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Sample records for anatomically detailed mri-derived

  1. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect.

  2. Vascularized bone graft in scaphoid fractures. Anatomical details and clinical indications. A cases series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara A, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The fracture of scaphoid continues being a challenge for orthopedist and hand surgeons. Objective. To show the anatomical details of the bony strip from the second metacarpal in corpses injected with green latex and the results of the surgical technique in a series of patients with scaphoid pseudarthrosis. Materials and methods. We carry out an initial anatomical analysis before employing the surgical technique in clinical setting, and then we did a descriptive study of patients with pseudarthrosis of scaphoid,treated with vascularized bony graft by the first metacarpal artery. Results. All patients consolidated and improved in the pain scale, they did not have mobility deterioration or residual carpus instability, after ten years of observations. Conclusions. The vascularized graft is a useful option in the management of the pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid.

  3. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

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    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  4. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

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    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  5. Anatomically detailed and large-scale simulations studying synapse loss and synchrony using NeuroBox

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    Markus eBreit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic or reconstruction to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g. new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations.

  6. Anatomically Detailed and Large-Scale Simulations Studying Synapse Loss and Synchrony Using NeuroBox.

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    Breit, Markus; Stepniewski, Martin; Grein, Stephan; Gottmann, Pascal; Reinhardt, Lukas; Queisser, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic, or reconstruction) to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio) and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g., new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations.

  7. Segmented and Detailed Visualization of Anatomical Structures based on Augmented Reality for Health Education and Knowledge Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Siqueira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of technology has changed the face of education, especially when combined with appropriate pedagogical bases. This combination has created innovation opportunities in order to add quality to teaching through new perspectives for traditional methods applied in the classroom. In the Health field, particularly, augmented reality and interaction design techniques can assist the teacher in the exposition of theoretical concepts and/or concepts that need of training at specific medical procedures. Besides, visualization and interaction with Health data, from different sources and in different formats, helps to identify hidden patterns or anomalies, increases the flexibility in the search for certain values, allows the comparison of different units to obtain relative difference in quantities, provides human interaction in real time, etc. At this point, it is noted that the use of interactive visualization techniques such as augmented reality and virtual can collaborate with the process of knowledge discovery in medical and biomedical databases. This work discuss aspects related to the use of augmented reality and interaction design as a tool for teaching anatomy and knowledge discovery, with the proposition of an case study based on mobile application that can display targeted anatomical parts in high resolution and with detail of its parts.

  8. Sustained methylene blue staining to guide anatomic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Initial experience and technical details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-wang, Cai; Shi-zhong, Yang; Wen-ping, Lv; Geng, Chen; Wan-qing, Gu; Wei-dong, Duan; Wei-yi, Wang; Zhi-qiang, Huang; Jia-hong, Dong

    2015-07-01

    The boundary of the target hepatic segment within the liver parenchyma cannot be marked by the use of a conventional anatomic hepatectomy approach. This study describes a novel methylene blue staining technique for guiding the anatomic resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Between February 2009 and February 2012, anatomic hepatectomy was performed in 106 patients with HCC via a novel, sustained methylene blue staining technique. Sustained staining was achieved by injecting methylene blue into the distal aspect of the portal vein after exposing Glisson's sheath. The hepatic pedicle was immediately ligated, and the hepatic parenchymal transection was performed along the interface between methylene blue stained tissue and unstained tissue. Anatomic hepatectomies included subsegmentectomy (n = 16), monosegmentectomy (n = 57), multisegmentectomy (n = 27), and hemihepatectomy (n = 6). The portal vein was injected successfully with methylene blue in 100% of cases, and complete staining of the target hepatic segment was achieved in 98 of 106 (92.5%) cases. Mean intraoperative bleeding was 360 ± 90 mL, and the postoperative complication rate was 24.5% (26/106). No perioperative mortality occurred. Operative margins were all negative on pathologic examination. Mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 40 months (range, 24-60). No local recurrence (around the operative margin) occurred. This novel technique of achieving sustained staining by injecting methylene blue then immediately ligating the hepatic pedicle is simple and feasible. It can guide the selection of the operative margin during hepatic parenchyma transection to improve the accuracy of anatomic hepatectomy for the treatment of HCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation.

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    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime; Liebschner, Michael A K; Xia, James J

    2018-04-01

    Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians' need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical

  10. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

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    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Scheenen, Tom W. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bathen, Tone F.; Selnaes, Kirsten M. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans} and V{sub e}) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with both GS and median ADC. Contrast correlated moderately with median ADC. The textural features correlated insignificantly with K{sup trans} and V{sub e}. GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K{sup trans}, and V{sub e}. The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. (orig.)

  11. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

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    Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grossmann, Patrick; Alexander, Brian M. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cooper, Lee A.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Holder, Chad A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ligon, Keith L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Aerts, Hugo J.W.L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  12. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D.; Grossmann, Patrick; Alexander, Brian M.; Cooper, Lee A.D.; Holder, Chad A.; Ligon, Keith L.; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.

    2015-01-01

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  13. MRI-derived bound and pore water concentrations as predictors of fracture resistance.

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    Manhard, Mary Kate; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Granke, Mathilde; Gochberg, Daniel F; Nyman, Jeffry S; Does, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Accurately predicting fracture risk in the clinic is challenging because the determinants are multi-factorial. A common approach to fracture risk assessment is to combine X-ray-based imaging methods such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with an online Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) that includes additional risk factors such as age, family history, and prior fracture incidents. This approach still does not adequately diagnose many individuals at risk, especially those with certain diseases like type 2 diabetes. As such, this study investigated bound water and pore water concentrations (Cbw and Cpw) from ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as new predictors of fracture risk. Ex vivo cadaveric arms were imaged with UTE MRI as well as with DXA and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT), and imaging measures were compared to both whole-bone structural and material properties as determined by three-point bending tests of the distal-third radius. While DXA-derived areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and μCT-derived volumetric BMD correlated well with structural strength, they moderately correlated with the estimate material strength with gender being a significant covariate for aBMD. MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw had a similar predictive ability of material strength as aBMD but did so independently of gender. In addition, Cbw was the only imaging parameter to significantly correlate with toughness, the energy dissipated during fracture. Notably, the strength of the correlations with the material properties of bone tended to be higher when a larger endosteal region was used to determine Cbw and Cpw. These results indicate that MRI measures of Cbw and Cpw have the ability to probe bone material properties independent of bone structure or subject gender. In particular, toughness is a property of fracture resistance that is not explained by X-ray based methods. Thus, these MRI-derived measures of Cbw and Cpw in cortical

  14. Can MRI-derived factors predict the survival in glioblastoma patients treated with postoperative chemoradiation therapy?

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    Hideo Nakamura, Hideo [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, (Japan); Murakami, Ryuji [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)], e-mail: murakami@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirai, Toshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Advanced diagnostic and therapeutic developments may yield novel prognostic factors in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Purpose: To validate the predictive values of pretreatment quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI performed within 72 h after surgery in patients with GBM. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and September 2009, 138 patients with GBM underwent postoperative chemoradiation therapy (chemo-RT) and longitudinal MRI before surgery, in the early postoperative period, and at 1-month intervals thereafter. The role of the patient age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on pretreatment DW-MRI, and gross residual tumor on early postoperative MRI were assessed by factor analysis of overall survival (OS). Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; the multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for the influence of prognostic factors. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recursive partitioning analysis (RTOG-RPA) criteria were used to validate the predictive value of the MRI-derived factors. Results: Substantial independent prognostic factors were the KPS score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.812), minimum ADC (HR, 2.365), and gross residual tumor (HR, 1.777). Based on MRI-derived factors, we assigned the patients to different prognostic groups in the RTOG-RPA classification and grouped them according to the level of risk, i.e. a high-risk group with low minimum ADCs (<0.93 X 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) with gross residual tumor and a low-risk group with high minimum ADCs ({>=}0.93 X 10{sup -}3 mm{sup 2}/s) without gross residual tumor; the other patients were assigned to the intermediate-risk group. Median OS for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 28.2, 14.7, and 10.8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The minimum ADC on pretreatment DW-MRI and gross residual tumor on early

  15. Automatic Recognition of fMRI-derived Functional Networks using 3D Convolutional Neural Networks.

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    Zhao, Yu; Dong, Qinglin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hanbo; Jiang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2017-06-15

    Current fMRI data modeling techniques such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Coding methods can effectively reconstruct dozens or hundreds of concurrent interacting functional brain networks simultaneously from the whole brain fMRI signals. However, such reconstructed networks have no correspondences across different subjects. Thus, automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of these large numbers of fMRI-derived functional brain networks are very important for subsequent steps of functional brain analysis in cognitive and clinical neuroscience applications. However, this task is still a challenging and open problem due to the tremendous variability of various types of functional brain networks and the presence of various sources of noises. In recognition of the fact that convolutional neural networks (CNN) has superior capability of representing spatial patterns with huge variability and dealing with large noises, in this paper, we design, apply and evaluate a deep 3D CNN framework for automatic, effective and accurate classification and recognition of large number of functional brain networks reconstructed by sparse representation of whole-brain fMRI signals. Our extensive experimental results based on the Human Connectome Project (HCP) fMRI data showed that the proposed deep 3D CNN can effectively and robustly perform functional networks classification and recognition tasks, while maintaining a high tolerance for mistakenly labelled training instances. Our work provides a new deep learning approach for modeling functional connectomes based on fMRI data.

  16. Imaging-genomics reveals driving pathways of MRI derived volumetric tumor phenotype features in Glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, Patrick; Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. Jr; Holder, Chad A.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) tumors exhibit strong phenotypic differences that can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the underlying biological drivers of these imaging phenotypes remain largely unknown. An Imaging-Genomics analysis was performed to reveal the mechanistic associations between MRI derived quantitative volumetric tumor phenotype features and molecular pathways. One hundred fourty one patients with presurgery MRI and survival data were included in our analysis. Volumetric features were defined, including the necrotic core (NE), contrast-enhancement (CE), abnormal tumor volume assessed by post-contrast T1w (tumor bulk or TB), tumor-associated edema based on T2-FLAIR (ED), and total tumor volume (TV), as well as ratios of these tumor components. Based on gene expression where available (n = 91), pathway associations were assessed using a preranked gene set enrichment analysis. These results were put into context of molecular subtypes in GBM and prognostication. Volumetric features were significantly associated with diverse sets of biological processes (FDR < 0.05). While NE and TB were enriched for immune response pathways and apoptosis, CE was associated with signal transduction and protein folding processes. ED was mainly enriched for homeostasis and cell cycling pathways. ED was also the strongest predictor of molecular GBM subtypes (AUC = 0.61). CE was the strongest predictor of overall survival (C-index = 0.6; Noether test, p = 4x10 −4 ). GBM volumetric features extracted from MRI are significantly enriched for information about the biological state of a tumor that impacts patient outcomes. Clinical decision-support systems could exploit this information to develop personalized treatment strategies on the basis of noninvasive imaging. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2659-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. Local Anatomic Changes in Parotid and Submandibular Glands During Radiotherapy for Oropharynx Cancer and Correlation With Dose, Studied in Detail With Nonrigid Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Osorio, Eliana M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Teguh, David N.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the anatomic changes caused by external beam radiotherapy in head-and-neck cancer patients in full three dimensions and to relate the local anatomic changes to the planned mean dose. Methods and Materials: A nonrigid registration method was adapted for RT image registration. The method was applied in 10 head-and-neck cancer patients, who each underwent a planning and a repeat computed tomography scan. Contoured structures (parotid, submandibular glands, and tumor) were registered in a nonrigid manner. The accuracy of the transformation was determined. The transformation results were used to summarize the anatomic changes on a local scale for the irradiated and spared glands. The volume reduction of the glands was related to the planned mean dose. Results: Transformation was accurate with a mean error of 0.6 ± 0.5 mm. The volume of all glands and the primary tumor decreased. The lateral regions of the irradiated parotid glands moved inward (average, 3 mm), and the medial regions tended to remain in the same position. The irradiated submandibular glands shrank and moved upward. The spared glands showed only a small deformation (∼1 mm in most regions). Overall, the primary tumors shrank. The volume loss of the parotid glands correlated significantly with the planned mean dose (p <0.001). Conclusion: General shrinkage and deformation of irradiated glands was seen. The spared glands showed few changes. These changes were assessed by a nonrigid registration method, which effectively described the local changes occurring in the head-and-neck region after external beam radiotherapy

  18. Prognostic value of MRI-derived masticator space involvement in IMRT-treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Youping; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yunbin; Lin, Shaojun; Chen, Ying; Zong, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanhong; Guo, Qiaojuan; Chen, Bijuan; Tang, Linbo

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study reassessed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine the significance how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived masticator space involvement (MSI) affected patients’ prognosis. One thousand one hundred ninety seven NPC patients who had complete set of MRI and medical records were enrolled. Basing on their MRI findings, the T-categories of tumors were identified according to the seventh edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, which considers MSI a prognostic indicator for NPCs. Rates of overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Log-Rank test compared their differences. Cox regression analysis was employed to evaluate various prognostic factors systematically. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 18.0 software, P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Medial pterygoid muscle (MPM) was involved in 283 (23.64 %) cases, of which lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) was concurrently affected in 181 (15.12 %) and infratemporal fossa (ITF) in 19 (1.59 %). Generally, MSI correlated with an OS, LRFS, and DMFS consistent with a T4-stage diagnosis (P > 0.05). Although different degrees of MSI presented a similar OS and DMFS (P > 0.1), tumors involving LPM had a relatively poorer LRFS than those affected the MPM only (P = 0.027), even for subgroup of patients composed of T3 and T4 classifications (P = 0.035). A tumor involving MPM brought an LRFS consistent with a T2 or T3-stage disease (P > 0.1). If the tumor affected LPM or ITF concurrently, the survival outcomes were more consistent with a T4-stage disease (P > 0.1). Nevertheless, compared to tumor infiltrating MPM, those invading LPM or ITF more frequently spread into other concurrent sites that earned higher T-staging categories. Moreover

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamali, Y. Vol 4, No 2 (2014) - Articles A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2218-6050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  20. Anatomic Preformed Post: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de OdontoIogía de la UNMSM.; Alvarado Menacho, Sergio; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Profesor Asociado del Área de Prótesis y Oclusión de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Pari Espinoza, Rosa; Alumna del 5to año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, preformed posts are being used frequently, but they do not follow root canal anatomy. Obtaining a more anatomical form of the root canal and reducing the space of the cement, it would help to reduce the possibility of its eviction. This article details the process of making of an anatomical preformed post and the advantages that would represent its clinical use. En la actualidad los postes preformados se utilizan con mucha frecuencia, pero tienenla dificultad de no seguir la anat...

  1. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  2. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  3. A comparison of 4D flow MRI-derived wall shear stress with computational fluid dynamics methods for intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajer, Jeremy; Ho-Shon, Kevin

    2018-05-01

    4D flow MRI is a relatively quick method for obtaining wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo, a hemodynamic parameter which has shown promise in risk stratification for rupture of cerebrovascular diseases such as intracranial aneurysms and atherosclerotic plaques. The accuracy of such measurements is still largely unknown. To quantify the accuracy of 4D flow MRI-derived wall shear stress values for intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations. We performed a review of all original research articles which compared the magnitudes of WSS derived from 4D flow MRI with corresponding values derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) within both intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations. For intracranial aneurysms and carotid bifurcations, 4D flow MRI-derived WSS estimations are generally lower in magnitude compared to WSS derived by CFD methods. These differences are more pronounced in regions of higher WSS. However, the relative distributions of WSS derived from both methods are reasonably similar. Pooled analysis suggests that WSS magnitudes obtained by 4D flow MRI are underestimated, while the relative distribution is reasonably accurate, the latter being an important factor for determining the natural history of intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular diseases. 4D flow MRI shows enormous potential in providing new risk stratification parameters which could have significant impact on individualized treatment decisions and improved patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Historical evolution of anatomical terminology from ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2007-06-01

    The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English.

  5. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  6. Anatomical terminology in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Abib, Fernando César; Oréfice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é informar à classe oftalmológica a existência da edição em língua portuguesa da Terminologia Anatômica Internacional, editada pela Federation Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). No Brasil a Terminologia Anatômica Internacional é traduzida pela Comissão de Terminologia Anatômica (CTA) da Sociedade Brasileira de Anatomia (SBA).The purpose of this article is inform ophthalmologists of the International Anatomical Terminology in the Portuguese language edited by t...

  7. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  8. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  9. Author Details

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    Mustapha, OA. Vol 35, No 3 (2014) - Articles Morphometric Study of the Skull of the Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temmnick) Abstract PDF · Vol 36, No 2 (2015) - Articles Anatomical Studies on the Spinal Cord of the Greater Cane Rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck) I: Gross Morphometry

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    Houzou, P. Vol 3, No 1 (2015) - Articles Operated herniated disk and lumbar spinal stenosis in Togolese patients: anatomical aspects and results of surgical treatment. Abstract. ISSN: 2307-2482. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Conventional trans‑tibial versus anatomic medial portal technique for femoral tunnel preparation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; comparison of clinical outcomes. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 7 (2017) - Articles Comparision of the expandable nail with locked nail in the treatment of closed diaphyseal fractures of ...

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    Ugwoke, CEC. Vol 7, No 1 (2010) - Articles Characterization of the fixed oil from Canarium Schweinfurthii fruit (family Burseraceae) Abstract · Vol 7, No 1 (2010) - Articles Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family grown in Nigeria Abstract · Vol 7, No 2 (2010) - Articles A Study of the nutritive value of ...

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    Adebola, OS. Vol 17, No 1 (2012) - Articles Anatomical Variations of the Sphenoid Sinus and Nearby Neurovascular Structures Seen on Computed Tomography of Black Africans Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2073-9990. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis (Kunth) Muel Arg) Grown in South Eastern Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 2 (2014) - Articles Comparative Analysis of Calorific Value of Briquettes Produced From Sawdust Particles of Daniella oliveriand Afzelia africana Combination ...

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    Biologic, anatomic and clinical considerations in the management of the classic interaosseous ameloblastoma of the jaws. Abstract · Vol 22, No 1 (2012) - Articles A Classification System for Recurrent Ameloblastoma of the Jaws- Review of 30 Cases in Nigerians Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online.

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    Arotiba, J. Vol 20, No 2 (2010) - Articles Biologic, anatomic and clinical considerations in the management of the classic interaosseous ameloblastoma of the jaws. Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Kange, Mesarch. Vol 6, No 2 (2017) - Articles Occurrence of spina bifida in the Makerere University Galloway collection: an osteological anatomical study. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2305-9478. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Agarwal, V. Vol 9, No 3 (2012) - Articles Recombinant-activated factor VII in the paediatric cardiac surgery: Single unit experience. Abstract · Vol 10, No 2 (2013) - Articles Superior repair: A useful approach for some anatomic variants of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Abstract. ISSN: 0189-6725.

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    Obore, Apolot Priscilla. Vol 6, No 2 (2017) - Articles Occurrence of spina bifida in the Makerere University Galloway collection: an osteological anatomical study. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2305-9478. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namusoke, Fatuma. Vol 6, No 2 (2017) - Articles Occurrence of spina bifida in the Makerere University Galloway collection: an osteological anatomical study. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2305-9478. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Author Details

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    Nwaopara, A O. Vol 2, No 4 (2013) - Articles A Relative Study on Weight Changes and Notable Physical Observations in Adults Albino Wistar Rats Fed with Yaji (A Complex Meat Sauce) Abstract PDF · Vol 2, No 4 (2013) - Articles Anatomical Facial Changes Following Treatment for Anacin Induced Anaphylactic Reaction: A ...

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    Sapsford, CW. Vol 13, No 1 (1978) - Articles Anatomical Evidence for Intracardiac Blood Shunting in Marine Turtles Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 1 (1978) - Articles Body Temperature of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta Caretta and the Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys Coriacea During Nesting Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2224- ...

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    Mabicka Iwangou, Saint Bickolard. Vol 10, No 6 (2016) - Articles Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of Rhizophora racemosa (G. Mey) and Avicennia nitida (Jacq.) and bio-accumulation of heavy metals in mangrove trees. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  4. Sonographic and Anatomic Description of the Subtalar Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Bong, David; Balint, Peter V

    2018-01-01

    Our study provides a detailed anatomic and sonographic description of the subtalar joint, a single joint that, anatomically, is divided into the anterior subtalar joint (ASTJ) and the posterior subtalar joint (PSTJ). Cadaver specimens of the ankle and foot were examined in detail by ultrasound (US......), and the subtalar joints of all the specimens were injected with colored latex of a contrasting color under US guidance. Compatible with other studies, examination of the sections revealed lack of communication between the ASTJ and the PSTJ and communication between the PSTJ and the posterior recess...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

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    Patriarchal Women's Spirituality Details · Vol 15, No 1 (2002): - Articles The suffering mothers – The Hindu Amman Goddesses as Empowering Role Models for Women Details · Vol 18, No 1 (2005): - Articles South Indian and Spanish Virgins: ...

