. (orig.)

  16. The wood anatomical range in Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) and its ecological and phylogenetic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 81 species of Ilex is described in detail. The wood anatomical range encountered is presented in a generic description (p. 196). Data on ontogenetic changes in vessel member length and number of bars per perforation are given for three species. The great amount of variation in ma

  17. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  18. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  19. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  20. Congenital neck masses: embryological and anatomical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Rasool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neck masses are a common problem in paediatric age group. They tend to occur frequently and pose a diagnostic dilemma to the ENT surgeons. Although the midline and lateral neck masses differ considerably in their texture and presentation but the embryological perspective of these masses is not mostly understood along with the fundamental anatomical knowledge. The article tries to correlate the embryological, anatomical and clinical perspectives for the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 329-332

  1. Imaging pitfalls, normal anatomy, and anatomical variants that can simulate disease on cardiac imaging as demonstrated on multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in computed tomography have led to continuous improvement in cardiac imaging. Dedicated postprocessing capabilities, faster scan times, and cardiac gating methods reveal details of normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants that can mimic pathologic conditions. This article will review normal cardiac anatomy and variants that can mimic disease. Radiologists should be familiar with normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants to avoid misinterpretation of normal findings for pathologic processes

  2. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  3. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  4. Evolution of the Anatomical Theatre in Padova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical theatre played a pivotal role in the evolution of medical education, allowing students to directly observe and participate in the process of dissection. Due to the increase of training programs in clinical anatomy, the Institute of Human Anatomy at the University of Padova has renovated its dissecting room. The main guidelines in…

  5. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  6. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  7. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  8. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  9. Pericarp anatomical study of some lamiaceae nutlets in saudi arabia and its taxonomic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutlets transverse sections of 23 selected taxa belonging to 12 genera of Saudi Arabia Lamiaceae were examined using light microscope and detailed description of the pericarp anatomical characteristics were provided. Nutlets have shown obvious differences in the presence or absence of hairs, papillae, mucilage, endosperm and crystals, also, in thickness of pericarp layers, parenchymatous and sclerenchymataus layers. The relationships between the studied taxa were presented as phenogram. This study confirms the usefulness of the nutlet anatomical features as additional characters in taxonomical studies of the Lamiaceae especially mucilage production (myxocarpy) and the sclerenchymatous layer (shape, pigment, and cavity) of the endocarp. They are diagnostic at the generic and subfamily levels. The anatomical studies indicate the family is polymorphic in pericarp characters. (author)

  10. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia M. RUS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of reagents for the double coloration of cellulose and lignin. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and stereomicroscopy led to the elucidation of the structure of tector and secretory trichomes on the inferior epidermis of the leaf. Micrographic analysis of the powder obtained from aerial parts revealed segments of each organ (e.g. stomata, trichomes and confirmed furthermore the results obtained by the histo-anatomical studies. Sections achieved through vegetative organs reveal typical anatomical structures: a transition to the secondary structure for the root, a typical dicotyledons’ structure with bicollateral vascular bundles for the stem, a bifacial structure of the leaf and stem-like structures for the tendrils and petioles, which prove they are metamorphosis of the stem. Anatomical structure of reproductive organs was performed hereby for the first time and revealed a typical anatomical structure for the 3-lodged ovary and a leaf-like structure of the male flower petal. Some of the results obtained confirm existing data from the scientific literature and additional information have been provided, outlining features that were not previously reported, such as SEM analysis of the leaf trichomes and histo-anatomical structure of the reproductive organs.

  11. Evaluation of an anatomical compensation filter for chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Rytkoenen, H.; Soimakallio, S.; Terho, E.O.; Hentunen, J.

    1986-11-01

    An anatomical compensation filter for improving the radiographic demonstration of the mediastinal and retrocardiac areas of a chest radiograph has been evaluated. The filter, made of a transparent, light-weight lead-plastic material was attached to the X-ray collimator housing. The device reliably improved the visibility of normally underpenetrated areas without producing detectable artefacts, provided the patient was correctly positioned. Hilar structures were also slightly better visualised. At the same time there was no statistically significant deterioration in visualisation of peripheral pulmonary vessels or parenchymal structures. Rib details and pleural calcifications were less well seen, however, a result that was to be expected because of the X-ray beam hardening.

  12. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants. PMID:27070689

  13. Integrating anatomical pathology to the healthcare enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Le Bozec, Christel; Henin, Dominique; Fabiani, Bettina; Bourquard, Karima; Ouagne, David; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    For medical decisions, healthcare professionals need that all required information is both correct and easily available. We address the issue of integrating anatomical pathology department to the healthcare enterprise. The pathology workflow from order to report, including specimen process and image acquisition was modeled. Corresponding integration profiles were addressed by expansion of the IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) initiative. Implementation using respectively DICOM Structured Report (SR) and DICOM Slide-Coordinate Microscopy (SM) was tested. The two main integration profiles--pathology general workflow and pathology image workflow--rely on 13 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standard. We propose a model of the case in anatomical pathology and of other information entities (orders, image folders and reports) and real-world objects (specimen, tissue samples, slides, etc). Cases representation in XML schemas, based on DICOM specification, allows producing DICOM image files and reports to be stored into a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System. PMID:17108550

  14. ANATOMIC RESEARCH OF SUPERIOR CLUNIAL NERVE TRAUMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to find the mechanism of superior clunial nerve (SCN) trauma, we dissected and revealed SCN from 12 corpses (24 sides). Combining 100 sides of SCN trauma, we inspected the course of SCN, the relation between SCN and it's neighbour tissues with the situation of SCN when being subjected to force. We found that the following special anatomic characteristics and mechanical elements such as the course of SCN, it's turning angles, the bony fibrous tube at the iliac crest, the posterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia and SCN neighbour adipose tissue, are the causes of external force inducing SCN trauma. The anatomic revealment is the guidance of SCN trauma treatment with edged needle.

  15. Anatomical basis for impotence following haemorrhoid sclerotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilkington, S. A.; Bateman, A C; Wombwell, S.; Miller, R

    2000-01-01

    Impotence has been reported as a rare but important complication of sclerotherapy for haemorrhoids. The relationship between the anterior wall of the rectum and the periprostatic parasympathetic nerves responsible for penile erection was studied to investigate a potential anatomical explanation for this therapeutic complication. A tissue block containing the anal canal, rectum and prostate was removed from each of six male cadaveric subjects. The dimensions of the components of the rectal wal...

  16. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  17. Identification of anatomical terminology in medical text.

    OpenAIRE

    Sneiderman, C. A.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Bean, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on an experiment to use the natural language processing tools being developed in the SPECIALIST system to accurately identify terminology associated with the coronary arteries as expressed in coronary catheterization reports. The ultimate goal is to map from any anatomically-oriented medical text to online images, using the UMLS as an intermediate knowledge source. We describe some of the problems encountered when processing coronary artery terminology and report on the results of a...

  18. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation...... energy that has earlier proved to be particularly well suited for human surface scans. The method has been tested on full cranial scans of ten test subjects and on several scans of the outer human ear....

  19. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis ...

  20. Microstructure and Anatomical Characteristics of Daemonorops margaritae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Daemonorops margaritae is among the most important commercial rattan in South China. Its microstructure and basic anatomical characteristics as well as variation were investigated. Results show that: 1)The variation along the height is small, while the variation along the radial direction is significant; 2) The fibre length, fibre ratio and distribution density of the vascular bundles in the cross section decrease from cortex to core, while the fibre width, vessel element length and width, parenchyma ratio,...

  1. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  2. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  3. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Zamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  4. Anatomical MRI with an atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savukov, I

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low field (ULF) MRI is a promising method for inexpensive medical imaging with various additional advantages over conventional instruments such as low weight, low power, portability, absence of artifacts from metals, and high contrast. Anatomical ULF MRI has been successfully implemented with SQUIDs, but SQUIDs have the drawback of cryogen requirement. Atomic magnetometers have sensitivity comparable to SQUIDs and can be in principle used for ULF MRI to replace SQUIDs. Unfortunately some problems exist due to the sensitivity of atomic magnetometers to magnetic field and gradients. At low frequency, noise is also substantial and a shielded room is needed for improving sensitivity. In this paper, we show that at 85 kHz, the atomic magnetometer can be used to obtain anatomical images. This is the first demonstration of any use of atomic magnetometers for anatomical MRI. The demonstrated resolution is 1.1x1.4 mm2 in about six minutes of acquisition with SNR of 10. Some applications of the method are discuss...

  5. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  6. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Tongning; Shao Qing; Zhang Chen; Zhao Chen; Lu Bingsong; Xiao Li; Wang Nan; Xie Yi [China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, No. 52, Huayuanbei Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Tan Liwen; Li Ying; Zhang Shaoxiang [Department of Anatomy (Computing Medical Institute of Chongqing), College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038 (China); Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe, E-mail: wutongning@emcite.com, E-mail: zhangcvh@yahoo.com.cn [WHIST Joint Laboratory between INSTITUT TELECOM and Orange Labs, 38-40, rue du General Leclerc, 92794 Issy-les-Moulineaux, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-07

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3} with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  7. Piriformis Fossa – An Anatomical and Orthopedics Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhwani, O. P.; Mittal, P.S.; D. C. Naik

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Piriformis fossa is an important anatomical landmark having significant clinical value in orthopedic surgery; but its location and anatomical relationship with surrounding structures are not clearly defined. Hence it is necessary to clearly describe it in respect to anatomical and orthopedic aspect.

  8. Anatomical versus Non-Anatomical Single Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study of Comparison of Knee Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Joon-Ho; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the initial stability of anatomical and non-anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to determine which would better restore intact knee kinematics. Our hypothesis was that the initial stability of anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction would be superior to that of non-anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods Anterior tibial translation (ATT) and internal rotation of the tibia were measure...

  9. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented and...... discussed with respect to the meaning of detailing....

  10. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  11. Angiosome of the fibular artery as anatomic basis for free composite fibular flap

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlović Radovan; Milisavljević Milan; Tabaković Dejan; Ćetković Mila; Bumbaširević Marko

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The free osteoseptocutaneus fibular flap is, anatomically, an angiosome of the fibular artery. Knowledge of detailed topography anatomy of the fibular artery and its branches is necessary for successful creation and elevation of the flap. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine topography of the tissue of the leg supplied only by the fibular artery, to describe topography relations of the branches of the fibular artery, their number, anastomoses, vascular plexus and the...

  12. [Sigismund Laskowski and his anatomical preparations technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-01-01

    Fixation of the entire bodies or individual organs, and later as well tissues and cellular structures, was and still is often a challenge for anatomists and histologists. Technique that combines extensive knowledge of natural sciences, as well as technical skills, was by those best researchers as Frederik Ruysch, brought to perfection. Preparations, if done with care and talent, are really propelling progress in anatomical studies and determining the quality of education for medical students and young physicians. And as it is true for many of today's medical disciplines and natural sciences, the nineteenth century was in many ways a breaking point for preparatory techniques in the realm of anatomy and histology. Among those who have achieved success, earning notoriety during their lifetime and often going into the annals of European most distinguished scholars were some Polish names: Louis Maurice Hirschfeld, whose preparations of the nervous system earned him well-deserved, international fame, Louis Charles Teichmann, who was the very first so precisely describing the lymphatic system and a creator of unique injection mass, Henry Kadyi, known for his outstanding preparations, especially of vascular system. Henry Frederick Hoyer sen., who was one of the first to use formalin regularly for accurate microscopic preparations, is seen by many as the founder of the Polish histology. In this group of innovators and precursors of modern preparation techniques place should be reserved for Zygmunt (Sigismund) Laskowski, Polish patriot, fighting in January Uprising, later an immigrant, a professor at the university sequentially Paris and Geneva. Acclaimed author of anatomical tables and certainly creator of one of the groundbreaking techniques in anatomical preparations. Based after many years of research on the simple glycerine-phenol mixture achieved excellent results both in fixation of entire bodies and organs or tissues. Quality of those preparations was as high and

  13. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  14. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is a technique that aims to rehabilitate or restore functionality of skeletal muscles using external electrical stimulation. Despite the success achieved within the field of FES, there are still a number of questions that remain unanswered. One way of providing input to the answers is through the use of computational models. Methods This paper describes the development of an anatomically based computer model of the motor neurons in the lower limb of the human leg and shows how it can be used to simulate electrical signal propagation from the beginning of the sciatic nerve to a skeletal muscle. One-dimensional cubic Hermite finite elements were used to represent the major portions of the lower limb nerves. These elements were fit to data that had been digitised using images from the Visible Man project. Nerves smaller than approximately 1 mm could not be seen in the images, and thus a tree-branching algorithm was used to connect the ends of the fitted nerve model to the respective skeletal muscle. To simulate electrical propagation, a previously published mammalian nerve model was implemented and solved on the anatomically based nerve mesh using a finite difference method. The grid points for the finite difference method were derived from the fitted finite element mesh. By adjusting the tree-branching algorithm, it is possible to represent different levels of motor-unit recruitment. Results To illustrate the process of a propagating nerve stimulus to a muscle in detail, the above method was applied to the nerve tree that connects to the human semitendinosus muscle. A conduction velocity of 89.8 m/s was obtained for a 15 μm diameter nerve fibre. This signal was successfully propagated down the motor neurons to a selected group of motor units in the muscle. Conclusion An anatomically and physiologically based model of the posterior motor neurons in the human lower limb was developed. This

  15. The teleost anatomy ontology: anatomical representation for the genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Lundberg, John G; Midford, Peter E; Balhoff, James P; Lapp, Hilmar; Vision, Todd J; Haendel, Melissa A; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2010-07-01

    The rich knowledge of morphological variation among organisms reported in the systematic literature has remained in free-text format, impractical for use in large-scale synthetic phylogenetic work. This noncomputable format has also precluded linkage to the large knowledgebase of genomic, genetic, developmental, and phenotype data in model organism databases. We have undertaken an effort to prototype a curated, ontology-based evolutionary morphology database that maps to these genetic databases (http://kb.phenoscape.org) to facilitate investigation into the mechanistic basis and evolution of phenotypic diversity. Among the first requirements in establishing this database was the development of a multispecies anatomy ontology with the goal of capturing anatomical data in a systematic and computable manner. An ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts with defined relationships between those concepts. Multispecies anatomy ontologies in particular are an efficient way to represent the diversity of morphological structures in a clade of organisms, but they present challenges in their development relative to single-species anatomy ontologies. Here, we describe the Teleost Anatomy Ontology (TAO), a multispecies anatomy ontology for teleost fishes derived from the Zebrafish Anatomical Ontology (ZFA) for the purpose of annotating varying morphological features across species. To facilitate interoperability with other anatomy ontologies, TAO uses the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology as a template for its upper level nodes, and TAO and ZFA are synchronized, with zebrafish terms specified as subtypes of teleost terms. We found that the details of ontology architecture have ramifications for querying, and we present general challenges in developing a multispecies anatomy ontology, including refinement of definitions, taxon-specific relationships among terms, and representation of taxonomically variable developmental pathways. PMID:20547776

  16. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  17. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. PMID:23228528

  18. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation. (orig.)

  19. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web. PMID:25807710

  20. Normal anatomical measurements in cervical computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaunbauer, W.; Daepp, S.; Haertel, M.

    1985-11-01

    Radiodiagnostically relevant normal values and variations for measurements of the cervical region, the arithmetical average and the standard deviation were determined from adequate computer tomograms on 60 healthy women and men, aged 20 to 83 years. The sagittal diameter of the prevertebral soft tissue and the lumina of the upper respiratory tract were evaluated at exactly defined levels between the hyoid bone and the incisura jugularis sterni. - The thickness of the aryepiglottic folds, the maximal sagittal and transverse diameters of the thyroid gland and the calibre of the great cervical vessels were defined. - To assess information about laryngeal function in computerized tomography, measurements of distances between the cervical spine and anatomical fixed points of the larynx and hypopharynx were made as well as of the degree of vocal cord movement during normal respiration and phonation.

  1. Anatomic correlations in radiogallium imaging of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiogallium (67Ga) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis has been useful not only in detecting inflammations in these regions, but in pointing out their precise anatomic localization. Once the anatomic site is determined, it is often possible to infer the source of origin of the problem (such as ruptured viscus or pancreatitis). Interpretation of the images depends on recognition of patterns that define known anatomic boundaries such as the transverse mesocolon, root of the small mesentery, perirenal space, and pararenal space, or else show diffuse peritoneal uptake. The anatomic patterns may have continued usefulness in future studies, such as when radiolabeled leukocytes are employed to localize inflammations

  2. Simulating Photon Scattering Effects in Structurally Detailed Ventricular Models Using a Monte Carlo Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinJBishop

    2014-09-01

    during shocks, significantly reducing the apparent optically-measured epicardial polarisation. We therefore demonstrate the importance of this novel optical mapping simulation approach along with highly anatomically-detailed models to fully investigate electrophysiological phenomena driven by fine-scale structural heterogeneity.

  3. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  4. MRI anatomical variants of mammillary bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Micaela; Sestieri, Carlo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallucci, Massimo; Caulo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The mammillary bodies (MBs) are classically defined as a pair of small round structures located on the undersurface of the diencephalon. The systematic observation of MR brain images of patients with neurological diseases, but also of healthy subjects enrolled in research protocols, reveals, however, a greater anatomical variability. The aim of the present study was to define the spectrum of such variability using spatial normalized 3D TFE T1-weighted MR images in a group of 151 healthy right-handed young subjects (78 females, age range 16-39 years). The MBs were identified on reformatted coronal and axial images and classified according to morphological, positional and numerical criteria. On the basis of coronal images, MBs were first divided into symmetrical (86.1 %) and asymmetrical (13.9 %), depending on their respective height. Symmetrical MBs were further subdivided into three variants [type A (2.7 %), B (76.2 %), C (7.3 %)] according to the depth of the intermammillary sulcus. Two morphological variants were defined on axial images, depending on whether the MBs were circular (63.6 %) or elliptic (36.4 %). This latter group was further divided in two subgroups, depending on whether the MBs were parallel (21.9 %) or convergent (14.6 %). Finally, two subjects (1.3 %) presented a supernumeral MB. The transverse size of the third ventricle was greater in the type A compared to the type B and C groups. Gender did not significantly affect the frequency of MBs variants, except for the three symmetrical subgroups in which the variants A and C were more frequent in males than in females. These findings suggest the presence of an anatomical variability of the MBs, in contrast to their classical definition. Therefore, atypical presentation of MBs can be the expression of this variability rather than a marker of neurological disorders (i.e. cerebral malformation, mesial temporal sclerosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). PMID:24072163

  5. Computed tomography of the vesicular glands: anatomical animal model (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiral CT is a non-invasive imaging method of choice for animal anatomical studies. The aim of the study was to establish the imaging anatomical features of the vesicular glands in the rabbit. Eight sexually mature healthy clinically male New Zealand rabbits of 18 months of age with body weight from 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were used. The animals were anesthetized. As contrast medium Opti-ray350 was administrated. The computed tomography scan was complied with certain bone and soft tissue markers. For this purpose, a whole body multi-slice spiral computed tomography scanner was used. The both soft tissue glands were heterogeneous and relatively hyperdense structures, and defined in detail from the adjacent soft tissues. The urinary bladder neck was ventrally to the glands. Both vesicular glands were better differentiated each other when the rabbit is examined in abdominal recumbence. In dorsal recumbence the shape of the transversal image of the glandular finding was oval. In abdominal recumbence both the left and right soft tissue vesicular gland were defined. Transversal anatomical computed tomographic investigation of the rabbit vesicular gland is a detailed and definitive method, to study the normal morphology of these glands. Key words: Vesicular Gland. Helical Computed Tomography. Anatomy. Rabbit

  6. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  7. Phonetic Detail in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Freeze

    1987-01-01

    @@ In the course of teaching general phonetics and phonological analysis in the psat few years,l have found some phonetic detail which some native speakers as well as non-native speakers were unaware of. This subtle detail will be the focus of this presentation. Som e of this detail many of you will already be aware of because of your experience in learning, teaching, and thinking about English. If anything is new to you, I hope you might enjoy hearing about it even if it turns out not to be useful in your work.

  8. Physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic data for reference Indian man - a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collation and generation of data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Indian subjects were carried out to set up a Reference Indian Man for radiation protection. A comparison of the Reference Indian Man data with the corresponding data for ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that the physical, anatomical and metabolic characteristics were in general smaller for Reference Indian Man. A few of the physiological characteristics such as the daily consumption of drinking water, sweat rate were however, found to be higher, and the minute volume was similar for Reference Indian, in comparison to the ICRP Reference Man. The details of various human characteristics representative of the Indian population are reported in this paper. (author). 43 refs., 25 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 x 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs

  10. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 {times} 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. REINFORCEMENT DETAILING FOR OPENING CORNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Roshan Lal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study c onventional a rrangements of detailing of rebars in the opening corners have been shown to be structura lly inadequate and an improved but simple detailing of opening corners has been proposed which gave corner efficiencies in the range of 90 to 95%. The work includes performance review of three recommended detailing systems namely, L - type (SP1, inverted U - type with corner stirrups (SP2 , U - bars lap spliced with the main reinforcem ent (SP3 and on the basis of observed behavior, a modifi ed detailing arrangement, to be used in the corner joints subjected to opening moment has been recommended . The experimental work consisted of testing nominally identical planer portal - type opening corner specimens made of normal strength concrete under monotonically increasing static load s. The results obtained are analysed in terms of crack width s , ultimate load and corner efficiencies of the specimen s.

  12. Research experiments detailed design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The illustrations for the detailed design review of the heliostats for a solar thermal pilot plant are presented. Also included are the program schedule, meeting agenda, and component design features. (MHR)

  13. An Investigation of Anatomical Competence in Junior Medical Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a decrease of the time available for anatomy education, decisions need to be made to reduce the relevant content of the anatomy curriculum. Several expert consensus initiatives resulted in lists of structures, lacking analysis of anatomical competence. This study aims to explore the use of anatomical knowledge by medical doctors in an…

  14. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  15. Review of the Historical Evolution of Anatomical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri, Rubén D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the medical terms of Greek origin are traditionally attributed to Hippocrates (460-370 BC. Claudius Galen of Pergamum (130-200 BC developed a classification of bones and joints and described different brain areas. His teachings have remained unchanged for over a thousand years. Andreas Vesalius of Brussels (1514-1564, through the systematic study of human body structure, changed many concepts. He published his work in his production "De humani corporis fabrica libri septem", where a special attention is evident to the discovery and description of new anatomical facts. From here there is a revolution in the morphological sciences, where the same anatomical structure passed to receive different names. In the nineteenth century, the different anatomists in the world decide to meet in order to unify criteria regarding the anatomical structures and determine a only one universal language in the anatomical sciences. In 1895, in Basel (Switzerland it’s approved a list of 5.573 terms, called Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA and was written in Latin. Eponyms were deleted. In 1903, he founded the International Federation of Associations of anatomists (IFAA. In 1935, in Jena (Germany, approving the Jena Nomina Anatomica (JNA. In 1950, in Oxford, formed the Committee of the International Anatomical Nomenclature (IANC. In 1955, in Paris (France it is agreed to adopt a Latin nomenclature based on the BNA, the Paris Nomina Anatomica (PNA. In 1980, for the first time in Latin America, takes place on the 11th International Congress of Anatomists, Mexico. In 1989, the International Committee of Anatomical Nomenclature, published the sixth edition of the Nomina Anatomica, without review by the IFAA. The same year, the latter established a Federative International Committee of Anatomical Terminology (FICAT. In 1998, he published a new list FICAT: International Anatomical Terminology (TAI, with the structures named in Latin language and their equivalence in

  16. Wood anatomy of Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae Anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto R. Pujana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy description of Ribes magellanicum Poir. is given including specimens of its two subspecies. This is the first detailed secondary xylem study of a species included in the South and Central American subgenus Parilla Jancz. Wood anatomy of R. magellanicum shows the following typical anatomical features cited for northern hemisphere Ribes L.: small vessels, rays of two distinct sizes and scalariform perforation plates.Se describe la anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum Poir. incluyendo especimenes de sus dos subespecies. Es la primera descripción detallada del xilema secundario de una especie del subgénero de Centro y Sudamérica Parilla Jancz. La anatomía de R. magellanicum muestra las características típicas citadas para las Ribes L. del hemisferio norte: vasos pequeños, radios de dos tamaños distintos y placas de perforación escalariformes.

  17. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  18. Anatomical imbalance between cortical networks in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Influential psychological models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proposed that this prevalent developmental disorder results from impairment of global (integrative) information processing and overload of local (sensory) information. However, little neuroanatomical evidence consistent with this account has been reported. Here, we examined relative grey matter volumes (rGMVs) between three cortical networks, how they changed with age, and their relationship with core symptomatology. Using public neuroimaging data of high-functioning ASD males and age-/sex-/IQ-matched controls, we first identified age-associated atypical increases in rGMVs of the regions of two sensory systems (auditory and visual networks), and an age-related aberrant decrease in rGMV of a task-control system (fronto-parietal network, FPN) in ASD children. While the enlarged rGMV of the auditory network in ASD adults was associated with the severity of autistic socio-communicational core symptom, that of the visual network was instead correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviours in ASD. Notably, the atypically decreased rGMV of FPN predicted both of the two core symptoms. These findings suggest that disproportionate undergrowth of a task-control system (FPN) may be a common anatomical basis for the two ASD core symptoms, and relative overgrowth of the two different sensory systems selectively compounds the distinct symptoms. PMID:27484308

  19. Anatomical challenges for transcatheter mitral valve intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Backer, Ole; Luk, Ngai H; Søndergaard, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Following the success of transcatheter aortic and pulmonary valve implantation, there is a large interest in transcatheter mitral valve interventions to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR). With the exception for the MitraClipTM (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) edge-to-edge leaflet plication system, most of these transcatheter mitral valve interventions are still in their early clinical or preclinical development phase. Challenges arising from the complex anatomy of the mitral valve and the interplay of the mitral apparatus with the left ventricle (LV) have contributed to a more difficult development process and mixed clinical results with these novel technologies. This review aims to discuss the several anatomical aspects and challenges related to transcatheter mitral valve intervention - the relevant anatomy will be reviewed in relation to specific requirements for device design and procedural aspects of transcatheter mitral valve interventions. To date, experience with these novel therapeutic modalities are still limited and resolution of many challenges are pending. Future studies have to evaluate for whom the transcatheter approach is a feasible and preferred treatment and which patients will benefit from either transcatheter mitral valve repair or replacement. Nevertheless, technological developments are anticipated to drive the transcatheter approach forward into a clinically feasible alternative to surgery for selected patients with severe MR. PMID:27028333

  20. Transformative Dynamics in Detailed Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Poulsen, Naja; Gustavsson, Ted; Hirsbak, Stig

    difficult sustainable strategies that address the project design more directly. In conclusion, the paper argues that strategic navigation represents a stronger mediator of change compared to the detailed plan, but that especially timing issues in the coordination between formal planning and design processes...... translation process relies heavily on integration of impositions in the detailed plan, although this has clear limitations, since some sustainable strategies are more difficult to impose than others. It also shows how strategic navigation may represent an alternative translation strategy to promote more...

  1. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  2. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H

    2016-01-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  3. Seductive Details in Multimedia Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but irrelevant adjuncts are excluded rather than included. However, critics could argue that studies about this principle contain methodological problems. The recent experiment attempts to overcome these problems. Students (N = 108)…

  4. A tentative characterization of volatile compounds from Iberian Dry-Cured Ham according to different anatomical locations. A detailed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a characterization of the volatile fraction of 23 Iberian dry-cured hams by GC-iontrap- MS. Two different locations –subcutaneous fat and musclefrom the slices taken parallel to the femur from each ham were analyzed. The analyses were done by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry with a polar capillary column and after a previous extraction using the Purge and Trap method. A total of 109 volatile compounds were identified, twenty-eight of which for the first time in Iberian dry-cured ham (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2-ol, 2-decen- 1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl-cyclohexanone, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, 6-octen-2-one, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl- cyclopentanone, 3,5-octadien-2-one, 2-hydroxymethyl- 2,3,3-trimethyl-oxirane, 2-ethyl-hexyl 2-propenoate, 1-methoxypentane, 2,3-dihydrofurane, 2-D-2-pentadecyl-1,3-dioxolane, hexyl octyl eter, eucalyptol, di-(3-methyl-buthyl eter, piperidine, isopropylamine and 2-ethenyl-pyridine.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo una caracterización de la fracción volátil de 23 jamones curados de cerdo ibérico mediante GC-ion-trap-MS. Se analizaron dos zonas diferentes de las lonchas tomadas paralelas al fémur de cada jamón, Grasa subcutánea y magro. El análisis se realizó mediante cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar de alta polaridad con detección de espectrometría de masas y extracción previa de la fracción volátil mediante purga y trampa. Un total de 109 compuestos volátiles fueron identificados, veintiocho de ellos descritos por primera vez en Jamón ibérico curado (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2- ol, 2-decen-1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl-cyclohexanone, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, 6-octen-2-one, 5-methyl- 2-(1-methyl-ethyl-cyclopentanone, 3,5-octadien-2-one, 2-hydroxymethyl-2,3,3-trimethyl-oxirane, 2-ethyl-hexyl 2-propenoate, 1-methoxy-pentane, 2,3-dihydrofurane, 2-D-2-pentadecyl- 1,3-dioxolane, hexyl octyl eter, eucalyptol, di-(3-methyl-buthyl eter, piperidine, isopropylamine and 2-ethenyl-pyridine.

  5. An anatomically oriented breast model for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Dominik; Bergtholdt, Martin; Sabczynski, Jörg; Dössel, Olaf; Buelow, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the western world. In the breast cancer care-cycle, MRIis e.g. employed in lesion characterization and therapy assessment. Reading of a single three dimensional image or comparing a multitude of such images in a time series is a time consuming task. Radiological reporting is done manually by translating the spatial position of a finding in an image to a generic representation in the form of a breast diagram, outlining quadrants or clock positions. Currently, registration algorithms are employed to aid with the reading and interpretation of longitudinal studies by providing positional correspondence. To aid with the reporting of findings, knowledge about the breast anatomy has to be introduced to translate from patient specific positions to a generic representation. In our approach we fit a geometric primitive, the semi-super-ellipsoid to patient data. Anatomical knowledge is incorporated by fixing the tip of the super-ellipsoid to the mammilla position and constraining its center-point to a reference plane defined by landmarks on the sternum. A coordinate system is then constructed by linearly scaling the fitted super-ellipsoid, defining a unique set of parameters to each point in the image volume. By fitting such a coordinate system to a different image of the same patient, positional correspondence can be generated. We have validated our method on eight pairs of baseline and follow-up scans (16 breasts) that were acquired for the assessment of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On average, the location predicted and the actual location of manually set landmarks are within a distance of 5.6 mm. Our proposed method allows for automatic reporting simply by uniformly dividing the super-ellipsoid around its main axis.

  6. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  7. Collaborative regression-based anatomical landmark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-12-01

    Anatomical landmark detection plays an important role in medical image analysis, e.g. for registration, segmentation and quantitative analysis. Among the various existing methods for landmark detection, regression-based methods have recently attracted much attention due to their robustness and efficiency. In these methods, landmarks are localised through voting from all image voxels, which is completely different from the classification-based methods that use voxel-wise classification to detect landmarks. Despite their robustness, the accuracy of regression-based landmark detection methods is often limited due to (1) the inclusion of uninformative image voxels in the voting procedure, and (2) the lack of effective ways to incorporate inter-landmark spatial dependency into the detection step. In this paper, we propose a collaborative landmark detection framework to address these limitations. The concept of collaboration is reflected in two aspects. (1) Multi-resolution collaboration. A multi-resolution strategy is proposed to hierarchically localise landmarks by gradually excluding uninformative votes from faraway voxels. Moreover, for informative voxels near the landmark, a spherical sampling strategy is also designed at the training stage to improve their prediction accuracy. (2) Inter-landmark collaboration. A confidence-based landmark detection strategy is proposed to improve the detection accuracy of ‘difficult-to-detect’ landmarks by using spatial guidance from ‘easy-to-detect’ landmarks. To evaluate our method, we conducted experiments extensively on three datasets for detecting prostate landmarks and head & neck landmarks in computed tomography images, and also dental landmarks in cone beam computed tomography images. The results show the effectiveness of our collaborative landmark detection framework in improving landmark detection accuracy, compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  9. The method to make the three dimensional anatomical pattern of hepatic vessels by stereo angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Past few years, there has been a big advance in the hepatic surgery. Now, small resection, such as segmentectomy or subsegmentectomy, is performed routinely. Based on this tendency, hepatic surgeons request more details, more stereographic findings of hepatic vessels to heaptic angiography. Especially three dimensional combined anatomical pattern of the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein is strongly needed. We have tried three dimensional computer graphic of hepatic vessels since few years ago, using the personal computer, digitizer with clear screen, commercially available 3D software and my own program. We use three groups of angiographic films, that is the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein with IVC, which were taken by stereoangiography. The depth of each poits of vessels are calculated by the way described in Fig 3. Using these points, the 3D software, '3DPROGATS', can make the anatomical pattern of combined hepatic vessels on TV display. And then we can also perform rotation, heading, bank, zooming, hidden line elimination freely for this picture. Out of necessity as hepatic surgeons, we make a simple system for 3D computer graphic of heptic vessels. At present, the image is somewhat rough, but clinically it is relatively effective. In this report we want to explain our method and to show the anatomical pattern of hepatic vessels of case of hepatoma. (author)

  10. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  11. Anatomic variants of interest in endoscopic sinus surgery: role of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed radiological study of the anatomy of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinus is essential prior to endoscopic sinus surgery since, on the one hand, it discloses the extent of the disease and, on the other hand, it aids in the detection of the numerous anatomic variants, some of which are of great interest to the endoscopic as the lack of preoperative knowledge of them may increase the risk of complications. the objective of the present report is to review these variants, stressing those that may be associated with a greater surgical risk. Although coronal computed tomography is the technique of choice for pre endoscopy examination, certain structures and anatomic variants are better viewed in axial images. These exceptions include anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinuses, the anatomic relationships between posterior ethmoid complex and the sphenoid sinus, the relationships between the sphenoid sinus and the optic nerve, and the detection of Onodi cells. Thus, we recommend that the radiological examination include both coronal and axial images. (Author) 16 refs

  12. [Pathologic-anatomical changes in newborn goats caused by an intrauterine Schmallenberg virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Henrik; Eskens, Ulrich; Nesseler, Anne; Riesse, Karin; Kaim, Ute; Volmer, Renate; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Sauerwald, Claudia; Wehrend, Axel

    2014-01-01

    A complex of various malformations in newborns was observed to an increased extent in sheep farms in the 2011/2012 lambing season. An intrauterine Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection was identified as the cause of these malformations. To date, a detailed pathological description of the deformity complex has only been given for bovine and ovine newborns.The aim of this study was therefore to provide a description of pathologic-anatomical congenital malformations in goat kids caused by intrauterine SBV infection. To this end, pathologic-anatomical and molecular biological investigations by PCR were carried out on 37 goat kids and 457 lambs from 238 sheep and goat farms in order to carry out an interspecies comparison. Of the 37 goat kids dissected, it was possible to identify a SBV infection in twelve animals (32.4%) by RT-PCR. In nine animals (24.3%) displaying pathological-anatomical malformations SBV could not be detected by PCR. The following malformations were observed: athrogryposis, deformation of spinal column, torticollis, asymmetry of the skull, brachygnathia inferior, cerebellar hypoplasia, cerebellar aplasia and internal hydrocephalus. Arthogryposis was the most common malformation, both in animals with positive PCR results and those with negative PCR results. This study documents congenital malformations caused by an intrauterine SBV infection for the first time on a large number of newborn goats. PMID:24693655

  13. MR neurography with multiplanar reconstruction of 3D MRI datasets: an anatomical study and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Wolfgang; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Stuber, Gregor; Schmitz, Bernd [University Hospitals Ulm, Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Brinkmann, Alexander; Wagner, Florian; Dinse, Alexander [University Hospitals Ulm, Department of Anesthesiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Extracranial MR neurography has so far mainly been used with 2D datasets. We investigated the use of 3D datasets for peripheral neurography of the sciatic nerve. A total of 40 thighs (20 healthy volunteers) were examined with a coronally oriented magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence with isotropic voxels of 1 x 1 x 1 mm and a field of view of 500 mm. Anatomical landmarks were palpated and marked with MRI markers. After MR scanning, the sciatic nerve was identified by two readers independently in the resulting 3D dataset. In every volunteer, the sciatic nerve could be identified bilaterally over the whole length of the thigh, even in areas of close contact to isointense muscles. The landmark of the greater trochanter was falsely palpated by 2.2 cm, and the knee joint by 1 cm. The mean distance between the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve and the knee-joint gap was 6 cm ({+-}1.8 cm). The mean results of the two readers differed by 1-6%. With the described method of MR neurography, the sciatic nerve was depicted reliably and objectively in great anatomical detail over the whole length of the thigh. Important anatomical information can be obtained. The clinical applications of MR neurography for the brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus/sciatic nerve are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Digital atlas of anatomical subdivisions and boundaries of the rat hippocampal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B. Leergaard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rat hippocampal region is frequently studied in relation to learning and memory processes and brain diseases. The region is complex, consisting of multiple subdivisions that are challenging to delineate anatomically. Published atlases of the rat brain typically lack the underlying histological criteria necessary to identify boundaries, and textbooks descriptions of the region are often inadequately illustrated and thus difficult to relate to experimental data. An overview of both anatomical features and criteria used to delineate boundaries is required to assign location to experimental material from the hippocampal region. To address this issue, we have developed a web-based atlas application in which images of histological sections are integrated with new and up-to-date criteria for subdividing the rat hippocampus formation, fasciola and associated parahippocampal regions. The atlas application consists of an interactive image viewer with high-resolution images of an extensive series of sections stained for NeuN, calbindin, and parvalbumin, and an index of structures with detailed descriptions of the criteria used to define the boundaries. Images can be inspected with a graphical overlay of selected subregions. Bi-directional links between images and the index of structures are provided. In summary, we provide a novel content-rich digital atlas resource facilitating identification of morphological features relevant for delineating the anatomical subdivisions of the rat hippocampal region. The atlas application is available at http://www.rbwb.org.

  15. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  16. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  17. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  18. Thalamic pain: anatomical and physiological indices of prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Nuutti; Perchet, Caroline; Magnin, Michel; Creac'h, Christelle; Convers, Philippe; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Thalamic pain is a severe and treatment-resistant type of central pain that may develop after thalamic stroke. Lesions within the ventrocaudal regions of the thalamus carry the highest risk to develop pain, but its emergence in individual patients remains impossible to predict. Because damage to the spino-thalamo-cortical system is a crucial factor in the development of central pain, in this study we combined detailed anatomical atlas-based mapping of thalamic lesions and assessment of spinothalamic integrity using quantitative sensory analysis and laser-evoked potentials in 42 thalamic stroke patients, of whom 31 had developed thalamic pain. More than 97% of lesions involved an area between 2 and 7 mm above the anterior-posterior commissural plane. Although most thalamic lesions affected several nuclei, patients with central pain showed maximal lesion convergence on the anterior pulvinar nucleus (a major spinothalamic target) while the convergence area lay within the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in pain-free patients. Both involvement of the anterior pulvinar nucleus and spinothalamic dysfunction (nociceptive thresholds, laser-evoked potentials) were significantly associated with the development of thalamic pain, whereas involvement of ventral posterior lateral nucleus and lemniscal dysfunction (position sense, graphaesthesia, pallaesthesia, stereognosis, standard somatosensory potentials) were similarly distributed in patients with or without pain. A logistic regression model combining spinothalamic dysfunction and anterior pulvinar nucleus involvement as regressors had 93% sensitivity and 87% positive predictive value for thalamic pain. Lesion of spinothalamic afferents to the posterior thalamus appears therefore determinant to the development of central pain after thalamic stroke. Sorting out of patients at different risks of developing thalamic pain may be achievable at the individual level by combining lesion localization and functional investigation of

  19. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities. PMID:18488135

  20. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved by......, as well as anatomical features to characterize each branch, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.912 is achieved. This is significantly better than computing the average WA%....

  1. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger; Petersen, Jens; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved by......, as well as anatomical features to characterize each branch, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curveof 0.912 is achieved. This is significantly better than computing the average WA%....

  2. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections

  3. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Dubravka; Luković Jadranka; Đan Mihajla; Zorić Lana; Obreht Dragana; Veselić Sanja; Anačkov G.; Petanidou Theodora

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos), one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analys...

  4. Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...

  5. Anatomic Double-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Nitri, Marco; Civitarese, David; Dean, Chase S.; Moulton, Samuel G.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is known to be the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. Anatomic single-bundle PCL reconstruction, focusing on reconstruction of the larger anterolateral bundle, is the most commonly performed procedure. Because of the residual posterior and rotational tibial instability after the single-bundle procedure and the inability to restore the normal knee kinematics, an anatomic double-bundle PCL reconstruction has been proposed in an effort to re-create the n...

  6. Detection and Analysis of Statistical Differences in Anatomical Shape

    OpenAIRE

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Martha E. Shenton; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients vs. normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input i...

  7. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  8. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  9. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  10. Angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle of an island nasal chondromucosal flap: Anatomical study and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    HOU, DIANJU; Fang, Lin; Zhao, Zhenmin; ZHOU, CHUANDE; YANG, MINGYONG

    2012-01-01

    Successful eyelid reconstructions have been reported when using an axial nasal chondromucosal flap based on the dorsal nasal artery. The present study aimed to present a detailed anatomical description of the blood supply of the lateral nasal region and the angular artery, in order to propose the angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle for the island nasal chondromucosal flap. A total of 11 cadavers (22 hemi-faces) were examined. Observations with regard to the origin, course and distributi...

  11. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  12. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  13. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  14. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  15. Approach to the Peroneal Artery: Relevant Anatomical Aspects in Surgery and Traumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejedor, Mariano

    Full Text Available The peroneal artery is a branch of secondary importance in the vasculature of the leg. Because current therapeutic application, it is very important to understand in detail the anatomy and the different ways in which can be addressed.36 anatomical regions (legs of Caucasian individuals, adults, sex indefinite formol to 10% were dissected. The approach to the peroneal artery was made in two parts: top and bottom.Taking into account the two parts of the artery, we made a detailed description of the possible approaches:The approach of the free disposal of the artery in its upper part, allows to perform revascularization. There are three approaches of easy access: medial, dorsal and lateral.Lower portion: the peroneal artery, hide, runs through the thickness of the flexor hallucis longus muscle and supplies the nutrient artery of fibula in the middle third of the leg. The study of relationships and variants, allow over the side track, obtained feasible musculoskeletal flaps that include it.At present, knowledge of the anatomy of the peroneal artery and its surgical approaches are very useful if revascularization. Moreover, the possibility of being used as vascularized fibular free flaps, make it an item of considerable importance in trauma, vascular and plastic surgery, among other specialties. For this reason, we believe that a proper understanding of the anatomical features of the peroneal artery and the region it is essential to approach it.

  16. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  17. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  18. The fine details of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-08-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was based on studies of biology at the species level. In the time since his death, studies at the molecular level have confirmed his ideas about the kinship of all life on Earth and have provided a wealth of detail about the evolutionary relationships between different species and a deeper understanding of the finer workings of natural selection. We now have a wealth of data, including the genome sequences of a wide range of organisms, an even larger number of protein sequences, a significant knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins, DNA and other biological molecules, and a huge body of information about the operation of these molecules as systems in the molecular machinery of all living things. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers from oral presentations given at a Biochemical Society Focused Meeting to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, held on 26-27 January 2009 at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge. The talks reported on some of the insights into evolution which have been obtained from the study of protein sequences, structures and systems. PMID:19614583

  19. Identification of Salicornia population: Anatomical characterization and RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis of two typical populations of Salicornia europaea from Montenegro and Greece (Lesvos, one typical population of S. ramosissima from Spain and one population that belongs to the Salicornia genus from Serbia, was undertaken to develop a new strategy for identifying Salicornia plants. Anatomical variability and differentiation were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis (MDA. On the basis of the anatomical measurements, the four populations were classified into three groups: one joining the plants from Serbia and Spain, one comprising the Montenegrin group and one comprising the Lesvos group. RAPD analysis indicated that populations from Spain and Serbia were closely related to each other and the Lesvos group was quite different from all the other investigated populations. These results opened up the possibility that the specimens from Serbia belonged to S. ramosissima and not to S. europaea, as reported previously.

  20. Anatomic landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Marcelo D; Furlan, Julio C; Teixeira, Gilberto V; Friguglietti, Celso U M; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Magalhães, Roberto P; Ferraz, Alberto R; Brandão, Lenine G

    2009-05-01

    This anatomical study examines the anatomic topography and landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during surgical dissections in 40 fresh human cadavers (2 females and 38 males; ages from 22 to 89 years with a mean of 60 years). In the submandibular region, the SAN was found anteriorly to the transverse process of the atlas in 77.5% of the dissections. When the SAN crossed the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the mean distance from the point of crossing to the tendon of the muscle was 1.75 +/- 0.54 cm. Distally, the SAN crossed between the two heads of the SCM muscle in 45% of the dissections and deep to the muscle in 55%. The SAN exited the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a point superior to the nerve point with a mean distance between these two anatomic parameters of 0.97 +/- 0.46 cm. The mean overall extracranial length of the SAN was 12.02 +/- 2.32 cm, whereas the mean length of the SAN in the posterior triangle was 5.27 +/- 1.52 cm. There were 2-10 lymph nodes in the SAN chain. In conclusion, the nerve point is one of the most reliable anatomic landmarks for localization of the SAN in surgical neck dissections. Although other anatomic parameters including the transverse process of the atlas and the digastric muscle can also be used to localize the SAN, the surgeon should be aware of the possibility of anatomic variations of those parameters. Similar to previous investigations, our results suggest that the number of lymph nodes of the SAN chain greatly varies. PMID:19373901

  1. Reply to “Introducing International Journal of Anatomical Variations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu BK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor, International Journal of Anatomical Variations:Please accept my heartiest congratulations on your recent opening of International Journal of Anatomical Variations Journal. I have already gone through the articles of first volume. It was surprised to read some of the unique variations published in it. Reading of these variations by vascular surgeons and angiologist will certainly boost their knowledge for better diagnosis and I hope you will continue publishing these types of rare variations. It would be great, if you encourage authors to submit research related articles. It is obvious that you have a wide-open future ahead of you.

  2. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampoura Stefania S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure.

  3. Anatomical eponyms, Part 2: The other side of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    Over a century after they were removed, at least officially, from anatomical terminology, eponyms remain an obviously controversial topic. In the first part of this paper we acted as their defense counsel, aiming to demonstrate that the 1895 first edition of the Nomina Anatomica and subsequently the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) probably put the cart before the horse. However, their authors advanced arguments supporting their decision, and it is now time to develop these arguments. Let us now become the public prosecutor of eponyms. PMID:25067796

  4. Anatomic Variation of Sphenoid Sinus and Related Structures in Libyan Population: CT Scan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewaidi GH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sphenoid sinus is the most inaccessible paranasal sinus, enclosed within the sphenoid bone and intimately related to numerous vital neural and vascular structures. Anatomic variation of the sphenoid sinus is well documented and may complicate surgery in such a place. Objective: To outline the surgically risky anatomic variants of the sphenoid sinus as well as the variable relationships between the sinus and related neurovascular structures, for the safe removal of intrasphenoid and pituitary lesions. Materials and Methods: We undertook a prospective review of 300 paranasal sinus CT scans of Libyan patients; coronal CT scans were obtained by special parameter techniques. We assessed pneumatization of pterygoid process (PP, anterior clinoid process (ACP, and greater wing of sphenoid (GWS; we also examined protrusion and dehiscence of internal carotid artery (ICA, optic nerve (ON, maxillary nerve (MN, and vidian nerve (VN into the sphenoid sinus cavity. Results: Pneumatization of PP, ACP, and GWS were seen in 87 (29%, 46 (15.3%, and 60 patients (20%, respectively. Protrusion of ICA, ON, MN, and VN were noticed in 123 (41%, 107 (35.6%, 73 (24.3%, and 81 patients (27%, respectively; dehiscence of these structures was encountered in 90 (30%, 92 (30.6%, 39 (13%, and 111 patients (37%, respectively. Statistically, there was a highly significant association between ACP pneumatization and ICA protrusion, ACP pneumatization and ON protrusion, PP pneumatization and VN protrusion; and GWS pneumatization and MN protrusion (p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: The sphenoid sinus is highly variable; this variability necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the regional sphenoid sinus anatomy by a detailed CT scan sinus examination before surgery in and around the sinus. This study indicates the possibility of a racial anatomical variation of the sphenoid sinus in the Libyan population.

  5. 5 CFR 317.903 - Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details. 317.903 Section 317.903... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Reassignments, Transfers, and Details § 317.903 Details. (a) Definition. In this section, detail means the temporary assignment of an SES member to another position (within or outside of the...

  6. Anatomical, neurophysiological and perceptual issues of tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, B.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Cholewiak, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we are concerned with what our touch receptors and the associated central nervous structures do. Our description begins with the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the touch receptors followed by a comprehensive psychophysical overview of touch sensation and perception.

  7. ANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES BEHIND PRESERVATION OF LARYNGEAL NERVES DURING THYROIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fabian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the anatomical principles behind preservation of inferior laryngeal nerve and of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. The embryological development of thyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerves explains the constant relationship between Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, while anomalies in development of the aortic arches explain the presence of rare anatomical variants, with a high risk of nerve injury, of non-recurrent course of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Good knowledge of the relationship between the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve and the superior thyroid artery makes possible to avoid transection of this branch during ligature around superior thyroid artery and vein. Anatomical landmarks used to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve (tracheo-oesophageal sulcus, the cross-over with the inferior thyroid artery, Berry’s ligament, Zuckerkandl’s tuberculum and variations in the extra-laryngeal branching of the nerve are discussed based on data from the literature. The anatomical variants when the inferior laryngeal nerve doesn’t have a recurrent course are also discussed

  8. Pattern recognition of anatomical shapes in CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medical image processing pattern recognition has become of major value in anatomical analysis and in computer aided information processing. Specifically, pattern recognition techniques simplify software development by means of which clinicians can manipulate anatomical relationships. As part of an overall CT pattern recognition system, a sequential edge tracking routine was devised together with a normalized Fourier descriptor analysis of identified shapes. A collection of shapes were extracted from CT scans of two patients and entered into an anatomic shape dictionary. This dictionary was employed in pattern matching experiments and in three-dimensional anatomical reconstruction. A sequential-edge tracking algorithm of high reliability, consistency, and image invariance, capable of utilizing heuristic and statistical rules, was demonstrated. Tests of pattern matching algorithms based on Fourier descriptors provided rapid and accurate body organ recognition of shapes extracted from de novo images using the shape dictionary. Results indicate that automated contour extraction and object recognition from cross-sectional images of human anatomy can be performed effectively, reliably, and rapidly. This abstract discusses an image processing environment that circumvents manual and subjective shape extraction, by substituting automatic and quantitative shape extraction, pattern matching and object recognition

  9. Ankle Joint Fusion With an Anatomically Preshaped Anterior Locking Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Barg, Alexej; Schlemmer, Thomas; Valderrabano, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel fixation plate for primary ankle joint fusion. A single anatomically preshaped angular stable plate was used with an anterior approach. An excellent result with good bone consolidation was present at the 1-year follow-up examination. PMID:25998475

  10. The Contribution of Dynamic Exploration to Virtual Anatomical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments are increasingly becoming part of the medical curriculum. In a previous study we (luursema et al., 2006 found that a combination of computer-implemented stereopsis (visual depth through seeing with both eyes and dynamic exploration (being able to continuously change one's viewpoint relative to the studied objects in real time is beneficial to anatomical learning, especially for subjects of low visuo spatial ability (the ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental representations of a visuo-spatial nature. A follow-up study (luursema et al., 2008 found the contribution of computer-implemented stereopsis to this effect to be small but significant. The present experiment investigated the contribution of dynamic exploration to anatomical learning by means of a virtual learning environment. Seventy participants were tested for visuo-spatial ability and were grouped in pairs matched for this ability. One individual of the pair actively manipulated a 3D reconstruction of the human abdomen; the other individual passively watched the interactions of the first individual on a separate screen. Learning was assessed by two anatomical learning tests. Dynamic exploration provided a small but significant benefit to anatomical learning.

  11. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns proje

  12. The role of stereopsis in virtual anatomical learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Piet A.M.; Annema, Jan-Henk

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments in the medical field is on the rise. An earlier experiment [Luursema, J.-M., Verwey, W.B., Kommers, P.A.M., Geelkerken, R.H., Vos, H.J., 2006. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning. Interacting with Computers, 18, 1123–1138.] found t

  13. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  14. Anatomical Modifications in two Juncus Species under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al HASSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomic structure of roots and culms of two Juncus species with different degrees of salt tolerance was analysed in plants grown for two months under salt stress (NaCl treatments and in control, non-treated plants. The aim of the study was not only to compare the anatomical structures of a halophyte (J. acutus and a related glycophyte (J. articulatus, but mostly to assess whether salt stress induced anatomical modifications, by identifying differences between control and treated plants. Several slight differences have been indeed detected, in terms of endodermis type, development of aerenchyma and extent of sclerenchyma in perivascular sheaths. The role of Casparian endodermis was here discussed in relation to its complex implications in controlling salt influx at the root level that is an efficient mechanism involved in halophytes. Aerenchyma is a common feature found in marshy halophytes, allowing them to survive naturally under flooding conditions; however, when occurring in non-waterlogged plants, as is the case of this study, it should be regarded as a genetically, constitutive adaptation rather than an inducible one. Nevertheless, such anatomic modifications should be regarded as mere alterations due to stress – that is, as stress responses – and not as truly adaptations to salinity. In this context, the nature of these modifications – either considered as adaptations or damage indicators of salt stress – should be further reconsidered.