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    Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details · Vol 1, No 1 (2003) - Articles Mesalazine: the gold standard for maintenance therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: review. Details · Vol 1, No 1 (2003) - Articles The dangers of eating away from home: review. Details · Vol 1, No 1 (2003) - Articles Infliximab (Revellex) inflammatory bowel disease: guidelines

  9. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. On the new anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecková, E; Simon, F; Cervený, L

    2001-05-01

    The present paper is concerned with the linguistic aspect of the new anatomical nomenclature (Terminologia Anatomica 1998). Orthographic, morphological, syntactic, lexical, and terminological comments are presented. In the authors' opinion, shortcomings might have been effectively avoided by cooperation with linguists.

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    An Overview of Africa's Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Sustainable Management Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EDITORIAL Ganoderma Lucidum - Paramount among Medicinal Mushrooms. Details · Vol 15, No 3 (2003) - Articles Editorial: Africa's Mushrooms: A neglected bioresource whose time has come

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    Tropical anaesthesia: effect on rehabilitation of spasticity in hemiplegic patients. Details · Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles The effect of low intensity therapeutic ultrasound on fibroblast proliferation during the early stages of tendon healing. Details · Vol 18, No 2 (2008) - Articles Factors contributing to possession of walking aids ...

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    Cariem, AK. Vol 1, No 2 (2003) - Articles Gastric outlet obstruction caused by drug-induced focal pancreatitis: case report. Details · Vol 2, No 2 (2004) - Articles Current management of chronic hepatitis B: review. Details. ISSN: 1812-1659. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me

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    Details PDF · Vol 2, No 3 (2002) - Articles Oxydation Catalytique du Butane en Anhydride Maleique par les Oxides V-P. Details PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2003) - Articles Caracterisation physico-chimique des fruits de quatre essences locales : vitex doniana sweet, vitex madiensis oliv. olax subscorpioides oliv. et ximenia americana

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    Urga, Kelbessa. Vol 20, No 2 (1997) - Articles Co-fermentation of kocho with barley for an improved injera. Details PDF · Vol 21, No 2 (1998) - Articles Effect of fermentation by mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria on the HCI-extractability of some minerals from tef (Eragrostis tef) atmit. Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - ...

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    Localised tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria Details · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Stroke with localised infarction of Wernicke's Area misdiagnosed as psychosis. Details · Vol 18, No 1 (2008) - Articles The effect of tens on selected symptoms in the management of patients with chronic tension type headache: A preliminary study

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    Odihi, John Onu. Vol 10, No 1 (1998) - Articles Escavation-Water Harvesting in Sudano-Sahelian Nigeria: Problems and Prospects Details · Vol 10, No 3 (1998) - Articles Excavation Water Harvesting in Sudano-Sahelian Nigeria: Problems and Prospects Details · Vol 11, No 1 (1999) - Articles REVIEWS Land Use and ...

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    Ngu, V Anomah. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Effective Vaccines against and Immunotherapy of the HIV: A preliminary Report Details PDF · Vol 2, No 1 (2002) - Articles Significant reduction of HIV loads in the sera of patients treated with VANHIVAX Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Book Review: Magic in the ancient world: revealing antiquity, F. Graf Details · Vol 23, No 1 (2003): - Articles Book Review: Religion als Phänomen, sozialwissenschaftliche, theologische und philosophische Erkundungen in der Lebenswelt, W.E. Failing, H-G. Heimbrock and T.A. Lotz (Eds.) Details · Vol 26, No 2 (2006): ...

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    Evaluation of the 7 March 2000 earth tremor in Ibadan area, southwestern Nigeria Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2004) - Articles Industrial assessment of the residual clay bodies over gneisses and schists of Yaounde area, southern Cameroon Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2004) - Articles Hydrogeochemical investigation of surface water ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to ... Tree, Anthony J. Vol 86, No 1-2 (2015) - Articles The status of the Damara Tern in the Eastern Cape, South Africa § Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... No 1 (1998) - Articles Investigation on canopy features of three indigenous woodland tree species of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    A change in the breeding pattern of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in domestic water receptacles during rapid urbanization period. Details · Vol 39 (1999) - Articles Environmental management for mosquito control in tropical urban areas. Details · Vol 39 (1999) - Articles Impact of rapid urbanization in Accra on the breeding ...

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    Owusu, G.K.. Vol 3, No 2 (2001): - Articles Effects of cocoa swollen-shoot virus on the yield of mature bearing trees of upper Amazon cocoa hybrids in Ghana Details · Vol 3, No 2 (2001): - Articles An alternative source for the extraction and purification of cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus (CSSV) Details. ISSN: 0855-3823.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 6 (2011) - Articles Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 8 ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Singh, J. Vol 3, No 2 (2011) - Articles Plane waves in a rotating generalized thermo-elastic solid with voids. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 12 (2008) - Articles On the wave equations of shallow water with rough bottom topography. Abstract · Vol 14 (2009) - Articles Energy generation in a plant due to variable sunlight intensity

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-516X. AJOL African ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Ismail, A. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Investigate of wave absorption performance for oil palm frond and empty fruit bunch at 5.8 GHz. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Isa, M.F.M.. Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Simulation on ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Duwa, S S. Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous charged dust beam. Abstract · Vol 9 (2005) - Articles The slide away theory of lower hybrid bursts

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 45 (2016) - Articles From vectors to waves and streams: An alternative approach to semantic maps1. Abstract PDF · Vol 48 (2017) - Articles Introduction: 'n Klein ietsie for Johan Oosthuizen

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... to blast loadings. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Experimental and numerical investigation on blast wave propagation in soil structure. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867.

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Uptake of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy for malaria in Zimbabwe 2013-2015 Audit Abstract. ISSN: 0008-9176. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Regional Anaesthetic Blocks For Hand Surgery In Resource Limited Areas Abstract PDF · Vol 9 (2012) - Articles Audit of prophylactic antibiotic use in orthopaedic surgery in Mulago Hospital

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    Garisch, J. Vol 1, No 1 (2003) - Articles Infliximab (Revellex) inflammatory bowel disease: guidelines. Details · Vol 1, No 2 (2003) - Articles Reflux disease: pathways to the best care: guidelines. Details. ISSN: 1812-1659. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  1. [Ten years after the latest revision International Anatomical Terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Bozdechová, I; Cech, P; Musil, V; Báca, V

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, the latest revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature was approved and published as Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology), and is acknowledged by the organization uniting national anatomical societies--International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The authors concentrate on new terms included in the nomenclature and on the linguistic changes of terminology. The most frequent errors done by medical specialists in the usage of the Latin anatomical terminology are emphasized and the situation of eponyms in contemporary anatomy is discussed in detail as well. The last version of the nomenclature makes its way very slowly in the professional community and it is necessary to refer to positive changes and advantages it has brought. The usage of this Latin anatomical nomenclature version is suggested by the International Federation to follow in theoretical and clinical fields of medicine. The authors of the article strongly recommend using the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in the oral and written forms, when educating and publishing.

  2. Anatomical contributions to plant taxonomy II. The affinities of Hua Pierre and Afrostyrax Perkins et Gilg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1972-01-01

    Vegetative anatomy, fruit and seed structure, and pollen morphology of Hua and Afrostyrax (tropical West and Central Africa) are described in detail. The two genera have many anatomical characters in common (see anatomical family diagnosis on p. 182) but are sufficiently different from other

  3. An application of Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology to anatomic dental charting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, William C; Schleyer, Titus K

    2003-01-01

    Historically, an anatomic dental chart is a compilation of color-coded symbols and numbers used within a template, either paper or computerized, to create a graphic record of a patient's oral health status. This poster depicts how Geospatial Information System (GIS) technology can be used to create an accurate, current anatomic dental chart that contains detailed information not present in current charting systems.

  4. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

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    chimique des fruits de quatre essences locales : vitex doniana sweet, vitex madiensis oliv. olax subscorpioides oliv. et ximenia americana. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Libouga, David Gabriel. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Etudes du lait de Zebu (Bos Indicus) obtenu à Ngaoundéré (Adamaoua, Nord Cameroun Details PDF · Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Extrait des ecorces de l'ongokea gore: protéolysé et conservation. Details PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2003) - Articles Quelques caractéristiques ...

  7. An analysis of knee anatomic imaging factors associated with primary lateral patellar dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; England, Kristin; Agel, Julie; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Various knee anatomic imaging factors have been historically associated with lateral patellar dislocation. The characterization of these anatomic factors in a primary lateral patellar dislocation population has not been well described. Our purpose was to characterize the spectrum of anatomic factors from slice imaging measurements specific to a population of primary lateral patellar dislocation. A secondary purpose was to stratify these data by sex/skeletal maturity to better detail potential dimorphic characteristics. Patients with a history of primary lateral patellar dislocation between 2008 and 2012 were prospectively identified. Ten MRI measurements were analysed with results stratified by sex/skeletal maturity. A '4-factor' analysis was performed to detail the number of 'excessive' anatomic factors within a single individual. This study involved 157 knees (79 M/78 F), and 107 patients were skeletally mature. The measurements demonstrate more anatomic risk factors in this population than historical controls. Patella height and trochlear measurements are the most common 'dysplastic' anatomic factors in this population. There were differences based on sex for some patellar height measurements and for TT-TG; there were no differences based on skeletal maturity. Primary lateral patellar dislocation patients have MRI measurements of knee anatomic factors that are generally more dysplastic than the normal population; however, there is a broad spectrum of anatomic features with no pattern predominating. Characterizing knee anatomic imaging factors in the patient with a primary lateral patellar dislocation is a necessary first step in characterizing the (potential) differences between the primary and recurrent patellar dislocation patient. IV.

  8. Textural features of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI derived model-free and model-based parameter maps in glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Chen, Xiao; Fang, Jingqin; Kang, Houyi; Xue, Wei; Tong, Haipeng; Cao, Peng; Wang, Sumei; Yang, Yizeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-08-28

    Presurgical glioma grading by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has unresolved issues. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of textural features derived from pharmacokinetic model-based or model-free parameter maps of DCE-MRI in discriminating between different grades of gliomas, and their correlation with pathological index. Retrospective. Forty-two adults with brain gliomas. 3.0T, including conventional anatomic sequences and DCE-MRI sequences (variable flip angle T1-weighted imaging and three-dimensional gradient echo volumetric imaging). Regions of interest on the cross-sectional images with maximal tumor lesion. Five commonly used textural features, including Energy, Entropy, Inertia, Correlation, and Inverse Difference Moment (IDM), were generated. All textural features of model-free parameters (initial area under curve [IAUC], maximal signal intensity [Max SI], maximal up-slope [Max Slope]) could effectively differentiate between grade II (n = 15), grade III (n = 13), and grade IV (n = 14) gliomas (P IDM, of four DCE-MRI parameters, including Max SI, Max Slope (model-free parameters), vp (Extended Tofts), and vp (Patlak) could differentiate grade III and IV gliomas (P IDM of Patlak-based K trans and vp could differentiate grade II (n = 15) from III (n = 13) gliomas (P IDM of Extended Tofts- and Patlak-based vp showed highest area under curve in discriminating between grade III and IV gliomas. However, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of these features revealed relatively lower inter-observer agreement. No significant correlation was found between microvascular density and textural features, compared with a moderate correlation found between cellular proliferation index and those features. Textural features of DCE-MRI parameter maps displayed a good ability in glioma grading. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

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    Ashour, MM. Vol 12, No 4 (2000) - Articles ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC LAPAROSCOPY IN OBSCURE ASCITES Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Masoud, M. Vol 12, No 4 (2000) - Articles ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC LAPAROSCOPY IN OBSCURE ASCITES Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    RIZZO, R. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    UZOKA, FME. Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles User's perception of Windows operating systems: A comparative analysis. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Aboul-fotouh, Aisha M. Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles INVESTIGATION OF AN OUTBREAK OF NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Aiyegbusi, AI. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles The effect of low intensity therapeutic ultrasound on fibroblast proliferation during the early stages of tendon healing. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Book Review: Dorothy L. Hodgson and Sheryl A. McCurdy (eds.). 'Wicked' Women and the Reconfiguration of Gender in Africa. Portsmouth. Heinemann. 2001. Details · Vol 6, No 2 (2002) - Articles Book Reviews Aili Mari Tripp. Women and Politics in Uganda. Madison. The University of Wisconsin. 2000. Xxvii + 277 pp.

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    Frost, P. Vol 73 (1999) - Articles Interdisciplinary Challenges for Environmental Researchers in Rural Farming Systems Details. ISSN: 0254-2765. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Admasu, Assefa. Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles The Congo Holocaust and the Rwanda Genocide Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Amanor, Kojo Sebastian. Vol 17, No 1 (2001) - Articles Empowering Women through Tree Planting? Gender and Global Environmentalism in Northern Ghana. Details. ISSN: 0855-4412. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Clasquin, Michel. Vol 17, No 1 (2004): - Articles Ixopo: The Evolution of a South African Buddhist Centre Details. ISSN: 1011-7601. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. ONIBERE, EA. Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles The effect of language on human-computer interactions in Cameroon Details PDF.

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    Ngo Bum, Elisabeth. Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, N-methyl-D-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Abegaz, Berhanu M. Vol 21, No 2 (1998) - Articles The essential oils of Coriandrum sativum L. grown in Ethiopia. Details PDF. ISSN: 0379-2897. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Abila, R.O.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles The role of women in artisanal fish processing and trading on Lake Victoria (Kenya Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Youmssi, A. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Analytical Study of Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Synchronous Machines fed by Rectangular or Sinusoidal Currents Details · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Akum, ZE. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    On-farm introduction of some dry season feeding strategies to cattle farmers on the Accra Plains of Ghana and the response of cattle to these strategies. 1. A survey on reasons for non-adoption of strategies. Details · Vol 35, No 1 (2002) - Articles On-farm introduction of some dry season feeding strategies to cattle farmers on ...

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    Michael, Cheyl Ann. Vol 3, No 2 (1999) - Articles Re-imagining South African Cultural Studies Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

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    Michael, Cheryl-Ann. Vol 1999, No 1-2 (1999) - Articles Imagining Futures: Identity and Nation in South African Autobiography Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    de Beer, Arnold S. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles The Internet in Africa - A New Road to Developmental Opportunities or a Digital Highway leading to Nowhere? Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Chimombo, Steve. Vol 15 (2001) - Articles Book Review: Revisiting Ancestral Wisdom: A review of J.C. Chakanza's Wisdom of the people. Details PDF · Vol 2, No 1 (1988) - Articles Opinion: The Trickster and the Saint Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 1 (1989) - Articles 'Shreds and tatters': Lipenga's short stories. Abstract PDF · Vol ...

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    Amedofu, GK. Vol 31, No 1 (1991) - Articles Patterns of pre-school hearing impairment among kindergarten school children in Kumasi District, Ghana. Details. ISSN: 0855-1448. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Gudefin, EJ. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Analytical Study of Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Synchronous Machines fed by Rectangular or Sinusoidal Currents Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Bos Indicus) obtenu à Ngaoundéré (Adamaoua, Nord Cameroun Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Ocholla-Ayayo, ABC. Vol 7, No 1 (2000) - Articles The African family in development crisis in the second millennium. Details PDF. ISSN: 1024-0969. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Nia, R. Vol 3, No 3 (2003) - Articles A potential natural environmental-friendly insecticide Citrus sinensis vs Citrus aurantium. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Atimomo, CE. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Prognostic Factors Of Typhoid Perforation in Lagos Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles An open study of the safety and efficacy of ranitidine Bismuth citrate in the treatment of patients with Helicobacter Pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African ...

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    Arigbabu, AO. Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles An open study of the safety and efficacy of ranitidine Bismuth citrate in the treatment of patients with Helicobacter Pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    Njubi, Francis. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles New Media, Old Struggles: Pan Africanism, Anti-racism and Information Technology Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Ligthelm, A.A.. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Community attitudes towards Casinos and the estimated magnitude of problem gambling The Mpumalanga case. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Mulinge, Munyae. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Justice perceptions in the workplace: Gender differences in Kenya Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Egypt: Pharoahs and Fundamentalists? Abstract · Vol 31, No 3 (2001) - Articles The challenges of state collapse in Africa: The case of the Democratic Republic of Congo Details · Vol 31, No 4 (2001) - Articles Illegal immigration into South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 1995-641X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Rakotonirina, Alice. Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, N-methyl-D-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    DAVID-OKU, E. Vol 6, No 1 (2000) - Articles Theobromine administration inhibits platelet aggregation and elevates serum HDL - cholesterol in hyperlipidemic wistar rats. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    MENSAH, JK. Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles Democratic Evolution in Africa in An Era of Globalization Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER ...

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    McCarthy, Greg. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Ayodele, IA. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Chanunkha, Robert. Vol 16 (2002) - Articles Music education in Malawi Details PDF · Vol 21, No 1 (2008) - Articles Malawian ethnic music: Concepts of hand clapping, foot stamping and relaxation. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1016-0728. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Umebese, P.F.A.. Vol 4, No 1 (2001) - Articles Motorcycle accidents in a Nigerian University campus. A one year study of the pattern of Trauma sustained in the University of Benin campus. Details PDF. ISSN: 1119-3077. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Pongweni, Alex. Vol 14, No 2 (2000): Ethnicity and Identity - Articles BOOK REVIEW ESSAY: 'Voicing the text': South African oral Poetry and Performance Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... No 4S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Architectural design of experience based factory model for software development process in cloud computing: integration with workflow and multi-agent system. Abstract PDF.

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    Lung function status of some Nigerian men and women chronically exposed to fish drying using burning firewood ... Risk awareness of HIV/AIDS amongh commercial farm workers in Zimbabwe ... Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and psychiatric disorders and their related risk factors among adults in Epworth, Zimbabwe Details PDF ...

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    NWINUKA, NWIBANI M. Vol 7, No 3 (2001) - Articles Physicochemical characterization of breadnut (Artocarpus) seed oil. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Can, G. Vol 15, No 3 (2015) - Articles Chronic hepatitis B associated with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, necroinflammation and fibrosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Can, A. Vol 40, No 3 (2010) - Articles Frozen rumen fluid as microbial inoculum in the two-stage in vitro digestibility assay of ruminant feeds. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221-4062. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Can, M. Vol 40, No 3 (2010) - Articles Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality and some bone parameters in layer hens. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221-4062. AJOL African Journals Online.

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    AKPABIO, G. F.. Vol 7, No 3 (2001) - Articles Locally available materials for use as flat plate solar absorber. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    LEKE, Rose G.F.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Omoluabi, PF. Vol 11, No 3 (2003) - Articles 10Cs of Psychotrauma in Refugees Details · Vol 16 (2008): Special Issue - Xenophobia - Articles Psychological Foundation Of Xenophobia Abstract · Vol 17, No 1 (2009) - Articles Validation Of Maslach Burnout Inventory Abstract. ISSN: 1117-1421. AJOL African Journals Online.

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    Ibeabuchi, NM. Vol 10, No 3 (2000) - Articles Comparison of the effects of Methylsalicylate Cream with cryotherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Details · Vol 22, No 2 (2012) - Articles X-ray Pelvimetry And Labour Outcome In Term Pregnancy In A Rural Nigerian Population Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African ...

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    Kumbungu District of Northern Region of Ghana - Research and Development Notes Details · Vol 41, No 1 (2008) - Articles Technological changes in shea butter production in Ghana: A case study of shea butter production in the Yendi District of ...

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    Boudjemai, A. Vol 14 (2002) - Articles Thermal behavior using analytical and numerical model in multi-finger power heterojuction Bipolar transistors. Details. ISSN: 1111-0902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Rabah, Kefa V O. Vol 9, No 1 (1997) - Articles REVIEW A Study of a New Power Semiconductor Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Characteristics and its Application to Automotive Ignition Details. ISSN: 1015-079X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Tapondjou, LA. Vol 3, No 3 (2003) - Articles Effet des huiles essentielles des feuilles et des extrémités fleuries de Cupressus lusitanica sur la Tique Rhipicephalus lunulatus à L'ouest-Cameroun Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Effet des huiles essentielles des feuilles et des extrémités fleuries de Cupressus lusitanica sur la Tique Rhipicephalus lunulatus à L'ouest-Cameroun Details PDF · Vol 4, No 3 (2004) - Articles Potentiel de germination de Moringa oleifera Lam. Sous différents traitements à Dshang dans les Hautes terres de l\\'Ouest- ...