  15. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  16. Discovering anatomical patterns with pathological meaning by clustering of visual primitives in structural brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan; Pulido, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline of the anatomy that studies macroscopic details of the human body structure using a set of automatic techniques. Different reference systems have been developed for brain mapping and morphometry in functional and structural studies. Several models integrate particular anatomical regions to highlight pathological patterns in structural brain MRI, a really challenging task due to the complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the human brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a strategy that aims to find anatomical regions with pathological meaning by using a probabilistic analysis. Our method starts by extracting visual primitives from brain MRI that are partitioned into small patches and which are then softly clustered, forming different regions not necessarily connected. Each of these regions is described by a co- occurrence histogram of visual features, upon which a probabilistic semantic analysis is used to find the underlying structure of the information, i.e., separated regions by their low level similarity. The proposed approach was tested with the OASIS data set which includes 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 65 healthy subjects (NC).

  17. Dynamic high-resolution US of ankle and midfoot ligaments: normal anatomic structure and imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Orlandi, Davide; Lacelli, Francesca; Serafini, Giovanni; Silvestri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The ankle is the most frequently injured major joint in the body, and ankle sprains are frequently encountered in individuals playing football, basketball, and other team sports, in addition to occurring in the general population. Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of ankle ligaments. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proven to provide excellent evaluation of ligaments around the ankle, with the ability to show associated intraarticular abnormalities, joint effusion, and bone marrow edema. Ultrasonography (US) performed with high-resolution broadband linear-array probes has become increasingly important in the assessment of ligaments around the ankle because it is low cost, fast, readily available, and free of ionizing radiation. US can provide a detailed depiction of normal anatomic structures and is effective for evaluating ligament integrity. In addition, US allows the performance of dynamic maneuvers, which may contribute to increased visibility of normal ligaments and improved detection of tears. In this article, the authors describe the US techniques for evaluation of the ankle and midfoot ligaments and include a brief review of the literature related to their basic anatomic structures and US of these structures. Short video clips showing dynamic maneuvers and dynamic real-time US of ankle and midfoot structures and their principal pathologic patterns are included as supplemental material. Use of a standardized imaging technique may help reduce the intrinsic operator dependence of US. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25590396

  18. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and

  19. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Keall, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and did

  20. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  1. 49 CFR 176.102 - Supervisory detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervisory detail. 176.102 Section 176.102... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.102 Supervisory detail. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the COTP may assign a USCG supervisory detail to any vessel to supervise...

  2. 5 CFR 532.411 - Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details. 532.411 Section 532.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.411 Details. An appropriated fund employee detailed to a position other than the position...

  3. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  4. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  5. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  6. Analysis of anatomic variability in children with low mathematical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoying; Fuchs, Lynn; Davis, Nikki; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical difficulty affects approximately 5-9% of the population. Studies on individuals with dyscalculia, a neurologically based math disorder, provide important insight into the neural correlates of mathematical ability. For example, cognitive theories, neuropsychological studies, and functional neuroimaging studies in individuals with dyscalculia suggest that the bilateral parietal lobes and intraparietal sulcus are central to mathematical performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate morphological differences in a group of third grade children with poor math skills. We compare population averages of children with low math skill (MD) to gender and age matched controls with average math ability. Anatomical data were gathered with high resolution MRI and four different population averaging methods were used to study the effect of the normalization technique on the results. Statistical results based on the deformation fields between the two groups show anatomical differences in the bilateral parietal lobes, right frontal lobe, and left occipital/parietal lobe.

  7. Generalized metrics induced anatomical prior for MAP PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information theoretic metrics, including mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE), have been investigated as priors to incorporate anatomical information in ill-posed positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. These metrics are generally based on the Shannon entropy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we proposed a generalized metrics induced anatomical prior for maximum a posteriori (MAP) PET reconstruction based on the generalized Shannon entropy metrics or Tsallis entropy. For the presented prior computation, a non-parametric method was used to estimate the joint probability density of the PET and MR image. Furthermore, we also developed an one-step-advance (OSA) MAP algorithm for PET image reconstruction with the presented prior regularization. Simulation results show that the presented novel prior has significantly improved the reconstructed PET image quality. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  9. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  10. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  11. Anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament recon-struction

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xue-Song

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the early results of anatomic double-bundle anterior cruci-ate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the results of native ACL of the contralateral knee. Methods: The results of a consecutive series of 118 patients receiving arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were evaluated. Eight patients were lost to the latest follow-up, leaving a total of 110 patients available for study within at least 3 years’ clinical fol...

  12. MAPPING BRAIN ANATOMICAL CONNECTIVITY USING WHITE MATTER TRACTOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Integration of the neural processes in the human brain is realized through interconnections that exist between different neural centers. These interconnections take place through white matter pathways. White matter tractography is currently the only available technique for reconstructing the anatomical connectivity in the human brain non-invasively and in-vivo. The trajectory and terminations of white matter pathways are estimated from local orientations of nerve bundles. These orientations a...

  13. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  14. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations in Vestibular Dysfunction and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.; Mills, Kristal N.; Gaines, G. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have be...

  15. Anatomic Variation of the Common Palmar Digital Nerves and Arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Dong; Fu, Maoyong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the course and distribution of common palmar digital nerves and arteries are rare. A classic common palmar digital nerves and arteries are defined as concomitant. During routine dissection classes to undergraduate medical students we observed formation of each common palmar digital nerve divided into 2 or 3 branches and formed a ring enclosing the corresponding common palmar digital artery. Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the common palmar digital nerves and arteries i...

  16. Anatomical basis for sciatic nerve block at the knee level

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa; Tatiana Rosa Bezerra Wanderley Barbosa; Rafael Martins da Cunha; Amanda Karine Barros Rodrigues; Fernando Wagner da Silva Ramos; Célio Fernando de Sousa-Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, administration of sciatic nerve block has been revised due to the potential benefit for postoperative analgesia and patient satisfaction after the advent of ultrasound. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relations of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa to determine the optimal distance the needle must be positioned in order to realize the sciatic nerve block anterior to its bifurcation into the tibial and common fibular nerve. METHOD...

  17. Anatomical Atlas-Guided Diffuse Optical Tomography of Brain Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Custo, Anna; Boas, David A.; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Wells, Williams

    2009-01-01

    We describe a neuro imaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide Diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the b...

  18. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Thomsen, Laura; Wille, Mathilde; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....... Disease (COPD). Performance is statis- tically similar to the inter- and intra-expert agreement, and we found no significant correlation between COPD stage and labeling accuracy....

  19. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq U. Hassan; Zahida Rasool; Nasir Muzzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and s...

  20. A review of 155 extra-anatomic bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, M.C.; Mikulin, T; Hopkinson, B R; Makin, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    Extra-anatomic bypass grafting has been used as treatment for patients with aorto-iliac disease who were considered unfit for aortic surgery. Eighty five percent of the patients had ischaemic pain at rest or skin necrosis. One hundred and three femorofemoral (FF) grafts, 40 axillounifemoral and 12 axillobifemoral grafts were performed. Femoropopliteal extension grafts were performed in 39 cases. The three year cumulative graft patency rate was 69% for FF grafts and 48% for both types of axill...

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  2. The aspects regarding Chrysanthemum vitro- and exvitroplantlets anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was consecrate to observe the histoanatomical structure of roots stems and leafs of Chrysanthemum vitroplantlets, in their vitroculture period and of exvitroplantlets, at 30 days from their septic medium transfer. The registered observations were compared with those realized at similar organs level of greenhouse plants (control lot. The noted differences between vitroplantlets anatomical structure and that greenhouse plants had, in special, ontogenetic bases.

  3. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    Assessments of trochlear depth for patients with medial patellar luxation have traditionally been estimated from skyline radiographs or visually during surgery. Ultrasound offers a non-invasive evaluation method which could avoid the need for arthrotomy. We compared anatomic, radiographic and ult...... respective DICOM files which restricts ultrasonographic landmark resolution. Further work on quantifying interobserver variation and repeat measurement variation is required to ensure confidence in this technique....

  4. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of trochlear depth for patients with medial patellar luxation have traditionally been estimated from skyline radiographs or visually during surgery. Ultrasound offers a non-invasive evaluation method which could avoid the need for arthrotomy. We compared anatomic, radiographic and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal...

  5. Plastinated nasal model: a new concept of anatomically realistic cast.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie; Louis, Bruno; Pouget, Jean-François; Isabey, Daniel; Coste, André; Prades, Jean-Michel; Rusch, Philippe; Cottier, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, researchers have been interested in investigating airflow and aerosol deposition in the nasal cavities. The nasal airways appear to be a complex geometrical system. Thus, in vitro experimental studies are frequently conducted with a more or less biomimetic nasal replica. AIM: This study is devoted to the development of an anatomically realistic nose model with bilateral nasal cavities, i.e. nasal anatomy, airway geometry and aerodynamic properties as close as possi...

  6. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C.; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M.; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W.; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P.; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of gene...

  7. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Nataša P.; Merkulov Ljiljana S.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Borišev Milan K.; Orlović Saša S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia). Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp), seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis), and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone). Obtain...

  8. The Essential Anatomical Subunit Approximation Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, David K; Swanson, Jordan W

    2016-07-01

    The anatomical subunit approximation cleft lip repair advantageously achieves a balanced lip contour, with the line of repair hidden along seams of aesthetic subunits. Dr. David Fisher's original description of the repair reflects the considerable thought that went into the evolution of his design. As his technique has gained acceptance in the intervening 10 years, the authors note several key principles embodied in it that represent a shift in the cleft lip repair paradigm. The authors believe understanding these principles is important to mastery of the anatomical subunit technique, and facilitate its teaching. First, design a plan that adheres to anatomical subunits and perform measurements precisely. Second, identify and adequately release each cleft tissue layer from the lip and nose to enable restoration of balance. Third, drive surgical approximation through inset of the lateral muscle into the superiorly backcut medial orbicularis muscle, followed by skin closure with inferior triangle interposition above the white roll. In this article, the authors present essential components of the technique, and identify several principles that enable its successful execution. PMID:27348690

  9. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  10. Testing anatomically specified hypotheses in functional imaging using cytoarchitectonic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Heim, Stefan; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-08-15

    The statistical inference on functional imaging data is severely complicated by the embedded multiple testing problem. Defining a region of interest (ROI) where the activation is hypothesized a priori helps to circumvent this problem, since in this case the inference is restricted to fewer simultaneous tests, rendering it more sensitive. Cytoarchitectonic maps obtained from postmortem brains provide objective, a priori ROIs that can be used to test anatomically specified hypotheses about the localization of functional activations. We here analyzed three methods for the definition of ROIs based on probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. (1) ROIs defined by the volume assigned to a cytoarchitectonic area in the summary map of all areas (maximum probability map, MPM), (2) ROIs based on thresholding the individual probabilistic maps and (3) spherical ROIs build around the cytoarchitectonic center of gravity. The quality with which the thus defined ROIs represented the respective cytoarchitectonic areas as well as their sensitivity for detecting functional activations was subsequently statistically evaluated. Our data showed that the MPM method yields ROIs, which reflect most adequately the underlying anatomical hypotheses. These maps also show a high degree of sensitivity in the statistical analysis. We thus propose the use of MPMs for the definition of ROIs. In combination with thresholding based on the Gaussian random field theory, these ROIs can then be applied to test anatomically specified hypotheses in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:16781166

  11. A Comparative Study of Radiographic Images on Normal Anatomical Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare radiographic images of Digora system and Ektaspeed Plus film obtained from normal adults. Storage phosphor plate (SPP) was placed in a film holder behind Ektaspeed Plus film package without lead foil. The effect of film on SPP was studied in a separate in vitro experiment. Forty-seven sets of images were prepared for the evaluation. The regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation were designated at seven sites including normal anatomical structures. The image quality for each ROI was evaluated on enhanced and unenhanced storage phosphor (SP) images and Ektaspeed Plus film. Two film-SPP configurations showed significantly different grey levels at each step of the aluminum step wedge (p<0.05). The contrasts were comparable. Enhanced SP images were significantly superior to unenhanced images and film in all anatomical structures (p<0.01). The differences between unenhanced SP images and film were significant (p<0.05) except root canal and cortical bone on alveolar crest. For anatomical items, there were statistically significant difference among five observers (p<0.05). The image quality of enhanced SP images were superior to Ektaspeed Plus film, and Digora system is potentially applicable to clinical diagnosis.

  12. Anatomic variations of anterior cerebral artery cortical branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, M A; Schneider, F L; Marrone, A C; Severino, A G; Jackowski, A P; Wallace, M C

    2000-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a major vessel responsible for the blood supply to the interhemispheric region. The ACA segment after the anterior communicating artery (AComA) origin is called the distal ACA and has central and cortical branches. The cortical branches are distributed in the different regions of the orbital and medial part of the brain. The objects of this study are the anatomical variations found in the distal ACA. In 76 hemispheres the ACA distal branches were injected with latex and dissected under microscope magnification. Vessel diameters and distances between vessel origins and anterior communicating artery were recorded and analyzed. Microsurgical dissection was carried out to demonstrate anatomic variations of these vessels. Average diameter of ACA at origin was 2.61 +/- 0.34 mm and average diameter of cortical branches diameter ranged from 0.79 +/- 0.27 mm to 1.84 +/- 0.3 mm. Distances between vessel origin and AComA ranged from 7.68 +/- 3.91 mm (orbitofrontal) to 112.6 +/- 11.63 mm (inferior internal parietal). This study found anatomical variations: a single (azygos) ACA was present in one case and three in three cases. Crossing branches of the distal ACA to the contralateral hemisphere were present in 26% of the cases. In some cases a single ACA may supply the posterior hemispheric region through crossing branches. This calls attention to potential bilateral brain infarcts due to a single unilateral ACA occlusion. PMID:10873213

  13. Detection and analysis of statistical differences in anatomical shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Polina; Grimson, W Eric L; Shenton, Martha E; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-02-01

    We present a computational framework for image-based analysis and interpretation of statistical differences in anatomical shape between populations. Applications of such analysis include understanding developmental and anatomical aspects of disorders when comparing patients versus normal controls, studying morphological changes caused by aging, or even differences in normal anatomy, for example, differences between genders. Once a quantitative description of organ shape is extracted from input images, the problem of identifying differences between the two groups can be reduced to one of the classical questions in machine learning of constructing a classifier function for assigning new examples to one of the two groups while making as few misclassifications as possible. The resulting classifier must be interpreted in terms of shape differences between the two groups back in the image domain. We demonstrate a novel approach to such interpretation that allows us to argue about the identified shape differences in anatomically meaningful terms of organ deformation. Given a classifier function in the feature space, we derive a deformation that corresponds to the differences between the two classes while ignoring shape variability within each class. Based on this approach, we present a system for statistical shape analysis using distance transforms for shape representation and the support vector machines learning algorithm for the optimal classifier estimation and demonstrate it on artificially generated data sets, as well as real medical studies. PMID:15581813

  14. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  15. An interactive three dimensional approach to anatomical description—the jaw musculature of the Australian laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Quayle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of form-function relationships requires a detailed understanding of anatomical systems. Here we document the 3-dimensional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal anatomy in the Australian Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae, with a focus upon the geometry and attachments of the jaw muscles in this species. The head of a deceased specimen was CT scanned, and an accurate 3D representation of the skull and jaw muscles was generated through manual segmentation of the CT scan images, and augmented by dissection of the specimen. We identified 14 major jaw muscles: 6 in the temporal group (M. adductor mandibulae and M. pseudotemporalis, 7 in the pterygoid group (M. pterygoideus dorsalis and M. pterygoideus ventralis, and the single jaw abductor M. depressor mandibulae. Previous descriptions of avian jaw musculature are hindered by limited visual representation and inconsistency in the nomenclature. To address these issues, we: (1 present the 3D model produced from the segmentation process as a digital, fully interactive model in the form of an embedded 3D image, which can be viewed from any angle, and within which major components can be set as opaque, transparent, or hidden, allowing the anatomy to be visualised as required to provide a detailed understanding of the jaw anatomy; (2 provide a summary of the nomenclature used throughout the avian jaw muscle literature. The approach presented here provides considerable advantages for the documentation and communication of detailed anatomical structures in a wide range of taxa.

  16. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  17. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  18. Nabokov's Details: Making Sense of Irrational Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, Pelagia

    2012-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov's passion for detail is well-known, central to our very idea of the "Nabokovian." Yet Nabokov's most important claims for detail pose a challenge for the reader who would take them seriously. Startlingly extreme and deliberately counterintuitive -- Nabokov called them his "irrational standards" -- these claims push the very limits of reason and belief. Nabokov's critics have tended to treat his more extravagant claims for detail -- including his assertion that the "capacity t...

  19. A unified anatomical theory and computational model of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain and the introduction of DNA reco codes

    OpenAIRE

    Solari, Soren

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive unified anatomical theory in conjunction with computational models that serve to provide a complete working explanatory framework for cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Our model provides sufficient detail such that we are able to hypothesize the function of individual populations of neurons as they correlate to psychological observation. We first introduce our working hypothesis, confabulation theory, on the fundamental cortica...

  20. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  1. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. A report of age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. ICRP Publication 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to antomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations

  2. Anatomical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a logical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the surgical approach that we have used over the last years for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, highlighting the importance of arthroscopic viewing through the anteromedial portal (AMP and femoral tunnel drilling through an accessory anteromedial portal (AMP. The AMP allows direct view of the ACL femoral insertion site on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, does not require guides for anatomic femoral tunnel reaming, prevents an additional lateral incision in the distal third of the thigh (as would be unavoidable when the outside-intechnique is used and also can be used for double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

  3. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  4. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images

  5. Etymology of homeric anatomical terms for the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni KONSOLAKI, Panagiotis AGGOURIDAKIS, Georgia FRAGAKI, Georgios ROMANOS,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The search for the origin of medical terms used in every day practice has started since the distant past. Words that refer to the head and the neck can be found as early as in the Homeric epics; many of these have survived in some form in modern languages. Both doctors and philosophers have been concerned with the etymology of medical terminology in studies and dictionaries. This paper presents etymological suggestions for the anatomical terminology of the head and the neck as a useful aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

  6. Pneumomediastinum: Elucidation of the anatomic pathway by liquid ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadar, D.A.; Kazerooni, E.A.; Hirschl, R.B. [Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Partial liquid ventilation is a new technique to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a patient with status asthmaticus and tension pneumothorax treated with subsequent liquid ventilation, radiopaque perfluorocarbon was identified along bronchovascular structures, in the mediastinum, and in the retroperitoneum. Perfluorocarbon outlined on CT and chest radiography the anatomic pathway by which spontaneous pneumomediastinum develops following alveolar rupture, as described earlier by histopathologic study in animals. This represents the radiopaque equivalent of radiolucent pneumomediastinum. Perfluorocarbon remained in the pulmonary interstitium on radiography 30 days after beginning liquid ventilation, without sequelae. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Sparse decomposition and modeling of anatomical shape variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  8. Sparse Decomposition and Modeling of Anatomical Shape Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Rostrup, Egill; Ryberg, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    counterparts if constructed carefully. In most medical applications, models are required to have both good statistical performance and a relevant clinical interpretation to be of value. Morphometry of the corpus callosum is one illustrative example. This paper presents a method for relating spatial features to...... anatomical variation related to clinical outcome. In the present application, landmark-based shape data of the corpus callosum is analyzed in relation to age, gender, and clinical tests of walking speed and verbal fluency. To put the data-driven sparse principal component method into perspective, we consider...

  9. Anatomical and Histological Factors Affecting Intranasal Drug and Vaccine Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive r...

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  11. MR anatomic and flow imaging in peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging has been used to identify atherosclerotic plaques and assess their effect on flow in a phantom, in six normal subjects, and in 13 patients with documented peripheral vascular disease. Spin-echo images were acquired in transaxial and oblique planes through the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, and the findings were compared with those of angiography. MR phase mapping was used to produce velocity profiles and to measure blood flow. Plaques were consistently detected on anatomic images, and luminal narrowing could be assessed by changes in the velocity profiles, MR imaging is a nonivasive method that is of potential importance in the study of atheroma

  12. Tracheal Atresia with Segmental Esophageal Duplication: An Unusual Anatomic Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerty, Kirsten; Thomas, Joseph T; Petersen, Scott; Tan, Edwin; Kumar, Sailesh; Gardener, Glenn; Armes, Jane

    2016-01-01

    An unusual anatomic configuration of segmental tracheal agenesis/atresia with esophageal duplication on autopsy in a fetus that demised in utero at 29 weeks is reported. The mother was scanned initially for a cardiac anomaly at 20 weeks and on follow-up scan at 27 weeks had polyhydramnios and underwent amnioreduction. The final autopsy diagnosis was vertebral, ano-rectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb malformations (VACTERL). We discuss the autopsy findings along with the embryological mechanisms and compare the configuration with Floyd's classification for tracheal agenesis. The difficulties in prenatal diagnosis are discussed. PMID:26367770

  13. Anatomical eponyms, part 1: to look on the bright side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry, Regis

    2014-11-01

    The use of eponyms in medical sciences generally, and in anatomy specifically, remains controversial. In principle, this discussion should have been concluded as far back as 1895 (publication of the first Nomina anatomica): all eponyms should have been removed from the anatomical vocabulary then. In practice, what was believed to be a mere formality proved much more difficult to apply. Most eponyms remain in current use; moreover, their number goes on increasing. Assuming that there's no smoke without fire, we wondered why it seems impossible to get rid of a specific kind of term. The aim of this article and its successor is to weigh up the pros and cons. PMID:24953603

  14. Geodesic atlas-based labeling of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin; Thomsen, Laura Hohwu; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast and robust atlas-based algorithm for labeling airway trees, using geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for an unlabeled airway tree are evaluated using distances to a training set of labeled airway trees. In tree-space, airway tree...... topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural automatic handling of anatomical differences and noise. A hierarchical approach makes the algorithm efficient, assigning labels from the trachea and downwards. Only the airway centerline tree is used, which is relatively unaffected by pathology...

  15. Nervous Plexopathies in oncologic patients: Anatomical, clinical and radiological Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral or brachial plexopathies are lesions of two or more roots of the same plexus. They are very frequent in cancer patients and are usually due to extra spinal involvement of these roots, by a primary or secondary neoplasm. The CT scan is very useful in the evaluation of patients with this disease. In the article anatomic al aspects, the main clinical symptoms and signs, and the performance of CT scan are reviewed with all these elements it is possible to make a diagnosis

  16. Morfología y anatomía del cefalio de Cephalocereus senilis (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Monserrat

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the morphology and anatomy of Cephalocereus senilis (Haw. Pfeiff. flowering zone to describe and compare it with the information available for other species. We described in detail the vegetative and reproductive branches. Results show that there are morphological changes linked to anatomical ones after the flowering zone is differentiated. The flowering zone in this species is termed lateral cephalium by its interareolar space reduction, areole size increment, and high production of long bristles and trichomes in the areoles. Moreover, periderm development near the apical meristem, lack of chlorenchyma and a delay in xylematic fibers differentiation are traits related with the lateral cephalium. The lateral cephalium of C. senilis shows modifications previously reported for the Espostoa species with lateral cephalium, except for the presence of crystals in the trichomes, the addition of new ribs to the cephalium, and the growth in xylem and phloem parenchyma.Se estudió la morfología y anatomía de la zona florífera de Cephalocereus seniles (Haw. Pfeiff. con la finalidad de caracterizarla y compararla con la información disponible para otras especies. Se describen con detalle las ramas vegetativas y reproductivas. Los resultados mostraron que existen cambios en la morfología relacionados con cambios en la anatomía después de la formación de la zona florífera. La reducción de los espacios interareolares, el incremento en el tamaño de las aréolas y una densa producción de cerdas y tricomas largos en las aréolas de la zona florífera permiten reconocerla como un cefalio lateral. Tres cambios anatómicos se asocian a la presencia del cefalio lateral: el desarrollo de la peridermis cercana al meristemo apical, la ausencia de clorénquima y el retardo en la formación de fibras en el xilema secundario. El cefalio lateral de C. seniles presenta las modificaciones reportadas para las especies del género Espostoa, también con

  17. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  18. Stiilne detail vanalinnas / Jüri Kuuskemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuskemaa, Jüri, 1942-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus Rotermanni soolalaos "Stiilne detail vanalinnas" esitab detaile, mis on ilmestanud Tallinna siluetti (tuulelipud), tänavapilti (lukusiltidest ja uksekoputitest pühakuorvakujudeni) ja tubasid (akna käepidemest ahjukahlite, põrandaplaatide, toauste, stukk- ja kivireljeefideni). Kuraator J. Kuuskemaa, kujundaja M. Agabush.

  19. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian; Krarup, Christian

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  20. Understanding brains: details, intuition, and big data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Marder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important.

  1. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS, adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus. Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx; Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP software v.1.3. The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and

  2. Multi-detector row CT for depicting anatomic features of cephalothoracopagus varieties: revised approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Roberto; Esposito, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Mariano; Cirillo, Mario; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Sasso, Francesco Silvano; Rotondo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Conjoined twins can be classified on the basis of the site of union; thus, three main types can be described: (a) ventral union, (b) dorsal union, and (c) rarer forms of union. Ventral union is characterized by the fusion of the two embryos on the ventral side (eg, the abdomen). Dorsal union twins are joined on the dorsal aspect (eg, the vertebral column or occipital bone). Ventral union twins include the group of crucipage twins (ventral midline structures at 90 degrees to the dorsal midline structures), which show interesting features in the organization of the midline. Twins conjoined at the head and chest are called cephalothoracopagus twins. The cephalothoracopagus variety called "Janus" is characterized by the presence of two opposite faces, which are composite structures half of which belong to one twin and half to the other. A complete set of five variants of cephalothoracopagus is presented and, to the authors' knowledge, analyzed for the first time with multi-detector row helical computed tomography. This modality is an invaluable tool for obtaining high-resolution images of the brain, chest, abdomen, and spine and for demonstrating organ position, shared viscera, and limited vascular anatomy. In addition, data acquired in three-dimensional volumes can further be manipulated and then reconstructed. For this purpose, the authors developed dedicated software for three-dimensional reconstruction to analyze data from specimens preserved in formalin. The anatomic findings are discussed here for their embryologic value and to revise the classification of cephalothoracopagus twins. These data offer detailed information for accurate comprehension of imaging studies and for theoretical studies concerning the formation of several anatomic structures. PMID:15249653

  3. Anatomical, Clinical and Electrical Observations in Piriformis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoum Hani A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We provided clinical and electrical descriptions of the piriformis syndrome, contributing to better understanding of the pathogenesis and further diagnostic criteria. Methods Between 3550 patients complaining of sciatica, we concluded 26 cases of piriformis syndrome, 15 females, 11 males, mean age 35.37 year-old. We operated 9 patients, 2 to 19 years after the onset of symptoms, 5 had piriformis steroids injection. A dorsolumbar MRI were performed in all cases and a pelvic MRI in 7 patients. The electro-diagnostic test was performed in 13 cases, between them the H reflex of the peroneal nerve was tested 7 times. Results After a followup 1 to 11 years, for the 17 non operated patients, 3 patients responded to conservative treatment. 6 of the operated had an excellent result, 2 residual minor pain and one failed. 3 new anatomical observations were described with atypical compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle. Conclusion While the H reflex test of the tibial nerve did not give common satisfaction in the literature for diagnosis, the H reflex of the peroneal nerve should be given more importance, because it demonstrated in our study more specific sign, with six clinical criteria it contributed to improve the method of diagnosis. The cause of this particular syndrome does not only depend on the relation sciatic nerve-piriformis muscle, but the environmental conditions should be considered with the series of the anatomical anomalies to explain the real cause of this pain.

  4. The anatomical and functional specialization of the fusiform gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Zilles, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The fusiform gyrus (FG) is commonly included in anatomical atlases and is considered a key structure for functionally-specialized computations of high-level vision such as face perception, object recognition, and reading. However, it is not widely known that the FG has a contentious history. In this review, we first provide a historical analysis of the discovery of the FG and why certain features, such as the mid-fusiform sulcus, were discovered and then forgotten. We then discuss how observer-independent methods for identifying cytoarchitectonical boundaries of the cortex revolutionized our understanding of cytoarchitecture and the correspondence between those boundaries and cortical folding patterns of the FG. We further explain that the co-occurrence between cortical folding patterns and cytoarchitectonical boundaries are more common than classically thought and also, are functionally meaningful especially on the FG and probably in high-level visual cortex more generally. We conclude by proposing a series of alternatives for how the anatomical organization of the FG can accommodate seemingly different theoretical aspects of functional processing, such as domain specificity and perceptual expertise. PMID:26119921

  5. Variations in meniscofemoral ligaments at anatomical study and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.M.; Suh, J.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, J.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyungsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.; Yoo, W.K. [Department of Rehabilitation, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.Y.; Chung, I.H. [Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Purpose To demonstrate variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments (ligaments of Wrisberg and Humphrey) at anatomical study and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Design Twenty-eight cadaveric knees were partially dissected for the examination of the meniscofemoral ligaments. One hundred knee MR examinations were reviewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Proximal variations in the meniscofemoral ligaments at MR imaging were classified into three types according to the attachment site: type I, medial femoral condyle; type II, proximal half of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); type III, distal half of the PCL. Distal variations were classified into vertical or oblique types according to the orientation of the intermediate signal at the interface of the ligament and lateral meniscus. Results At anatomical study, six cases showed variations in the proximal insertion site of the meniscofemoral ligaments. At MR imaging 93 cases had one or more meniscofemoral ligaments, giving a total of 107 ligaments: 90 ligaments of Wrisberg and 17 ligaments of Humphrey. Forty-one ligaments of Wrisberg were type I, 28 type II, 19 type III, and with two indeterminate type, while 6 ligaments of Humphrey were type I and the remaining 11 were indeterminate. Seven cases showed no meniscofemoral ligament. Of the 107 meniscofemoral ligaments, the distal insertion orientation was of vertical type in 10 ligaments, oblique type in 70 and unidentified in 27. Conclusion An understanding of the high incidence of meniscofemoral ligament variations may help in the interpretation of knee MR studies. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs.

  6. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: 1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  7. An anatomical and functional model of the human tracheobronchial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, M; Sapoval, B; Filoche, M

    2011-03-01

    The human tracheobronchial tree is a complex branched distribution system in charge of renewing the air inside the acini, which are the gas exchange units. We present here a systematic geometrical model of this system described as a self-similar assembly of rigid pipes. It includes the specific geometry of the upper bronchial tree and a self-similar intermediary tree with a systematic branching asymmetry. It ends by the terminal bronchioles whose generations range from 8 to 22. Unlike classical models, it does not rely on a simple scaling law. With a limited number of parameters, this model reproduces the morphometric data from various sources (Horsfield K, Dart G, Olson DE, Filley GF, Cumming G. J Appl Physiol 31: 207-217, 1971; Weibel ER. Morphometry of the Human Lung. New York: Academic Press, 1963) and the main characteristics of the ventilation. Studying various types of random variations of the airway sizes, we show that strong correlations are needed to reproduce the measured distributions. Moreover, the ventilation performances are observed to be robust against anatomical variability. The same methodology applied to the rat also permits building a geometrical model that reproduces the anatomical and ventilation characteristics of this animal. This simple model can be directly used as a common description of the entire tree in analytical or numerical studies such as the computation of air flow distribution or aerosol transport. PMID:21183626

  8. Feasibility of Subxiphoid Anatomic Pulmonary Lobectomy in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yen-Chu; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Liu, Chieng-Ying; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Transthoracic thoracoscopic approach is the gold standard in surgical treatment for thoracic disease. However, it is associated with significant chronic postoperative wound discomfort. Currently, limited data are available regarding the subxiphoid approach to the thoracic cavity. The present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of a subxiphoid anatomic pulmonary lobectomy (SAPL) in a canine model. Methods The SAPL procedure was performed in 10 beagle dogs using a 3-cm incision over the xiphoid process. After thoracic exploration, SAPL was performed under flexible bronchoscopy guidance. The pulmonary vessel was divided with Ligasure and secured with a suture ligature. The bronchus was divided with endostapler. Surgical outcomes were evaluated by the success of SAPL and operative complications. Results SAPL was successfully completed in 9 animals. One animal required conventional thoracotomy to resuture the pulmonary artery stump. Another animal encountered small middle lobe laceration after SAPL and died at 8 days postoperation due to respiratory distress. Conclusion Subxiphoid anatomic pulmonary lobectomy is technically feasible. Refinement of endoscopic instruments combined with more research evidences may facilitate the development of subxiphoid platform in thoracic surgery. PMID:26546368

  9. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm3) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm3) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  10. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  11. Fine phonetic detail and intonational meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Post, B.M.B.; Imperio, M. d'; Gussenhoven, C.

    2007-01-01

    International audience The development of theories about form-function relations in intonation should be informed by a better understanding of the dependencies that hold among different phonetic parameters. Fine phonetic detail encodes both linguistically structured meaning and paralinguistic meaning.

  12. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  13. Post Entitlement Management Information - Detail Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the detailed and aggregate receipt, pending and clearance data, as well as other strategic and tactical MI for many Title II and Title...

  14. NSF Details 1975 Budget, Grant Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkel, Fred H.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the National Science Foundation budget allocations in general and explains those in the chemistry field in more detail. Describes the procedures, policies, and objectives for the selection of research projects. (GS)

  15. Anatomical decomposition in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the early diagnosis of lung cancer has recently become more important. For early screening lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as a gold standard for early diagnosis of lung cancer [1]. The major advantage of CT is that it is not susceptible to the problem of misdiagnosis caused by anatomical overlapping while CT has extremely high radiation dose and cost compared to chest radiography. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced new modality for lung cancer screening with relatively low radiation dose compared to CT [2] and also showing high sensitivity and specificity to prevent anatomical overlapping occurred in chest radiography. Dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules as means of reducing the anatomical noise [3]. In this study, possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by simulation study and actual experiment using prototype CDT. Furthermore organ absorbed dose and effective dose were compared with single energy CDT. The Gate v6 (Geant4 application for tomographic emission), and TASMIP (Tungsten anode spectral model using the interpolating polynomial) code were used for simulation study and simulated cylinder shape phantom consisted of 4 inner beads which were filled with spine, rib, muscle and lung equivalent materials. The patient dose was estimated by PCXMC 1.5 Monte Carlo simulation tool [4]. The tomosynthesis scan was performed with a linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over 30 degree of angular range with 1.5° degree of angular interval. The proto type CDT system has same geometry with simulation study and composed of E7869X (Toshiba, Japan) x-ray tube and FDX3543RPW (Toshiba, Japan) detector. The result images showed that reconstructed with dual energy clearly visualize lung filed by removing unnecessary bony structure. Furthermore, dual energy CDT could enhance

  16. Major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomical lung resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwe, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A multicentre evaluation of the frequency and nature of major intraoperative complications during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) anatomical resections. METHODS: Six European centres submitted their series of consecutive anatomical lung resections with the intention to treat by VATS...... complication. Surgeon's experience was related to non-oncological conversions, but not to vascular injuries or major complications in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Major intraoperative complications during VATS anatomical lung resections are infrequent, seem not to be related to...

  17. Medial portal technique for single-bundle anatomical Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Charles H.; Spalding, Tim; Robb, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the medial portal technique for anatomical single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Placement of an ACL graft within the anatomical femoral and tibial attachment sites is critical to the success and clinical outcome of ACL reconstruction. Non-anatomical ACL graft placement is the most common technical error leading to recurrent instability following ACL reconstruction. ACL reconstruction has commonly been performed using a transtibial ...

  18. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN THE FABRICATION OF ANATOMICALLY SHAPED LATTICE SCAFFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Milovanović; Miloš Stojković; Miroslav Trajanović

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing of anatomically shaped scaffolds for bonе tissue recovery as well as other similar anatomically shaped implants represents a major challenge for modern manufacturing technologies. The complexity of anatomically shaped lattice scaffolds for bone tissue recovery requires involvement of so-called additive manufacturing processes.This paper brings out the criterial matrix for the assessment of additive manufacturing processes applicability in the case of bone tissue scaffold manufac...

  19. Introducing DeBRa: a detailed breast model for radiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Andy K. W.; Gunn, Spencer; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2009-07-01

    Currently, x-ray mammography is the method of choice in breast cancer screening programmes. As the mammography technology moves from 2D imaging modalities to 3D, conventional computational phantoms do not have sufficient detail to support the studies of these advanced imaging systems. Studies of these 3D imaging systems call for a realistic and sophisticated computational model of the breast. DeBRa (Detailed Breast model for Radiological studies) is the most advanced, detailed, 3D computational model of the breast developed recently for breast imaging studies. A DeBRa phantom can be constructed to model a compressed breast, as in film/screen, digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis studies, or a non-compressed breast as in positron emission mammography and breast CT studies. Both the cranial-caudal and mediolateral oblique views can be modelled. The anatomical details inside the phantom include the lactiferous duct system, the Cooper ligaments and the pectoral muscle. The fibroglandular tissues are also modelled realistically. In addition, abnormalities such as microcalcifications, irregular tumours and spiculated tumours are inserted into the phantom. Existing sophisticated breast models require specialized simulation codes. Unlike its predecessors, DeBRa has elemental compositions and densities incorporated into its voxels including those of the explicitly modelled anatomical structures and the noise-like fibroglandular tissues. The voxel dimensions are specified as needed by any study and the microcalcifications are embedded into the voxels so that the microcalcification sizes are not limited by the voxel dimensions. Therefore, DeBRa works with general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. Furthermore, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes allow different types of imaging modalities and detector characteristics to be simulated with ease. DeBRa is a versatile and multipurpose model specifically designed for both x-ray and γ-ray imaging studies.

  20. Introducing DeBRa: a detailed breast model for radiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Andy K W; Darambara, Dimitra G [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom); Gunn, Spencer [Dexela Ltd, Wenlock Business Centre, 50/52 Wharf Road, London N1 7SF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andyma@physics.org, E-mail: dimitra.darambara@icr.ac.uk, E-mail: spencer@dexelaimaging.com

    2009-07-21

    Currently, x-ray mammography is the method of choice in breast cancer screening programmes. As the mammography technology moves from 2D imaging modalities to 3D, conventional computational phantoms do not have sufficient detail to support the studies of these advanced imaging systems. Studies of these 3D imaging systems call for a realistic and sophisticated computational model of the breast. DeBRa (Detailed Breast model for Radiological studies) is the most advanced, detailed, 3D computational model of the breast developed recently for breast imaging studies. A DeBRa phantom can be constructed to model a compressed breast, as in film/screen, digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis studies, or a non-compressed breast as in positron emission mammography and breast CT studies. Both the cranial-caudal and mediolateral oblique views can be modelled. The anatomical details inside the phantom include the lactiferous duct system, the Cooper ligaments and the pectoral muscle. The fibroglandular tissues are also modelled realistically. In addition, abnormalities such as microcalcifications, irregular tumours and spiculated tumours are inserted into the phantom. Existing sophisticated breast models require specialized simulation codes. Unlike its predecessors, DeBRa has elemental compositions and densities incorporated into its voxels including those of the explicitly modelled anatomical structures and the noise-like fibroglandular tissues. The voxel dimensions are specified as needed by any study and the microcalcifications are embedded into the voxels so that the microcalcification sizes are not limited by the voxel dimensions. Therefore, DeBRa works with general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. Furthermore, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes allow different types of imaging modalities and detector characteristics to be simulated with ease. DeBRa is a versatile and multipurpose model specifically designed for both x-ray and {gamma}-ray imaging studies.

  1. Foundations of Intonational Meaning: Anatomical and Physiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussenhoven, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Like non-verbal communication, paralinguistic communication is rooted in anatomical and physiological factors. Paralinguistic form-meaning relations arise from the way these affect speech production, with some fine-tuning by the cultural and linguistic context. The effects have been classified as "biological codes," following the terminological lead of John Ohala's Frequency Code. Intonational morphemes, though arguably non-arbitrary in principle, are in fact heavily biased toward these paralinguistic meanings. Paralinguistic and linguistic meanings for four biological codes are illustrated. In addition to the Frequency Code, the Effort Code, and the Respiratory Code, the Sirenic Code is introduced here, which is based on the use of whispery phonation, widely seen as being responsible for the signaling and perception of feminine attractiveness and sometimes used to express interrogativity in language. In the context of the evolution of language, the relations between physiological conditions and the resulting paralinguistic and linguistic meanings will need to be clarified. PMID:27016315

  2. Algorithms to automatically quantify the geometric similarity of anatomical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, D; Clair, E St; Puente, J; Funkhouser, T; Patel, B; Jernvall, J; Daubechies, I

    2011-01-01

    We describe new approaches for distances between pairs of 2-dimensional surfaces (embedded in 3-dimensional space) that use local structures and global information contained in inter-structure geometric relationships. We present algorithms to automatically determine these distances as well as geometric correspondences. This is motivated by the aspiration of students of natural science to understand the continuity of form that unites the diversity of life. At present, scientists using physical traits to study evolutionary relationships among living and extinct animals analyze data extracted from carefully defined anatomical correspondence points (landmarks). Identifying and recording these landmarks is time consuming and can be done accurately only by trained morphologists. This renders these studies inaccessible to non-morphologists, and causes phenomics to lag behind genomics in elucidating evolutionary patterns. Unlike other algorithms presented for morphological correspondences our approach does not requir...

  3. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Demondion, Xavier [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 59037, Lille (France); Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Marchiori, Edson [Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Cotten, Hervé [Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Bd de la Liberté, 59000, Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications.

  4. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications

  5. Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations are associated with severe and early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, few studies have investigated anatomical patterns of dermatitis and none has been conducted in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of dermatitis in...... obtained by use of questionnaires. Participants were genotyped for common FLG mutations. A history of AD was defined by the United Kingdom Working Party's diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of foot dermatitis in the general population was associated with FLG genotype (P = .014). However, when...... stratification of FLG genotype and AD was performed, we found that FLG mutations increased the prevalence (odds ratios) of foot dermatitis (odds ratio 10.41; 95% confidence interval 5.27-20.60) and persistent hand dermatitis (odds ratio 17.57; 95% confidence interval 8.60-35.89) only in participants with AD...

  6. Anatomical investigation on Cactaceae Juss.: a historical retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Kalashnyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cactaceae consists of perennial stem succulents with diverse morphology. Due the distinctive structure and form the interest of researchers to this group of plants is increasing nowadays. The present paper provides an overview of published data concerning anatomical studies on the family Cactaceae since the mid-nineteenth century to our days. It is important to consider that recent interest in this field does not reduce, while the number of studies dealing with the structure and features of seedlings, the effect of various environmental factors on them is uprising. Such studies have a great practical importance for introduction and reintroduction of cacti, as well as for determination of their adaptive characteristics to environmental conditions.

  7. Primary empty sella turcica: a radiological-anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical basis of the primary empty sella turcica is illustrated to emphasize that it represents a normal variant and not pathology. Unlike CT, the suprasellar structures including the visual system are clearly demonstrated by MRI. Intrasellar herniation of the superior visual system into a primary or secondary empty sella is well delineated by MR. Such herniation is said to be uncommon in primary empty sellae but not uncommon with secondary empty sellae. In the absence of herniation, on sagittal sections, the optic chiasm and optic nerves form a straight line with the optic canal while the floor of the third ventricle continues as a straight line to the mamillary bodies. Copyright (2000) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Anatomic Study of Female Sterility of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Pengjun; Li Fenglan; Zheng Caixia

    2003-01-01

    The anatomic research on the mutant clone of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. in the seed orchard in Xingcheng, LiaoningProvince was carried out. The female cone of the mutant clone looked like normal, but its ovules degenerated in the early stage. Thispaper tries to find out the reason and time of ovule abortion. It seems that the ovule abortion is probably caused by female sterilitybecause the microspores of this mutant clone were normal. Through the serial observations on the one-year-old macrosporangiatesand the ovules of two-year-old female cones of mutant and normal clone, it is found that the reason of ovule abortion in mutant cloneis the failure of the mitosis of free nuclei in the female gametophyte, and the time is about in the early April.

  9. The anatomical, surgical and orthopedic importance of gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrocnemius is one of the most important muscles of lower limb. It belongs to the superficial compartment of calf muscles. They belong to group of superficial flexors. Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus form the bulk of the calf. Gastrocnemius forms the belly of the calf. It arises by two distinct heads, connected to the condyles of the femur by strong, flat tendons. It has an immense anatomic, medical, orthopedic and physiological importance and is attributed in a variety of medical and surgical problems. A profound knowledge of this muscle is of great importance to any surgeon or orthopedicians or any clinician. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 326-328

  10. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  11. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  12. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  13. Design and use of numerical anatomical atlases for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide radio-oncology specialists with automatic tools for delineating organs at risk of a patient undergoing a radiotherapy treatment of cerebral or head and neck tumors. To achieve this goal, we use an anatomical atlas, i.e. a representative anatomy associated to a clinical image representing it. The registration of this atlas allows us to segment automatically the patient structures and to accelerate this process. Contributions in this method are presented on three axes. First, we want to obtain a registration method which is as independent as possible from the setting of its parameters. This setting, done by the clinician, indeed needs to be minimal while guaranteeing a robust result. We therefore propose registration methods allowing a better control of the obtained transformation, using rejection techniques of inadequate matching or locally affine transformations. The second axis is dedicated to the consideration of structures associated with the presence of the tumor. These structures, not present in the atlas, indeed lead to local errors in the atlas-based segmentation. We therefore propose methods to delineate these structures and take them into account in the registration. Finally, we present the construction of an anatomical atlas of the head and neck region and its evaluation on a database of patients. We show in this part the feasibility of the use of an atlas for this region, as well as a simple method to evaluate the registration methods used to build an atlas. All this research work has been implemented in a commercial software (Imago from DOSIsoft), allowing us to validate our results in clinical conditions. (author)

  14. Swept-source anatomic optical coherence elastography of porcine trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Ruofei; Price, Hillel; Mitran, Sorin; Zdanski, Carlton; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative endoscopic imaging is at the vanguard of novel techniques in the assessment upper airway obstruction. Anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) has the potential to provide the geometry of the airway lumen with high-resolution and in 4 dimensions. By coupling aOCT with measurements of pressure, optical coherence elastography (OCE) can be performed to characterize airway wall stiffness. This can aid in identifying regions of dynamic collapse as well as informing computational fluid dynamics modeling to aid in surgical decision-making. Toward this end, here we report on an anatomic optical coherence tomography (aOCT) system powered by a wavelength-swept laser source. The system employs a fiber-optic catheter with outer diameter of 0.82 mm deployed via the bore of a commercial, flexible bronchoscope. Helical scans are performed to measure the airway geometry and to quantify the cross-sectional-area (CSA) of the airway. We report on a preliminary validation of aOCT for elastography, in which aOCT-derived CSA was obtained as a function of pressure to estimate airway wall compliance. Experiments performed on a Latex rubber tube resulted in a compliance measurement of 0.68+/-0.02 mm2/cmH2O, with R2=0.98 over the pressure range from 10 to 40 cmH2O. Next, ex vivo porcine trachea was studied, resulting in a measured compliance from 1.06+/-0.12 to 3.34+/-0.44 mm2/cmH2O, (R2>0.81). The linearity of the data confirms the elastic nature of the airway. The compliance values are within the same order-of-magnitude as previous measurements of human upper airways, suggesting that this system is capable of assessing airway wall compliance in future human studies.

  15. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  16. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  17. An anatomically realistic brain phantom for quantification with positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phantom studies are useful in assessing and maximizing the accuracy and precision of quantification of absolute activity, assessing errors associated with patient positioning, and dosimetry. Most phantoms are limited by the use of simple shapes, which do not adequately reflect real anatomy. The authors have constructed an anatomically realistic life-size brain phantom for positron tomography studies. The phantom consists of separately fillable R + L caudates, R + L putamens, R + L globus passidus and cerebellum. These structures are contained in proper anatomic orientation within a fillable cerebrum. Solid ventricles are also present. The entire clear vinyl cerebrum is placed in a human skull. The internal brain structures were fabricated from polyester resin, with dimensions, shapes and sizes of the structures obtained from digitized contours of brain slices in the U.C.S.D. computerized brain atlas. The structures were filled with known concentrations of Ga-68 in water and scanned with our NeuroECAT. The phantom was aligned in the scanner for each structure, such that the tomographic slice passed through that structure's center. After calibration of the scanner with a standard phantom for counts/pixel uCi/cc conversion, the measured activity concentrations were compared with the actual concentrations. The ratio of measured to actual activity concentration (''recovery coefficient'') for the caudate was 0.33; for the putamen 0.42. For comparison, the ratio for spheres of diameters 9.5, 16,19 and 25.4 mm was 0.23, 0.54, 0.81, and 0.93. This phantom provides more realistic assessment of performance and allows calculation of correction factors

  18. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative. PMID:22740154

  19. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  20. Clinical repercussions of Martin-Gruber anastomosis: anatomical study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Pedro, Gabriel; Caetano, Maurício Ferreira; Vieira, Luiz Angelo; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to describe Martin-Gruber anastomosis anatomically and to recognize its clinical repercussions. Method 100 forearms of 50 adult cadavers were dissected in an anatomy laboratory. The dissection was performed by means of a midline incision along the entire forearm and the lower third of the upper arm. Two flaps including skin and subcutaneous tissue were folded back on the radial and ulnar sides, respectively. Results Nerve communication between the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) was found in 27 forearms. The anastomosis was classified into six types: type I: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 9); type II: anastomosis between the anterior interosseous nerve and the ulnar nerve at two points (double anastomosis) (n = 2); type III: anastomosis between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve (n = 4); type IV: anastomosis between branches of the median nerve and ulnar nerve heading toward the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the fingers; these fascicles form a loop with distal convexity (n = 5); type V: intramuscular anastomosis (n = 5); and type VI: anastomosis between a branch of the median nerve to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle and the ulnar nerve (n = 2). Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomical variations relating to the innervation of the hand has great importance, especially with regard to physical examination, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment. If these variations are not given due regard, errors and other consequences will be inevitable. PMID:27069892

  1. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  2. Eros details enhanced by computer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The NEAR camera's ability to show details of Eros's surface is limited by the spacecraft's distance from the asteroid. That is, the closer the spacecraft is to the surface, the more that details are visible. However mission scientists regularly use computer processing to squeeze an extra measure of information from returned data. In a technique known as 'superresolution', many images of the same scene acquired at very, very slightly different camera pointing are carefully overlain and processed to bright out details even smaller than would normally be visible. In this rendition constructed out of 20 image frames acquired Feb. 12, 2000, the images have first been enhanced ('high-pass filtered') to accentuate small-scale details. Superresolution was then used to bring out features below the normal ability of the camera to resolve.Built and managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, NEAR was the first spacecraft launched in NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost, small-scale planetary missions. See the NEAR web page at http://near.jhuapl.edu for more details.

  3. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Heshmati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carrying members or systems in the bridge. Poor detailing, with unstiffened gaps and abrupt changes in stiffness at the connections between different members were also found to contribute to fatigue cracking in many details.

  4. Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts and...... assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus on the...

  5. Space-Frequency Detail-Preserving Construction of Neonatal Brain Atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Shi, Feng; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Brain atlases are an integral component of neuroimaging studies. However, most brain atlases are fuzzy and lack structural details, especially in the cortical regions. In particular, neonatal brain atlases are especially challenging to construct due to the low spatial resolution and low tissue contrast. This is mainly caused by the image averaging process involved in atlas construction, often smoothing out high-frequency contents that indicate fine anatomical details. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for detail-preserving construction of atlases. Our approach combines space and frequency information to better preserve image details. This is achieved by performing reconstruction in the space-frequency domain given by wavelet transform. Sparse patch-based atlas reconstruction is performed in each frequency subband. Combining the results for all these subbands will then result in a refined atlas. Compared with existing atlases, experimental results indicate that our approach has the ability to build an atlas with more structural details, thus leading to better performance when used to normalize a group of testing neonatal images.

  6. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  7. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  8. 16 CFR 1750.5 - Detailed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION REFRIGERATOR SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR DEVICES TO PERMIT THE OPENING OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATOR DOORS FROM THE INSIDE § 1750.5 Detailed... permit the refrigerator door to be opened on the application of a force equivalent to one which,...

  9. Detailed Decompositions in Generalized Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach for performing detailed decompositions of average outcome differentials, which can be applied to all types of generalized linear models. A simulation exercise demonstrates that our method produces more convincing results than existing methods. An empirical application to the immigrant-native wage differential in Switzerland is presented.

  10. New details emerge from the Einstein files

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2002-01-01

    For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).

  11. Surface Detail Capturing for Realistic Facial Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Hsuan Tu; I-Chen Lin; Jeng-Sheng Yeh; Rung-Huei Liang; Ming Ouhyoung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a facial animation system is proposed for capturing both geometrical information and illumination changes of surface details, called expression details, from video clips simultaneously, and the captured data can be widely applied to different 2D face images and 3D face models. While tracking the geometric data,we record the expression details by ratio images. For 2D facial animation synthesis, these ratio images are used to generate dynamic textures. Because a ratio image is obtained via dividing colors of an expressive face by those of a neutral face, pixels with ratio value smaller than one are where a wrinkle or crease appears. Therefore, the gradients of the ratio value at each pixel in ratio images are regarded as changes of a face surface, and original normals on the surface can be adjusted according to these gradients. Based on this idea, we can convert the ratio images into a sequence of normal maps and then apply them to animated 3D model rendering. With the expression detail mapping, the resulted facial animations are more life-like and more expressive.