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    EKPA, O. D.. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    Simone, Abdou Maliq. Vol 3, No 2 (1999) - Articles Thinking about African Urban Management in an Era of Globalisation Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    Agyei-Afriyie, F. Vol 31 (1991): Special Food and Agriculture Edition - Articles Relationship between permethrin susceptiblity and elevated esterase in clones of cotton aphid (Homoptera:Aphididae) Details. ISSN: 0855-1448. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Relationship between permethrin susceptiblity and elevated esterase in clones of cotton aphid (Homoptera:Aphididae) Details · Vol 39 (1999) - Articles Studies on some esterases of Coccinella septempunctata Brukii (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with varying degrees of insecticide tolerance, and implications for integrated ...

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    BEFIDI, Rosa M. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    SAMA, G. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    QUAKYI, A.I.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    KOUONTCHOU, Samuel. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial ...

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    ALAKE, J. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Booth, Wayne C. Vol 14, No 1 (2001): Religion: Rhetoric and Politics - Articles Can Rhetorology Yield a Truce Between Science and Religion? Details. ISSN: 1011-7601. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Growth and nutrient uptake of some cocoa varieties grown on contrasting soils. Details · Vol 36, No 1 (2003) - Articles Intercropping robusta coffee with some edible crops in Ghana: Agronomic performance and economic returns. Abstract · Vol 40, No 2 (2008) - Articles Effect of weed control methods on some soil properties ...

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    Radwan M.D, Mona Ahmed. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles RELAPSING REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CT AND MRI IMAGING VS CLINICAL FINDINGIN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DISEASE ACTIVITY. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

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    Kamwendo, Gregory H. Vol 15 (2001) - Articles Book Review: Neville Alexander, (ed), Social Dynamics - special issue on 'Language Policies in Africa', Ayo Bamgbose, Language and Exclusion: The consequences of language policies in Africa Details PDF. ISSN: 1016-0728. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

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    Wotshela, Luvuyo. Vol 7, No 1 (2003) - Articles Review Symposium: Neville Alexander. An Ordinary Country: Issues in the Transition from Apartheid to Democracy. Pietermaritzburg. Natal University Press. 2002. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Aderinokun, GA. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health And Habits Of Some Nigerian School Children Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Oral health services in Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Love, Alison. Vol 29, No 2 (2002) - Articles Policy-makers, the Press and Politics: Reporting a Public Policy Document Details. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Ram, S. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles Ionospheric Plasma Heating During Powerful Wave Propagation. Details. ISSN: 1015-079X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Batisani, NJ. Vol 12 (2003) - Articles A review of Botswana soil fertility research: current status and prospects. Details. ISSN: 1021-0873. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Badrawi, H.M.. Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EFFECTS OF SOLCOSERYL AND LOW DOSE ASPIRIN ON UTERINE BLOOD FLOW Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Lipenga, Allan. Vol 16 (2002) - Articles Le Chichewa essai de description dans une perspective didactique. Details PDF. ISSN: 1016-0728. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    EKODECK, EK. Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles Intêret de l'alterologie normative dans la sélection des argiles kaoliniques pour la production industrielle des caoutchoucs, du papier, des peintures et des plastiques. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Idowu, OO. Vol 8, No 1 (2003) - Articles Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (Sajor-caju) Details. ISSN: 1118-2733. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Tetiker, H. Vol 17, No 3 (2014) - Articles Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender differences. Abstract PDF · Vol 20, No 2 (2017) - Articles MRI-based detailed evaluation of the anatomy of the human coccyx among Turkish adults. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-3077. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

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    Kioni, P N. Vol 9, No 1 (2007) - Articles Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Hady, A. Vol 12, No 2 (2000) - Articles CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF VOCAL CORD POLYPS Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Development of a trap to contaminate variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with Metarrhyzium flavo-viride Gams & Rozsypal in the field. Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2007) - Articles Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A study of farmers\\' indigenous technical ...

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    Details · Vol 4, No 2 (2000) - Articles Book Review: J. Kelly. Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilization, Collectivism and Long Waves. K. Moody. Workers in a Lean World: Unions in the International Economy. B. Nissen. Which Direction for Organized Labour? Essays on Organizing, Outreach and Internal Transformation

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    Dalamba, Yolisa. Vol 14, No 1 (2000): Ethnicity and Identity - Articles Towards An African Renaissance: Some Thoughts on the Renaissance Conference September 28th & 29th 1998 and its Future Implications Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Comarof, John. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles Alien-Nation: Zombies, Immigrants and Millennial Capitalism Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Agbodaze, DA. Vol 31, No 1 (1991) - Articles Biochemical characteristics of Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from prawns (Macrobrachium sp.) and water sampled from the shore-line of the Volta River, Ghana Details. ISSN: 0855-1448. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Alexander, Neville. Vol 4, No 2 (2000) - Articles Book Review: CRD Halisi. Black Political Though in the Making of South African Democracy Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Erasmus, GJ. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits in purebred Gudali and two-breed synthetic Wakwa beef cattle in a tropical environment. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Oyewunmi, O K. Vol 2, No 1 (1999) - Articles Bacterial pathogens Isolated After Surgical Hand Scrub at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Details. ISSN: 1119-1716. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 2 (2001) - Articles Quarterly clinic 'Cerebral malaria' Details · Vol 22, No 4 (2010) - Articles Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi Abstract PDF · Vol 23, No 1 (2011) - Articles Ward Round-A rare tumor of the kidney resulting in hypertension, renal failure and a cerebrovascular accident in a young ...

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    Mika, A. Vol 8, No 1 (2002) - Articles Phytochemical, Cytotoxicity and microbial screening of euphorbia hirta linn. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Chidester, David. Vol 15, No 2 (2002): - Articles Credo Mutwa, Zulu Shaman: The invetion and Appropriation of indigenous Authenticity in African Folk religion. Details. ISSN: 1011-7601. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Ghirmay, Senait. Vol 12, No 1 (1998) - Articles Characterisitics and chemical composition of the oil of Cucurbita pepo seeds. Details PDF. ISSN: 1726-801X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Wasunna, M. Vol 80, No 8 (2003): - Articles Visceral leishmaniasis with concomitant post kala-asar Dermal leishmaniasis responds to oral sitamaquine: case report. Details PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Mbui, J. Vol 80, No 8 (2003): - Articles Visceral leishmaniasis with concomitant post kala-asar Dermal leishmaniasis responds to oral sitamaquine: case report. Details PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Comarof, Jean. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles Alien-Nation: Zombies, Immigrants and Millennial Capitalism Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Choi, Soung-ai. Vol 3, No 1 (1999) - Articles Whose Honour, Whose Humiliation: Women, Men and the Economic Crisis in South Korea Details. ISSN: 1024-9451. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Bowles, Roger. Vol 31, No 1 (2001) - Articles Enterprise Compliance with Local Authority Regulation in Kenya Details. ISSN: 1995-641X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Okeke, EO. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the impact of wave-current on Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African ...

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    GODINHO, P. Vol 6 (1997) - Articles Some aspects of the reproduction of female corvine fish Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840 (Scienidae) in a reservoir of southern Brazil Details. ISSN: 0795-0101. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

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    Odigie, IP. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles High dose vitamin E administration attenuates hypertensin in 2-Kidney 1 Clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Wasunna, AO. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital Details PDF · Vol 88, No 1 (2011) - Articles Clinical Risk Index for Babies (Crib) Ii Score as a Predictor of Neonatal Mortality among Low Birth Weight Babies at Kenyatta National Hospital Abstract PDF ...

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    Musoke, RN. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital Details PDF · Vol 89, No 2 (2012) - Articles The impact of partial kangaroo mother care on growth rates and duration of hospital stay of low birth weight infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi

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    Workalemahu, Bantikassegn. Vol 13, No 2 (1999) - Articles Electronic propertiesof junctions between aluminium and polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzene sulphonate. Details PDF. ISSN: 1726-801X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Revathi, G. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital Details PDF · Vol 83, No 6 (2006): - Articles Bronchoscopic study on aetiology of chronic cough in HIV-infected adults with negative sputum smears for mycobacterium tuberculosis at Kenyatta National ...

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    Edufunke, IO. Vol 10, No 3 (2000) - Articles Toxicity test of water homogenate of cissus populnea stem in mice and its effects on weights of some organs, serum gonadotropins, lipids and uric acid in male albino rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Green, J.M.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles Information from Radio Telemetry on movements and exploitation of naturalized Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Kenya cold water streams. Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    An open study of the safety and efficacy of ranitidine Bismuth citrate in the treatment of patients with Helicobacter Pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. Details · Vol 18, No 4 (2008) - Articles Haemosuccus pancreaticus as a rare initial manifestation of pancreatic carcinoma. Abstract · Vol 22, No 2 (2012) - Articles Intravesical ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKANSEY, F. Vol 8, No 1 (2000) - Articles Adolescent Students' Perception of their career guidance and counselling needs. Details. ISSN: 1117-1421. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  7. Tinkering and the Origins of Heritable Anatomical Variation in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. L. Bard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary change comes from natural and other forms of selection acting on existing anatomical and physiological variants. While much is known about selection, little is known about the details of how genetic mutation leads to the range of heritable anatomical variants that are present within any population. This paper takes a systems-based view to explore how genomic mutation in vertebrate genomes works its way upwards, though changes to proteins, protein networks, and cell phenotypes to produce variants in anatomical detail. The evidence used in this approach mainly derives from analysing anatomical change in adult vertebrates and the protein networks that drive tissue formation in embryos. The former indicate which processes drive variation—these are mainly patterning, timing, and growth—and the latter their molecular basis. The paper then examines the effects of mutation and genetic drift on these processes, the nature of the resulting heritable phenotypic variation within a population, and the experimental evidence on the speed with which new variants can appear under selection. The discussion considers whether this speed is adequate to explain the observed rate of evolutionary change or whether other non-canonical, adaptive mechanisms of heritable mutation are needed. The evidence to hand suggests that they are not, for vertebrate evolution at least.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des paramètres de compressibilité et de cisaillement de l'argile-sableuse de la région de Douala au Cameroun Details PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2003) - Articles Effet du remaniement par décompression de L'échantillon sur la résistance au cisaillement de l'argile-sableuse jaunatre de Ndogbong dans la région de Douala ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahi, Aghi. Vol 7, No 1 (2003) - Articles La « Sorbonne » d'Abidjan: rêve de démocratie ou naissance d'un espace public? Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  10. Anatomical structure of Polystichum Roth ferns rachises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomical characteristics of rachis cross sections of five Polystichum species is presented. The main and auxiliary anatomical features which help to distinguish investigated species are revealed.

  11. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  12. Anatomical models for space radiation applications: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, W

    1994-10-01

    Extremely detailed computerized anatomical male (CAM) and female (CAF) models that have been developed for use in space radiation analyses are discussed and reviewed. Recognizing that the level of detail may currently be inadequate for certain radiological applications, one of the purposes of this paper is to elicit specific model improvements or requirements from the scientific user-community. Methods and rationale are presented which describe the approach used in the Space Shuttle program to extrapolate dosimetry measurements (skin doses) to realistic astronaut body organ doses. Several mission scenarios are presented which demonstrate the utility of the anatomical models for obtaining specific body organ exposure estimates and can be used for establishing cancer morbidity and mortality risk assessments. These exposure estimates are based on the trapped Van Allen belt and galactic cosmic radiation environment models and data from the major historical solar particle events.

  13. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  14. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  15. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  16. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Bubenchikova; E. A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical s...

  17. MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR urography: Anatomical and quantitative information on congenital malformations in children. Maria Karaveli, Dimitrios Katsanidis, Ioannis Kalaitzoglou, Afroditi Haritanti, Anastasios Sioundas, Athanasios Dimitriadis, Kyriakos Psarrakos ...

  18. Analysis of anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of Iva xanthifolia nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Iva xanthifolia is a North American weed species, which was introduced and naturalized in Europe. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of this species were investigated, in order to get better knowledge of its biology, which could help in development of strategies for prevention of its spreading. Detailed descriptions of lamina, petiole, stem and inflorescence axis anatomical structures were given, together with micromorphological characteristics of epidermis and indumentum of lamina, petiole, stem, inflorescence axis, involucre and fruit. All vegetative organs had mesomorphic structure, with some xeromorphic adaptations. Mechanical tissue was well developed, which gave those plants additional strength and resistance. Trichomes were the most numerous on lamina and in the region of inflorescence, while rare on petiole and stem epidermis and their distribution varied according to plant organ.

  19. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  20. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  1. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... The response of Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Haynes subspp. raddiana seedlings to 100, 50 and 25% field capacity (FC) watering regimes was studied to determine their morphological and anatomical behaviour. Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically ...

  2. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  3. Employment of the anatomical terminology of the Nomina Anatomica in the radiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, B; Roland, J; Braun, M

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the relationship of the anatomical terms employed in the radiologic literature to the International Nomenclature derived from the Nomina Anatomica. A critical analysis was made of the anatomical terminology employed in three French and two American journals of radiology. In about 40% of the French journals, the International Anatomical Nomenclature was not adhered to, whereas in 50%, there was no difference in the terms encountered between the French traditional terminology and the French adaptation of the Nomina Anatomica. In contrast, a close adherence to the Nomina Anatomica was observed in the two American journals. The exceptions most frequently encountered are detailed. The aim and principles of the Nomina Anatomica, based on the Latin terminology and aimed at clarification and systematisation, are stressed. The advantages of employing the International Anatomical Nomenclature in medical papers, allowing easy understanding by foreign readers in a world of rapid information exchange are highlighted.

  4. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  5. The brain atlas concordance problem: quantitative comparison of anatomical parcellations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many neuroscientific reports reference discrete macro-anatomical regions of the brain which were delineated according to a brain atlas or parcellation protocol. Currently, however, no widely accepted standards exist for partitioning the cortex and subcortical structures, or for assigning labels to the resulting regions, and many procedures are being actively used. Previous attempts to reconcile neuroanatomical nomenclatures have been largely qualitative, focusing on the development of thesauri or simple semantic mappings between terms. Here we take a fundamentally different approach, discounting the names of regions and instead comparing their definitions as spatial entities in an effort to provide more precise quantitative mappings between anatomical entities as defined by different atlases. We develop an analytical framework for studying this brain atlas concordance problem, and apply these methods in a comparison of eight diverse labeling methods used by the neuroimaging community. These analyses result in conditional probabilities that enable mapping between regions across atlases, which also form the input to graph-based methods for extracting higher-order relationships between sets of regions and to procedures for assessing the global similarity between different parcellations of the same brain. At a global scale, the overall results demonstrate a considerable lack of concordance between available parcellation schemes, falling within chance levels for some atlas pairs. At a finer level, this study reveals spatial relationships between sets of defined regions that are not obviously apparent; these are of high potential interest to researchers faced with the challenge of comparing results that were based on these different anatomical models, particularly when coordinate-based data are not available. The complexity of the spatial overlap patterns revealed points to problems for attempts to reconcile anatomical parcellations and nomenclatures

  6. Anatomical Lecture on a Dishwasher

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The dishwasher died after faithfully serving the household for over seventeen years. One would expect a MacGyver treasure trove of parts to be found inside. Here, we will present what could be salvaged from a dishwasher that could be of use to hydrological research. The dishwasher's demise was too close to the submission deadline to promise anything in detail but there will be pumps, valves, level sensors, temperature sensors and, perhaps, a turbidity sensor. In addition, there may be more generic parts of interest such as timers, transformers and heaters. What will be presented is a hydrology oriented anatomy lesson of a dishwasher that would make Dr. Nicolaes Tulp proud.

  7. Anatomical Considerations on Surgical Anatomy of the Carotid Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamantios Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical anatomy of carotid bifurcation is of unique importance for numerous medical specialties. Despite extensive research, many aspects such as precise height of carotid bifurcation, micrometric values of carotid arteries and their branches as their diameter, length, and degree of tortuosity, and variations of proximal external carotid artery branches are undetermined. Furthermore carotid bifurcation is involved in many pathologic processes, atheromatous disease being the commonest. Carotid atheromatous disease is a major predisposing factor for disabling and possibly fatal strokes with geometry of carotid bifurcation playing an important role in its natural history. Consequently detailed knowledge of various anatomic parameters is of paramount importance not only for understanding of the disease but also for design of surgical treatment, especially selection between carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Carotid bifurcation paragangliomas constitute unique tumors with diagnostic accuracy, treatment design, and success of operative intervention dependent on precise knowledge of anatomy. Considering those, it becomes clear that selection and application of proper surgical therapy should consider anatomical details. Further research might ameliorate available treatment options or even lead to innovative ones.

  8. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  9. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  10. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    inside the breast. Most of the risk assessment and CAD modules use a breast region in a image centered Cartesian x,y coordinate system. Nevertheless, anatomical structure follows curve-linear trajectories. We examined an anatomical breast coordinate system that preserves the anatomical correspondence...... between the mammograms and allows extracting not only the aligned position but also the orientation aligned with the anatomy of the breast tissue structure. Materials and Methods The coordinate system used the nipple location as the point A and the border of the pectoral muscle as a line BC. The skin air...... interface was identified as a curve passing through A and intersecting the pectoral muscle line. The nipple was defined as the origin of the coordinate system. A family of second order curves were defined through the nipple and intersecting the pectoral line (AD). Every pixel location in mammogram...

  11. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person's name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine's rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure's clinical relevance follow. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radio-guided sentinel lymph node identification by lymphoscintigraphy fused with an anatomical vector profile: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli Asabella, A; Antonica, F; Renna, M A; Rubini, D; Notaristefano, A; Nicoletti, A; Rubini, G

    2013-12-01

    To develop a method to fuse lymphoscintigraphic images with an adaptable anatomical vector profile and to evaluate its role in the clinical practice. We used Adobe Illustrator CS6 to create different vector profiles, we fused those profiles, using Adobe Photoshop CS6, with lymphoscintigraphic images of the patient. We processed 197 lymphoscintigraphies performed in patients with cutaneous melanomas, breast cancer or delayed lymph drainage. Our models can be adapted to every patient attitude or position and contain different levels of anatomical details ranging from external body profiles to the internal anatomical structures like bones, muscles, vessels, and lymph nodes. If needed, more new anatomical details can be added and embedded in the profile without redrawing them, saving a lot of time. Details can also be easily hidden, allowing the physician to view only relevant information and structures. Fusion times are about 85 s. The diagnostic confidence of the observers increased significantly. The validation process showed a slight shift (mean 4.9 mm). We have created a new, practical, inexpensive digital technique based on commercial software for fusing lymphoscintigraphic images with built-in anatomical reference profiles. It is easily reproducible and does not alter the original scintigraphic image. Our method allows a more meaningful interpretation of lymphoscintigraphies, an easier recognition of the anatomical site and better lymph node dissection planning.

  13. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  14. Anatomical traces of vocabulary acquisition in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-31

    A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill.

  15. The anatomic study of imageology related to TIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Huimin; Feng Gansheng; Yang Jianyong; Zhou Ruming; Zheng Chuansheng

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To further increase the success rate, safety and reliability of TIPS procedures and search for new ways for portosystemic shunts and puncture guidance. Materials and methods: Using various medical imaging and anatomical methods, the detail relationships of hepatic arteries (HA) and bile ducts (BD) to portal veins (PV) were studied and the possibilities of injury to them in different puncture routes were estimated. The anatomic relationships between the hepatic segment of inferior vena cava (HIVC) and PV and the possibility of portal-vena cava shunt were also investigated. Results: The BD and HA were mainly located anterior or anterior-superior to the PV branch or mainstams of right PV and left PV, but the corner-and sagittal parts of left PV and bifurcation of right PV were often surrounded by them. HA, especially the right HA, going parallel to the mainstam of right PV in a regular ways, could be used for PV puncture guidance. HIVC came close to the PV in the region of hepatic porta, puncture from inferior vena cava (IVC) to PV possessing a wide range of safety, could be used as a new route for portal-cava shunt in order to avoid the hepatic vein. Conclusion: Familiarization with liver anatomy and reliable guidance during TIPS procedure was crucial to avoid serious complications of damage to BD and HA. Creating shunt with stent-grafts from the HIVC to PV directly is a promising way to prevent restenosis

  16. The anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Selda; Yalcın, Bulent

    2013-08-01

    Inversion injuries of the ankle are the most common sport injuries. Extreme inversion of the ankle affects frequently lateral ankle ligaments, especially the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. The aim of this study is to investigate the ligaments in detail to contribute to accurate evaluation of radiological investigations and more precise surgical interventions by clarifying the anatomic structure of the ligaments by considering their functional importance. In the study, length between the attachment points and width at the midpoint of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments, length and width of the bands of anterior talofibular ligament, and connecting ligaments extending from the talus to calcaneus exchanging from the both ligaments were measured on the 46 ankles. In addition, angles between these ligaments and between longitudinal axis of the fibula and both ligaments were measured. Relationship between determined variables on the right and left sides was statistically analyzed. In diagnosis and treatment methods, the clinical importance of the anatomy of the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle, especially the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments, was frequently reported in the literature. Angular measurements benefit in determination of the ligament injury. Therefore, knowledge about normal anatomic angles between each other and angles between longitudinal axis of the fibula and both ligaments was certainly important for the correct diagnosis. Nowadays, surgical reconstructions of the ligaments are frequently used. During the surgical invention, length and width of the ligaments are necessary to determine quantity of ligament loss. Nonetheless, knowledge of ligament attachments contributes to more accurate reconstructions.