  12. Detailed measurement on a HESCO diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Holm, Dorte; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    inlet velocity is a very important boundary condition both in CFD calculation and general flow measurements. If only the volume flow and the geometrical area are used, a relatively large error in the inlet velocity may result. From the detailed measurements it was possible to establish an expression...

  13. Scaphotrapezial ligament: normal arthro-CT and arthro-MRI appearance with anatomical and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, A; Wolfram-Gabel, R; Dosch, J C; Sanda, R; Antunes, A B F; Decock, S; Zorn, P; Foessel, L; Bierry, G; Clavert, P; Dietemann, J L; Kahn, J L

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to demonstrate and describe the MR and arthro-CT anatomic appearance of the scaphotrapezial ligament and illustrate some of the pathologies involving this structure. This ligament consists of two slips that originate from the radiopalmar aspect of the scaphoid tuberosity and extend distally, forming a V shape. The ulnar fibers, which are just radial to the flexor carpi radialis sheath, inserted along the trapezial ridge. The radial fibers were found to be thinner and inserted at the radial aspect of the trapezium. Twelve fresh cadaver wrists were dissected, with close attention paid to the scaphotrapezio-trapezoidal (STT) joint. An osseoligamentous specimen was dissected with removal of all musculotendinous structures around the STT joint and was performed with high-resolution acquisition in a 128-MDCT scanner. Samples of the wrist area were collected from two fetal specimens. A retrospective study of 55 patients with wrist pain that were submitted to arthrography, arthro-CT, and arthro-MRI imaging was performed (10 patients on a 3-T superconducting magnet and 45 patients on a 1.5-T system). Another ten patients had high-resolution images on a 3-T superconducting magnet without arthrographic injection. MR arthrography and arthro-CT improved visualization and provided detailed information about the anatomy of the scaphotrapezial ligament. Knowledge of the appearance of this normal ligament on MRI allows accurate diagnosis of lesions and will aid when surgery is indicated or may have a role in avoiding unnecessary immobilization. PMID:21455837

  14. Ossiculoplasty with autologous incus versus titanium prosthesis: A comparison of anatomical and functional results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amith I Naragund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the outcomes of ossiculoplasty in terms of hearing results and graft take-up rates, using autograft incus and titanium middle ear prosthesis in patients with ossicular chain erosion. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Patients between 10 and 60 years of age with a history of chronic ear discharge with moderate conductive deafness (>40 dB HL were included in the study. The patients underwent detailed ENT examination followed by audiological and radiological assessment of temporal bone and those patients with evidence of ossicular erosion were subjected to ossiculoplasty with autologous incus (group I or titanium prosthesis (group II randomly. The patients were followed up after 3 months to analyze the functional and anatomical results. Results: A total of 24 patients with ossicular chain defect were included in the study, of whom 12 patients underwent ossiculoplasty with autograft incus and 12 with titanium prosthesis. Postoperative hearing evaluation by pure tone audiogram was done after 3 months, which showed successful hearing improvement in 58% of cases with autologous incus as compared to 33% cases with titanium prosthesis. Complications and extrusion rate were also higher in patients with titanium prosthesis. Conclusion: Hearing results after ossiculoplasty with autologous incus were significantly better compared with those after titanium prosthesis. Also, complications and extrusion rate were higher in patients with titanium prosthesis. This indicates that ossiculoplasty with autoincus offers better hearing results with minimal complications and extrusion rates as compared to titanium prosthesis.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci’s anatomical drawings and Juan de Arfe y Villafañe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhrl, Boris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The four volumes of the Varia commensuración para la escultura y architectura (1585–87 of the Spanish silversmith and sculptor Juan de Arfe y Villafañe represent an extensive compilation of Italian art techniques of the Renaissance. The sources for the Libro segundo, which includes systematic explanations on the theory of proportions, the skeleton and musculature have yet to be discovered. Its didactic and illustrative structure is unique in the context of sixteenth-century literature. The general layout and some details of the illustrations of the first three chapters seem to be derived from the Windsor convolute of anatomical drawings by Leonardo da Vinci.Los cuatros libros de Varia commensuración para la escultura y architectura (1585-1587 del platero y escultor Juan de Arfe y Villafañe representan un extenso compendio de las teorías y técnicas del Renacimiento italiano. Las fuentes del Libro segundo, que contiene explicaciones sistemáticas sobre la proporción de la figura humana, el esqueleto y la musculatura, aún no han sido descubiertas. La estructura didáctica y las ilustraciones son únicas en el contexto de la literatura del siglo XVI. El formato general y algunos detalles de las ilustraciones de los primeros tres capítulos parecen tener su origen en los dibujos anatómicos de Leonardo da Vinci conservados en el castillo de Windsor.

  16. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. Study of 54 observations with anatomical confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to judge the reliability of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. It concerns 54 observations with anatomical confrontation (laparoscopy, biopsy, laparotomy and/or autopsy). Technetium 99m scintigraphy gives a correct diagnosis in 81.5% of the cases, whether cirrhosis is present or not. Scintigraphy is only one stage in the investigation of neoplasic liver disease. This study shows that all too often it is practised alone since of 201 observations only 54 include another examination, and of these only 21 a laparoscopy. The simultaneous use of scintigraphy and laparoscopy eliminates false positives and reduces the percentage of false negatives from 7.5% to 4%. The two methods combined are therefore reliable to 96% (i.e. 96% of successful diagnosis in liver cancer tests. This work was performed with the techniques available in 1973. The quality of the scintigraphic image should be improved by technical progress in the form of new isotopic products, cameras with better definition and computerized data processing. With these new techniques it will certainly be possible to detect very small lacunae and to observe in more detail their diffusion in the liver parenchyma

  17. A STUDY OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsala A R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anatomical variations of carotid arterial system which are not infrequently encountered have a great impact on the surgical approaches of the neck. Although the described individual variations of the carotid arteries are well-known in the literature, the combination of anomalies reported in this study has not been, to the best of our knowledge, previously described. The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck. Methods:The present study was undertaken on 80 common carotid arteries (40 left, 40 right of both sexes from embalmed adult human cadavers. The specimens were studied by detailed dissection method. Results: In the present study,fiftyone (63.8% bifurcations of common carotid arteries were high among which the most common levels of bifurcation was at the level of C 3 vertebral body (37.5%. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. Conclusion: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.

  18. Building a functional neurocognitive theory of the multiple intelligences anatomical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloCerruti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983, a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path towards constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning.

  19. TH-E-17A-06: Anatomical-Adaptive Compressed Sensing (AACS) Reconstruction for Thoracic 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; OBrien, R; Cooper, B; Kuncic, Z; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used for clinical thoracic 4-dimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction suffers from noise and streaking artifacts due to projection under-sampling. Compressed sensing theory enables reconstruction of under-sampled datasets via total-variation (TV) minimization, but TV-minimization algorithms such as adaptive-steepest-descent-projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) often converge slowly and are prone to over-smoothing anatomical details. These disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating general anatomical knowledge via anatomy segmentation. Based on this concept, we have developed an anatomical-adaptive compressed sensing (AACS) algorithm for thoracic 4D-CBCT reconstruction. Methods: AACS is based on the ASD-POCS framework, where each iteration consists of a TV-minimization step and a data fidelity constraint step. Prior to every AACS iteration, four major thoracic anatomical structures - soft tissue, lungs, bony anatomy, and pulmonary details - were segmented from the updated solution image. Based on the segmentation, an anatomical-adaptive weighting was applied to the TV-minimization step, so that TV-minimization was enhanced at noisy/streaky regions and suppressed at anatomical structures of interest. The image quality and convergence speed of AACS was compared to conventional ASD-POCS using an XCAT digital phantom and a patient scan. Results: For the XCAT phantom, the AACS image represented the ground truth better than the ASD-POCS image, giving a higher structural similarity index (0.93 vs. 0.84) and lower absolute difference (1.1*10{sup 4} vs. 1.4*10{sup 4}). For the patient case, while both algorithms resulted in much less noise and streaking than FDK, the AACS image showed considerably better contrast and sharpness of the vessels, tumor, and fiducial marker than the ASD-POCS image. In addition, AACS converged over 50% faster than ASD-POCS in both cases. Conclusions: The proposed AACS

  20. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  1. Anatomical and morphological adaptation of the leaves of Eragrostis minor Host (Poaceae in different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia A. Pashkevych

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the variability of the anatomical features of the leaf of Eragrostis minor Host from model cenopopulations, different by their affinity coenotic, environmental features and the degree of influence of the recreation has been carried out. The significant correlation between leaf characteristics was established, and estimated similarity of cenopopulations was analyzed on the base of leaf anatomical features.

  2. Anatomical and morphological adaptation of the leaves of Eragrostis minor Host (Poaceae) in different ecological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia A. Pashkevych

    2014-01-01

    A study of the variability of the anatomical features of the leaf of Eragrostis minor Host from model cenopopulations, different by their affinity coenotic, environmental features and the degree of influence of the recreation has been carried out. The significant correlation between leaf characteristics was established, and estimated similarity of cenopopulations was analyzed on the base of leaf anatomical features.

  3. "Anatomizing" Reversed: Use of Examination Questions that Foster Use of Higher Order Learning Skills by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E. Robert

    2010-01-01

    "Anatomizing" is a new verb some use to describe the breaking apart of a complex entity such as the human body, into isolated tidbits of information for study, which can never equal the complex, integrated whole. Although popular with first-year medical students, this practice of "tidbitting" anatomical information into easy to memorize facts or…

  4. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  5. Anatomical Dolls: Their Use in Assessment of Children Who May Have Been Sexually Abused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines anatomical dolls in interviews of children who may have been sexually abused from three perspectives. The article summarizes research findings on anatomical dolls, discusses advantages and disadvantages of using them, and describes endorsed doll uses. Although additional, ecologically-valid research is needed on anatomical…

  6. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Venbrux, Eric; Eisinga, Rob; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n = 54) at the 17

  7. Anatomist on the dissecting table? Dutch anatomical professionals' views on body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.; Venbrux, H.J.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Gerrits, P.O.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical professionals know better than anyone else that donated bodies are a valuable asset to anatomical science and medical education. They highly value voluntary donations, since a dearth of bodies negatively affects their profession. With this in mind, we conducted a survey (n ¼ 54) at the 17

  8. TECHNIQUE AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF ANATOMICAL LIVER RESECTIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique and surgical outcomes of anatomical liver resections using ERBEJET2® water-jet dissector were described. Overall 98 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases were included in this study. In 43 patients resections were performed using water-jet dissection technique. Water-jet dissection seems to be safe and effective technique for anatomical liver resections.

  9. Peculiarities of leaves morpho-anatomical parameters of Salvia L. species under the conditions of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko; Tatyana V. Multjan; Galyna O. Rudik

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of morpho-anatomical parameters of the leaves of three Salvia L. species of different biomorphes, which are grown under the introduction in O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, is considered. The morpho-anatomical features, which allow to discover structural adaptation possibilities of Salvia species ex situ , are established.

  10. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

  11. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  12. Langevin dynamics neglecting detailed balance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohzeki, Masayuki; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for driving a system into a desired distribution, for example, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, is proposed, which makes use of an artificial relaxation process. The standard techniques for achieving the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution involve numerical simulations under the detailed balance condition. In contrast, in the present study we formulate the Langevin dynamics, for which the corresponding Fokker-Planck operator includes an asymmetric component violating the detailed balance condition. This leads to shifts in the eigenvalues and results in the acceleration of the relaxation toward the steady state. The numerical implementation demonstrates faster convergence and shorter correlation time, and the technique of biased event sampling, Nemoto-Sasa theory, further highlights the efficacy of our method. PMID:26274123

  13. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  14. Fatigue-Prone Details in Steel Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Heshmati; Mohammad Al-Emrani; Reza Haghani

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a comprehensive investigation including more than 100 fatigue damage cases, reported for steel and composite bridges. The damage cases are categorized according to types of detail. The mechanisms behind fatigue damage in each category are identified and studied. It was found that more than 90% of all reported damage cases are of deformation-induced type and generated by some kind of unintentional or otherwise overlooked interaction between different load-carr...

  15. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sligte, Ilja G.

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages – iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory – with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a...

  16. The OPERA neutrino velocity measurement: Analysis details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km. An early arrival time of CNGS muon neutrinos with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum was measured. Details on the statistical analysis of the nominal beam data sample and the short-bunch analysis as well as additional cross checks and an outlook of upcoming measurements are discussed.

  17. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Skidmore, Warren; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G. C; Dickinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most dist...

  18. Anatomic relationship of the optic nerve channel with sphenoid al sinus: a computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sphenoid sinus, out of the facial sinuses, is certainly the most neglected as far as diagnosis is concerned. The surgical approach requires a detailed anatomical knowledge, considering the serious complications resulting from injuries of vital structures adjacent to this region. Aim: the objective of our research is to evaluate the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve with the sphenoid sinus making use of the computed tomography. Study design: series report. Material and method: the authors present a retrospective analysis of 203 computed tomographies of facial sinus belonging to individuals of both sexes aged 14 and over. The examinations were evaluated observing the course of the optic nerve, obtained through the degree of its projection on the wall of the sphenoid sinus. The method used was the modified classification of Delano, evaluating the absence of bone reduction (dehiscence) of the optic nerve in the sphenoid sinus. We analysed the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, using Hammer's classification adapted by Guerrero, apart from the pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process and pterigoid and the presence of the Onodi cell. Results: most of the patients (78.96%) presented their optic nerve with a type 1 course. Type 2 was observed in 16.83% of the patients, type 3 in 3.47% and type 4 in 0.74%. The presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve in the wall of the sphenoid sinus was evidenced in 21.29% of the cases. Related to pneumatization, we noticed that the pre-selar type was observed in 6.44%, the post-selar type appeared in 39.11%, the selar type appeared in 54.45%, and the apneumatized type was not observed in any of the cases. The pneumatization of the anterior clinoidal process was verified in 10.64% of the cases, while the pterigoid process was apparent in 21.29% of the cases. The Onodi cell (sphenoetmoidal) was found in 7.92% of the cases. Conclusion: the presence of dehiscence of the optic nerve is related with the degree of

  19. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number

  20. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  1. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain - a link between brain morphology and function, imaging of the functional status of the brain on a detailed anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of functional magnetic resonance imaging are outlined. The current status of knowledge and ideas for a future development are highlighted. The application fields of this technique include neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry. The method also serves as a research tool, where it may prove helpful in solving problems of sleep disorder and the generation and perception of speech. A brief overview of the requirements and the necessary background is given for those wishing to start their own activity in this field

  3. Cerebral functional connectivity periodically (de)synchronizes with anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Raphaël; Ziegler, Erik; Phillips, Christophe; Geurts, Pierre; Gómez, Francisco; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Yeo, B T Thomas; Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the link between resting-state functional connectivity (FC), measured by the correlations of fMRI BOLD time courses, and structural connectivity (SC), estimated through fiber tractography. Instead of a static analysis based on the correlation between SC and FC averaged over the entire fMRI time series, we propose a dynamic analysis, based on the time evolution of the correlation between SC and a suitably windowed FC. Assessing the statistical significance of the time series against random phase permutations, our data show a pronounced peak of significance for time window widths around 20-30 TR (40-60 s). Using the appropriate window width, we show that FC patterns oscillate between phases of high modularity, primarily shaped by anatomy, and phases of low modularity, primarily shaped by inter-network connectivity. Building upon recent results in dynamic FC, this emphasizes the potential role of SC as a transitory architecture between different highly connected resting-state FC patterns. Finally, we show that the regions contributing the most to these whole-brain level fluctuations of FC on the supporting anatomical architecture belong to the default mode and the executive control networks suggesting that they could be capturing consciousness-related processes such as mind wandering. PMID:26197763

  4. Mandibular Ramus Fracture: An Overview of Rare Anatomical Subsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anendd Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims at exemplifying the incidence, and aetiology and analyses the outcomes of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF over closed treatment of mandibular ramus fractures. Patients and Method. In the present retrospective analysis of mandibular fracture patients, variables analysed were age, sex, cause of injury, pretreatment occlusion, treatment given, period of maxillo-mandibular fixation (MMF, and posttreatment occlusion. Results. Out of 388 mandibular fractures treated, ramus fractures were 12 (3.09%. In the present study, predominant cause of mandibular ramus fracture was road traffic accident (RTA n = 07 (58.33% followed by fall n = 04 (33.33% and assault n = 1 (8.33%. The average age was 35.9 years with a male predilection. Of these, 9 patients were treated with ORIF while remaining 3 with closed treatment. The average MMF after closed treatment was 21 days and 3 to 5 days after ORIF. There was improvement in occlusion in all 12 patients posttreatment with no major complication except for reduced mouth opening in cases treated with ORIF which recovered with physiotherapy and muscle relaxants. Conclusion. Mandibular ramus fractures accounted for 3.09% with RTA as a common aetiology. ORIF of ramus fractures facilitated adequate functional and anatomic reduction with early return of function.

  5. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  6. Image-anatomic research of the alar ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect position and morphous as well as coursing of the alar ligament, and to further investigate the sectional anatomy and CT and MRI imaging of the alar ligament. Methods: Twelve formalin fixed specimens including head and neck utilized, three of the twelve were observed in gross anatomy, nine of them were dissectioned. Fifty- one healthy volunteers from each group were selected to perform CT and MRI examination respectively. By combining gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI manifestations of the alar ligament were analyzed, the alar ligament width was measured. Results: Location and shape, as well as coursing of the alar ligament could be demonstrated clearly in gross and sectional anatomy. The transverse plane across the upper dens and the coronal plane by the middle dens were the optimal planes for demonstrating the alar ligament. The display ratio of the alar ligament was even 100% (51/51) in both images of CT and MRI. MRI had better advantages than CT in respect of demonstrating the alar ligament, PDWI (proton density weighted imaging, PDWI) is the most optimal sequence for the alar ligament. There were no significant differences of the alar ligament width between male and female and between the right and the left side (P>0.05). Conclusion: In combination with gross and sectional anatomy. CT and MRI could both provide an imageo-anatomic basis for diagnosis of the alar ligament trauma and malformation as well as infection. (authors)

  7. Anatomic Localization of Thrombi in Our Cases of Pulmonary Thromboembolism

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    Cantürk Taþçý

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, known to be diagnosed with the disease requiring immediate treatment. Pulmonary angiography as the gold standard among the methods being used in the diagnosis of pulmonary CT angiography, ventilation perfusion scan, is located within the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasound diagnostic algorithms. Scintigraphy and CT angiography in the diagnosis of PTE according to the conditions of the hospital may gain priority. In recent years, close to the accuracy of CT angiography results were obtained with the invasive angiography. Radiologists subsegment branches of pulmonary artery thrombus, a fact that they are looking forced. CT angiographic images of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism with thrombus in our study by examining the distribution profile were revealed. Radiologists and clinicians aimed to give information on this issue. Material and Method: Within one year period at our outpatient clinic of Chest Diseases and pulmonary CT angiography images of 37 patients diagnosed with PTE were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Determined the distribution and frequency of thrombi. Thrombus in the pulmonaryarteries are most commonly seen in all the branches to the lower lobes. The thrombus inthe left upper lobe was the least anatomical localisation. Discussion: Today, close to the results seen that BTPA invasive pulmonary angiography. Thrombioften seen as places for Clinicians and radiologists believe that information about the donor.

  8. Anatomical distribution of estrogen target neurons in turtle brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic studies with [3H]estradiol-17β in red-eared turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) show concentration and retention of radioactivity in nuclei of neurons in certain regions. Accumulations of estrogen target neurons exist in the periventricular brain with relationships to ventral extensions of the forebrain ventricles, including parolfactory, amygdaloid, septal, preoptic, hypothalamic and thalamic areas, as well as the dorsal ventricular ridge, the piriform cortex, and midbrain-pontine periaqueductal structures. The general anatomical pattern of distribution of estrogen target neurons corresponds to those observed not only in another reptile (Anolis carolinensis), but also in birds and mammals, as well as in teleosts and cyclostomes. In Pseudemys, which appears to display an intermediate degree of phylogenetic differentiation, the amygdaloid-septal-preoptic groups of estrogen target neurons constitute a continuum. In phylogenetic ascendency, e.g. in mammals, these cell populations are increasingly separated and distinct, while in phylogenetic descendency, e.g. in teleosts and cyclostomes, an amygdaloid group appears to be absent or contained within the septal-preoptic target cell population. (Auth.)

  9. Anatomical study on the innervation of the elbow capsule☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Cristina Schmitt; Filho, Mauro Razuk; Rozas, João; Wey, João; de Andrade, Antonio Marcos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To put forward an anatomical description of the innervation of the elbow capsule, illustrated through morphological analysis on dissections. Methods Thirty elbows from fresh fixed adult cadavers aged 32–74 years, of both sexes, were dissected. Results Among the dissected arms, we observed that the median nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in five arms, two branches in two arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in nine arms and five branches in two arms. The radial nerve did not have any branches in two arms, while it had one branch in two arms, two branches in nine arms, three branches in ten arms, four branches in five arms and five branches in two arms. The ulnar nerve did not have any branches in three arms, while it had one branch in six arms, two branches in four arms, three branches in five arms, four branches in seven arms, five branches in four arms and six branches in one arm. Conclusions We observed branches of the radial, ulnar and medial nerves in the elbow joint, and a close relationship between their capsular and motor branches.

  10. Determinants of alveolar ridge preservation differ by anatomic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Salas, Mabel; Ort, Yirae; Johnson, Ashley; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Agarwal, Sudha; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare outcomes following alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) in posterior maxilla and mandible. Methods Twenty-four patients (54 ± 3 years) with single posterior tooth extraction were included. ARP was performed with freeze-dried bone allograft and collagen membrane. Clinical parameters were recorded at extraction and re-entry. Harvested bone cores were analysed by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results In both jaws, ARP prevented ridge height loss, but ridge width was significantly reduced by approximately 2.5 mm. Healing time, initial clinical attachment loss and amount of keratinized tissue at extraction site were identified as determinants of ridge height outcome. Buccal plate thickness and tooth root length were identified as determinants of ridge width outcome. In addition, initial ridge width was positively correlated with ridge width loss. Micro-CT revealed greater mineralization per unit volume in new bone compared with existing bone in mandible (p < 0.001). Distributions of residual graft, new cellular bone and immature tissue were similar in both jaws. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that in different anatomic locations different factors may determine ARP outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand determinants of ARP outcomes. PMID:23432761

  11. Anatomic Reconstruction Technique for a Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring) Ligament Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shabat, Shay; Brin, Yaron S; Feldman, Viktor; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity in adults is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the posterior tibial tendon, with secondary failure of other structures such as the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament (SL), which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. In flexible cases, the tibialis posterior can be replaced with the flexor digitorum longus. It is common practice to suture the SL directly in the case of a tear; however, if the tear is complete, suturing directly to the ligament alone will not be possible. Reconstruction of the ligament is needed; however, no validated methods are available to reconstruct this ligament. The operative technique of SL reconstruction described in this report as a part of acquired flatfoot deformity reconstruction consists of augmenting remnants of the spring from the navicularis to the sustentaculum tali and suspending it to the medial malleolus using 2-mm-wide, long-chain polyethylene suture tape. This technique results in the firm anatomic reconstruction of the SL, in addition to "classic" medial arch reconstruction. We recommend SL reconstruction for medial arch reconstruction when the SL is torn. PMID:26253476

  12. Retromolar foramen: an anatomical study with clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamieldien, M Y; Van Schoor, A

    2016-09-01

    The retromolar canal and foramen, an anatomical variation in the mandibular retromolar area, houses and transmits neurovascular elements that may innervate the mandibular third molar and associated tissues. These structures have been implicated in local anaesthetic failure, loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve, and local haemorrhage during surgery. Examination of 885 dry mandibles showed that 70 had a retromolar foramen (8%). There were no significant differences between groups according to age, sex, or ancestry. The mean (SD) distance from molar to retromolar foramen was 16.8 (5.6) mm for the mandibular second molar and 10.5 (3.8) mm for the mandibular third molar. The link between these structures and failure of local anaesthesia seems tenuous at best. Bleeding may not represent a serious complication. Although there may be a possibility of perineural spread of infective and invasive pathology, we know of no reported cases. The only clear evidence of complications associated with a confirmed retromolar foramen seems to be loss of sensation in the normal distribution of the buccal nerve. Even though the retromolar foramen does not seem to be of great clinical importance, it could be a source of anxiety for the inexperienced practitioner. PMID:27354332

  13. Anatomical Study an the Development of Strawberry Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The development of strawberry fruit, two cultivars-Gelila and Xiaoshi, was systematically studied by anatomical and embryological methods. The growth dynamics of fruit showed that the two cultivars performed similar changes with their fresh weight volume and structure, it included the first slow growth stage, the rapid growth stage and the second solw growth stage. The fruit was a typical polyachene with a ovule which belonged to a Poligonum type, the growth process of pollen tube from stigma to embryo sac was clearly observed by flourescence microscopy. Embryo development was similar to that of most dicotyls, and the mature embryo was orthotropous; Endosperm development was a nuclear type, and gradually disappeared with development:Seed coat consisted of 3~4 layer cells, and pericarp was composed of 6~8 layer cells which differentiated from ovary wall cell; The structure of receptacle was a typical stem which consisted of epidermis ,cortex and vascular cylinder. With development, the cortex and pith of fruit contained plentiful parenchyma tissue, and they were mainly edible sections.

  14. An anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lydia; Bernard, Amy; Lau, Chris; Overly, Caroline C; Dong, Hong-Wei; Kuan, Chihchau; Pathak, Sayan; Sunkin, Susan M; Dang, Chinh; Bohland, Jason W; Bokil, Hemant; Mitra, Partha P; Puelles, Luis; Hohmann, John; Anderson, David J; Lein, Ed S; Jones, Allan R; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Studying gene expression provides a powerful means of understanding structure-function relationships in the nervous system. The availability of genome-scale in situ hybridization datasets enables new possibilities for understanding brain organization based on gene expression patterns. The Anatomic Gene Expression Atlas (AGEA) is a new relational atlas revealing the genetic architecture of the adult C57Bl/6J mouse brain based on spatial correlations across expression data for thousands of genes in the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA). The AGEA includes three discovery tools for examining neuroanatomical relationships and boundaries: (1) three-dimensional expression-based correlation maps, (2) a hierarchical transcriptome-based parcellation of the brain and (3) a facility to retrieve from the ABA specific genes showing enriched expression in local correlated domains. The utility of this atlas is illustrated by analysis of genetic organization in the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex. The AGEA is a publicly accessible online computational tool integrated with the ABA (http://mouse.brain-map.org/agea). PMID:19219037

  15. Anatomical correlates of cognitive functions in early Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biundo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. METHODS: We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI. Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. RESULTS: Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD.

  16. 3D harmonic phase tracking with anatomical regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yitian; Bernard, Olivier; Saloux, Eric; Manrique, Alain; Allain, Pascal; Makram-Ebeid, Sherif; De Craene, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm that extends HARP to handle 3D tagged MRI images. HARP results were regularized by an original regularization framework defined in an anatomical space of coordinates. In the meantime, myocardium incompressibility was integrated in order to correct the radial strain which is reported to be more challenging to recover. Both the tracking and regularization of LV displacements were done on a volumetric mesh to be computationally efficient. Also, a window-weighted regression method was extended to cardiac motion tracking which helps maintain a low complexity even at finer scales. On healthy volunteers, the tracking accuracy was found to be as accurate as the best candidates of a recent benchmark. Strain accuracy was evaluated on synthetic data, showing low bias and strain errors under 5% (excluding outliers) for longitudinal and circumferential strains, while the second and third quartiles of the radial strain errors are in the (-5%,5%) range. In clinical data, strain dispersion was shown to correlate with the extent of transmural fibrosis. Also, reduced deformation values were found inside infarcted segments. PMID:26363844

  17. Encountering Deconstructive Propensities in J.M. Coetzee’s Foe:An Anat-omization on Dualistic Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-fen

    2016-01-01

    Contextualizing his Foe (1986) in the backdrop of South African post-apartheid, Coetzee manipulates multifarious postmodern narrative ploys to purloin, rewrite and widen the canon Robinson Crusoe. In plural demonstrations of dualistic pat-terns, this novel emphatically unravels Coetzee’s textual subversion of the traditional overarching“western logocentrism”or“metaphysics of presence”via catechizing and debilitating the orthodoxy of the white supremacy as well as the male superiority. This detailed analysis, giving a Derridean reading, purports to anatomize and deconstruct the binary oppositions of Self/Other, White/Black, and Man/Woman among Cruso, Friday and Susan Barton, and reach Coetzee’s veritable concerns:to dissolve the Imperialist hierarchy and hegemony, to waive racial enclosure, and to build a dialogue that open up a real respect and coexis-tence for both the centered and the marginalized.

  18. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps. PMID:16596956

  19. Morphologlcal and anatomical structure of generative organs of Salsola kali ssp. ruthenica (lljin Soó at the SEM level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Idzikowska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of generative organs of Salsola kali ssp. ruthenica was examined in detail using the light (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The whole flowers, fruits and their parts (pistil, stamens, sepals, embryo, seed were observed in different developmental stages. In the first stage (June, flower buds were closed. In the second stage (August, flowers were ready for pollination/fertilization. In the third stage (September, fruits were mature. Additionally, the anatomical and morphological structure of sepals was observed by means of LM and SEM. Thanks to the transverse and longitudinal semi-sections through sepals, the first phase of wing formation was recorded by SEM. The appearance of stomata in the epidermal cells of sepals above the forming wings was very interesting, too. The stomata were observed also in mature fruits.

  20. Cortical Terminations of the Inferior Fronto-Occipital and Uncinate Fasciculi: Anatomical Stem-Based Virtual Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Janice; Sarubbo, Silvio; Perchey, Guy; Crivello, Fabrice; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Petit, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We combined the neuroanatomists' approach of defining a fascicle as all fibers passing through its compact stem with diffusion-weighted tractography to investigate the cortical terminations of two association tracts, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which have recently been implicated in the ventral language circuitry. The aim was to provide a detailed and quantitative description of their terminations in 60 healthy subjects and to do so to apply an anatomical stem-based virtual dissection, mimicking classical post-mortem dissection, to extract with minimal a priori the IFOF and UF from tractography datasets. In both tracts, we consistently observed more extensive termination territories than their conventional definitions, within the middle and superior frontal, superior parietal and angular gyri for the IFOF and the middle frontal gyrus and superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri beyond the temporal pole for the UF. We revealed new insights regarding the internal organization of these tracts by investigating for the first time the frequency, distribution and hemispheric asymmetry of their terminations. Interestingly, we observed a dissociation between the lateral right-lateralized and medial left-lateralized fronto-occipital branches of the IFOF. In the UF, we observed a rightward lateralization of the orbito-frontal and temporal branches. We revealed a more detailed map of the terminations of these fiber pathways that will enable greater specificity for correlating with diseased populations and other behavioral measures. The limitations of the diffusion tensor model in this study are also discussed. We conclude that anatomical stem-based virtual dissection with diffusion tractography is a fruitful method for studying the structural anatomy of the human white matter pathways. PMID:27252628

  1. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  2. Detailed stability analysis of electroweak strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a detailed stability analysis of the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. We identify the mode that determines the stability of the string and numerically map the region of parameter space where the string is stable. For sin2θW=0.23 we find that the strings are unstable for a Higgs mass larger than 23 GeV. Given the latest constraints on the Higgs mass from LEP, this shows that, if the standard electroweak model is realized in nature, the existing vortex solutions are unstable. (orig.)

  3. The Anatomical Institute at the University of Greifswald during National Socialism: The procurement of bodies and their use for anatomical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvermann, Dirk; Mittenzwei, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive account of body procurement at the Anatomical Institute at Greifswald University during National Socialism (NS). As in all other German anatomical departments, the bodies received during this period included increasing numbers of victims of the NS regime. Prior to 1939, 90% of all bodies came from hospitals, state nursing homes and mental institutions (Heil- und Pflegeanstalten), but dropped to less than 30% after 1941. While the total catchment area for body procurement decreased, the number of suppliers increased and included prisons, POW camps, Gestapo offices and military jurisdiction authorities. Among the 432 documented bodies delivered to the institute, 132 came from state nursing homes and mental institutions, mainly from Ueckermünde. These were bodies of persons, who probably were victims of "euthanasia" crimes. The Anatomical Institute also procured 46 bodies of forced laborers, of whom at least twelve had been executed. Other groups of victims included 21 bodies of executed Wehrmacht soldiers and 16 Russian prisoners of war from the camp Stalag II C in Greifswald, who had died of starvation and exhaustion. From 1941 onwards, the number of bodies delivered from prisons and penitentiaries greatly increased. In total, 60 bodies of prisoners, mainly from the penitentiary in Gollnow, were delivered to the Anatomical Institute. Greifswald Anatomical Institute was not just a passive recipient of bodies from all of these sources, but the anatomists actively lobbied with the authorities for an increased body supply for teaching and research purposes. PMID:26970502

  4. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. PMID:25324429

  5. Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces during gait to anatomical variability in musculotendon geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Lode; Valente, Giordano; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Campen, Anke; De Groote, Friedl; De Schutter, Joris; Jonkers, Ilse

    2015-07-16

    Scaled generic musculoskeletal models are commonly used to drive dynamic simulations of motions. It is however, acknowledged that not accounting for variability in musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters may confound the simulation results, even when analysing control subjects. This study documents the three-dimensional anatomical variability of musculotendon origins and insertions of 33 lower limb muscles determined based on magnetic resonance imaging in six subjects. This anatomical variability was compared to the musculotendon point location in a generic musculoskeletal model. Furthermore, the sensitivity of muscle forces during gait, calculated using static optimization, to perturbations of the musculotendon point location was analyzed with a generic model. More specific, a probabilistic approach was used: for each analyzed musculotendon point, the three-dimensional location was re-sampled with a uniform Latin hypercube method within the anatomical variability and the static optimization problem was then re-solved for all perturbations. We found that musculotendon point locations in the generic model showed only variable correspondences with the anatomical variability. The anatomical variability of musculotendon point location did affect the calculated muscle forces: muscles most sensitive to perturbations within the anatomical variability are iliacus and psoas. Perturbation of the gluteus medius anterior, iliacus and psoas induces the largest concomitant changes in muscle forces of the unperturbed muscles. Therefore, when creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models, these attachment points should be defined accurately. In addition, the size of the anatomical variability of the musculotendon point location was not related to the sensitivity of the calculated muscle forces. PMID:25979383

  6. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m3. (author). 1 fig

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  8. AN ANATOMIC STUDY OF ADIPOFASCIAL FLAP OF THE LEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the vascular anatomy of the subcutaneous tissues and fascias of the leg. Methods Four fresh cadaver legs which had been injected with colored latex were dissected under magnification to identify the origin, course an distribution of vessels from the subfascial level to the skin. The adipofascial flap was harvested from the whole medial side of the leg and fascial flap from other leg of the same cadaver. The posterior tibial artery and its first and second supra-malleolus septal arteries were retained in these flaps. Selective injection of China ink through posterior tibial artery was carried out, and dimension of ink- stained areas was recorded. Results Three main trunk vessels of the leg gave off branches to deep fascia and subcutaneous tissues, forming a large vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues on the deep fascia and a deli- cate, but dense and well anastomosed vascular plexus beneath the deep fascia. The vascular plexus in the subcu- taneous tissues ran deeper than the superficial venous system. The areas stained by selective injection in adipo- fascial flaps were larger than those in the fascial flaps. Conclusion Subcutaneous tissues and deep fascia can be considered as an anatomic entity nourished by two very well developed vascular networks which lie on both sides of deep fascia. Incorporation of the deep fascia can not only protect the subcutaneous tissue from being lacerated during raising of the flap, but also enhance vascularity of the adipofascial flap. Leaving superficial veins intact while raising the skin flap does not jeopardize the vascular plexus in the subcutaneous tissues and can preserve the superficial lymnphatic vessels, so that postoperative edema of the flap or the leg could be avoided.

  9. Distal Ulna Reconstruction using the Second Metatarsal: Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Martinez, Isabel Elía

    2016-05-01

    Background The ulnar head is a key stabilizer of the wrist and forearm. The authors investigated the possibility of using the second metatarsal bone to replace the distal ulna in an anatomical study. Methods The morphology of the distal ulna and the head of the second metatarsal (MT2) were studied using three-dimensional computerized tomographic (CT) scans of the wrist and foot in 52 patients without pathology related to these two areas, and 11 cadaveric specimens. The radius and height of the best-fit cylinder for both epiphyses were measured in the CT scans and compared. In the cadaveric specimens an osteotomy of the metatarsal neck was performed to rotate 90 degrees the head of the MT2 to match the shape of the distal ulna. Results The osseous morphology of the distal ulna and the head of the MT2 are roughly cylindrical, but differently oriented relative to the diaphyseal axes. In the osteotomized cadaveric MT2specimens, the overall morphology was relatively similar that of the distal ulna. The mean length of the MT2 after the osteotomy was 65 mm. Conclusion The head of the MT2 was found to have a similar cylindrical morphology to that of the ulnar head, with a different orientation. The radius of the cylinder was similar, although the height was bigger for the MT2. After a rotation osteotomy of the neck of the MT2 the overall shape and orientation of the epiphysis was more similar to the distal ulna. A vascularized transfer of an osteotomized MT2 would be an option for autologous reconstruction of the distal ulna in selected patients, but further study is needed in terms of the vascular supply, ligamentous reconstruction, and reconstruction of the sigmoid notch. Level of Evidence Therapeutic, level IV. PMID:27104084

  10. Near and far space neglect: task sensitivity and anatomical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola, Lina; Schindler, Igor; Simone, Anna Maria; Venneri, Annalena

    2012-05-01

    Most group studies which have investigated neglect for near and far space have found an increased severity of symptoms in far space compared to near space. However, the majority of these studies used relatively small samples and based their findings almost exclusively on line bisection performance. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the occurrence of neglect for near and far space in a larger group of unselected right brain damaged patients and to evaluate whether neglect specific to near and far space is a task-related deficit or generalises across distance irrespective of task. In addition, a lesion overlap analysis was carried out to identify critical lesion sites associated with distance specific neglect deficits. Thirty-eight right hemisphere damaged patients carried out a line bisection and a cancellation task by using a pen in near space (40 cm) and a laser pointer in far space (320 cm). The results showed that both the number of left-sided omissions and rightward bisection errors were significantly increased in near compared to far space. Distance specific dissociations, albeit less common, were more frequently observed for cancellation than line bisection. These results suggest that space representation in neglect is more severely impaired in near than in far space. In addition, distance related dissociations in neglect may depend on task demands. Although the anatomical findings were broadly consistent with a dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy for near and far space processing, they also suggest the involvement of intermediate structures in distance related neglect phenomena. PMID:22306826

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  12. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  13. Anatomical and histological factors affecting intranasal drug and vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the anatomical and histological structure of the nasal cavity, which is important for nasal drug and vaccine delivery as well as the development of new devices. The surface area of the nasal cavity is about 160 cm2, or 96 m2 if the microvilli are included. The olfactory region, however, is only about 5 cm2 (0.3 m2 including the microvilli). There are 6 arterial branches that serve the nasal cavity, making this region a very attractive route for drug administration. The blood flow into the nasal region is slightly more than reabsorbed back into the nasal veins, but the excess will drain into the lymph vessels, making this region a very attractive route for vaccine delivery. Many of the side effects seen following intranasal administration are caused by some of the 6 nerves that serve the nasal cavity. The 5th cranial nerve (trigeminus nerve) is responsible for sensing pain and irritation following nasal administration but the 7th cranial nerve (facial nerve) will respond to such irritation by stimulating glands and cause facial expressions in the subject. The first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve), however, is the target when direct absorption into the brain is the goal, since this is the only site in our body where the central nervous system is directly expressed on the mucosal surface. The nasal mucosa contains 7 cell types and 4 types of glands. Four types of cells and 2 types of glands are located in the respiratory region but 6 cell types and 2 types of glands are found in the olfactory region. PMID:22788696

  14. GBM heterogeneity characterization by radiomic analysis of phenotype anatomical planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system, characterized among other traits by rapid metastatis. Three tissue phenotypes closely associated with GBMs, namely, necrosis (N), contrast enhancement (CE), and edema/invasion (E), exhibit characteristic patterns of texture heterogeneity in magnetic resonance images (MRI). In this study, we propose a novel model to characterize GBM tissue phenotypes using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) in three anatomical planes. The GLCM encodes local image patches in terms of informative, orientation-invariant texture descriptors, which are used here to sub-classify GBM tissue phenotypes. Experiments demonstrate the model on MRI data of 41 GBM patients, obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Intensity-based automatic image registration is applied to align corresponding pairs of fixed T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) post-contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. GBM tissue regions are then segmented using the 3D Slicer tool. Texture features are computed from 12 quantifier functions operating on GLCM descriptors, that are generated from MRI intensities within segmented GBM tissue regions. Various classifier models are used to evaluate the effectiveness of texture features for discriminating between GBM phenotypes. Results based on T1-WI scans showed a phenotype classification accuracy of over 88.14%, a sensitivity of 85.37% and a specificity of 96.1%, using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. This model has the potential to provide important characteristics of tumors, which can be used for the sub-classification of GBM phenotypes.

  15. Breast augmentation with reduced-height anatomic implants: the pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, S L

    2001-07-01

    The reduced-height anatomic saline-filled implant has certain advantages. It has a distinct footprint and profile that allows the creation of a breast with relatively exaggerated width and abbreviated height. This creation suits certain anatomic situations and often is preferred by women seeking a more natural-looking augmentation, without excessive upper pole fullness. The use of any anatomic design implant requires some dimensional planning and more precise pocket dissection. Although the risk for rotational deformities could be expected to be increased, clinically significant rotational deformities have not been a major problem. PMID:11471961

  16. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0×2.0 to 5.0×5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field. PMID:26704358

  17. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  18. Towards anatomic scale agent-based modeling with a massively parallel spatially explicit general-purpose model of enteric tissue (SEGMEnT_HPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chase Cockrell

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest challenge currently facing the biomedical research community is the ability to integrate highly detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms to represent clinical disease states as a pathway to engineer effective therapeutics. This is particularly evident in the representation of organ-level pathophysiology in terms of abnormal tissue structure, which, through histology, remains a mainstay in disease diagnosis and staging. As such, being able to generate anatomic scale simulations is a highly desirable goal. While computational limitations have previously constrained the size and scope of multi-scale computational models, advances in the capacity and availability of high-performance computing (HPC resources have greatly expanded the ability of computational models of biological systems to achieve anatomic, clinically relevant scale. Diseases of the intestinal tract are exemplary examples of pathophysiological processes that manifest at multiple scales of spatial resolution, with structural abnormalities present at the microscopic, macroscopic and organ-levels. In this paper, we describe a novel, massively parallel computational model of the gut, the Spatially Explicitly General-purpose Model of Enteric Tissue_HPC (SEGMEnT_HPC, which extends an existing model of the gut epithelium, SEGMEnT, in order to create cell-for-cell anatomic scale simulations. We present an example implementation of SEGMEnT_HPC that simulates the pathogenesis of ileal pouchitis, and important clinical entity that affects patients following remedial surgery for ulcerative colitis.

  19. Anatomic variants of interest in endoscopic sinus surgery: role of computed tomography; Variantes anatomicas de interes en cirugia endoscopica nasosinusal. Papel de la tomografia computerizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, S.; Arenas, J.; Fernandez, F.; Gil, S.; Guirau, M. D. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The detailed radiological study of the anatomy of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinus is essential prior to endoscopic sinus surgery since, on the one hand, it discloses the extent of the disease and, on the other hand, it aids in the detection of the numerous anatomic variants, some of which are of great interest to the endoscopic as the lack of preoperative knowledge of them may increase the risk of complications. the objective of the present report is to review these variants, stressing those that may be associated with a greater surgical risk. Although coronal computed tomography is the technique of choice for pre endoscopy examination, certain structures and anatomic variants are better viewed in axial images. These exceptions include anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinuses, the anatomic relationships between posterior ethmoid complex and the sphenoid sinus, the relationships between the sphenoid sinus and the optic nerve, and the detection of Onodi cells. Thus, we recommend that the radiological examination include both coronal and axial images. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. Digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth%数字化全牙列下颌骨三维解剖建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赴东; 石珏; 宋恩; 葛巍立; 廖胜辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study and establish a high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth.Methods A set of accurate digital models of standard anatomical specimens of mandibular teeth were obtained by laser scanning, and the 3D mandible model was reconstructed by CT scan data;then, a registration deformation method based on the geometry and image anatomical landmark was employed to do the registration of each tooth to the mandible model, and finally the tooth enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament were generated .Results A high quality digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth was built , each tooth had detail crown and whole root , the distinction between the enamel , dentin, periodontal ligament , and any anatomical regions can be zoomed and rotately displayed . Conclusion The digital 3D anatomical modeling of the mandible with full teeth has realistic 3D imaging view and convenient teaching-learning function , and has tremendous apllication futures in the stomatology , maxillofacial and other medical departments .%目的:探讨建立具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型。方法用激光扫描获取1套标准下颌牙列解剖标本的精确三维模型,用CT扫描数据重建下颌骨三维模型,使用基于几何和图像解剖标志的配准变形方法将每颗牙齿模型对齐融合到下颌骨模型,进一步生成牙齿的牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜。结果成功建立了具有高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型,每颗牙齿具有牙冠细节和完整的牙根,区分牙釉质、牙本质、牙周膜,可以对任意解剖区域放大和旋转观察,显示解剖标志。结论高质量牙列的下颌骨三维数字化解剖模型具有逼真的三维显象和方便的教学学习功能,可用于口腔、颌面、解剖等多个学科。

  1. “Influence Method”. Detailed mathematical description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, I.J.; Mayer, R.E., E-mail: mayer@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2015-07-11

    A new method for the absolute determination of nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency, the “Influence Method”, was recently published (I.J. Rios and R.E. Mayer, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research A 775 (2015) 99–104). The method defines an estimator for the population and another estimator for the efficiency. In this article we present a detailed mathematical description which yields the conditions for its application, the probability distributions of the estimators and their characteristic parameters. An analysis of the different cases leads to expressions of the estimators and their uncertainties. - Highlights: • “Influence Method”, a new method for absolute particle flux determination. • Absolute counting method when detector efficiencies are not known. • Absolute detector efficiency determination.

  2. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldaş, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary system with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations and also flares, in the light curves obtained with the data taken from the Kepler Mission Database. Taking into account results obtained from KIC 9641031's observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we present and discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled separately. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models described in the literature were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. It is seen that just one component of the system is chromospherically active star. On this component, there are two active regions separated by about 180 deg longitudinally between the latitudes of +50 deg and +100 deg, whose locations and forms are rapidly cha...

  3. Radioactive contamination mapping system detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site's 100 Area production reactors released radioactively and chemically contaminated liquids into the soil column. The primary source of the contaminated liquids was reactor coolant and various waste waters released from planned liquid discharges, as well as pipelines, pipe junctions, and retention basins leaking into the disposal sites. Site remediation involves excavating the contaminated soils using conventional earthmoving techniques and equipment, treating as appropriate, transporting the soils, and disposing the soils at ERDF. To support remediation excavation, disposal, and documentation requirements, an automated radiological monitoring system was deemed necessary. The RCMS (Radioactive Contamination Mapping System) was designed to fulfill this need. This Detailed Design Report provides design information for the RCMS in accordance with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Engineering Design Project Instructions

  4. Optomechanical details in injection-molded assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Raymond T.

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of low-cost electro-optic components such as LEDs, laser diodes and CCD imaging devices, the cost and performance demands now fall upon the optical subsystems in order to achieve realistic marketing targets for many emerging commercial and consumer products. One of the many benefits of injection-molded plastic optics is the diversity of features that are available to the design team. Once designed and incorporated into the tooling, many features are virtually free in high-volume production. These features can include mechanical details as well as optical functions. Registration features can be included for precisely positioning optical elements to one another or to other assemblies such as printed circuit boards or housings. Snaps, compression features, spring-loading elements, standoffs, self-tapping screws or ultrasonically weldable features can greatly facilitate ease of assembly.

  5. An unusual intraventricular interthalamic vein: two anatomical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Cyrille; Peltier, Johann; Foulon, Pascal; Page, Cyril; Havet, Eric; Le Gars, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Neurosurgeons use ventricular veins during an endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy as landmark to progress in ventricles. In the current literature, there is lack of detailed intraventricular venous anatomy. Majority of those papers treats Monro's foramen venous variations. There are no data of third ventricle venous anatomy and variations in the literature. We reported two cases of unusual interthalamic vein that we need to spare during endoscopy. PMID:22543760

  6. Anatomic Parameters of the Lisfranc Joint Complex in a Radiographic and Cadaveric Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Kai, Yeh; Shiu-Bii, Lien

    2015-01-01

    Subtle injuries to the Lisfranc joint complex are difficult to diagnose clinically and radiographically and can ultimately result in obvious disability if misdiagnosed. However, no previous study has shown the true mean average distance between the base of the first and second metatarsals (the Lisfranc distance). Therefore, in the present study, the anatomic and radiographic parameters of the Lisfranc joint were studied in detail to assist in the evaluation of Lisfranc injuries. The parameters of the Lisfranc joint complex in 100 normal volunteers and 10 cadavers were measured, including the medial, lateral depth of the mortise joint, width and height of the second metatarsal base, and distance between the base of the first and second metatarsals. The mean average Lisfranc distance was 0.24 ± 0.06 mm in the left foot and 0.25 ± 0.06 mm in the right foot for the radiographic group (p = .089) and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm in the left foot and 0.37 ± 0.04 mm in the right foot for the cadaver group (p = .129). The medial depth and Lisfranc distance in the radiographic group were smaller than the same measurements in the cadaver group, and these differences were statistically significant (medial depth, p Lisfranc distance, p Lisfranc distance is >3.0 mm radiographically, a subtle injury to the Lisfranc joint should be highly suspected. No test of stability was performed between shallow and narrow versus deeper and broader Lisfranc mortise configurations. We merely speculated that a deeper and wider mortise is likely to be more stable than one that is shallow and narrow, probably owing to the presence of broader ligaments. PMID:26002680

  7. Anatomical features of plantar aponeurosis: cadaveric study using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities of the plantar aponeurosis are commonly encountered in patients with subcalcaneal heel pain. Understanding normal anatomy is required to accurately diagnose some disorders of the foot. The purpose of our study was to describe the normal anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis, using ultrasonography and MRI with close anatomic correlation in cadavers. After MRI and ultrasonography of 10 cadaveric foot specimens, the thickness of the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis displayed by imaging studies was measured by three radiologists. One specimen was sectioned in the transverse plane, one in the coronal plane, one in the sagittal plane, and two in a sagittal oblique plane. Normal anatomy was identified and similar measurements of the plantar aponeurosis were also made. An average value was determined and a statistical analysis was accomplished. The calcaneal insertions of the plantar aponeurosis were better visualized than its distal portions with both MRI and ultrasonography. The measurements of the plantar aponeurosis made by three different radiologists were different, but without statistical significance. The average measurements for the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis with both imaging methods were different from each other because of differences in the morphology of these structures. The values obtained with ultrasonography and MRI, were also different from each other for both the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis, but with no statistical significance. We have described the detailed anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis with emphasis on the more distal structures that can be visualized with MRI. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI regarding the measurements of the thickness of the central and lateral portions of the plantar aponeurosis. Knowledge of the normal anatomy of these structures enables the radiologist to identify early

  8. Development of a new generation of high-resolution anatomical models for medical device evaluation: the Virtual Population 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Esra; Moser, Heidi; Huber, Eveline; Farcito, Silvia; Gerber, Livia; Jedensjö, Maria; Hilber, Isabel; Di Gennaro, Fabienne; Lloyd, Bryn; Cherubini, Emilio; Szczerba, Dominik; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Family computational whole-body anatomical human models were originally developed for electromagnetic (EM) exposure evaluations, in particular to study how absorption of radiofrequency radiation from external sources depends on anatomy. However, the models immediately garnered much broader interest and are now applied by over 300 research groups, many from medical applications research fields. In a first step, the Virtual Family was expanded to the Virtual Population to provide considerably broader population coverage with the inclusion of models of both sexes ranging in age from 5 to 84 years old. Although these models have proven to be invaluable for EM dosimetry, it became evident that significantly enhanced models are needed for reliable effectiveness and safety evaluations of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including medical implants safety. This paper describes the research and development performed to obtain anatomical models that meet the requirements necessary for medical implant safety assessment applications. These include implementation of quality control procedures, re-segmentation at higher resolution, more-consistent tissue assignments, enhanced surface processing and numerous anatomical refinements. Several tools were developed to enhance the functionality of the models, including discretization tools, posing tools to expand the posture space covered, and multiple morphing tools, e.g., to develop pathological models or variations of existing ones. A comprehensive tissue properties database was compiled to complement the library of models. The results are a set of anatomically independent, accurate, and detailed models with smooth, yet feature-rich and topologically conforming surfaces. The models are therefore suited for the creation of unstructured meshes, and the possible applications of the models are extended to a wider range of solvers and physics. The impact of these improvements is shown for the MRI exposure of an adult

  9. Design and implementation of an anatomical web interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Internet, and in particular, the World-Wide Web, has provided tremendous opportunities for enabling access and transfer of information. Traditionally, Internet services have relied on textual methods for delivery of information. The World-Wide Web (WWW) in its current (and ever-changing form) is primarily a method of communication which includes both graphical and textual information. The easy-to-use graphical interface, developed as part of the WWW, is based on the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML). More advanced interfaces can be developed by incorporating interactive documents, which can be updated depending upon the wishes of the user. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) can be utilised to transfer information b y utilising various programming and scripting languages (eg. C, Perl). This paper describes the development of a WWW interface for the viewing of anatomical and radiographic information in the form of two-dimensional cross-sectional images and three-dimensional reconstruction images. HTML documents were prepared using a commercial software program (HotDog, Sausage Software Co., Australia). Forms were used to control user-selection parameters such as imaging modality and cross-sectional slice number. All documents were developed and tested using Netscape 2.0. Visual and radiographic images were processed using ANALYZETM Version 7.5 (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, USA). Perl scripting was used to process all requests passed to the WWW server. ANSI 'C' programming was used to implement image processing operations which are performed in response to user-selected options. The interface which has been developed is easy to use, is independent of browsing software, is accessible by multiple users, and provides an example of how easily medical imaging data can be distributed amongst interested parties. Various imaging datasets, including the Visible Human ProjectTM (National Library of Medicine, USA.) have been prepared

  10. Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    :Making anatomical dynamic film using the principle of linear motion is an innovative technology and provides the dynamic aid for anat omy teaching.