  17. Anatomy of learning: instructional design principles for the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Mark

    2006-11-01

    Teaching anatomy is becoming increasingly challenging due to the progressive evolution of university teaching missions, student populations, medical and undergraduate curricula, coupled with a paucity of empirically tested evidence-based instructional practices in the anatomical and medical education literature. As a mechanism to confront these pedagogical challenges, recent advances in educational psychology are analyzed for developing a framework to guide educational reform efforts. Extensive research in educational psychology over the last 100 years has resulted in four major theories on human learning that have facilitated a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered classrooms and are described here in temporal order of development: behavioral theory, information processing theory, metacognitive theory, and social constructivist theory. Each theory is analyzed in detail and is used to construct instructional design principles for enhancing anatomical education research and practice. An example of a cognitively based learning environment for an undergraduate anatomy course is presented. Preliminary results suggest that intentionally drawing on different theories of learning when making instructional decisions gave students the learning support they needed to be successful and nearly doubled the course's student retention rate over a 3-year period.

  18. Anatomical model for dissection in corpses of the palate vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diógenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main artery that supplies the mucoperiosteum of the hard palate is the greater palatine artery. The knowledge detailed of the vascular anatomy of the palate and, in special, of the region of the greater palatine foramen is important for prevention of lesions vascular during procedures in this region. Among these procedures, it included the making of shreds for correction of failures in the hard palate, soft palate and cranial base. Objective: To develop an anatomical model that can illustrate the endoscopic anatomy of the greater palatine foramen and analyze the technical of injection intra vascular of colored silicone is sufficient for fill the lower arterial branches than irrigate the hard palate. Method: The form of study was experimental through the endoscopic dissection of 10 greater palatine arteries in five heads of corpses prepared with injection intra vascular of colored silicone. Results: Of the total of 10 arteries dissected, 8 properly were colored by the technique of injection employed. What corresponds to an efficacy of 80%. Conclusion: The anatomical model showed to be a feasible approach for the endoscopic study of the greater palatine foramen, being the injection of efficient silicone in the terminals vessels coloring in 80% of the cases.

  19. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Paulesu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain

  20. Novel anatomical identification of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: fascial-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP became a first choice of treatment for prostate cancer after the advance in nerve-sparing techniques. However, the difficult technical details still involved in nerve-sparing RP (nsRP can invite unwanted complications. Therefore, learning to recognize key anatomical features of the prostate and its surrounding structures is crucial to further improve RP efficacy. Although the anatomical relation between the pelvic nerves and pelvic fascias is still under investigation, this paper characterizes the periprostatic fascias in order to define a novel fascial-sparing approach to RP (fsRP, which will help spare neurovascular bundles. In uroanatomic perspective, it can be stated that nsRP is a functional identification of the surgical technique while fsRP is an anatomic identification as well. The functional and oncological outcomes related to this novel fsRP are also reviewed.

  1. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... investigated in this study and the findings obtained were compared with other studies conducted on Salvia genus. Metcalfe and Chalk (1950) found the data on the anatomical characteristics of S. species. These researchers revealed that the species belonging to Labiatae family usually have rectangle or ...

  2. Descriptions of anatomical differences between skulls and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The external anatomical differences between the skulls and mandibles of 10 mountain zebras Equus zebra and 10 plains zebras E. burchelli of both sexes were studied. The nomenclature used conforms to Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (1983). Eleven structural differences are described for the first time and illustrated, viz., ...

  3. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  4. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  5. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically to water stress. Water stress caused significant (P=0.05) decrease in relative water content, leaf number and area and leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, and stem height and diameter. Seedlings of both species responded to water stress by the ...

  6. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  7. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  8. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  9. Influences on anatomical knowledge: The complete arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Verheijen, I.W.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bruin, A.B. De

    2014-01-01

    Eight factors are claimed to have a negative influence on anatomical knowledge of medical students: (1) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (2) the absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (3) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (4) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (5)

  10. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-03-15

    Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Anatomically Plausible Surface Alignment and Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing clinical use of 3D surface scanners, there is a need for accurate and reliable algorithms that can produce anatomically plausible surfaces. In this paper, a combined method for surface alignment and reconstruction is proposed. It is based on an implicit surface representation ...

  12. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  13. An ``Anatomic approach" to study the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Haakh, Harald; Henkel, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The Casimir effect, in its simplest definition, is a quantum mechanical force between two objects placed in vacuum. In recent years the Casimir force has been the object of an exponentially growing attention both from theorists and experimentalists. A new generation of experiments paved the way for new challenges and spotted some shadows in the comparison to theory. Here we are going to isolate different contributions to the Casimir interaction and perform a detailed study to shine new light on this phenomenon. As an example, the contributions of Foucault (eddy current) modes will be discussed in different configurations. This ``anatomic approach'' allows to clearly put into evidence special features and to explain unusual behaviors. This brings new physical understanding on the undergoing physical mechanisms and suggests new ways to engineer the Casimir effect.

  14. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants.

  15. The Chiari malformations: a review with emphasis on anatomical traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Loukas, Marios; Hogan, Elizabeth; Kralovic, Sara; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-03-01

    Hindbrain herniations come in many forms and have been further subdivided as their original descriptions. For cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, they can be divided into two categories, acquired and congenital. Acquired hindbrain herniations are due to increased intracranial pressure caused by certain conditions such as trauma or brain tumor. Although the mechanism for their formation is not clear, congenital hindbrain herniation makes up the majority of these congenital malformations. Furthermore, these malformations are often found to harbor additional anatomical derailments in addition to the hindbrain herniation whether it be the cerebellar tonsils (Chiari I malformation) or the cerebellar vermis (Chiari II malformation). This article reviews these forms of cerebellar ectopia and describes the details of their anomalous anatomy. Moreover, this article compares and contrasts the differing embryological theories found in this literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. MRI anatomical mapping and direct stereotactic targeting in the subthalamic region: functional and anatomical correspondence in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Coste, Jerome; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Hemm, Simone; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Durif, Franck; Siadoux, Severine; Gabrillargues, Jean; Chazal, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Object Relationships between clinical effects, anatomy, and electrophysiology are not fully understood in DBS of the subthalamic region in Parkinson's disease. We proposed an anatomic study based on direct image-guided stereotactic surgery with a multiple source data analysis. Materials and Methods A manual anatomic mapping was realized on coronal 1.5-Tesla MRI of 15 patients. Biological data were collected under local anesthesia: the spontaneous neuron activities and the clinical efficiency and the appearance of adverse effects. They were related to relevant current values (mA), the benefit threshold (bt, minimal current leading an clear efficiency), the adverse effect threshold (at, minimal current leading an adverse effect) and the stimulation margin (sm = at - bt); they were matched with anatomy. Results We found consistent relationships between anatomy and biological data. The optimal stimulation parameters (low bt + high sm) were noted in the dorsolateral STN. The highest spontaneous neuron activity was found in the ventromedial STN. Dorsolateral (sensorimotor) STN seems the main DBS effector. The highest spontaneous neuron activity seems related to the anterior (rostral) ventromedial (limbic) STN. Conclusion 1.5 Tesla images provide sufficiently detailed subthalamic anatomy for image-guided stereotactic surgery and may aid in understanding DBS mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Chinese adult anatomical models and the application in evaluation of RF exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Tan, Liwen; Shao, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ying; Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wiart, Joe; Lu, Bingsong; Xiao, Li; Wang, Nan; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese adult anatomical models and their application in evaluation of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field exposures. The original dataset was obtained from photos of the sliced frozen cadavers from the Chinese Visible Human Project. Details of preparing the cadaver for slicing procedures which may influence the anatomical structures are discussed. Segmentation and reconstruction were performed mainly manually by experienced anatomists. The reconstructed models represent the average Chinese in their twenties and thirties. The finest resolution for the models is 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 with 90 identified tissues/organs for the female and 87 identified tissues/organs for the male. Tiny anatomical structures such as blood vessels with diameters of 1 mm, various glands and nerves were identified. Whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR) from 20 MHz to 5.8 GHz was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method for different RF exposure configurations. The WBSAR results are consistent with those from other available models. Finally, some details about the anatomical models are discussed.

  18. Diseases in the cranio-cervical junction: Anatomical and pathological aspects and detailed clinical accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, D.; Glees, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclide imaging of the cranio-cervical region; Magnetic resonance imaging in the cranio-cervical region: Experiences in 194 cases; NMR-finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope; The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement; and A review of clinical and radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis of head joints

  19. Diseases in the cranio-cervical junction: Anatomical and pathological aspects and detailed clinical accounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voth, D.; Glees, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclide imaging of the cranio-cervical region; Magnetic resonance imaging in the cranio-cervical region: Experiences in 194 cases; NMR-finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope; The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement; and A review of clinical and radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis of head joints.

  20. The "G-Spot" Is Not a Structure Evident on Macroscopic Anatomic Dissection of the Vaginal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Nathan; Keast, Janet R; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-12-01

    Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. Digital photography was used to document dissections. Dissection preserved the anterior vaginal wall, urethra, and clitoris. In 9 cadavers, the vaginal epithelial layer was reflected to expose the underlying urethral wall and associated tissues. In 4 cadavers, the vaginal wall was left intact before preservation. Once photographed, 8 specimens were transversely sectioned for macroscopic inspection and histologic examination. The presence or absence of a macroscopic anatomic structure at detailed cadaveric pelvis dissection that corresponds to the previously described G-spot and gross anatomic description of the anterior vaginal wall. Deep to the lining epithelium of the anterior vaginal wall is the urethra. There is no macroscopic structure other than the urethra and vaginal wall lining in the location of the putative G-spot. Specifically, there is no apparent erectile or "spongy" tissue in the anterior vaginal wall, except where the urethra abuts the clitoris distally. The absence of an anatomic structure corresponding to the putative G-spot helps clarify the controversy on this subject. Limitations to this study include limited access to specimens immediately after death and potential for observational bias. In addition, age, medical history, and cause of death are not publishable for privacy reasons. However, it is one of the most thorough and complete anatomic evaluations documenting the

  1. Oriental eyelids. Anatomic difference and surgical consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Hsu, W M

    1986-01-01

    Fashions change with time and beauty standards differ in different cultures. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of immigrants to the United States from the Orient. The creation of an upper eyelid crease has been for the past several decades the most popular cosmetic procedure in many Asian countries. In order to perform this procedure to the satisfaction of an Oriental patient, the surgeon must know what the patient perceives as beautiful and the anatomic differences between the Oriental and the Occidental eyelids. In this paper with data collected from over 3,600 patients, we are presenting important statistics that enables the surgeon to understand better the Oriental mind and facilitate communications. The anatomic difference in the upper eyelid is also discussed.

  2. Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

    2011-01-01

    Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure. PMID:22707601

  3. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi; Vagner Messias Fruheling; Joao Caetano Abdo; Marcio Fernando Aparecido de Moura; Mario Namba; Joao Luiz Vieira da Silva; Luiz Antonio Munhoz da Cunha; Ana Paula Gebert de Oliveira Franco; Isabel Ziesemer Costa; Edmar Stieven Filho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT), tibial plateau (TP) and tibial tuberosity (TT). A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the ...

  4. Anatomically corrected transposition of great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanitskij, A.V.; Sarkisova, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the description of rare congenital heart disease: anatomically corrected malposition of major vessels in a 9-mos 24 day old girl. The diagnosis of this disease was shown on the results of angiocardiography, concomitant congenital heart diseases were descibed. This abnormality is characterized by common atrioventricular and ventriculovascular joints and inversion position of the major vessels, it is always attended by congenital heart diseases. Surgical intervention is aimed at the elimination of concomitant heart dieseases

  5. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  6. Variation in stem anatomical characteristics of Campanuloideae species in relation to evolutionary history and ecological preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hans Schweingruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detailed knowledge of plant anatomical characters and their variation among closely related taxa is key to understanding their evolution and function. We examined anatomical variation in 46 herbaceous taxa from the subfamily Campanuloideae (Campanulaceae to link this information with their phylogeny, ecology and comparative material of 56 woody tropical taxa from the subfamily Lobelioideae. The species studied covered major environmental gradients from Mediterranean to Arctic zones, allowing us to test hypotheses on the evolution of anatomical structure in relation to plant competitive ability and ecological preferences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the evolution of anatomical diversity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of studied species from nucleotide sequences and examined the distribution of anatomical characters on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Redundancy analysis, with phylogenetic corrections, was used to separate the evolutionary inertia from the adaptation to the environment. A large anatomical diversity exists within the Campanuloideae. Traits connected with the quality of fibres were the most congruent with phylogeny, and the Rapunculus 2 ("phyteumoid" clade was especially distinguished by a number of characters (absence of fibres, pervasive parenchyma, type of rays from two other clades (Campanula s. str. and Rapunculus 1 characterized by the dominance of fibres and the absence of parenchyma. Septate fibres are an exclusive trait in the Lobelioideae, separating it clearly from the Campanuloideae where annual rings, pervasive parenchyma and crystals in the phellem are characteristic features. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite clear phylogenetic inertia in the anatomical features studied, the ecological attributes and plant height had a significant effect on anatomical divergence. From all three evolutionary clades, the taller species converged towards similar anatomical structure, characterized by a

  7. Gross anatomical and dimensional characteristics of the proximal hamstring origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Matthias J; Plath, Johannes E; Seppel, Gernot; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U

    2015-09-01

    the ST/LB. The reported gross anatomic findings and dimensions may aid surgeons in anchor placement at the anatomical attachment site, thereby facilitating anatomic hamstring repair. In addition, the provided data may improve diagnosis and conservative treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, since detailed knowledge about the normal anatomy is crucial for recognizing tendon abnormalities and for several conservative treatment modalities such as shockwave application or ultrasound-guided injections.

  8. Remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region and their clinical importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit E-mail: akkanrad@hotmail.com; Karasen, R. Murat; Alper, Fatih; Onbas, Omer; Okur, Adnan; Karaman, Adem

    2004-06-01

    With the advent of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and coronal computed tomography (CT) imaging, considerable attention has been directed toward paranasal region anatomy. Detailed knowledge of anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region is critical for surgeons performing endoscopic sinus surgery as well as for the radiologist involved in the preoperative work-up. To be in the known anatomical variants with some accompanying pathologies, directly influence the success of diagnostic and therapeutic management of paranasal sinus diseases. A review of 512 (1024 sides) paranasal sinus tomographic scans was carried out to expose remarkable anatomic variations of this region. We used only coronal sections, but for some cases to clear exact diagnosis, additional axial CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nasal endoscopy were also performed. In this pictorial essay, rates of remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal region were displayed. The images of some interesting cases were illustrated, such as the Onodi cell in which isolated mucocele caused loss of visual acuity, agger nasi cell, Haller's cell, uncinate bulla, giant superior concha bullosa, inferior concha bullosa, bilateral carotid artery protrusion into sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus agenesis, bilateral secondary middle turbinate (SMT) and sphenomaxillary plate. The clinical importance of all these variations were discussed under the light of the literature. It was suggested that remarkable anatomic variations of paranasal region and their possible pathologic consequences should be well defined in order to improve success of management strategies, and to avoid potential complications of endoscopic sinus surgery. The radiologist must pay close attention to anatomical variations in the preoperative evaluation.

  9. Future Details of Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the exaggerated news of the untimely ′death of the detail′ by Greg Lynn, the architectural detail is now more lifelike and active than ever before. In this era of digital design and production technologies, new materials, parametrics, building information modeling (BIM), augmented realities and the nano–bio–information–computation consilience, the detail is now an increasingly vital force in architecture. Though such digitally designed and produced details are diminishing in size to t...

  10. Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs. PMID:21613505

  11. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  12. Basic anatomic aspects of the lung (segmental, lobular and sublobular) considering radiological point of view (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Itazil Benicio dos

    1994-01-01

    A basic anatomic study of the lung considering radiological aspects is presented. After a short introduction, some topics are emphasized, such as the structures which originate the lungs and lung segment details. Some histological elements are also briefly presented. Several illustrations complement the presentation

  13. Chronic ankle instability: Arthroscopic anatomical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Hernández, M; Mellado-Romero, M; Páramo-Díaz, P; García-Lamas, L; Vilà-Rico, J

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries. Despite appropriate conservative treatment, approximately 20-40% of patients continue to have chronic ankle instability and pain. In 75-80% of cases there is an isolated rupture of the anterior talofibular ligament. A retrospective observational study was conducted on 21 patients surgically treated for chronic ankle instability by means of an arthroscopic anatomical repair, between May 2012 and January 2013. There were 15 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 30.43 years (range 18-48). The mean follow-up was 29 months (range 25-33). All patients were treated by arthroscopic anatomical repair of anterior talofibular ligament. Four (19%) patients were found to have varus hindfoot deformity. Associated injuries were present in 13 (62%) patients. There were 6 cases of osteochondral lesions, 3 cases of posterior ankle impingement syndrome, and 6 cases of peroneal pathology. All these injuries were surgically treated in the same surgical time. A clinical-functional study was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The mean score before surgery was 66.12 (range 60-71), and after surgery it increased up to a mean of 96.95 (range 90-100). All patients were able to return to their previous sport activity within a mean of 21.5 weeks (range 17-28). Complications were found in 3 (14%) patients. Arthroscopic anatomical ligament repair technique has excellent clinical-functional results with a low percentage of complications, and enables patients to return to their previous sport activity within a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anatomical studying of the tear trough area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningze; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Su, Xiaowei; Jia, Huafeng; Shi, Heng

    2014-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of the aging deformity of tear trough through the anatomic study of the tear trough region. 13 adult cadaveric heads (26 sides), including 9 male heads (18 sides) and 4 female heads (8 sides), aged 22-78 years old, were used. Anatomic study was performed around the orbital, especially tear trough region, with microsurgery instrument under microscope( x 10 times). The lower orbicularis retaining ligament was dissected and exposed. The anatomic location was recorded and photographed. (1) The anatomic layers of the tear trough region contains skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi muscle, periosteal membrane. There is no subcutaneous fat above the tear trough, while it exists below the tear trough, called malar fat pad. (2) There is a natural boundary between the septal and the orbital portions of the orbicularis oculi muscle of lower eyelid at surface of the orbital bone. The natural boundary, projected on the body surface corresponds to tear trough. The width of boundary is (2.06 +/- 0.15) mm on the vertical line through inner canthus and (3.25 +/- 0.12) mm on the vertical line through the lateral margin of the ala. The septal portion and the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle began to merge in (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm to inner canthus. (3) There is ligament attachment in the medial, upper and lower orbital and no ligament attachment in the lateral orbital. Orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid is divided into two layers. (4) The medial of the upper layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament in lower eyelid originates from orbital margin and from preorbital walls laterally in (16.10 +/- 0.43) mm to the medial of lateral orbital margin, through orbicularis oculi muscle and ends at the skin. The lower layer of the orbicularis retaining ligament of lower eyelid originates from preorbital walls through orbicularis oculi muscle and its superficial fat, then ends at the skin. The length of tear trough is (16.56 +/- 0.51) mm

  15. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and cross-sectional anatomic features of the manus in a normal American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, C P; Freeman, L E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality.

  16. ROOT ANATOMICAL PLASTICITY IN RESPONSE TO SALT STRESS UNDER REAL AND FULL-SEASON FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETERMINATION OF NEW ANATOMIC SELECTION CHARACTERS FOR BREEDING SALT-RESISTANT RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific understanding of root anatomy plasticity under salt stress is lacking and requires creation of efficient screening techniques for stress condition s. To fill this gap, this study aimed to determine the anatomical plasticity in root chracteristics of 31 different rice cultivars (from ‘Best’ to ‘Low’ yielding grown under real field conditions (saline and non-saline from planting to harvesting and to reveal detailed root anatomical parameters that can be used to select and breed salt-tolerant rice. Anatomical and histochemical features of all cultivars and thin structures of the apoplastic barriers were investigated. The amount of silica (Si, 35 different anatomical characteristics, anatomical plasticity characteristics, plasticity rates, plasticity trends and changes and strategies of each group under saline and non-saline conditions were compared. The results showed that protective anatomical characters improved/remained equal to, and worsened/remained equal to those of the controls, in the ‘Best’ and other groups, respectively, from non-saline to saline conditions. Anatomical plasticity is essentially directly related to apoplastic barrier features. High genotypic variation was observed in root anatomy in all cultivars, but foremost traits were as follows: (1 cell size, (2 Si presence, (3 Si accumulation shape, (4 Si distribution towards root stele, (5 xylem arch features, (6 lignification-suberization properties in apoplastic barriers and their degrees, (7 presence/absence of idioblast cells filled with gummic and phenolic substances and (8 moderate anatomical plasticity. Cultivars with the most stabile anatomy under saline and non-saline conditions should be used to select and breed salt-resistant rice.