  11. [The anatomical and functional origin of the first bipedalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Y

    1991-10-01

    This communication is the synthesis of ten years of researchers of comparative anatomy done by the author or under his control on fossil Hominids, three million years old, found by his expeditions in Eastern Ethiopia. It brings, for the first time, the odd picture of a skeleton adapted to arboricolism and bipedalism together. The rachis has already the curves of an erect being but with at least a thoraco-lumbar cyphosis a bit more elongated than in our own rachis; the pelvis is wide and shallow like the pelvis of a biped but with many particular features like the width of the iliac wings, a great biacetabular diameter, the small size of the coxo-femoral joints; the femur is short with a special long neck, a very oblique diaphysis like in Man and an intercondylar fossa, deep and wide like in chimp; the tibia is also short, its spines very tight in such a way that the knee shows a great laxity. The foot is short and flat, with an abducted hallux and long curved toes; the scapular, elbow and wrist joints show, at the opposite of the knee joint, a great solidity, but both characteristics of the hind and fore-limb joints are not in contradiction: they are, as in chimpanzees again, functionally adapted to climbing and moving in the trees where are needed firm grip of the hands as well as mobility of the knee and of the foot. It seems that the early Australopithecine' bipedalism was original, different from ours and quite instable: short steps were necessary to maintain equilibrium as well as a strong rotation of the pelvis around the vertebral axis (50 to 60 degrees on each side). This analysis is then demonstrating a real evolution of bipedalism which was not at all, at once, the bipedalism of Homo sapiens, as it has been claimed. This paper is also showing that bipedalism anatomic organization is taking place from the pelvis to the foot and not the other way round. At last, as we have found, also in Ethiopia, stone-tools more than three million years old in association

  12. Naming the Soft Tissue Layers of the Temporoparietal Region: Unifying Anatomic Terminology Across Surgical Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Davidge; W.R. van Furth; A. Agur; M. Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complexity of temporoparietal anatomy is compounded by inconsistent nomenclature. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the variations in terminology and anatomic descriptions of the temporoparietal soft tissue layers, with the aim of improving learning and communication ac

  13. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bock

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework – cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts – which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

  14. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  15. Phylogenetic and phytogeographical relationships in Maloideae (Rosaceae) based on morphological and anatomical characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldasoro, J.J.; Aedo, C.; Navarro, C.

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 24 genera of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae and Spiraeoideae are explored by means of a cladistic analysis; 16 morphological and anatomical characters were included in the analysis. Published suprageneric classifications and characters used in these classifications are b

  16. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  17. Anatomic adaptation of seedlings of woody plants to various levels of soil water supply

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Grigoryuk; V. I. Tkachov; P. P. Yavorivskyi

    2005-01-01

    Tree seedlings anatomical parameters adaptation to different soil water supply levels were studied. Differences in stomata number and shape and fiber length for leaf-bearing species and central cylinder area for coniferous species have been determined.

  18. Enhancing our understanding of anatomical diversity in Tomentella ectomycorrhizas: characterization of six new morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakucs, Erzsébet; Erős-Honti, Zsolt; Seress, Diána; Kovács, Gábor M

    2015-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) formed by Tomentella species (Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) were collected in beech forests of Hungary and studied using anatomical and molecular phylogenetic methods. The mycobionts were identified by analysing the sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions together with sequences obtained from public databases. At the sampling plots, we found the occurrence of 11 Tomentella morphotypes. Among these, six morphotypes (four identified, Tomentella atroarenicolor, Tomentella bryophila, Tomentella lapida, Tomentella subclavigera, and two unidentified) were morpho-anatomically characterized for the first time. Although the six morphotypes differed anatomically from each other and from Tomentella ectomycorrhizas described previously, they shared anatomical features common to tomentelloid ectomycorrhizas fungi. These results expand our understanding of the diversity of this widely distributed ectomycorrhizal genus. PMID:25564437

  19. Functional Versus Anatomic Imaging of CAD: Lessons Learned from Recent Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials directed at imaging of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated a paradigm shift away from endpoints related to detection of CAD in favor of those related to clinical outcomes. The objective of such trials has been to determine whether physiological metrics are superior to anatomical ones for guiding therapy and improving outcomes in patients with known or suspected CAD. The present review focuses on selected trials in this area in particular DEFER, FAME 1 and 2, a meta-analysis comparing FFR to anatomically guided treatment outcomes and COURAGE SPECT MPI sub study. The rationale for using physiological as opposed to anatomical endpoints to optimize patient management, in particular coronary revascularization decisions, is emphasized. The results of the FFR-based trials are concordant and indicate physiological metrics are superior to anatomical ones for guiding therapy and improving clinical outcomes in patients with known or suspected CAD. PMID:26699631

  20. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  1. A Mathematical Framework for Incorporating Anatomical Knowledge in DT-MRI Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Zöllei, Lilla; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Wells, William M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian approach to incorporate anatomical information in the clustering of fiber trajectories. An expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used to cluster the trajectories, in which an atlas serves as the prior on the labels. The atlas guides the clustering algorithm and makes the resulting bundles anatomically meaningful. In addition, it provides the seed points for the tractography and initial settings of the EM algorithm. The proposed approach provides a robust and automat...

  2. Heterogeneity and Matching of Ventilation and Perfusion within Anatomical Lung Units in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Glenny, Robb W.; Bauer, Christian; Hofmanninger, Johannes; Lamm, Wayne J.; Krueger, Melissa A.; Beichel, Reinhard R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies exploring the spatial distributions of ventilation and perfusion have partitioned the lung into discrete regions not constrained by anatomical boundaries and may blur regional differences in perfusion and ventilation. To characterize the anatomical heterogeneity of regional ventilation and perfusion, we administered fluorescent microspheres to mark regional ventilation and perfusion in 5 Sprague-Dawley rats and then using highly automated computer algorithms, partitioned the lun...

  3. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Fang; Jie An; Ling-Li Zeng; Hui Shen; Fanglin (Frank)Chen; Wensheng Wang; Shijun Qiu; Dewen Hu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed fo...

  4. Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Chimungu, Joseph G.; Loades, Kenneth W.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of roots to penetrate hard soil is important for crop productivity but specific root phenes contributing to this ability are poorly understood. Root penetrability and biomechanical properties are likely to vary in the root system dependent on anatomical structure. No information is available to date on the influence of root anatomical phenes on root penetrability and biomechanics. Root penetration ability was evaluated using a wax layer system. Root tensile and bending strength we...

  5. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis entitled "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor Correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" is about the anatomical adaptations in the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) of hominoid primates. The action of the forces exerted during locomotion model the shape of the joint determining the range of motion animals can achieve. The hominoid primates stand out as having very mobile joints, with the ability to raise the arm above the shoulder enabling the us...

  6. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5...

  7. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Baydoun Safaa; Kolesnik Alexander I; Haddad John J; Ivanov Alexander V; Samaha Ali A; Arabi Maher R; Yashina Irena N; Samaha Rana A; Ivanov Dimetry A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with re...

  8. Building Spatiotemporal Anatomical Models using Joint 4-D Segmentation, Registration, and Subject-Specific Atlas Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Prastawa, Marcel; Awate, Suyash P.; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of anatomical changes is a vital component in many personalized-medicine applications for predicting disease onset, determining growth/atrophy patterns, evaluating disease progression, and monitoring recovery. Estimating anatomical changes in longitudinal studies, especially through magnetic resonance (MR) images, is challenging because of temporal variability in shape (e.g. from growth/atrophy) and appearance (e.g. due to imaging parameters and tissue properties affecti...

  9. Anatomical and Functional Plasticity in Early Blind Individuals and the Mixture of Experts Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanat...

  10. Evaluation of predictors for anatomical success in macular hole surgery in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to evaluate outcomes and predictors for anatomical success in macular hole (MH surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients operated for idiopathic MH with stages II, III or IV. Patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, internal gas tamponade, and postoperative face down positioning. The primary outcome measure was anatomical closure of MH, while secondary outcome measure was postoperative external limiting membrane (ELM continuity. Effect of MH size, duration of MH, size of ILM peel, type of gas tamponade (SF6 vs. C3F8 and macular hole index (MHI on anatomical MH closure was also evaluated. Results: Of the 62 eyes operated, anatomical closure of MH was achieved in 55 eyes (88.7%. The median duration of follow-up was 8 months (range: 6-15 months. Mean BVCA improved from 0.94 ± 0.26 at baseline to 0.40 ± 0.23 logMAR at last follow-up (P = 0.01. There was a statistically significant association between size of ILM peel and anatomical closure of MH (P = 0.04. Duration of symptoms, size of MH, type of gas tamponade, MHI had no effect on anatomical closure (P = 0.22, 0.28, 0.40 respectively, Chi-square test. Postoperative continuity of the ELM was significantly associated with a shorter symptom duration (<6 months before surgery. Conclusion: Acceptable anatomical closure could be attained with the defined technique. Size of ILM peel is a new predictor of anatomical success while symptom duration affects postoperative ELM continuity.

  11. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  12. Anatomics Knowledges of Aortic Root in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Cerezo; Omar Bertani; Gisela Panciroli; Sebastián Duhalde; Karina Ferreira; Luciano Honaine

    2010-01-01

    The Aortic Valve is a valvular system that bears different high pressure forces. It takes part of a complex structure called Aortic Root. Nowadays, anatomic knowledge has taken a preponderant role, due to the use of the Transcatether Aortic Valve Implant (TAVI). To describe the patient´s characteristics which exclude them of the TAVI for anatomic reasons in cadaveric dissections and transthoracic echocardiograms. A descriptive retrospective analysis of 67 individuals was performed and divided...

  13. Innate lymphoid cells promote anatomical containment of lymphoid-resident commensal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Fung, Thomas C.; Hutnick, Natalie A.; Kunisawa, Jun; Shibata, Naoko; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Zahm, Adam M.; Mélanie R Tardif; Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Kubota, Masaru; Farber, Donna L.; Collman, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here we identify that interleukin (IL)-22-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals. Depletion of ILCs resulted in peripheral dissemination of commensal bacteria and systemic inflammation, which was prevented by administration ...

  14. Anatomical, chemical and physical characterization of candeia wood (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) Macleish)

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Lopes Selvati de Oliveira Mori; Fábio Akira Mori; Lourival Marin Mendes

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the anatomical, chemical and physics characteristics of candeia wood (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) Macleish). Five trees were collected from Carrancas-MG, and disks were obtained at the breast high (DBH) to sample preparation. The description and mensuration were performed at the principal anatomical structures (fibers, vessel and radial parenchyma). For chemical analysis, the extractives content, hollocelulose, lignin and inorganic components were determined. The phys...

  15. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on congenital malformations in children

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Karaveli; Dimitrios Katsanidis; Ioannis Kalaitzoglou; Afroditi Haritanti; Anastasios Sioundas; Athanasios Dimitriadis; Kyriakos Psarrakos

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is considered to be the next step in uroradiology. This technique combines superb anatomical images and functional information in a single test. In this article, we aim to present the topic of MRU in children and how it has been implemented in Northern Greece so far. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the potential of MRU in clinical practice. We focus both on the anatomical and the quantitative information this technique can off...

  16. The AEO, an Ontology of Anatomical Entities for Classifying Animal Tissues and Organs

    OpenAIRE

    Bard, Jonathan B. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the AEO, an ontology of anatomical entities that expands the common anatomy reference ontology (CARO) and whose major novel feature is a type hierarchy of ~160 anatomical terms. The breadth of the AEO is wider than CARO as it includes both developmental and gender-specific classes, while the granularity of the AEO terms is at a level adequate to classify simple-tissues (~70 classes) characterized by their containing a predominantly single cell-type. For convenience and to...

  17. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Doğu; Muhittin Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic t...

  18. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish endemic Stachys rupestrıs Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baştürk Kaya; Muhittin Dinç; Süleyman Doğu

    2015-01-01

    Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, is an endemic species that show deploying at Middle Taurus and Amanos mountains in Turkey. In this study, the stem and leaf anatomy of the individuals that were collected from Mersin-Aslanköy were investigated. The obtained data from the anatomical studies shows that S. rupestris represents the anatomical characteristics of Lamiaceae family. The stem in primer structure is quadrangular, with a vascular bundle at each corner and it has collenchy...

  19. Detail microscopic analysis of deep fascia of lower limb and its surgical implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Visweswar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge regarding the structural details of deep fascia remains inadequate. It was described to be relatively avascular having predominantly protective function. Anatomical and surgical studies revealed that it had associated vascular arcade and hence incorporated it to ascertain additional vascularity to the flaps. However, not much importance has been directed towards the detailed study of the various constituents of deep fascia in order to explain its physiological and clinical implications. Therefore, this study was undertaken to unveil these details. Materials and Methods: Fifty fresh specimens of human deep fascia overlying the gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed regarding the (i vasculature, (ii matrix, and (iii other structural elements. The deep fascia was procured in three forms; (a both the layers, (b superficial layer, and (c deep layer. Detail study was conducted by light, confocal, and electron microscopy. Results: Under light microscopy, blood vessels including capillaries were seen associated with both the layers. Perforators traversing the intra-fascial plane could be visualized. Confocal microscope optical sections showed well-organized bright fluorescent collagen fibers and nuclei of various cells. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed many interesting constituents which are relatively unknown to the anatomist and clinicians. There were arterioles, capillaries, venules, lymphatics, nerves, mast cells, and myofibroblasts apart from collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion: The detail structural analysis of deep fascia provided the clue to its rich vascularity and other structural constituents. They all contribute to enhance the vascularity and maintenance of the physiological functions of fasciocutaneous, adipofascial, and fascial flaps, frequently used for reconstructions. Thus, incorporation of deep fascia in the flaps during reconstruction is highly beneficial for ensuring optimal vascularity.

  20. 5 CFR 352.306 - Length of details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

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  1. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  2. Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, E; Siegel, J; Hoffman, L

    2016-07-01

    Though the public consciousness is typically focused on factors such as psychology, penis size, and the presence of the "G-spot," there are other anatomical and neuro-anatomic differences that could play an equal, or more important, role in the frequency and intensity of orgasms. Discovering these variations could direct further medical or procedural management to improve sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to review the available literature of anatomical sexual variation and to explain why this variation may predispose some patients toward a particular sexual experience. In this review, we explored the available literature on sexual anatomy and neuro-anatomy. We used PubMed and OVID Medline for search terms, including orgasm, penile size variation, clitoral variation, Grafenberg spot, and benefits of orgasm. First we review the basic anatomy and innervation of the reproductive organs. Then we describe several anatomical variations that likely play a superior role to popular known variation (penis size, presence of g-spot, etc). For males, the delicate play between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems is vital to achieve orgasm. For females, the autonomic component is more complex. The clitoris is the primary anatomical feature for female orgasm, including its migration toward the anterior vaginal wall. In conclusions, orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation. While these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Clin. Anat. 29:665-672, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916103

  3. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  4. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  5. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  6. Inverse sequential simulation: Performance and implementation details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Teng; Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime

    2015-12-01

    For good groundwater flow and solute transport numerical modeling, it is important to characterize the formation properties. In this paper, we analyze the performance and important implementation details of a new approach for stochastic inverse modeling called inverse sequential simulation (iSS). This approach is capable of characterizing conductivity fields with heterogeneity patterns difficult to capture by standard multiGaussian-based inverse approaches. The method is based on the multivariate sequential simulation principle, but the covariances and cross-covariances used to compute the local conditional probability distributions are computed by simple co-kriging which are derived from an ensemble of conductivity and piezometric head fields, in a similar manner as the experimental covariances are computed in an ensemble Kalman filtering. A sensitivity analysis is performed on a synthetic aquifer regarding the number of members of the ensemble of realizations, the number of conditioning data, the number of piezometers at which piezometric heads are observed, and the number of nodes retained within the search neighborhood at the moment of computing the local conditional probabilities. The results show the importance of having a sufficiently large number of all of the mentioned parameters for the algorithm to characterize properly hydraulic conductivity fields with clear non-multiGaussian features.

  7. Basic and detail engineering development of PTAMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the future Treatment and Conditioning of Medium and Low Activity Solid and Liquid Waste Plant (PTAMB) of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) will be to put up medium and low activity solid and liquid waste and to verify the quality of the conditioned waste generated in Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), Constituyentes Atomic Center (CAC) and other national producers outside CNEA. The PTAMB is a Class I Radioactive Installation (according to Basic Standard AR 10.1.1, Rev. 3 RNA, paragraphs 17 and 22) also called Relevant Installation. The aim of this document is to list the steps that carried out the Projects Department of the National Program of Radioactive Waste Management (PNGRR) to arrive to the realization of the detailed engineering of the plant. The project is in Public Tender stage and the beginning of the construction would be March 2010. Once built, the Plant will process the radioactive waste contained in the conceptual engineering, offering more precise control of these and their compatibility with the new final disposal systems to build. (author)

  8. ITER cryostat thermal shield detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural design and study on fabrication and assembly of the cryostat thermal shield for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat thermal shield is attached to cover the cryostat inner wall in order to reduce the radiation heat loads applied to the superconducting coils operation at 4 K. The thermal shield consists of low-emissivity foils which are passively cooled and shield plates which are actively cooled with low temperature helium gas. The foils are multi-layered assemblies and are attached on both surfaces of the shield plates. The material of the foils are silver coated 304 stainless steel, polyimide or polyester. The silver coated stainless steel foils should be adopted to the foils at the locations where radiation dose is over 10 MGy. The route of coolant pipes for the shield plates is designed so as to keep the surface temperature of the shield plates below 100 K. This report describes the detailed design of the cryostat thermal shield, and outlines the fabrication and assembly procedures. (J.P.N.)

  9. ITER cryostat thermal shield detailed design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Hamada, Kazuya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke; Kato, Takashi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikawa, Akira

    1999-03-01

    The structural design and study on fabrication and assembly of the cryostat thermal shield for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat thermal shield is attached to cover the cryostat inner wall in order to reduce the radiation heat loads applied to the superconducting coils operation at 4 K. The thermal shield consists of low-emissivity foils which are passively cooled and shield plates which are actively cooled with low temperature helium gas. The foils are multi-layered assemblies and are attached on both surfaces of the shield plates. The material of the foils are silver coated 304 stainless steel, polyimide or polyester. The silver coated stainless steel foils should be adopted to the foils at the locations where radiation dose is over 10 MGy. The route of coolant pipes for the shield plates is designed so as to keep the surface temperature of the shield plates below 100 K. This report describes the detailed design of the cryostat thermal shield, and outlines the fabrication and assembly procedures. (J.P.N.)

  10. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  11. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  12. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  13. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  14. A meaningful expansion around detailed balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider Markovian dynamics modelling open mesoscopic systems which are driven away from detailed balance by a nonconservative force. A systematic expansion is obtained of the stationary distribution around an equilibrium reference, in orders of the nonequilibrium forcing. The first-order around equilibrium has been known since the work of McLennan (1959 Phys. Rev. 115 1405-9), and involves the transient irreversible entropy flux. The expansion generalizes the McLennan formula to higher orders, complementing the entropy flux with the dynamical activity. The latter is more kinetic than thermodynamic and is a possible realization of Landauer's insight (1975 Phys. Rev. A 12 636-8) that, for nonequilibrium, the relative occupation of states also depends on the noise along possible escape routes. In that way, nonlinear response around equilibrium can be meaningfully discussed in terms of two main quantities only, the entropy flux and the dynamical activity. The expansion makes mathematical sense as shown in the simplest cases from exponential ergodicity.

  15. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  16. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 Mpc/h box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Lyman-alpha self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the pre...

  17. Detailed Globes Enhance Education and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Orbis World Globes creates inflatable globes-Earthballs-in many sizes that depict Earth as it is seen from space, complete with atmospheric cloud cover. Orbis designs and produces the most visually authentic replicas of Earth ever created, and NASA took notice of Orbis globes and employed a 16-inch diameter EarthBall for an educational film it made aboard the STS-45 shuttle mission. Orbis later collaborated with NASA to create two 16-foot diameter world globes for display at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, using more detailed satellite imagery. The satellite image now printed on all Orbis globes displays 1-kilometer resolution and is 21,600 by 43,200 pixels in size, and Orbis globes are otherwise meteorologically accurate, though the cloud cover has been slightly reduced in order for most of the landforms to be visible. Orbis also developed the exclusive NightGlow Cities feature, enabling EarthBalls to display the world's cities as they appear as the Earth revolves from daylight into night. Orbis inflatable globes are available in sizes from 1 to 100 feet in diameter, with the most common being the standard 16-inch and 1-meter diameter EarthBalls. Applications include educational uses from preschools to universities, games, and for a variety of display purposes at conferences, trade shows, festivals, concerts, and parades. A 16-foot diameter Orbis globe was exhibited at the United Nations' World Urban Forum, in Vancouver, Canada; the Space 2006 conference, in San Jose, California; and the X-Prize Cup Personal Spaceflight Exposition in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  18. Local detailed balance: a microscopic derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal contact is the archetype of non-equilibrium processes driven by constant non-equilibrium constraints when the latter are enforced by reservoirs exchanging conserved microscopic quantities. At a mesoscopic scale only the energies of the macroscopic bodies are accessible together with the configurations of the contact system. We consider a class of models where the contact system, as well as macroscopic bodies, have a finite number of possible configurations. The global system, with only discrete degrees of freedom, has no microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics, but it is shown that, if the microscopic dynamics is assumed to be deterministic and ergodic and to conserve energy according to some specific pattern, and if the mesoscopic evolution of the global system is approximated by a Markov process as closely as possible, then the mesoscopic transition rates obey three constraints. In the limit where macroscopic bodies can be considered as reservoirs at thermodynamic equilibrium (but with different intensive parameters), the mesoscopic transition rates turn into transition rates for the contact system and the third constraint becomes local detailed balance; the latter is generically expressed in terms of the microscopic exchange entropy variation, namely the opposite of the variation of the thermodynamic entropy of the reservoir involved in a given microscopic jump of the contact system configuration. For a finite-time evolution after contact has been switched on, we derive a fluctuation relation for the joint probability of the heat amounts received from the various reservoirs. The generalization to systems exchanging energy, volume and matter with several reservoirs, with a possible conservative external force acting on the contact system, is given explicitly. (paper)

  19. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  20. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  1. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial-imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate that high-dimensional voxel-to-voxel transformations, derived from continuum mechanics models of the underlying pelvic tissues, can be used to register computed tomography (CT) serial examinations into a single anatomic frame of reference for cumulative dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Three patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were treated with CT-compatible intracavitary (ICT) applicators. Each patient underwent five volumetric CT examinations: before initiating treatment, and immediately before and after the first and second ICT insertions, respectively. Each serial examination was rigidly registered to the patient's first ICT examination by aligning the bony anatomy. Detailed nonrigid alignment for organs (or targets) of interest was subsequently achieved by deforming the CT exams as a viscous-fluid, described by the Navier-Stokes equation, until the coincidence with the corresponding targets on CT image was maximized. In cases where ICT insertion induced very large and topologically complex rearrangements of pelvic organs, e.g., extreme uterine canal reorientation following tandem insertion, a viscous-fluid-landmark transformation was used to produce an initial registration. Results: For all three patients, reasonable registrations for organs (or targets) of interest were achieved. Fluid-landmark initialization was required in 4 of the 11 registrations. Relative to the best rigid bony landmark alignment, the viscous-fluid registration resulted in average soft-tissue displacements from 2.8 to 28.1 mm, and improved organ coincidence from the range of 5.2% to 72.2% to the range of 90.6% to 100%. Compared to the viscous-fluid transformation, global registration of bony anatomy mismatched 5% or more of the contoured organ volumes by 15-25 mm. Conclusion: Pelvic soft-tissue structures undergo large deformations and displacements during the external-beam and multiple-ICT course of radiation therapy for locally advanced cervix

  2. 5 CFR 2635.104 - Applicability to employees on detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability to employees on detail... Applicability to employees on detail. (a) Details to other agencies. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an employee on detail, including a uniformed officer on assignment, from his employing agency...

  3. 5 CFR 352.305 - Eligibility for detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for detail. 352.305 Section... RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.305 Eligibility for detail. An employee is eligible for detail to an international organization with the rights provided...

  4. 5 CFR 370.104 - Length of details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length of details. 370.104 Section 370... TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 370.104 Length of details. (a) Details may be for a period of between 3 months..., in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 3702(d). (b) Agencies may not approve or extend details after December...