  17. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  18. Methods of fixation of intraocular lenses according to the anatomical structures in trauma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentzis, Miltiadis; Viestenz, Anja; Heichel, Jens; Seitz, Berthold; Hammer, Thomas; Viestenz, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Ocular trauma can lead to severe visual impairment and morbidity, depending on the anatomical structures affected. The main causes of ocular trauma include foreign bodies, impact by an object, falls, and chemicals. Most ocular traumas occur in children or young male adults. A meticulous slit lamp examination is crucial for assessing all anatomical structures. Trauma to the crystalline lens can result in dislocation, an intralenticular foreign body, cataract, fragmentation, and capsular breach. An intraocular lens (IOL) can endure subluxation or luxation under the conjunctiva, into the anterior chamber or the vitreous, or can be extruded. The surgical approach depends on the condition and morphology of the lens and the anatomical structures surrounding it. If there is capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be placed in the sulcus using remnants of the damaged capsule. If there is no capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be fixated to the anterior chamber angle, to the iris, or to the sclera. A detailed history of injury cannot always be obtained in trauma settings. Proper education, supervision, and certified safety eye protectors could prevent up to 90% of ocular injuries. Lens trauma can be treated with various surgical procedures and fixation techniques, which nevertheless require advanced surgical skills owing to the fine anatomical structure of the anterior segment. A careful surgical strategy should be established for a globe reconstruction after trauma with secondary lens implantation. Clin. Anat. 31:6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fast correspondences search in anatomical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Thiago R.; Gergel, Ingmar; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2010-03-01

    Registration of multiple medical images commonly comprises the steps feature extraction, correspondences search and transformation computation. In this paper, we present a new method for a fast and pose independent search of correspondences using as features anatomical trees such as the bronchial system in the lungs or the vessel system in the liver. Our approach scores the similarities between the trees' nodes (bifurcations) taking into account both, topological properties extracted from their graph representations and anatomical properties extracted from the trees themselves. The node assignment maximizes the global similarity (sum of the scores of each pair of assigned nodes), assuring that the matches are distributed throughout the trees. Furthermore, the proposed method is able to deal with distortions in the data, such as noise, motion, artifacts, and problems associated with the extraction method, such as missing or false branches. According to an evaluation on swine lung data sets, the method requires less than one second on average to compute the matching and yields a high rate of correct matches compared to state of the art work.

  20. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  1. Sleep Disturbance and Anatomic Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brent J; Sciascia, Aaron D; Jacobs, Cale A; Edwards, T Bradley

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is commonly encountered in patients with glenohumeral joint arthritis and can be a factor that drives patients to consider surgery. The prevalence of sleep disturbance before or after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty has not been reported. The authors identified 232 eligible patients in a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry following total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral joint arthritis with 2- to 5-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance secondary to the affected shoulder was characterized preoperatively and postoperatively as no sleep disturbance, frequent sleep disturbance, or nightly sleep disturbance. A total of 211 patients (91%) reported sleep disturbance prior to surgery. Patients with nightly sleep disturbance had significantly worse (Psleep disturbance, with 186 patients (80%) reporting no sleep disturbance (Psleep disturbance group had significantly greater patient-reported outcome scores and range of motion following surgery compared with the other sleep disturbance groups for nearly all outcome measures (P≤.01). Patients have significant improvements in sleep after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. There was a high prevalence of sleep disturbance preoperatively (211 patients, 91%) compared with postoperatively (46 patients, 20%). [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e450-e454.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Anatomical and roentgenographic features of atlantooccipital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Duval, M J; Davis, J A; Bernini, P M

    1993-02-01

    An anatomical study using six fresh, human cadaveric cervical spine specimens was performed. After the dissection of all soft tissue, flexion-extension radiographs were obtained to verify initial stability. A sagittal plane bone cut was then made, centered on the odontoid and sparing the alar ligaments, the tectorial membrane, and the atlantooccipital (AO) ligaments. Repeat flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were taken to document maintenance of stability of these hemisections. The occipital-atlantoaxial ligaments were then individually and sequentially incised, maintaining all other structures each time. After the sectioning of each ligament, flexion-extension radiographs and photographs were obtained to identify subsequent motion patterns. Both gross anatomical and roentgenographic examinations demonstrated the important stabilizing role of the tectorial membrane in flexion. Additionally, contact between the posterior arch of C1 and the occiput limited hyperextension as a secondary restraint once the tectorial membrane was sectioned. Furthermore, the AO ligaments proved to play an insignificant role in the preservation of AO stability through a flexion-extension arc of motion. Under normal circumstances, the AO articulation is not excessively stressed. However, acute AO injury, as well as the insidious failure of these ligaments, has been documented in several cases involving various pathologies. This study demonstrates a mechanism of instability and highlights the essential role of the tectorial membrane in maintaining upper cervical spine stability.

  3. Computed tomography of the vesicular glands: anatomical animal model (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, R.; Stamatova-Yovcheva, K.; Hamza, S.; Toneva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Spiral CT is a non-invasive imaging method of choice for animal anatomical studies. The aim of the study was to establish the imaging anatomical features of the vesicular glands in the rabbit. Eight sexually mature healthy clinically male New Zealand rabbits of 18 months of age with body weight from 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were used. The animals were anesthetized. As contrast medium Opti-ray350 was administrated. The computed tomography scan was complied with certain bone and soft tissue markers. For this purpose, a whole body multi-slice spiral computed tomography scanner was used. The both soft tissue glands were heterogeneous and relatively hyperdense structures, and defined in detail from the adjacent soft tissues. The urinary bladder neck was ventrally to the glands. Both vesicular glands were better differentiated each other when the rabbit is examined in abdominal recumbence. In dorsal recumbence the shape of the transversal image of the glandular finding was oval. In abdominal recumbence both the left and right soft tissue vesicular gland were defined. Transversal anatomical computed tomographic investigation of the rabbit vesicular gland is a detailed and definitive method, to study the normal morphology of these glands. Key words: Vesicular Gland. Helical Computed Tomography. Anatomy. Rabbit

  4. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  5. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  6. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning lower limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this article is to extend and revise the sections of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) dealing with the lower limb structures and to justify the use of newly proposed anatomical terms in clinical medicine, education, and research. Anatomical terms were gathered during our educational experience from anatomical textbooks and journals and compared with the four previous editions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclature. The authors summarise 270 terms with their definitions and explanations for both constant and variable morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, nerves and superficial structures) of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot completed with several grammatical remarks and some general anatomical terms. The proposed terms should be discussed in wider anatomical community and potentially added to next edition of the TA.

  7. [Morphogenetic processes and seasonal changes in the anatomic and histological organization of the Barents Sea sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, L V

    1978-10-01

    As a result of histological investigations of seasonal dynamics in the anatomical-tissue organization of the litoral sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas), morphogenetical processes during different periods of its life cycle are described in detail. Correlations between different phases of sexual reproduction and conditions of anatomical and tissue organization in the maternal organism are stated. It is noted that tissue reduction of the definitive sponge Halichondria panicea during autumn--winter season is a natural phenomenon, regularly repeating in the life of the litoral sponge investigated, as a result of the maternal organism's "exhaustion" in the period of sexual embryogenesis.

  8. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  9. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia: MR imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Savino, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a gaze disorder characterized by impaired adduction of the side of a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) with dissociated nystagmus of the abducting eye. Eleven patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia (nine with multiple sclerosis, two with infarction) were examined with spin-echo MR imaging performed at 1.5 T. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent CT. MR imaging was highly sensitive (10 of 11 cases) and CT was of no value (0 of 9 cases) in detecting clinically suspected MLF lesions. These lesions must be distinguished from ''pseudo-MLF hyperintensity,'' which appears as a thin, strictly midline, linear hyperintensity just interior to the fourth ventricle and aqueduct in healthy subjects. True MLF lesions are nodular, more prominent, and slightly off the midline, corresponding to the paramedian anatomic site of the MLF

  10. Anatomic Twist to a Straightforward Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh Randhawa, MD

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrioventricular (AV junction ablation for treatment of refractory atrial fibrillation is a well defined, standardized procedure and the simplest of commonly performed radiofrequency ablations in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. We report successful AV junction ablation using an inferior approach in a case of inferior vena cava interruption. Inability during the procedure to initially pass the ablation catheter into the right ventricle, combined with low amplitude electrograms, led to suspicion of an anatomic abnormality. This was determined to be a heterotaxy syndrome with inferior vena cava interruption and azygos continuation, draining in turn into the superior vena cava. Advancing Schwartz right 0 (SRO sheath through the venous abnormality into the right atrium allowed adequate catheter stability to successfully induce complete AV block with radiofrequency energy.

  11. [Antique anatomical collections for contemporary museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy and Pathology Museum collections display a great biological value and offer unique samples for research purposes. Pathological specimens may be investigated by means of modern radiological and molecular biology techniques in order to provide the etiological background of disease, with relevance to present-day knowledge. Meanwhile, historical resources provide epidemiologic data regarding the socio-economic conditions of the resident populations, the more frequently encountered illnesses and dietary habits. These multidisciplinary approaches lead to more accurate diagnoses also allowing new strategies in cataloguing and musealization of anatomical specimens. Further, once these data are gathered, they may constitute the basis of riedited Museum catalogues feasible to be digitalized and displayed via the Web.

  12. Anatomical database generation for radiation transport modeling from computed tomography (CT) scan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margle, S.M.; Tinnel, E.P.; Till, L.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Durfee, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geometric models of the anatomy are used routinely in calculations of the radiation dose in organs and tissues of the body. Development of such models has been hampered by lack of detailed anatomical information on children, and models themselves have been limited to quadratic conic sections. This summary reviews the development of an image processing workstation used to extract anatomical information from routine diagnostic CT procedure. A standard IBM PC/AT microcomputer has been augmented with an automatically loading 9-track magnetic tape drive, an 8-bit 1024 x 1024 pixel graphics adapter/monitor/film recording package, a mouse/trackball assembly, dual 20 MB removable cartridge media, a 72 MB disk drive, and a printer. Software utilized by the workstation includes a Geographic Information System (modified for manipulation of CT images), CAD software, imaging software, and various modules to ease data transfer among the software packages. 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic data for reference Indian man - a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1994-01-01

    The collation and generation of data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Indian subjects were carried out to set up a Reference Indian Man for radiation protection. A comparison of the Reference Indian Man data with the corresponding data for ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that the physical, anatomical and metabolic characteristics were in general smaller for Reference Indian Man. A few of the physiological characteristics such as the daily consumption of drinking water, sweat rate were however, found to be higher, and the minute volume was similar for Reference Indian, in comparison to the ICRP Reference Man. The details of various human characteristics representative of the Indian population are reported in this paper. (author). 43 refs., 25 tabs., 6 figs

  14. A plea for extension of the anatomical nomenclature. Part 1: Nervous system and senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlík, D; Musil, V; Baca, V

    2017-01-01

    A correct, exact, concise and detailed anatomical nomenclature is a cornerstone of communication not only in anatomy and related subjects but also in other medical branches and in the whole medical education. Terminologia Anatomica fulfils this task but some important structures are still missing there. The authors have collected and present here a list of terms including their definitions or explanations to provoke discussion about possible extension of the Terminologia Anatomica. The first part of this contribution, presented in this article, comprises 113 terms concerning the regulation systems of the human body: endocrine glands, central and peripheral nervous system, and senses. It also contains some corrections of anatomical mistakes, systemic inconsistencies and grammar changes.

  15. Parametric spherical deconvolution: inferring anatomical connectivity using diffusion MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Enrico; Knösche, Thomas R; Anwander, Alfred

    2007-08-15

    The human brain forms a complex neural network with a connectional architecture that is still far from being known in full detail, even at the macroscopic level. The advent of diffusion MR imaging has enabled the exploration of the structural properties of white matter in vivo. In this article we propose a new forward model that maps the microscopic geometry of nervous tissue onto the water diffusion process and further onto the measured MR signals. Our spherical deconvolution approach completely parameterizes the fiber orientation density by a finite mixture of Bingham distributions. In addition, we define the term anatomical connectivity, taking the underlying image modality into account. This neurophysiological metric may represent the proportion of the nerve fibers originating in the source area which intersect a given target region. The specified inverse problem is solved by Bayesian statistics. Posterior probability maps denote the probability that the connectivity value exceeds a chosen threshold, conditional upon the noisy observations. These maps allow us to draw inferences about the structural organization of the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we will demonstrate the proposed approach with diffusion-weighted data sets featuring high angular resolution.

  16. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  17. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  18. [Historical development of modern anatomical education in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2008-12-01

    The medical schools in the beginning of Meiji era were diverse both in the founders and in the way of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organized medical education at the medical school of the university of Tokyo. The anatomical education in the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei who returned from the study in Germany. In 1882 (Meiji 15th), the general rule for medical school was enforced so that the medical schools were practically obliged to employ numbers of graduates of the university of Tokyo. In 1887 (Meiji 20th), the educational system was reformed so that many of the medical schools were closed, and the medical schools were integrated into one university, five national senior high schools and three prefectural ones in addition to four private ones. After that most of anatomical teachers were either graduates of the university of Tokyo or those who studied in the anatomical department of the university. Before 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationality were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 (Meiji 10th), the anatomical books based on the lectures by German teachers at the university of Tokyo were published. The anatomical books after 1887 (Meiji 20th) were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 (Meiji 38th), the original Japanese anatomical books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. At the first meeting of Japanese Association of Anatomists in 1893 (Meiji 26th), the Japanese anatomical teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the university of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomical department.

  19. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  20. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Wood anatomy of Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae Anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto R. Pujana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy description of Ribes magellanicum Poir. is given including specimens of its two subspecies. This is the first detailed secondary xylem study of a species included in the South and Central American subgenus Parilla Jancz. Wood anatomy of R. magellanicum shows the following typical anatomical features cited for northern hemisphere Ribes L.: small vessels, rays of two distinct sizes and scalariform perforation plates.Se describe la anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum Poir. incluyendo especimenes de sus dos subespecies. Es la primera descripción detallada del xilema secundario de una especie del subgénero de Centro y Sudamérica Parilla Jancz. La anatomía de R. magellanicum muestra las características típicas citadas para las Ribes L. del hemisferio norte: vasos pequeños, radios de dos tamaños distintos y placas de perforación escalariformes.

  2. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  3. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter...

  4. Anatomical features of renal artery in a black Kenyan population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features of the renal ...

  5. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally the position of different organs is determined by simple description following the anatomical elements surrounded them and such description could be developed and applied in surgical anatomy. Here, I present for the first time a theoretical three-dimensional ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

  6. Role of anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses on the prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses and their roles in the development of sinusitis. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses of 350 patients was assessed in terms of anatomic variations and inflammatory sinus pathology.

  7. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  8. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  9. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2016-01-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  10. Role of Anatomic Variations of Paranasal Sinuses on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-09

    May 9, 2017 ... pathology. The coexistence of anatomic variations with sinusitis was statistically investigated.Results: At least one anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses was detected in 325 patients ... area, hardly evaluated regions of sinonasal pathologies ..... formation. Optic nerve and extraorbital muscle damage.

  11. Is the cervical fascia an anatomical proteus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Condino, Sara; Stecco, Antonio; Soldani, Paola; Belmonte, Monica Mattioli; Gesi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The cervical fasciae have always represented a matter of debate. Indeed, in the literature, it is quite impossible to find two authors reporting the same description of the neck fascia. In the present review, a historical background was outlined, confirming that the Malgaigne's definition of the cervical fascia as an anatomical Proteus is widely justified. In an attempt to provide an essential and a more comprehensive classification, a fixed pattern of description of cervical fasciae is proposed. Based on the morphogenetic criteria, two fascial groups have been recognized: (1) fasciae which derive from primitive fibro-muscular laminae (muscular fasciae or myofasciae); (2) fasciae which derive from connective thickening (visceral fasciae). Topographic and comparative approaches allowed to distinguish three different types of fasciae in the neck: the superficial, the deep and the visceral fasciae. The first is most connected to the skin, the second to the muscles and the third to the viscera. The muscular fascia could be further divided into three layers according to the relationship with the different muscles.

  12. Metacarpophalangeal portal safety. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, B; Corella, F; Del Campo, B; Fernández, E; Corella, M Á; Ocampos, M; Vázquez, T; Larrainzar-Garijo, R

    2017-12-02

    To quantify the risk of dorsal innervation injury when performing direct metacarpophalangeal joint portals of the second to fifth fingers. An anatomical study of 11 upper limbs of fresh corpses was carried out. After placing them in a traction tower, the metacarpophalangeal portals were developed on both sides of the extensor tendon. The dorsal sensory branches were dissected and the distances between the portal and the nearest nerve were measured by a digital caliper. The portals of all the fingers were compared globally to assess the safest finger and two to two radial and ulnar portals were compared in each of the fingers to assess the safest portal within each finger. The overall comparison of all portals and fingers showed that the third finger is the safest in any of its portals, while the ulnar side of the second and radial of the fourth are the portals with the highest risk of nerve injury (P=8.96·10 -5 ). Comparing two to two of the radial and ulnar portals in each of the fingers showed that the ulnar portal is safer than the radial on the fourth finger (P=.042), while the radial is safer than the ulnar on the fifth finger (P=.003). The third finger was the safest to perform metacarpophalangeal portals, while the ulnar side of the second finger and radial side of the fourth had the highest risk of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  14. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  15. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber M. Anderson

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV. To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05. Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8. Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4% and epididymal anomalies (EAs in 1 testis (2%. Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4% and EA in 4 (14.28%. When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116. Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies.

  16. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-12-01

    cells (source originate from the ectoderm while the epithelial lining of the urethra (target arises from the endoderm and the process of dysfunctional cell replacement occurs within the target. Gingival fibroblasts originate from the neural crest (source while dermal fibroblasts are derived from mesoderm (target and the process that follows is again replacement of dysfunctional cells. These, we propose, should be termed as “Trans-germ Extra-anatomic Cell Therapy” (TECT. In both IECT and TECT the transplantation is extra-anatomic and the presently known mechanism of the transplanted cells in helping with the regeneration are different, however, the transplanted cells aid directly or indirectly with the anatomical regeneration and/or physiological recovery of the target tissue and thereby the organ. While it is to be noted that he mechanisms of such repair by these adult autologous cells in different applications vary from direct replacement of cells to aiding in repair by paracrine effect or secretion of growth factors and that the extent of such repair or regeneration too has significant variations, the significance of this categorization in future clinical therapy are worth a thorough investigation and evaluation and how we can harness the potential of this extraordinary transdifferentiation process for clinical benefits. Extra-anatomic transplantations of in vitro expanded mature adult cells, without any genetic manipulation or in vitro trans-differentiation, have yielded dramatic anatomical regeneration of the host tissues as well as physiological recovery. The fine details describing the transformation process between guest cells and the host tissues are incomplete. The principles underpinning this phenomena must be established to fully exploit its potential as a clinical therapy with broad application. The composition of the cell mass used as a source for transplantation therapy, in terms of stem cells, precursor cells and mature adult cells, as well as

  17. In vivo posterior cruciate ligament elongation in running activity after anatomic and non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Thorhauer, Eric; Bowman, Karl; Fu, Freddie H; Tashman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models. Anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles insertion sites of the PCL were identified on the 3D CT scan reconstructions. Dynamic knee function was assessed during running using a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. The lengths of the AL and PM bundles were estimated from late swing through mid-stance. The contralateral knees served as normal controls. Control knees demonstrated a slight decrease in AL bundle and a significant decrease in PM bundle length following foot strike. Length and elongation patterns of the both bundles of the PCL in the anatomic ACL reconstruction group were similar to the controls. However, the change in dynamic PCL length was significantly greater in the non-anatomic group than in the anatomic reconstruction group after foot strike (p < 0.05). The AL bundle length decreased slightly, and the PM bundle length significantly decreased after foot strike during running in uninjured knees. Anatomic ACL reconstruction maintained normal PCL elongation patterns more effectively than non-anatomic ACL reconstruction during high-demand, functional loading. These results support the use of anatomic ACL reconstruction to achieve normal knee function in high-demand activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  18. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  19. The method to make the three dimensional anatomical pattern of hepatic vessels by stereo angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutou, Haruomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Takasaki, Takeshi; Isobe, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Seiichi; Saeki, Shin; Yoshida, Masanori

    1986-01-01

    For the Past few years, there has been a big advance in the hepatic surgery. Now, small resection, such as segmentectomy or subsegmentectomy, is performed routinely. Based on this tendency, hepatic surgeons request more details, more stereographic findings of hepatic vessels to heaptic angiography. Especially three dimensional combined anatomical pattern of the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein is strongly needed. We have tried three dimensional computer graphic of hepatic vessels since few years ago, using the personal computer, digitizer with clear screen, commercially available 3D software and my own program. We use three groups of angiographic films, that is the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic vein with IVC, which were taken by stereoangiography. The depth of each poits of vessels are calculated by the way described in Fig 3. Using these points, the 3D software, '3DPROGATS', can make the anatomical pattern of combined hepatic vessels on TV display. And then we can also perform rotation, heading, bank, zooming, hidden line elimination freely for this picture. Out of necessity as hepatic surgeons, we make a simple system for 3D computer graphic of heptic vessels. At present, the image is somewhat rough, but clinically it is relatively effective. In this report we want to explain our method and to show the anatomical pattern of hepatic vessels of case of hepatoma. (author)

  20. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Notaris, Matteo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; San Molina, Joan; Berenguer, Joan; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. PMID:24575410

  1. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  2. MR neurography with multiplanar reconstruction of 3D MRI datasets: an anatomical study and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Wolfgang; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Stuber, Gregor; Schmitz, Bernd; Brinkmann, Alexander; Wagner, Florian; Dinse, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Extracranial MR neurography has so far mainly been used with 2D datasets. We investigated the use of 3D datasets for peripheral neurography of the sciatic nerve. A total of 40 thighs (20 healthy volunteers) were examined with a coronally oriented magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence with isotropic voxels of 1 x 1 x 1 mm and a field of view of 500 mm. Anatomical landmarks were palpated and marked with MRI markers. After MR scanning, the sciatic nerve was identified by two readers independently in the resulting 3D dataset. In every volunteer, the sciatic nerve could be identified bilaterally over the whole length of the thigh, even in areas of close contact to isointense muscles. The landmark of the greater trochanter was falsely palpated by 2.2 cm, and the knee joint by 1 cm. The mean distance between the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve and the knee-joint gap was 6 cm (±1.8 cm). The mean results of the two readers differed by 1-6%. With the described method of MR neurography, the sciatic nerve was depicted reliably and objectively in great anatomical detail over the whole length of the thigh. Important anatomical information can be obtained. The clinical applications of MR neurography for the brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus/sciatic nerve are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Technical note: Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using the shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Kanai, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromasa

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques have been widely used in quantitative comparisons of craniofacial morphology in humans and nonhuman primates. However, few anatomical landmarks can actually be defined on the neurocranium. In this study, an alternative method is proposed for defining semi-landmarks on neurocranial surfaces for use in detailed analysis of cranial shape. Specifically, midsagittal, nuchal, and temporal lines were approximated using Bezier curves and equally spaced points along each of the curves were defined as semi-landmarks. The shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks as well as semi-landmarks were then calculated in order to represent the surface morphology between landmarks using equally spaced points along the paths. To evaluate the efficacy of this method, the previously outlined technique was used in morphological analysis of sexual dimorphism in modern Japanese crania. The study sample comprised 22 specimens that were used to generate 110 anatomical semi-landmarks, which were used in geometric morphometric analysis. Although variations due to sexual dimorphism in human crania are very small, differences could be identified using the proposed landmark placement, which demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Digital atlas of anatomical subdivisions and boundaries of the rat hippocampal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Kjonigsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rat hippocampal region is frequently studied in relation to learning and memory processes and brain diseases. The region is complex, consisting of multiple subdivisions that are challenging to delineate anatomically. Published atlases of the rat brain typically lack the underlying histological criteria necessary to identify boundaries, and textbooks descriptions of the region are often inadequately illustrated and thus difficult to relate to experimental data. An overview of both anatomical features and criteria used to delineate boundaries is required to assign location to experimental material from the hippocampal region. To address this issue, we have developed a web-based atlas application in which images of histological sections are integrated with new and up-to-date criteria for subdividing the rat hippocampus formation, fasciola and associated parahippocampal regions. The atlas application consists of an interactive image viewer with high-resolution images of an extensive series of sections stained for NeuN, calbindin, and parvalbumin, and an index of structures with detailed descriptions of the criteria used to define the boundaries. Images can be inspected with a graphical overlay of selected subregions. Bi-directional links between images and the index of structures are provided. In summary, we provide a novel content-rich digital atlas resource facilitating identification of morphological features relevant for delineating the anatomical subdivisions of the rat hippocampal region. The atlas application is available at http://www.rbwb.org.

  5. Anatomical basis for the fastigial pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Marianna; Ruggiero, David A; Del Bo, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of rostromedial portion of cerebellar fastigial nucleus elicits integrated cardiovascular effects, which are neurally and humorally mediated. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the anatomical substrates of the fastigial pressor response (FPR) in the rat. The response was electrophysiologically localized in anesthetized, paralyzed-ventilated rats. Anterograde transport techniques were used to study the efferent projections of the fastigial pressor area; the distribution of efferent projection cells were then mapped by injecting retrograde tracers into anterogradely labeled sites. Electrolytic lesions were then placed bilaterally in selected brainstem areas in the attempt to block the pressor response. Sites of cerebellar stimulation and of brainstem lesions were subsequently histologically identified. The following lesions abolished the FPR: in nine animals lesions involved portions of the nucleus gigantocellularis dorsalis (NGCd), paramedian reticular formation (PMN) and the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) (in two animals fairly selectively the caudal NTS); in two other animals lesions destroyed the rostral ventrolateral medulla (C1 area) and in one animal the area encompassing the dorsal convexity of the superior cerebellar peduncle bordering the locus coeruleus-lateral parabrachial complex; partially effective were unilateral lesions of NGCd and NTS (three), bilateral lesions confined to NGCd and PMN (two), to vestibular complex and uncinate fasciculus (UF) (three), to UF and locus coeruleus (three) and to nucleus reticularis ventralis (two). Ineffective lesions involved A1 area, the nucleus gigantocellularis ventralis (NGCv), the spinal trigeminal nucleus and nucleus reticularis parvocellularis, the A5 area of the ventrolateral pons, the central gray and lateral mesencephalic tegmentum. It seems therefore that the pressor response elicited by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus utilizes central specific pathways, as

  6. Mock up technique and anatomical caps stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Alumno del Diplomado de Odontología Restauradora y Estética de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; Cirujano Dentista, Alumna de la Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Patient´s aesthetic requirements are increasing and this demands the greatest professional preparation to provide the best treatment option. The materials for use in dentistry and restorative techniques have evolved very quickly. Composite resins give us an alternative treatment in the anterior sector because they have good aesthetic and mechanical properties. With the evolution of the composite resins we can achieve very natural restorations doing them better and better. This article details...

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament anatomy and function relating to anatomical reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantop, Thore; Petersen, Wolf; Sekiya, Jon K; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H

    2006-10-01

    Recently, the interest in surgical techniques that reconstruct the anteromedial (AM) and the posterolateral (PL) bundles of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has risen. This review focuses on the structural as well as the mechanical properties of the ACL and the anatomical details of the femoral origin, midsubstance, and tibial insertion of AM and PL bundles of the ACL. The terminology of AM and PL bundles is chosen according to the tibial insertion and determined by their functional tensioning pattern throughout knee flexion. Close to extension the AM is moderately loose and the PL is tight. As the knee is flexed, the femoral attachment of the ACL becomes more horizontally oriented, causing the AM bundle to tighten and the PM bundle to loosen up. The ACL has been described to be restraint to anterior tibial displacement and internal tibial rotation. The rotational component might be represented by the PL bundle. The femoral origin has an oval shape with the center of the AM close to over-the-top position and the center of the PL close to the anterior and inferior cartilage margin. Tibial and femoral insertions of the ACL are over 3.5 times larger when compared to the midsubstance and tunnel placement is more challenging because of the limited size of potential grafts selection of tunnel site placement. For reconstruction, both bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and quadrupled hamstring grafts are used. Structural properties of a 10 mm wide BPTB or quadrupled hamstring graft have been reported to be comparable with those of the native ACL.

  8. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication and assessment of 3D printed anatomical models of the lower limb for anatomical teaching and femoral vessel access training in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P; Feeney, Robin N M; Jones, James F X

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial cadavers are manufactured through three-dimensional (3D) printing of patient specific radiological data sets. In this article, a simple powder based printer is made more versatile to manufacture hard bones, silicone muscles and perfusable blood vessels. The approach involves blending modern approaches (3D printing) with more ancient ones (casting and lost-wax techniques). These anatomically accurate models can augment the approach to anatomy teaching from dissection to synthesis of 3D-printed parts held together with embedded rare earth magnets. Vascular simulation is possible through application of pumps and artificial blood. The resulting arteries and veins can be cannulated and imaged with Doppler ultrasound. In some respects, 3D-printed anatomy is superior to older teaching methods because the parts are cheap, scalable, they can cover the entire age span, they can be both dissected and reassembled and the data files can be printed anywhere in the world and mass produced. Anatomical diversity can be collated as a digital repository and reprinted rather than waiting for the rare variant to appear in the dissection room. It is predicted that 3D printing will revolutionize anatomy when poly-material printing is perfected in the early 21st century. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  11. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatiga, H. Vol 3, No 1 (2015) - Articles Operated herniated disk and lumbar spinal stenosis in Togolese patients: anatomical aspects and results of surgical treatment. Abstract. ISSN: 2307-2482. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  13. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning upper limb anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education. A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures. The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms. After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).

  14. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  15. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  16. Automatic anatomical segmentation of the liver by separation planes

    OpenAIRE

    Boltcheva , Dobrina; Passat , Nicolas; Agnus , Vincent; Jacob-Da Col , Marie-Andrée; Ronse , Christian; Soler , Luc

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Surgical planning in oncological liver surgery is based on the location of the 8 anatomical segments according to Couinaud’s definition and tumors inside these structures. The detection of the boundaries between the segments is then the first step of the preoperative planning. The proposed method, devoted to binary images of livers segmented from CT-scans, has been designed to delineate these segments. It automatically detects a set of landmarks using a priori anatomic...

  17. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an individualized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola F. van Eck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Recently, there has been a shift in interest towards reconstruction techniques that more closely restore the native anatomy of the ACL. This review paper discusses our approach to individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction, including the anatomy of the ACL, the physical exam, imaging modalities, the surgical technique for anatomic reconstruction including pre- and intraoperative considerations and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol.

  18. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  19. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: M.Rutten@JBZ.nl; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail: MareschB@zgv.nl; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail: G.Jager@JBZ.nl; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Blickman@rad.umcn.nl; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail: vanholsbeeck@comcast.net

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  20. Anatomical knee postero-lateral corner reconstruction: The "Versailles" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Boisrenoult, P; Steltzlen, C; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-11-01

    Postero-lateral knee instability raises surgical challenges. Of the many available reconstruction techniques, few ensure anatomical reconstruction of the postero-lateral corner (PLC). The "Versailles" technique ensures the anatomical reconstruction of the three main PLC stabilisers (lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteo-fibular ligament) by using either a hamstring autograft or a tendon allograft. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Global detailed gravimetric geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 x 1-deg mean free-air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is plus or minus 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe and Australia.

  2. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  4. Toledo School of Translators and their influence on anatomical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José-L; Raio, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Translation facilitates transmission of knowledge between cultures. The fundamental transfer of anatomic terminology from the Ancient Greek and Islamic Golden Age cultures, to medieval Latin Christendom took place in the so-called Toledo School of Translators in the 12th-13th centuries. Translations made in Toledo circulated widely across Europe. They were the foundation of scientific thinking that was born in the boards of first universities. In Toledo, Gerard of Cremona translated Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, the key work of Islamic Golden Age of medicine. Albertus Magnus, Mondino de Luzzi and Guy de Chauliac, the leading authors of anatomical Latin words in the Middle Ages, founded their books on Gerard's translations. The anatomical terms of the Canon retain auctoritas up to the Renaissance. Thus, terms coined by Gerard such as diaphragm, orbit, pupil or sagittal remain relevant in the current official anatomical terminology. The aim of the present paper is to bring new attention to the highly significant influence that the Toledo School of Translators had in anatomical terminology. For this, we shall review here the onomastic origins of a number of anatomical terms (additamentum; coracoid process; coxal; false ribs; femur; panniculus; spondylus; squamous sutures; thorax; xiphoid process, etc.) which are still used today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling the pharyngeal anatomical effects on breathing resistance and aerodynamically generated sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua; Kim, JongWon; Su, Guoguang; Dong, Haibo

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically assess the effects of pharyngeal anatomical details on breathing resistance and acoustic characteristics by means of computational modeling. A physiologically realistic nose-throat airway was reconstructed from medical images. Individual airway anatomy such as the uvula, pharynx, and larynx was then isolated for examination by gradually simplifying this image-based model geometry. Large eddy simulations with the FW-H acoustics model were used to simulate airflows and acoustic sound generation with constant flow inhalations in rigid-walled airway geometries. Results showed that pharyngeal anatomical details exerted a significant impact on breathing resistance and energy distribution of acoustic sound. The uvula constriction induced considerably increased levels of pressure drop and acoustic power in the pharynx, which could start and worsen snoring symptoms. Each source anatomy was observed to generate a unique spectrum with signature peak frequencies and energy distribution. Moreover, severe pharyngeal airway narrowing led to an upward shift of sound energy in the high-frequency range. Results indicated that computational aeroacoustic modeling appeared to be a practical tool to study breathing-related disorders. Specifically, high-frequency acoustic signals might disclose additional clues to the mechanism of apneic snoring and should be included in future acoustic studies.

  6. Contribution to the anatomical nomenclature concerning general anatomy and anatomical variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-09-01

    Nomenclature of the general and variant anatomy belongs to the most neglected parts of the Latin anatomical nomenclature in Terminologia Anatomica. Although many important small structures are included in Terminologia Anatomica, when describing and teaching particular anatomy of any part of the human body, the general terms are necessary, such as planes, lines and flexion grooves. Moreover, Terminologia Anatomica contains only 149 terms of variant structures, enlisted in the parentheses to differentiate them from constant ones. They are only a rather representative selection and some more should be added, both from the educational and clinical point of view. The authors present some terms, completed with their definitions or explanations concerning the general and variant anatomy to evoke broader discussion on this topic which should issue in incorporation of proposed terms (or their equivalents) into the Terminologia Anatomica.

  7. A three dimensional anatomical view of oscillatory resting-state activity and functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease related dementia: An MEG study using atlas-based beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.M.; Stam, C.J.; Bosboom, J.L.W.; Berendse, H.W.; Hillebrand, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia (PDD) develops in up to 80% of PD patients. The present study was performed to further unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by applying a new analysis approach that uses an atlas-based MEG beamformer to provide a detailed anatomical mapping

  8. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  9. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values ICRP Publication 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2002-12-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian

  10. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  11. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  12. Computed Tomographic Angiography-Based Planning of Bipedicled DIEP Flaps with Intraflap Crossover Anastomosis: An Anatomical and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    When using deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction, harvesting bipedicled flaps can be a valuable option in cases requiring the transfer of a large portion of harvested flaps. Connecting the bilateral deep inferior epigastric arteries (DIEAs) by intraflap crossover anastomosis is one of the most popular methods of constructing bipedicled DIEP flaps. Planning the primary and secondary pedicle configurations for reliable intraflap crossover anastomosis is crucial. To achieve this, detailed anatomical DIEA information might be helpful. However, meticulous planning of bipedicled DIEP flaps based on computed tomographic angiography has not been reported. Detailed anatomical investigation of DIEA branches was conducted using computed tomographic angiographs of 100 hemiabdomens. Thirty-eight prospectively collected patients who underwent breast reconstruction using bipedicled DIEP flaps with intraflap crossover under computed tomographic angiography-based planning were reviewed. Three intramuscular DIEA branching patterns with distinct branch point topography, branch diameters, and superior continuations cranial to sizable perforators were observed. In the prospective clinical study, a primary pedicle with a recipient branch for intraflap crossover anastomosis could be specified preoperatively using computed tomographic angiography-based anatomical data of the pedicles, including size of DIEA branches or their superior continuation and size of perforators. In all cases, the bipedicle configuration was easily achieved as planned on computed tomographic angiography, and secure perfusion of the entire flap was achieved. The authors' results suggest that computed tomographic angiography provides detailed anatomical DIEA information, and comprehensive analysis of these data allows precise planning of bipedicle configurations with intraflap crossover anastomosis in DIEP flaps. Therapeutic, IV.

  13. Primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - surgical methods and anatomical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Marta; Moosmayer, Stefan; Bragadόttir, Ragnheiður

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the anatomical success of surgical management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and to compare the anatomical outcomes from different surgical techniques. During 2012, 517 consecutive eyes (514 patients) were operated by 11 surgeons at the Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital. Patient records were retrospectively analysed with no exclusions. Main outcome measures were primary and final anatomical success. Primary anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations excluded. Final anatomical success was defined as retinal reattachment 6 months after primary surgery with reoperations included. Incidence of RRD was 18.6 eyes per 100 000 person-years. The macula was detached in 50.5% of the eyes at baseline. Of 517 operated eyes, 317 (61.3%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), 23 (4.5%) pars plana vitrectomy together with a scleral buckle (PPV-SB), 175 (33.9%) scleral buckle (SB) surgery and two (0.4%) pneumatic retinopexy (PR). Primary anatomical success was 89.0% in the PPV group, 87.0% in the PPV-SB group and 85.7% in the SB group. Final anatomical success was 98.1% in the PPV group, 100% in the PPV-SB group and 99.4% in the SB group. Factors which were correlated to the redetachment were detachment of more than 6 clock hours (p = 0.003) and visual acuity (VA) on Snellen chart retina were large detachment and low VA. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  15. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  16. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  17. Thalamic pain: anatomical and physiological indices of prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Nuutti; Perchet, Caroline; Magnin, Michel; Creac'h, Christelle; Convers, Philippe; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Mauguière, François; Peyron, Roland; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Thalamic pain is a severe and treatment-resistant type of central pain that may develop after thalamic stroke. Lesions within the ventrocaudal regions of the thalamus carry the highest risk to develop pain, but its emergence in individual patients remains impossible to predict. Because damage to the spino-thalamo-cortical system is a crucial factor in the development of central pain, in this study we combined detailed anatomical atlas-based mapping of thalamic lesions and assessment of spinothalamic integrity using quantitative sensory analysis and laser-evoked potentials in 42 thalamic stroke patients, of whom 31 had developed thalamic pain. More than 97% of lesions involved an area between 2 and 7 mm above the anterior-posterior commissural plane. Although most thalamic lesions affected several nuclei, patients with central pain showed maximal lesion convergence on the anterior pulvinar nucleus (a major spinothalamic target) while the convergence area lay within the ventral posterior lateral nucleus in pain-free patients. Both involvement of the anterior pulvinar nucleus and spinothalamic dysfunction (nociceptive thresholds, laser-evoked potentials) were significantly associated with the development of thalamic pain, whereas involvement of ventral posterior lateral nucleus and lemniscal dysfunction (position sense, graphaesthesia, pallaesthesia, stereognosis, standard somatosensory potentials) were similarly distributed in patients with or without pain. A logistic regression model combining spinothalamic dysfunction and anterior pulvinar nucleus involvement as regressors had 93% sensitivity and 87% positive predictive value for thalamic pain. Lesion of spinothalamic afferents to the posterior thalamus appears therefore determinant to the development of central pain after thalamic stroke. Sorting out of patients at different risks of developing thalamic pain may be achievable at the individual level by combining lesion localization and functional investigation of

  18. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  19. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlham Eröz Poyraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae used for some medicinal purposes like antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral and treat to gastritis was investigated. Morphological studies were supported by morphometric measurements and drawings of male and female flowers, fruit and seeds of the species. In anatomical studies, cross sections of stem and leaf, upper and lower surface sections of leaves were evaluated. It was detected that the stem with typical anatomical properties of a climbing dicotyl plant. The leaves were amphistotamic and with lots of cyctoliths on the lower surface of leaves. Stomata are anomocytic and situated much more at the lower surface of leaves. Morpho-anatomical investigations on Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae*

  20. Lost and found anatomical terms: Crista choanalis vomeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusić, Ana; Vinter, Ivan; Krmpotić-Nemanić, Jelena

    2006-05-01

    Pars cuneiformis vomeris and Crista choanalis are morphological structures on the vomer listed in the current official anatomical nomenclature, Terminologia anatomica, but are either not mentioned or incorrectly described in different anatomical books. The term Crista choanalis vomeris was originally proposed by Drago Perović in 1958 to describe the vertical crest beginning at the angle of the alae vomeris, running downwards to the posterior free margin of the vomer. Perović also described the part of the vomer behind this crest was shaped as a cone, and termed it Pars cuneiformis vomeris. Because of their important contributions to the function of the respiratory pathway, Crista choanalis vomeris and Pars cuneiformis vomeris deserve proper definitions in the anatomical terminology.