  5. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research. PMID:24448034

  6. Sinonasal Anatomical Variants: CT and Endoscopy Study and Its Correlation with Extent of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Vandana; Baisakhiya, Nitish; Singh, Dalbir; Datta, Ginni; Mittal, Amit; Mendiratta, Parveen

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations in sinonasal area by nasal endoscopy and CT scan paranasal sinuses and to correlate the anatomical variations in sinonasal area with extent of disease. The present study was conducted on 40 patients of chronic sinusitis. All the patients underwent CT scan paranasal sinus axial and coronal view and nasal endoscopy. The most common anatomical variations were agger nasi cells (80 %), deviated nasal septum (72.5 %) and concha bullosa (47.5 %). Other anatomical variations seen in sinonasal region were uncinate process variations, paradoxical middle turbinate, haller cells, accessory ostia of maxillary sinus, multiseptated sphenoid. Osteomeatal unit (87.5 %) and maxillary sinuses (87.5 %) were the most commonly involved which was followed by anterior ethmoids (70 %), posterior ethmoids (50 %), frontal sinuses (32.5 %) and the sphenoids (20 %). Considering the results obtained, we believe that anatomical variations may increase the risk of sinus mucosal disease. We therefore, emphasize the importance of a careful evaluation of CT study in patients with persistent symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27508139

  7. Comparison of leaf anatomical characteristics of hibiscus rosa-sinensis grown in faisalabad region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic potential of different plant species to different environmental conditions differ in relation to different physiological, biochemical and anatomical characteristics. Of these varying attributes leaf anatomical characteristics play most important role for the establishment of that cultivar in varied environmental conditions. So, the present study was conducted to assess the inter-cultivar genetic potential of Hibiscus in relation to leaf anatomical characteristics. To fulfill the study requirements Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its six cultivars (were well adapted to their specific natural habitat) were collected from different locations of district Faisalabad Pakistan that have great environmental changes round the year. Results showed significant variability among cultivars in relation to analyzed anatomical characteristics. Cultivars Lemon shiffon and Wilder's white emerge more promising among others by possessing more epidermal thickness, increased epidermal cell area, high cortical cell area and incremented stomatal density as compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, cultivars Cooperi alba, Mrs. George Davis and Frank green possessed least cortex cell area, lowest xylem region thickness and minimum phloem region thickness respectively. Overall, it can be concluded that anatomical genetic potential has endorsed cultivars Lemon chiffon and Wilder's white with enormous capability to grow well under variable environments. (author)

  8. Anatomical description and clinical significance of unilateral triheaded sternocleidomastoid muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Goswami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this report is to observe and report unusual pattern of origin of sternal and clavicular heads of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM. An embryological insight into the possible causes for present anomaly is elucidated. The neck region of an adult male cadaver during gross anatomy teaching program. An abnormal Sternocleidomastoid (SCM was observed while dissecting the neck region of an adult. Additional clavicular head of SCM muscle were found on the right side. The accessory clavicular head coursed deep to the sternal head whereas the some fibres of main clavicular head joined the accessory belly and together they fused with the main sternal head of SCM. There was another slip arising from sternal head and merge with deep cervical fascia near base of mandible. The topographical anatomy of SCM is extremely important, particularly because it serves as a useful surgical landmark and its relation to crucial neuro-vascular structures of the neck. The usage of SCM in reconstruction operations for covering defects is discussed. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of SCM proves vital for radiological studies of the neck. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1161-1164

  9. An anatomical study of corona mortis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪华兴; 潘志军; 陈欣; 黄宗坚

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide detailed information of corona mortis for ilioinguinal approach as an anterior approach to the acetabulum and pelvis.Methods: The course, branches and distribution of the vascular connection between the obturator system and the external iliac or inferior epigastric systems located over the superior pubic ramus were observed on 50 hemipelvises with intact soft tissues.Results: During the dissections, 72% of the cadaveric sides had at least one communicating vessel between the obturator system and the external iliac or inferior epigastric systems on the superior pubic ramus. The average diameter of the connecting vessel was 2.6 mm (range, 2.0-4.2 mm). It coursed over the superior pubic ramus or iliopubic eminence vertically to enter the obturator foramen and exit the pelvis. The average distance from pubic symphysis to the vascular connections between the obturator and external iliac systems was 52 mm ( range, 38-68 mm).Conclusions: Vascular connections between the obturator system and the external iliac or inferior epigastric systems were found over the superior pubic ramus with a high incidence. They are prone to damage during the ilioinguinal approach as an anterior approach to the acetabulum and pelvis. Thus, corona mortis located over the superior pubic ramus deserves great attention during the ilioinguinal approach.

  10. SCIATIC NERVE AND ITS VARIATIONS: AN ANATOMICAL STUDY

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    Anbumani T.L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The Sciatic nerve is the widest nerve of the body, consists of two components namely tibial and common peroneal components, derived from the lumbosacral plexus from the ventral rami of L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The Sciatic nerve usually enters the gluteal region under the piriformis muscle. The purpose of this study is to identify the variations in the course and branching pattern of the sciatic nerve and its relation to the piriformis muscle which may lead to various clinical manifestations like non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and methods: 50 gluteal regions and posterior compartment of thigh from 25 formalin fixed adult cadavers are used for this study, of which one is a female cadaver. Gluteal regions and the posterior aspect of thigh on both sides are dissected to expose the sciatic nerve. Variations in the sciatic nerve and their relationship to piriformis muscle are observed. Results: 41 gluteal regions and posterior compartments of thigh (82% showed normal anatomy of sciatic nerve and also piriformis muscle. 9 regions (18% showed variations in the sciatic nerve, of which 5 regions (10% showed variation of sciatic nerve in relation to piriformis muscle. Other details are explained further in the article. Conclusion: A proper knowledge about the variations of sciatic nerve, its relation to piriformis muscle is must for medical professionals during posterior hip surgeries, sciatic nerve decompression, total hip replacement, sciatic nerve injury during deep intramuscular gluteal injections, failed sciatic nerve block during anaesthetic procedures etc.

  11. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source–target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose–effect relationships in the liver. (paper)

  12. On the Variations of the Muscle Flexor Digitorum Brevis: Anatomical Insight Variaciones del Músculo Flexor Corto de los Dedos: Experiencias de Anatomía

    OpenAIRE

    Isurani Ilayperuma

    2012-01-01

    Flexor digitorum brevis, an intrinsic muscle of the sole of the foot, is stated as one of the muscles that shows frequent anatomical variations. Its most commonly reported anomaly is the absence of tendon to the little toe. From a clinical standpoint of view, flexor digitorum brevis musculocutanous flap is used in the reconstruction of the heel pad and flexor digitorum brevis tendon transfer is employed in the correction of flexible claw and hammer toe deformities. Despite its significance li...

  13. Anatomically accurate high resolution modeling of human whole heart electromechanics: A strongly scalable algebraic multigrid solver method for nonlinear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Christoph M.; Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Prassl, Anton J.; Niederer, Steven A.; Haase, Gundolf; Plank, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical (EM) models of the heart have been used successfully to study fundamental mechanisms underlying a heart beat in health and disease. However, in all modeling studies reported so far numerous simplifications were made in terms of representing biophysical details of cellular function and its heterogeneity, gross anatomy and tissue microstructure, as well as the bidirectional coupling between electrophysiology (EP) and tissue distension. One limiting factor is the employed spatial discretization methods which are not sufficiently flexible to accommodate complex geometries or resolve heterogeneities, but, even more importantly, the limited efficiency of the prevailing solver techniques which is not sufficiently scalable to deal with the incurring increase in degrees of freedom (DOF) when modeling cardiac electromechanics at high spatio-temporal resolution. This study reports on the development of a novel methodology for solving the nonlinear equation of finite elasticity using human whole organ models of cardiac electromechanics, discretized at a high para-cellular resolution. Three patient-specific, anatomically accurate, whole heart EM models were reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) scans at resolutions of 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm, yielding meshes of approximately 184.6, 24.4 and 3.7 million tetrahedral elements and 95.9, 13.2 and 2.1 million displacement DOF, respectively. The same mesh was used for discretizing the governing equations of both electrophysiology (EP) and nonlinear elasticity. A novel algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioner for an iterative Krylov solver was developed to deal with the resulting computational load. The AMG preconditioner was designed under the primary objective of achieving favorable strong scaling characteristics for both setup and solution runtimes, as this is key for exploiting current high performance computing hardware. Benchmark results using the 220 μm, 440 μm and 880 μm meshes demonstrate

  14. Leaf morphological and anatomical traits from tropical to temperate coniferous forests: Mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Hou, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Leaf traits may reflect the adaptation mechanisms of plants to the environment. In this study, we investigated leaf morphological and anatomical traits in nine cold-temperate to tropical forests along a 4,200-km transect to test how they vary across latitudinal gradients. The results showed that leaf dry weight decreased (P dry weight, leaf thickness and palisade mesophyll thickness, but negative correlations between stomatal length and stomatal density (all P < 0.01). The observed negative correlations represented the adaptive mechanisms of leaves through their morphological and anatomical traits. These findings provided new insights into the responses of leaf morphological and anatomical traits to climate changes and important parameters for future model optimization. PMID:26796339

  15. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in an Anatomically-Accurate Scaled Model of the Mammalian Nasal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumple, Christopher; Krane, Michael; Richter, Joseph; Craven, Brent

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian nose is a multi-purpose organ that houses a convoluted airway labyrinth responsible for respiratory air conditioning, filtering of environmental contaminants, and chemical sensing. Because of the complexity of the nasal cavity, the anatomy and function of these upper airways remain poorly understood in most mammals. However, recent advances in high-resolution medical imaging, computational modeling, and experimental flow measurement techniques are now permitting the study of respiratory airflow and olfactory transport phenomena in anatomically-accurate reconstructions of the nasal cavity. Here, we focus on efforts to manufacture an anatomically-accurate transparent model for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements. Challenges in the design and manufacture of an index-matched anatomical model are addressed. PIV measurements are presented, which are used to validate concurrent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mammalian nasal airflow. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Prostatome: A combined anatomical and disease based MRI atlas of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Madabhushi, Anant, E-mail: anant.madabhushi@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C. [Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Genega, Elizabeth M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Lenkinski, Robert E.; Rofsky, Neil M. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235 (United States); Feleppa, Ernest [Riverside Research Institute, New York, New York 10038 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors introduce a novel framework, the anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme and apply it to create a fused anatomic-disease atlas of the prostate which the authors refer to as the prostatome. The prostatome combines a MRI based anatomic and a histology based disease atlas. Statistical imaging atlases allow for the integration of information across multiple scales and imaging modalities into a single canonical representation, in turn enabling a fused anatomical-disease representation which may facilitate the characterization of disease appearance relative to anatomic structures. While statistical atlases have been extensively developed and studied for the brain, approaches that have attempted to combine pathology and imaging data for study of prostate pathology are not extant. This works seeks to address this gap. Methods: The AnCoR framework optimizes a scoring function composed of two surface (prostate and central gland) misalignment measures and one intensity-based similarity term. This ensures the correct mapping of anatomic regions into the atlas, even when regional MRI intensities are inconsistent or highly variable between subjects. The framework allows for creation of an anatomic imaging and a disease atlas, while enabling their fusion into the anatomic imaging-disease atlas. The atlas presented here was constructed using 83 subjects with biopsy confirmed cancer who had pre-operative MRI (collected at two institutions) followed by radical prostatectomy. The imaging atlas results from mapping thein vivo MRI into the canonical space, while the anatomic regions serve as domain constraints. Elastic co-registration MRI and corresponding ex vivo histology provides “ground truth” mapping of cancer extent on in vivo imaging for 23 subjects. Results: AnCoR was evaluated relative to alternative construction strategies that use either MRI intensities or the prostate surface alone for registration. The AnCoR framework

  17. Assistance to planning in deep brain stimulation: data fusion method for locating anatomical targets in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Alice; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be relieved through deep brain stimulation. This neurosurgical technique relies on high precision positioning of electrodes in specific areas of the basal ganglia and the thalamus. In order to identify these anatomical targets, which are located deep within the brain, we developed a semi-automated method of image analysis, based on data fusion. Information provided by both anatomical magnetic resonance images and expert knowledge is managed in a common possibilistic frame, using a fuzzy logic approach. More specifically, a graph-based virtual atlas modeling theoretical anatomical knowledge is matched to the image data from each patient, through a research algorithm (or strategy) which simultaneously computes an estimation of the location of every structures, thus assisting the neurosurgeon in defining the optimal target. The method was tested on 10 images, with promising results. Location and segmentation results were statistically assessed, opening perspectives for enhancements. PMID:17946793

  18. Effect of anatomical and chemical structure in the permeability of "Amapá" wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Eime Pereira Baraúna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the permeability to air and liquid, in the longitudinal direction of "amapá" wood (Brosimum parinarioides Ducke, originating from the Amazon Forest. Furthermore, the influence of anatomical and chemical characteristics in the permeability of the wood was investigated. For this study, samples were collected from three trees, in the state of Pará, Brazil, and submitted to permeability test, anatomical characterization, and chemical analyses. The permeability to the air of the "amapá" wood was estimated at 63.7.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1 and to the liquid was 2.07.10-9 m3.[m.(N.m-2.s]-1. There were low correlations between air and liquid permeability and the anatomical features.

  19. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  20. Endoscopic expand transnasal approach to the suprasellar region :anatomical study and clinical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-jie; CHEN Kai-lai; WANG Qin; JI Wei-yang; LI Bing; SUN Ji-yong; LI Jiang-an

    2009-01-01

    Backgroud The expanded endonasal approach (EEA) is used sparingly by surgeons for resection of lesions in the ventrocranial base. Herein, we examined the anatomy of the ventrocranial base by endoscopy and comment on the use of EEA in clinical practice.Methods Twenty artery-injected adult cadaveric heads were studied under surgical conditions using the endoscopic EEA. The extent of the surgical exposure, the endoscopic anatomic view and the maneuverability of surgical instruments about the suprasellar region were studied by the endoscopic EEA.Results The EEA by endoscope can reach the suprasellar region. In this approach, the optocarotid recess, supra and infra-optic chiasm interspace, the ophthalmic artery and others were important anatomical landmarks for identification of the suprasellar region.Conclusions The endoscopic EEA can be used to remove many types of lesions in the ventrocranial base. The microanatorny observed using the endoscope provides important anatomical information on the suprasellar region for neurosurgeons.

  1. Extractive and anatomical wood structure effects on mechanical properties of Caoba wood (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compression tangential to grain of samples of mahogany wood from Peru was examined at different relative humidity levels at 25 Celsius degrade to determine the influence of both extractives and anatomical structure. Matched samples were used to assess the percentage of extractive components by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and hot water. Additionally, fourteen anatomical parameters were determined by image analysis. Stepwise regression analysis concluded that mainly anatomical features, such as rays and vessels, rather than extractives, affect the mechanical behaviour of mahogany. These findings are agree with earlier results showing a negative effect of large and multiseriate rays on the mechanical properties of wood when loaded perpendicularly to their long axis. The influence of lumen located extracts soluble in dichloromethane might disallow deformations. Finally, it is postulated that hot water extracts may play a plasticizing role in this species.

  2. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  3. Radial force distribution changes associated with tangential force production in cylindrical grasping, and the importance of anatomical registration

    OpenAIRE

    Pataky, Todd C.; Slota, Gregory P.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    Radial force (Fr) distributions describe grip force coordination about a cylindrical object. Recent studies have employed only explicit Fr tasks, and have not normalized for anatomical variance when considering Fr distributions. The goals of the present study were (i) to explore Fr during tangential force production tasks, and (ii) to examine the extent to which anatomical registration (i.e. spatial normalization of anatomically analogous structures) could improve signal detectability in Fr d...

  4. LEAF ANATOMICAL VARIATION IN RELATION TO STRESS TOLERANCE AMONG SOME WOODY SPECIES ON THE ACCRA PLAINS OF GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    DZOMEKU BELOVED MENSAH

    2012-01-01

    Leaf anatomical study was conducted on some woody species on the Accra Plains of Ghana. Leaf epidermal strips and transverse sections were mounted in Canada balsam and studied. The anatomical studies revealed numerous stomata on the lower epidermis of Azadirachta indica. The anatomical studies revealed the presence of thick cuticles, double-layered palisade mesophyll in most species and the presence of epidermal hairs in some species. Ficus capensis showed the presence of cystolith in the low...

  5. C-shaped Incision for Far-Lateral Suboccipital Approach: Anatomical Study and Clinical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tsz; Reintjes, Stephen; Olivera, Raul; van Loveren, Harry R; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Background The standard incision for far-lateral suboccipital approaches has been the classic "reverse hockey stick." Although that incision provides ample exposure, concern has been raised that excessive muscle dissection and skin elevation might lead to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) under the flap with increased risk of CSF leak. We hypothesize that the C-shaped incision can minimize the amount of muscle dissection and provide optimal exposure and surgical outcomes. Objective To describe the anatomical dissection for the C-shaped incision and clinical application of the C-shaped incision for the far-lateral approach. Methods A retrospective analysis of all the patients operated on at our center using this approach for the treatment of aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) from 2005 to 2011. Results of clinical and operative outcome are evaluated. Surgical techniques are described in detail. Cadaveric dissections using the C-shaped incision were performed to assess the exposure of the far-lateral suboccipital area. Results Eleven consecutive patients who had undergone this procedure were selected. All patients underwent clipping of PICA aneurysms. Nine patients (82%) presented with ruptured aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. All of them underwent suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. The dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion in 10 patients (91%). No CSF leak or pseudomeningocele were reported. In nine SAH patients, two (22%) had postoperative dysphagia and required long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. One patient (11%) had chronic respiratory failure and required a tracheostomy. Three patients (33%) developed hydrocephalus and required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusions The C-shaped incision is a valid alternative to the classic reverse hockey-stick incision to gain exposure for far-lateral craniotomies. Knowing the anatomy and dissection techniques can provide an easy

  6. Angiosome of the fibular artery as anatomic basis for free composite fibular flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The free osteoseptocutaneus fibular flap is, anatomically, an angiosome of the fibular artery. Knowledge of detailed topography anatomy of the fibular artery and its branches is necessary for successful creation and elevation of the flap. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine topography of the tissue of the leg supplied only by the fibular artery, to describe topography relations of the branches of the fibular artery, their number, anastomoses, vascular plexus and the way of vascularization of the skin, muscle and bone tissue. Method. The popliteal artery was cannulated in 15 cadaveric legs, flushed with ink and then with 10% ink-gelatin. Fixation of tissue was performed with formalin and then micropreparation of the side branches of the fibular artery was performed. Also, two corrosive models were made. Localization of foramen nutrition was determined by measuring 50 fibulas. Results. The skin supplied by the fibular artery forms distal two thirds of the lateral-posterior aspect of the leg. Vascularization of the skin arises from the side branches of the fibular artery forming a rich fascia plexus at the deep fascia level. From 3 up to 7 side branches of the fibular artery are incorporated in the fascia arterial plexus and can be separated as septocutaneus and myocutaneus, according to topography relations. The nutritive artery enters the fibula cortex at a spot that, measured from the top of the fibula, lies in the area between 32% and 65% of the whole length of the fibula. Periosteal circulation of the fibula originates from the short side branches of the fibular artery that anastomoses at the periosteum level. Conclusion. The axial line of flap has to be marked 2 cm posterior to the line from caput fibulae to malleolus lateralis. Numerous anastomoses between the side branches of the fibular artery in the fascia plexus enable good circulation of the skin even when some of the branches are not included in the flap. The

  7. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  8. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  9. The Application of an Anatomical Database for Fetal Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yang; Qiu-Yan Pei; Yun-Tao Li; Zhen-Juan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fetal congenital heart anomalies are the most common congenital anomalies in live births.Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is the only prenatal diagnostic approach used to detect fetal congenital heart disease (CHD).FECG is not widely used,and the antenatal diagnosis rate of CHD varies considerably.Thus,mastering the anatomical characteristics of different kinds of CHD is critical for ultrasound physicians to improve FECG technology.The aim of this study is to investigate the applications of a fetal CHD anatomic database in FECG teaching and training program.Methods:We evaluated 60 transverse section databases including 27 types of fetal CHD built in the Prenatal Diagnosis Center in Peking University People's Hospital.Each original database contained 400-700 cross-sectional digital images with a resolution of 3744 pixels × 5616 pixels.We imported the database into Amira 5.3.1 (Australia Visage Imaging Company,Australia) three-dimensional (3D) software.The database functions use a series of 3D software visual operations.The features of the fetal CHD anatomical database were analyzed to determine its applications in FECG continuing education and training.Results:The database was rebuilt using the 3D software.The original and rebuilt databases can be displayed dynamically,continuously,and synchronically and can be rotated at arbitrary angles.The sections from the dynamic displays and rotating angles are consistent with the sections in FECG.The database successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship features of different fetal CHDs.We established a fetal CHD anatomy training database and a standardized training database for FECG.Ultrasound physicians and students can learn the anatomical features of fetal CHD and FECG through either centralized training or distance education.Conclusions:The database of fetal CHD successfully reproduced the anatomic structures and spatial relationship of different kinds of fetal CHD.This database can be

  10. Understanding the current anatomical competence landscape: Comparing perceptions of program directors, residents, and fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Brokaw, James J; Kochhar, Komal; Nalin, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    A mixed methods survey of fourth-year medical students, resident physicians, and residency program directors at the Indiana University School of Medicine gathered perceptions of anatomical competence-defined as the anatomical education necessary for effective clinical practice. The survey items explored numerous aspects of anatomical competence, including the most effective modes of instruction, perceptions of readiness for clinical practice, and specific suggestions for improving anatomical education during medical school and residency. The response rate was 46% for fourth-year medical students, 47% for residents (as graduates from 137 medical schools), and 71% for program directors. A majority of students and residents reported that their course in Gross Anatomy prepared them well for clinical practice; that cadaveric dissection was important in the early development of their anatomical competence; and that placing a greater emphasis on clinical relevance in medical school would have improved their anatomical competence even further. However, in terms of anatomical preparedness upon entering residency, the program directors rated their residents less prepared than the residents rated themselves. All three groups agreed that there is need for additional opportunities for anatomical educational during medical school and residency. Suggestions for improving anatomical education included the following: providing more opportunities for cadaveric dissection during medical school and residency; more consistent teaching of anatomy for clinical practice; more workshops that review anatomy; and better integration of anatomy with the teaching of other subjects during medical school. Anat Sci Educ 9: 307-318. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26632977

  11. Ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomical and CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 50 anatomical specimens and 100 routine CT scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomical finding, but not as common on CT. Examination of hospital charts and plain radiographs of 26 patients with such ossification suggests that it is probably a normal variant; there was no evidence that it is related to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or inflammatory arthropathy. Marked ossification may cause or contribute to neurological symptoms

  12. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  13. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  14. La anatomía comparada: su vigencia como programa de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala, Virginia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En los círculos científicos actuales predomina la idea de que la anatomía es casi un anacronismo victoriano, salvo en el contexto de proveedora de caracteres para análisis filogenéticos. Esta estimación del rol de la anatomía como una actividad subordinada lleva implícita la idea de que no se trata más de una disciplina científica. Que probablemente lo haya sido, pero que no merece más ese status.

  15. Fusing Simultaneous EEG and fMRI Using Functional and Anatomical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Winkler, Irene; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2015-01-01

    SPoC), to not only use functional but also anatomical information. The goal is to extract correlated source components from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Anatomical information enters our proposed extension to mSPoC via the forward model, which relates the activity...... on cortex level to the EEG sensors. The augmented mSPoC is shown to outperform the original version in realistic simulations where the signal to noise ratio is low or where training epochs are scarce....

  16. DETERMINATION OF ANATOMICAL TYPE OF HEAD AND FACE IN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS IN AHWAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Safikhani; N. Afzali H. Bordbar

    2007-01-01

    Cephalometry is an important branch of anthropology in which the dimensions of head and face can be determined. These dimensions are used to show indexes for studying brain growth and formation of all types of head and face. Indexes are vary from 65 to 95 for head and 65 to105 for face, which are used to determine 4 international anatomic types of head and 5 international anatomic types of face. The present study was carried out to determine all types of head and face among subjects aged less...

  17. Validation of Setaria (L. P. Beauv Species based on Palyonological and Anatomical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul nazir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study external morphology, leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structureof three species of genus Setaria(Poaceaeviz., S. glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridiswere studied. The major emphasis was on the importance of palyno-anatomical characters used as an aid in plant systematics. Light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEMwere used to study leaf epidermal anatomy and pollen structure.Palyno-anatomical analysis of genus Setaria shows variations within the species. It is stated that the study based on classical and modern approaches is very useful for systematic delimitation of problematic taxa like Setaria.

  18. Anatomic basis, imaging findings and significance of nasopharynx raphe space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To advance the conception of nasopharynx raphe space (NRS) on imaging, and to introduce its CT and MR appearances as well as significance. Methods: Nasopharyngeal axial plain scans were performed in 43 cases of normal CT group and 36 cases of normal MRI group, nasopharyngeal coronal CT and MR scans in 5 cases of the CT group and 5 cases of MR group, and nasopharyngeal posterior wall thin-slice sagittal MR scans in 7 cases of the MRI group. Two cases of axial nasopharynx specimens were used for comparison. CT and MR scans were performed in 30 patients with proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) . Then, imaging findings of retro-nasopharyngeal soft tissue were observed and analyzed in detail. Results: NRS was between two longus capitis muscle or longus coli muscle, rear of pharyngeal posterior wall, and in front of occipital bone and cervical vertebrae. NRS included part of nasopharynx raphe, retro-pharyngeal space, danger space, prevertebral space, and the fascia of these spaces, as well as with the fibrous connective tissue, fat, and lymph nodes and so on. On CT, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous low density, in midline of which showed isopyknic thick or thin line named nasopharynx raphe and occasionally showed obscurity. Nasopharynx raphe divided NRS into symmetric two halves. On MRI, NRS displayed as triangular inhomogeneous high signal intensity and various thickness of low signal intensity in the midline called nasopharynx raphe. NRS could be displayed in the level between clivus and palatum durum in most cases and extended down to pharynx level in some individual. On coronal images, NRS could be displayed as longitudinal strip or inverse trapezoidal shape. In 30 cases with NPC, symmetry of NRS was displayed in 14 cases, in which 1 case showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Asymmetrical narrowing or disappearing of NRS was detected in 16 cases, in which 14 cases showed involvement of prevertebral muscles. Conclusion: It is suitable that

  19. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 77.05-1 Section 77.05-1... Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of an electrical engineering or interior communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be...

  20. 49 CFR 7.6 - Deletion of identifying detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying detail. 7.6 Section 7.6... To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.6 Deletion of identifying detail. Whenever it is determined to be necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, identifying details will be...

  1. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative...

  2. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  3. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their...

  4. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 77.03-1 Section 77.03-1... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design,...

  5. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... identifying details. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  6. 14 CFR 29.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 29.685 Section 29.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to prevent jamming, chafing,...

  7. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 195.05-1 Section 195.05-1... § 195.05-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of an electrical engineering or interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall...

  8. 46 CFR 195.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 195.03-1 Section 195.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS VESSEL... details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details...

  9. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 96.05-1 Section 96.05-1... § 96.05-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of an electrical engineering or interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation,...

  10. 5 CFR 352.905 - Employees on detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees on detail. 352.905 Section 352... RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.905 Employees on detail... agency will arrange for the termination of a detail and the agency will return the employee to his or...

  11. 5 CFR 352.903 - Effecting a detail or transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effecting a detail or transfer. 352.903... detail or transfer. (a) Authority to approve. The head of an agency may enter into written agreements with the Commission for the detail or voluntary transfer, for set periods of time, of agency...

  12. 14 CFR 25.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 25.685 Section 25.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed and installed to prevent...

  13. 46 CFR 70.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 70.20-1 Section 70.20-1... General Marine Engineering Requirements § 70.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their...

  14. 46 CFR 96.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 96.03-1 Section 96.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS VESSEL... details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details...

  15. 46 CFR 32.45-1 - Installation and details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 32.45-1 Section 32.45-1... REQUIREMENTS Electrical Installations § 32.45-1 Installation and details. The installation of all electrical engineering or interior communications systems, together with the details of design, construction,...

  16. 14 CFR 23.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 23.685 Section 23.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be...

  17. 14 CFR 27.685 - Control system details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. section 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Naval Publications... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 27.685 Section 27... system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed to prevent jamming, chafing,...

  18. 42 CFR 401.118 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 401.118 Section... Deletion of identifying details. When CMS publishes or otherwise makes available an opinion or order... identifying details will be deleted....

  19. 34 CFR 5.16 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.16 Section 5.16... details. Whenever any final opinion, order, or other materials required to be made available pursuant to... other identifying details will constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, the...

  20. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...