  1. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  2. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...... between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...... by including anatomical features in the branch feature vectors. The proposed approach is applied to classify airway trees in computed tomography images of subjects with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using the wall area percentage (WA%), a common measure of airway abnormality in COPD...

  3. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  4. The stylomastoid artery as an anatomical landmark to the facial nerve during parotid surgery: a clinico-anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Seyed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the facial nerve can be difficult in a bloody operative field or by an incision that limits exposure; hence anatomical landmarks and adequate operative exposure can aid such identification and preservation. In this clinico-anatomic study, we examined the stylomastoid artery (SMA and its relation to the facial nerve trunk; the origin of the artery was identified on cadavers and its nature was confirmed histologically. Methods The clinical component of the study included prospective reviewing of 100 consecutive routine parotidectomies; while, the anatomical component of the study involved dissecting 50 cadaveric hemifaces. Results We could consistently identify a supplying vessel, stylomastoid artery, which tends to vary less in position than the facial nerve. Following this vessel, a few millimetres inferiorly and medially, we have gone on to identify the facial nerve trunk, which it supplies, with relative ease. The origin of the stylomastoid artery, in our study, was either from the occipital artery or the posterior auricular artery. Conclusion This anatomical aid, the stylomastoid artery, when supplemented by the other more commonly known anatomical landmarks and intra-operative facial nerve monitoring further reduces the risk of iatrogenic facial nerve damage and operative time.

  5. Anatomic mapping of molecular subtypes in diffuse glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Lian, Yuxi; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Liang

    2017-09-15

    Tumor location served as an important prognostic factor in glioma patients was considered to postulate molecular features according to cell origin theory. However, anatomic distribution of unique molecular subtypes was not widely investigated. The relationship between molecular phenotype and histological subgroup were also vague based on tumor location. Our group focuses on the study of glioma anatomic location of distinctive molecular subgroups and histology subtypes, and explores the possibility of their consistency based on clinical background. We retrospectively reviewed 143 cases with both molecular information (IDH1/TERT/1p19q) and MRI images diagnosed as cerebral diffuse gliomas. The anatomic distribution was analyzed between distinctive molecular subgroups and its relationship with histological subtypes. The influence of tumor location, molecular stratification and histology diagnosis on survival outcome was investigated as well. Anatomic locations of cerebral diffuse glioma indicate varied clinical outcome. Based on that, it can be stratified into five principal molecular subgroups according to IDH1/TERT/1p19q status. Triple-positive (IDH1 and TERT mutation with 1p19q codeletion) glioma tended to be oligodendroglioma present with much better clinical outcome compared to TERT mutation only group who is glioblastoma inclined (median overall survival 39 months VS 18 months). Five molecular subgroups were demonstrated with distinctive locational distribution. This kind of anatomic feature is consistent with its corresponding histological subtypes. Each molecular subgroup in glioma has unique anatomic location which indicates distinctive clinical outcome. Molecular diagnosis can be served as perfect complementary tool for the precise diagnosis. Integration of histomolecular diagnosis will be much more helpful in routine clinical practice in the future.

  6. [Strabismus determined by anatomical changes in the extrinsic ocular muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, L; Samson, M; Glejaru, M; Popa, R

    1995-01-01

    The anatomical primitive strabismus is prenatal and its characteristic is the loose in the elasticity of the muscles of the surrounding tissues. The cause is the deficit of embryogenesis, originating in the first two months of pregnancy. They are presented the clinical cases of anatomical strabismus, investigated and treated in the Ophthalmological Clinic during 10 years, the surgical techniques used and the postoperative functional and obstetrical results the ocular disturbances are intense and the debut is early. The surgery involves both eyes and the results depend on the clinical form, the restant ocular motility and the degree of fibrosis of the affected muscle.

  7. Double auricles of the right atrium: a unique anatomic deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampoura Stefania S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomic deviations, especially those detected during the course of an operation, are medically intriguing, as they raise concerns about their clinical significance and putative complications. Case presentation We present, to our knowledge, for the first time a case of an anatomic deviation in the form of a second right atrial auricle in a 70 year-old, coronary bypass-operated male Caucasian patient of Greek origin. No complications were noted intra-or postoperatively. Conclusions A second right atrial auricle was found intraoperatively, without causing any clinical complications, or obstructing the normal course of a surgical procedure.

  8. Anatomic Eponyms in Neuroradiology: Brain, Cerebral Vasculature, and Calvarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Paul M; Zamani, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    Medical eponyms are ubiquitous, numerous, and at times controversial. They are often useful for succinctly conveying complex concepts, and familiarity with eponyms is important for proper usage and appropriate communication. In this historical review, we identify 18 anatomic eponyms used to describe structures of the brain, cerebral vasculature, and calvarium. For each structure, we first offer a biographical sketch of the individual for whom the structure is named. This is followed by a description of the anatomic structure and a brief discussion of its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention—A Neuroeducation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah J.; Hecker, Kent G.; Krigolson, Olave E.; Jamniczky, Heather A.

    2018-01-01

    In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP) components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise. PMID:29467638

  10. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention-A Neuroeducation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah J; Hecker, Kent G; Krigolson, Olave E; Jamniczky, Heather A

    2018-01-01

    In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP) components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise.

  11. A Reinforcement-Based Learning Paradigm Increases Anatomical Learning and Retention—A Neuroeducation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts. Determining how best do we design and assess pre-class exercises requires a detailed examination of learning and retention in an applied educational context. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG as a quantitative dependent variable to track learning and examine the efficacy of JiTT activities to teach anatomy. Specifically, we examined changes in the amplitude of the N250 and reward positivity event-related brain potential (ERP components alongside behavioral performance as novice students participated in a series of computerized reinforcement-based learning modules to teach neuroanatomical structures. We found that as students learned to identify anatomical structures, the amplitude of the N250 increased and reward positivity amplitude decreased in response to positive feedback. Both on a retention and transfer exercise when learners successfully remembered and translated their knowledge to novel images, the amplitude of the reward positivity remained decreased compared to early learning. Our findings suggest ERPs can be used as a tool to track learning, retention, and transfer of knowledge and that employing the reinforcement learning paradigm is an effective educational approach for developing anatomical expertise.

  12. Retrospective Evaluation of Surgical Anatomical Repair of Distal Biceps Brachii Tendon Rupture Using Suture Anchor Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Jarosław; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Reichert, Paweł

    2017-10-17

    BACKGROUND To date, no consensus has been reached regarding the preferred fixation method to use in the repair of distal biceps brachii tendon rupture. The aim of this study was to clinically and functionally (Mayo Elbow Performance Index, MEPI) assess the upper limb after surgical anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps brachii tendon with the use of suture anchor fixation method with regard to postoperative time and limb dominance, and to assess postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS The sample comprised 18 males (age 52.09±8.89 years) after surgical anatomical distal biceps brachii reinsertion using suture anchor fixation. A comprehensive clinical and functional evaluation and pain assessment were performed. RESULTS In terms of postoperative complications, an isolated case of surgical site sensory disturbances was noted. Circumferences (p-value 0.21-1.00) and ROM (p-value 0.07-1.00) were similar in the operated and nonoperated limbs. The isometric torque (IT) values of muscles flexing and supinating the forearm were comparable in both limbs (p-value 0.14-0.95), but in patients with the operated dominant limb, the mean IT value was not higher than the value obtained in the nonoperated nondominant one. The MEPI indicated good and excellent results (80.00±15.00-90.00±8.66 points), but a detailed individual analysis showed that reported scores were not in line with objectively measured features. CONCLUSIONS The results of the comprehensive retrospective evaluation justify the clinical use of suture anchors fixation method in the surgical anatomical reinsertion of a ruptured distal biceps brachii tendon. The assessment of a patient should always report both subjective and objective measures.

  13. Evolution of wood anatomical characters in Nepenthes and close relatives of Caryophyllales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; Gravendeel, Barbara; de Boer, Hugo; Nylinder, Stephan; van Heuven, Bertie Joan; Sieder, Anton; Sumail, Sukaibin; van Vugt, Rogier; Lens, Frederic

    2017-05-01

    Nepenthes attracts wide attention with its spectacularly shaped carnivorous pitchers, cultural value and horticultural curiosity. Despite the plant's iconic fascination, surprisingly little anatomical detail is known about the genus beyond its modified leaf tip traps. Here, the wood anatomical diversity of Nepenthes is explored. This diversity is further assessed with a phylogenetic framework to investigate whether the wood characters within the genus are relevant from an evolutionary or ecological perspective, or rather depend on differences in developmental stages, growth habits, substrates or precipitation. Observations were performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral states of selected wood and pith characters were reconstructed using an existing molecular phylogeny for Nepenthes and a broader Caryophyllales framework. Pairwise comparisons were assessed for possible relationships between wood anatomy and developmental stages, growth habits, substrates and ecology. Wood anatomy of Nepenthes is diffuse porous, with mainly solitary vessels showing simple, bordered perforation plates and alternate intervessel pits, fibres with distinctly bordered pits (occasionally septate), apotracheal axial parenchyma and co-occurring uni- and multiseriate rays often including silica bodies. Precipitation and growth habit (stem length) are linked with vessel density and multiseriate ray height, while soil type correlates with vessel diameter, vessel element length and maximum ray width. For Caryophyllales as a whole, silica grains, successive cambia and bordered perforation plates are the result of convergent evolution. Peculiar helical sculpturing patterns within various cell types occur uniquely within the insectivorous clade of non-core Caryophyllales. The wood anatomical variation in Nepenthes displays variation for some characters dependent on soil type, precipitation and stem length, but is largely conservative. The helical-banded fibre

  14. Anatomical study and morphometric analyses on the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide an anatomical and morphometric basis for the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in order to aid in the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels in ligament surgical reconstruction. Study design: laboratory controlled study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The macroscopic details of the femoral insertions of the PCL's anterolateral (AL and posteromedial (PM bundles were analyzed in 24 cadaver knees. The specimens were photographed with a digital camera and the images obtained were studied using the software ImageJ. The bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of the structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The PCL's femoral insertion average total area was 87.29 ± 31.42 mm².The mean insertion's areas of the AL and PM bundles were, respectively, 47.13 ± 19.14 and 40.67 ± 16.19 mm². In 95.8% of the examined knees was verified the presence of the medial intercondylar ridge and in 83.3% of the knees was noted the medial bifurcated ridge. The average length of the medial intercondylar ridge was 20.54 ± 2.26 mm and the medial bifurcated ridge's average length was 7.62 ± 2.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The AL had a femoral insertion area larger than the PM bundle; these bundles' insertion areas were lower than those previously described in the literature. There were important individual variations related to the area of the bundles in the samples, suggesting that there should be an individual recommendation for anatomical reconstructions of the PCL with single or double femoral tunnels.

  15. Take away body parts! An investigation into the use of 3D-printed anatomical models in undergraduate anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Tollemache, Nicholas; Covill, Derek; Johnston, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) nature of the human form is imperative for effective medical practice and the emergence of 3D printing creates numerous opportunities to enhance aspects of medical and healthcare training. A recently deceased, un-embalmed donor was scanned through high-resolution computed tomography. The scan data underwent segmentation and post-processing and a range of 3D-printed anatomical models were produced. A four-stage mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the educational value of the models in a medical program. (1) A quantitative pre/post-test to assess change in learner knowledge following 3D-printed model usage in a small group tutorial; (2) student focus group (3) a qualitative student questionnaire regarding personal student model usage (4) teaching faculty evaluation. The use of 3D-printed models in small-group anatomy teaching session resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P = 0.0001) when compared to didactic 2D-image based teaching methods. Student focus groups yielded six key themes regarding the use of 3D-printed anatomical models: model properties, teaching integration, resource integration, assessment, clinical imaging, and pathology and anatomical variation. Questionnaires detailed how students used the models in the home environment and integrated them with anatomical learning resources such as textbooks and anatomy lectures. In conclusion, 3D-printed anatomical models can be successfully produced from the CT data set of a recently deceased donor. These models can be used in anatomy education as a teaching tool in their own right, as well as a method for augmenting the curriculum and complementing established learning modalities, such as dissection-based teaching. Anat Sci Educ 11: 44-53. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. First anatomically characterized wood from the Tertiary of Moravia: Spiroplatanoxylon from the area of Austerlitz (Southern Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Továrková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new silicified angiosperm wood from the alluvial sediments in Vážany nad Litavou (SW of Slavkov/Austerlitz near Brno, Vyškov district is described. The wood is diffuse-porous with indistinct growth ring boundaries. Vessels are exclusively solitary with helical thickenings and scalariform perforation plates. Rays are very high and up to 18 cells wide, homocellular to slightly heterocellular. Crystals are present in axial parenchyma mostly in chambered cells, rarely in idioblasts. The fossil is attributed to Spiroplatanoxylon mueller-stollii Süss. Other species of Spiroplatanoxylon are also discussed. Wood anatomical descriptions from the eastern part of the Czech Republic published so far deal either with the Silesian Tertiary or describe only partially lignified probably Quaternary material; therefore the present paper can be considered as the first detailed anatomical description of the Tertiary wood from Moravia.

  17. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Fossa indicated: 1) the form of the fossa, 2) the structure to which the fossa belongs, 3) the position of the fossa, 4) the structure that exists near the fossa, 5) the structure that the fossa contains, 6) the structure attached to the fossa, 7) the structure that transmits the fossa, or 8) the structure with which the fossa articulates. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  18. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals in Terminologia anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2010-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals (including canaliculi) in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Canalis or Canales indicated: (1) the structure to which the canal belongs, (2) the structure to which the opening of the canal belongs, (3) the position of the canal, (4) the structure to which the canal leads, (5) the structure that exists near the opening of the canal, (6) the structure that transmits the canal, (7) the structure that is a component of the canal, or (8) the function of the canal. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  19. The production of anatomical teaching resources using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R; Adams, Justin W

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of anatomy has consistently been the subject of societal controversy, especially in the context of employing cadaveric materials in professional medical and allied health professional training. The reduction in dissection-based teaching in medical and allied health professional training programs has been in part due to the financial considerations involved in maintaining bequest programs, accessing human cadavers and concerns with health and safety considerations for students and staff exposed to formalin-containing embalming fluids. This report details how additive manufacturing or three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the creation of reproductions of prosected human cadaver and other anatomical specimens that obviates many of the above issues. These 3D prints are high resolution, accurate color reproductions of prosections based on data acquired by surface scanning or CT imaging. The application of 3D printing to produce models of negative spaces, contrast CT radiographic data using segmentation software is illustrated. The accuracy of printed specimens is compared with original specimens. This alternative approach to producing anatomically accurate reproductions offers many advantages over plastination as it allows rapid production of multiple copies of any dissected specimen, at any size scale and should be suitable for any teaching facility in any country, thereby avoiding some of the cultural and ethical issues associated with cadaver specimens either in an embalmed or plastinated form. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Anatomical Footprint of the Tibialis Anterior Tendon: Surgical Implications for Foot and Ankle Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Willegger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze precisely the dimensions, shapes, and variations of the insertional footprints of the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT at the medial cuneiform (MC and first metatarsal (MT1 base. Forty-one formalin-fixed human cadaveric specimens were dissected. After preparation of the TAT footprint, standardized photographs were made and the following parameters were evaluated: the footprint length, width, area of insertion, dorsoplantar location, shape, and additional tendon slips. Twenty feet (48.8% showed an equal insertion at the MC and MT1, another 20 feet (48.8% had a wide insertion at the MC and a narrow insertion at the MT1, and 1 foot (2.4% demonstrated a narrow insertion at the MC and a wide insertion at the MT1. Additional tendon slips inserting at the metatarsal shaft were found in two feet (4.8%. Regarding the dorsoplantar orientation, the footprints were located medial in 29 feet (70.7% and medioplantar in 12 feet (29.3%. The most common shape at the MT1 base was the crescent type (75.6% and the oval type at the MC (58.5%. The present study provided more detailed data on the dimensions and morphologic types of the tibialis anterior tendon footprint. The established anatomical data may allow for a safer surgical preparation and a more anatomical reconstruction.

  1. Anatomical departments in Bavaria and the corpses of executed victims of National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Thorsten

    2012-06-01

    While it is known that the bodies of executed victims of National Socialism (NS) were used for anatomical research and teaching, detailed studies are still missing for many anatomical departments. This analysis focuses on the institutes in Bavaria. From 1933 on the institutes of Munich, Würzburg and Erlangen were actively involved in and competed over the procurement of bodies of NS victims, particularly between 1937 and 1941. While the body supply was sufficient thereafter it became again critical in the first years after the war. During that period, anatomists complained about a lack of bodies for dissection courses and tended to use the corpses remaining from the NS-period for teaching purposes. Their position was supported by the popular view that resistance fighters were seen as traitors to the Fatherland and not as honorable political victims. At the same time, relatives and aid organizations were in search of the dead victims of German terror. These conflicting interests created a situation full of tension, in which Philipp Auerbach, state commissioner for religious, political and racial victims of the Nazis in Bavaria, played a crucial role. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid and accurate anatomical localization of implanted subdural electrodes in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Carlo; Huppertz, Hans-Jőrgen; Kockro, R A; Grunwald, Thomas; Bozinov, Oliver; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Bernays, René-Ludwig

    2013-05-01

    An accurate and rapid anatomical localization of implanted subdural electrodes is essential in the invasive diagnostic process for epilepsy surgery. To demonstrate our experience with a three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality simulation software (Dextroscope®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy) in the postoperative localization of subdural electrodes. Postoperative thin-slice computed tomography (CT) scans were coregistered to preoperative 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images in the Dextroscope environment in 10 patients. Single-electrode contacts were segmented and their positions in relation to specific brain anatomic structures were obtained by 3D reconstruction within the Dextroscope environment. The spatial accuracy was tested by comparing the positions of the electrode contacts as visible in the 3D reconstruction with intraoperative photographs. Image processing time was also recorded. The 3D stereoscopic reconstruction provided an accurate representation of the implanted electrodes with highly detailed visualization of the underlying anatomy. The mean absolute difference between 3D reconstruction and intraoperative photographs was 2.4 mm ± 2.2 mm. The processing time to obtain the 3D reconstructions did not exceed 15 minutes. The results indicate that the 3D virtual reality simulation software used in our series is a useful tool for rapid and precise localization of subdural electrodes implanted for invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Discovering anatomical patterns with pathological meaning by clustering of visual primitives in structural brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan; Pulido, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computational anatomy is a subdiscipline of the anatomy that studies macroscopic details of the human body structure using a set of automatic techniques. Different reference systems have been developed for brain mapping and morphometry in functional and structural studies. Several models integrate particular anatomical regions to highlight pathological patterns in structural brain MRI, a really challenging task due to the complexity, variability, and nonlinearity of the human brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a strategy that aims to find anatomical regions with pathological meaning by using a probabilistic analysis. Our method starts by extracting visual primitives from brain MRI that are partitioned into small patches and which are then softly clustered, forming different regions not necessarily connected. Each of these regions is described by a co- occurrence histogram of visual features, upon which a probabilistic semantic analysis is used to find the underlying structure of the information, i.e., separated regions by their low level similarity. The proposed approach was tested with the OASIS data set which includes 69 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 65 healthy subjects (NC).

  4. Canine intrahepatic vasculature: is a functional anatomic model relevant to the dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jon L; Mannion, Paddy; Ladlow, Jane F

    2015-01-01

    To clarify canine intrahepatic portal and hepatic venous system anatomy using corrosion casting and advanced imaging and to devise a novel functional anatomic model of the canine liver to investigate whether this could help guide the planning and surgical procedure of partial hepatic lobectomy and interventional radiological procedures. Prospective experimental study. Adult Greyhound cadavers (n = 8). Portal and hepatic vein corrosion casts of healthy livers were assessed using computed tomography (CT). The hepatic lobes have a consistent hilar hepatic and portal vein supply with some variation in the number of intrahepatic branches. For all specimens, 3 surgically resectable areas were identified in the left lateral lobe and 2 surgically resectable areas were identified in the right medial lobe as defined by a functional anatomic model. CT of detailed acrylic casts allowed complex intrahepatic vascular relationships to be investigated and compared with previous studies. Improving understanding of the intrahepatic vascular supply facilitates interpretation of advanced images in clinical patients, the planning and performance of surgical procedures, and may facilitate interventional vascular procedures, such as intravenous embolization of portosystemic shunts. Functional division of the canine liver similar to human models is possible. The left lateral and right medial lobes can be consistently divided into surgically resectable functional areas and partial lobectomies can be performed following a functional model; further study in clinically affected animals would be required to investigate the relevance of this functional model in the dog. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Anatomical study on the surgical technique used for xenotransplantation: porcine hearts into humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepe, Matthias; Martin, Juergen; Sarai, Koppany; Ihling, Christian; Sommer, Philipp; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2007-12-01

    The pig heart is an ideal graft for orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation regarding its physiological attributes and ready availability. Although single clinical attempts have been performed since the 1960s, details concerning the surgical technique of pig-to-human transplantation have never been reported. The present investigation should verify which anatomical differences between humans and pigs require special care in cardiac xenotransplantation. We transplanted four pig hearts into human thoraces after autopsy. Implantation was performed using both the biatrial (modified Shumway) and bicaval techniques. The implanted hearts were not perfused. The four-legged walk of the pig implies a more transverse heart position and therefore a different outflow-angle of the great vessels. Accordingly, the thin-walled pulmonary artery and the superior vena cava (in bicaval technique) tend to kink and narrow. A special feature of porcine anatomy is the left azygous vein that empties into the coronary sinus. It must be ligated before the implantation. Keeping the porcine anatomical particularities in mind, technical problems in pig-to-human heart transplantation can be avoided. The anastomosis of the pulmonary artery requires special care. By using the biatrial technique surgeons can prevent imminent stenoses of the caval vein anastomoses.

  6. Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A: A narrative review with clinical and anatomical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M C

    2016-07-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) is regarded as the most common hereditary peripheral neurodegenerative disorder. This narrative review highlights perspectives around the historically well-established and characteristic anatomical manifestations of CMT1A seen in the feet, legs and hands, in addition to a clinical diagnosis that may be confirmed by electrophysiology, genetic or molecular markers together with the presence of a typical family history. A less well-known perspective is the potential for systemic manifestations and wider complication. The condition is characterised by a progressive clinical picture with unmistakable anatomical and neurological features that have been described since the late 19th century. There remains no cure although supportive, rehabilitative, and surgical regimes may provide helpful management or amelioration of symptoms. Most recently, the emergence of a pleotherapeutic approach suggests distinct promise. Future research focused on a detailed elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms underpinning myelin and axonal function may eventually hold the key to successful treatment of CMT1A. Genetic modification would potentially present a cure. Clin. Anat. 29:547-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A tentative characterization of volatile compounds from Iberian Dry-Cured Ham according to different anatomical locations. A detailed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a characterization of the volatile fraction of 23 Iberian dry-cured hams by GC-iontrap- MS. Two different locations –subcutaneous fat and musclefrom the slices taken parallel to the femur from each ham were analyzed. The analyses were done by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry with a polar capillary column and after a previous extraction using the Purge and Trap method. A total of 109 volatile compounds were identified, twenty-eight of which for the first time in Iberian dry-cured ham (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2-ol, 2-decen- 1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl-cyclohexanone, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, 6-octen-2-one, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl- cyclopentanone, 3,5-octadien-2-one, 2-hydroxymethyl- 2,3,3-trimethyl-oxirane, 2-ethyl-hexyl 2-propenoate, 1-methoxypentane, 2,3-dihydrofurane, 2-D-2-pentadecyl-1,3-dioxolane, hexyl octyl eter, eucalyptol, di-(3-methyl-buthyl eter, piperidine, isopropylamine and 2-ethenyl-pyridine.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo una caracterización de la fracción volátil de 23 jamones curados de cerdo ibérico mediante GC-ion-trap-MS. Se analizaron dos zonas diferentes de las lonchas tomadas paralelas al fémur de cada jamón, Grasa subcutánea y magro. El análisis se realizó mediante cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar de alta polaridad con detección de espectrometría de masas y extracción previa de la fracción volátil mediante purga y trampa. Un total de 109 compuestos volátiles fueron identificados, veintiocho de ellos descritos por primera vez en Jamón ibérico curado (isopropanol, 4-methyl-5-decanol, 2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-etoxy-ethanol, 2-ethyl-phenol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3,5-octadien-2- ol, 2-decen-1-ol, 5-ethylcyclopent-1-enecarboxaldehyde, 2,4-heptadienal, 6-nonenal, cyclopentanone, 3-ethenyl-cyclohexanone, 2-methyl-cyclopentanone, 6-octen-2-one, 5-methyl- 2-(1-methyl-ethyl-cyclopentanone, 3,5-octadien-2-one, 2-hydroxymethyl-2,3,3-trimethyl-oxirane, 2-ethyl-hexyl 2-propenoate, 1-methoxy-pentane, 2,3-dihydrofurane, 2-D-2-pentadecyl- 1,3-dioxolane, hexyl octyl eter, eucalyptol, di-(3-methyl-buthyl eter, piperidine, isopropylamine and 2-ethenyl-pyridine.

  8. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  9. The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical properties of Ethiopian Highland Bamboo Arundinaria Alpina K. Schum. (Poaceae) ... In early maturing bamboo, fibers are relatively small in wall thickness. The results of statistical analyses revealed that bamboo portion has significant effects on all variables.

  10. Optimizing conditions for computer-assisted anatomical learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Vos, Hendrik J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment evaluated the impact of two typical features of virtual learning environments on anatomical learning for users of differing visuo-spatial ability. The two features studied are computer-implemented stereopsis (the spatial information that is based on differences in visual patterns

  11. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  12. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  13. Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. Design: Retrospective observational study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic ...

  14. A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and female reproductive organs of the white Fulani and west African short horn cattle in Ghana: a ... be due to the confounding effects of the physiological state (follicular or luteal) of the ovaries depending on the oestrus cycle of the cow at the time measurements ...

  15. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  16. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    . In tree-space, the airway tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway...

  17. Agreement between anatomic and ultrasound measurements of femoral trochlear depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Eriksen, Thomas

    and ultrasonographic measurements of trochlear depth using the red fox hind limb as a canine surrogate, dividing the trochlea into five regions from the origin of the caudal cruciate ligament to the proximal aspect of the trochlea. We found reasonable agreement between anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements...

  18. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    between the branch feature vectors representing those trees. Hereby, localized information in the branches is collectively used in classification and variations in feature values across the tree are taken into account. An approximate anatomical correspondence between matched branches can be achieved...

  19. Anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of this review is that an act will be required to address the management of human remains as well the regulation of the anatomical practices of preserving, handling and management of human remains. Human remains as used in this context includes established lifeless or dead whole human body otherwise ...

  20. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  1. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  2. Anatomical variations of the brachial plexus terminal branches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical variations are clinically significant, but many are inadequately described or quantified. Variations in anatomy of the brachial plexus are important to surgeons and anesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. It is also important for radiologists who interpret plain and ...

  3. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... Plastination technology for anatomical studies in. Nigeria: Opinion of ... Today, modern techniques used to preserve the human body for didactic purposes are built on methods that began in ... of new techniques and computer science, alternative methods of teaching anatomy have come. Dr. Gunther von ...

  4. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed with an optic microscope “Motic. 2.0” to a magnification of forty x. The observation was facilitated by a Ken-A-Vision camera connected to a computer. The software. Vision 4 allowed to take pictures and to measure the constituent of the woody plan. The following anatomical characters were measured: the number ...

  5. More about...Anatomical Pathology | Eyal | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. More about...Anatomical Pathology. P Eyal. Abstract.

  6. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  7. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  8. Assessment of Anatomical Knowledge and Core Trauma Competency Vascular Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Guinevere; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Garofalo, Evan; Shackelford, Stacy; Shalin, Valerie; Puche, Adam; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin

    2018-03-01

    Surgical residents express confidence in performing specific vascular exposures before training, but such self-reported confidence did not correlate with co-located evaluator ratings. This study reports residents' self-confidence evaluated before and after Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) cadaver-based training, and 12-18 mo later. We hypothesize that residents will better judge their own skill after ASSET than before when compared with evaluator ratings. Forty PGY2-7 surgical residents performed four procedures: axillary artery (AA), brachial artery (BA), femoral artery exposure and control (FA), and lower extremity fasciotomy (FAS) at the three evaluations. Using 5-point Likert scales, surgeons self-assessed their confidence in anatomical understanding and procedure performance after each procedure and evaluators rated each surgeon accordingly. For all the three evaluations, residents consistently rated their anatomical understanding (p < 0.04) and surgical performance (p < 0.03) higher than evaluators for both FA and FAS. Residents rated their anatomical understanding and surgical performance higher (p < 0.005) than evaluators for BA after training and up to 18 mo later. Only for third AA evaluation were there no rating differences. Residents overrate their anatomical understanding and performance abilities for BA, FA, and FAS even after performing the procedures and being debriefed three times in 18 mo.

  9. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Curr Opin Urol 2008;18:214–9. [9] Lingeman JE, Siegal YI, Steele B, Nyhus AW, Woods JR. Manage- ment of lower pole nephrolithiasis: a critical analysis. J Urol 1994;151: 663–7. [10] Sampaio FJB, Aragao AHM. Limitations of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stone: anatomic insight.

  10. Ethmomaxillary sinus: a particular anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikci, Akif; Bayram, Metin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey); Bayazit, Y.A.; Kanlikama, Muzaffer [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Kolejtepe, 27310, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    We assessed the morphological and radiological characteristics of ethmomaxillary sinus (EMS), which is an enlarged posterior ethmoidal air cell occupying the superior portion of the maxillary sinus while draining into superior meatus. This study is based on 1450 patients submitted to CT examination of the paranasal sinuses between 1998 and 2002. Sequential CT scans were obtained in the coronal plane in all the patients with 2.5- to 5-mm section thickness and were evaluated for EMS. The diagnosis of EMS was made when there was a posterior ethmoidal cell occupying the superior part of the maxillary sinus while draining to the superior meatus. When EMS was diagnosed, the morphology of the septum between the and maxillary sinus, and width of the superior meatus, were noted. The EMS was found in 10 of 1450 (0.7%) patients. The coexisting anatomic variations were concha bullosa (50%), upper concha pneumatization (20%), maxillary sinus hypoplasia (20%), uncinate bulla (10%), hypertrophied inferior concha (10%), paradoxic middle concha (10%), and septate maxillary sinus (10%). There was no relation between EMS and sinus disease. The EMS is a rare anatomic variation and does not appear to be associated with sinusitis. The EMS is not a well-studied anatomic variation, and the literature is lacking adequate information about this anatomic variation. This study performed in a large series of patients will possibly contribute to better understanding of this particular anomaly. (orig.)

  11. An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation of How Clinicians use Anatomical Knowledge in Diagnostic Reasoning: A Grounded Theory Study of Clinicians in Zambia. ... observations, self-administered questionnaires from 168 respondents (140 doctors and 28 medical students at UTH), and unstructured interviews with doctors working in hospitals.

  12. Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical site predilections of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A report on 54 cases. OW Mwanda, C Whalen, CR Scot, M Lederman, J Orem, C Banura. Abstract. No Abstract Available East African Medical Journal August (Supplement) 2004: S90-S96.

  13. Motor perception and anatomical realism in Classical Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, J R

    1998-07-01

    The rise of anatomical realism in sculpture with the Classical Greeks puzzles art historians. Recently, it has been discovered that the motor cortex perceives motor actions. I argue that Classical artists discovered a new aesthetic based on using art to stimulate not just, as previously, the visual cortex, but also the motor one.

  14. CAVEman: Standardized Anatomical Context for Biomedical Data Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L.; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Dong, Xiaoli; Shu, Xueling; Stromer, Julie N.; Hill, Jonathan W.; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors have created a software system called the CAVEman, for the visual integration and exploration of heterogeneous anatomical and biomedical data. The CAVEman can be applied for both education and research tasks. The main component of the system is a three-dimensional digital atlas of the adult male human anatomy, structured according to…

  15. Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical features of the sternum in a Kenyan population. ... Eighty one dry adult sterna were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sternal asymmetry was taken as displacement of the ... Further research is needed to correlate these findings. However, careful evaluation of chest ...

  16. Gross Anatomical Variations and Congenital Anomalies of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A wide range of Anatomical variations of surgical importance were noted among the Ugandan cadavers. In 5% of the cases, the common hepatic artery originated from the superior Mesenteric artery. The course of the cystic artery in 61.9% of the cases was anterior to the right hepatic duct, in 31% it passed anterior ...

  17. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  18. Beyond Anatomical Dolls: Professionals' Use of Other Play Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    1992-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 Boston-area professionals who work with child victims of sexual abuse. Questions concerned use of anatomical dolls and other techniques and behavioral indicators of sexual abuse. Results indicated that mental health professionals used significantly more techniques than did law enforcement professionals.…

  19. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    120 SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • December 2011. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in infertile women: diagnosis with routine hystero- salpingography prior to selective laparoscopy. M Heis, MD, FRCR, FFRRCSI, CST. Z Amarin, MD, FRCOG, FFPH. A Y Ibrahim, MD. N Obeidat, MD.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Anatomical Models from Computed Tomography Scan Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Y

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate the manufacturability of human anatomical models from Computed Tomography (CT) scan data via a 3D desktop printer which uses fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. First, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) CT scan data were converted to 3D Standard Triangle Language (STL) format by using In Vaselius digital imaging program. Once this STL file is obtained, a 3D physical version of the anatomical model can be fabricated by a desktop 3D FDM printer. As a case study, a patient's skull CT scan data was considered, and a tangible version of the skull was manufactured by a 3D FDM desktop printer. During the 3D printing process, the skull was built using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) co-polymer plastic. The printed model showed that the 3D FDM printing technology is able to fabricate anatomical models with high accuracy. As a result, the skull model can be used for preoperative surgical planning, medical training activities, implant design and simulation to show the potential of the FDM technology in medical field. It will also improve communication between medical stuff and patients. Current result indicates that a 3D desktop printer which uses FDM technology can be used to obtain accurate anatomical models.

  2. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  3. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofbauer, M.; Muller, B. [=Bart; Murawski, C. D.; van Eck, C. F.; Fu, F. H.

    2014-01-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL

  4. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    the breast cancer became visible to a radiologist. The coordinate system provides both the relative position and orientation information on the breast region from which the features are derived. In addition, the coordinate system can be used in temporal studies to pin-point anatomically equivalent locations...

  5. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...... to properly reveal the clinical value. The paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming tissue harmonic imaging....

  6. Comparison of ultrasound-guided versus anatomical landmark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Femoral vein cannulation may be required during major surgery in infants and children and may prove to be life saving under certain conditions. This study compared ultrasound (US)-guided cannulation of the femoral vein in infants with the traditional anatomical landmark-guided technique. Methods Eighty ...

  7. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also determined. The morphology and anatomical structure of the salt gland varied according to the salinity degree. At low salinities, salt gland was small, thin and flat having many shallow canals, while ...

  8. 3 Variation in Leaf Anatomical Characters.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Dry and wet season studies of the leaf anatomy of ten plant species in the family Euphorbiaceae from three sites with different pollution levels in Southwestern Nigeria were carried out. This is with a view to establish the response of plant anatomical structures to air pollution. The species investigated were Alchornea laxiflora.

  9. Conventional trans‑tibial versus anatomic medial portal technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to determine if there is any difference between the clinical outcomes of two most commonly used drilling techniques; which are conventional trans‑tibial (TT) drilling of femoral tunnel and anatomic preparation of femoral tunnel through medial portal (MP), in patients who underwent ACL reconstruction.

  10. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Gunther von Hagens developed plastination as a technique of tissue preservation in 1977. He used a delicate method of forced impregnation with curable polymers like silicone, epoxy or polyester resins for preservation of anatomical specimens. With plastination, every part of a biological tissue is treated, preserving it ...

  11. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R H; van Dijk, C Niek; Fu, Freddie H

    2016-09-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true lateral radiographs were obtained of both knees with the patient in supine position and knees in full passive extension with heels on a standardized bolster. ATS was measured on the radiographs by two independent and blinded observers. ATS was calculated as the side-to-side difference in tibial position relative to the femur. An independent t test was used to compare ATS between those undergoing anatomic reconstruction for an acute versus chronic ACL injury. Chronic ACL deficiency was defined as more than 12 weeks from injury to surgery. Patients averaged 26.4 ± 11.5 years (mean ± SD) of age, 43.6 % were female, and 48.1 % suffered an injury of the left knee. There were 30 and 22 patients in the acute and chronic groups, respectively. The median duration from injury to reconstruction for the acute group was 5 versus 31 weeks for the chronic group. After anatomic ACL reconstruction, the mean ATS was 1.0 ± 2.1 mm. There was no statistical difference in ATS between the acute and chronic groups (1.2 ± 2.0 vs. 0.6 ± 2.3 mm, n.s.). Assessment of inter-tester reliability for radiographic evaluation of ATS revealed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.894. Anatomic ACL reconstruction reduces ATS with a mean difference of 1.0 mm from the healthy contralateral limb. This study did not find a statistical difference in ATS between patients after anatomic ACL reconstruction in the acute or chronic phase. These observations suggest that anatomic ACL reconstruction, performed in either the acute or the chronic phase, approaches the normal AP relationship of the tibiofemoral joint. IV.

  12. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O'Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-01-01

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and

  13. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald

    2004-01-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in those cases

  14. Intersection syndrome: MR imaging with anatomic comparison of the distal forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose E. de; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Albertotti, Flavio; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To correlate the anatomic and MR imaging characteristics of the area of intersection of the first and the second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC) in the distal forearm in an attempt to improve the design of MR imaging protocols used for the evaluation of intersection syndrome. Ten forearms of nine cadavers underwent MR imaging in the axial and sagittal-oblique planes before and after tenography with direct injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent into the first DETC in four forearms, the second DETC in four forearms, and both compartments in the remaining two forearms. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC was identified in each case as well as its distance from Lister's tubercle. Subsequently all forearms were sectioned in the axial (8 forearms) or sagittal-oblique planes (2 remaining forearms) to parallel the imaging planes. Detailed examination of each of the anatomic slices was performed in a search for anatomic variations and for possible anatomic connections of the tendons sheaths. One forearm was dissected to identify the area of intersection. The area of intersection between the first and second DETC occurred between 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm (mean 4.18 cm) proximal to Lister's tubercle. After tenography, gadolinium solution was noted in the third DETC in two of four specimens in which the second DETC was injected and in one of two specimens in which both the first and second DETC were injected. Extension of the gadolinium solution between the first and second DETC was noted during isolated injections of either compartment, although this finding may have related to iatrogenic injection effects. The axial plane was the most valuable for assessment of the area of intersection of the first and second DETC. MR imaging is a noninvasive method that can be used for the evaluation of distal forearm and wrist pain. Standard wrist protocols do not include the area of intersection between the first and second DETC and, in

  15. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  18. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  19. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Medial Patellar Ligaments: An Anatomic and Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; Cinque, Mark E; Muckenhirn, Kyle J; Godin, Jonathan A; Ridley, Taylor J; Brady, Alex W; Arendt, Elizabeth A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    , MPML, MQTFL), as well as the identification of a bony ridge on the medial proximal tibia that consistently served as the attachment site for the MPTL. The quantitative and radiographic measurements, while comparable with current literature, detailed the meniscal insertion of the MPML and defined a patellar insertion of the MPTL and the MPML as a single attachment. The data allow for reproducible landmarks to be established from previously known bony and soft tissue structures. The findings of this study provide the anatomic foundation needed for an improved understanding of the role of medial-sided patellar restraints. This will help to further refine injury patterns and/or soft tissue deficiencies that result in lateral patellar instability, which can then be addressed with an anatomic-based reconstruction or repair technique and potentially lead to improved outcomes.

  1. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  2. Culture is in the Details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; van Thoor, Marie-Thérèse; Stroux, Sara

    2018-01-01

    During earlier stays in Japan, in 2012 and 2014, I was struck by the great attention to detail, in the scale of the buildings, the streetscape, as well as in the clothing and the presentation of food. Life seems to be an accumulation of independent details that sometimes contrast considerably with

  3. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaled, M. Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EFFECTS OF SOLCOSERYL AND LOW DOSE ASPIRIN ON UTERINE BLOOD FLOW Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles MATERNAL SERUM INHIBIN A CONCETRATION AS A PREDICTOR FOR PRE-ECLAMPISA Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. An interactive three dimensional approach to anatomical description—the jaw musculature of the Australian laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Quayle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of form-function relationships requires a detailed understanding of anatomical systems. Here we document the 3-dimensional morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal anatomy in the Australian Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae, with a focus upon the geometry and attachments of the jaw muscles in this species. The head of a deceased specimen was CT scanned, and an accurate 3D representation of the skull and jaw muscles was generated through manual segmentation of the CT scan images, and augmented by dissection of the specimen. We identified 14 major jaw muscles: 6 in the temporal group (M. adductor mandibulae and M. pseudotemporalis, 7 in the pterygoid group (M. pterygoideus dorsalis and M. pterygoideus ventralis, and the single jaw abductor M. depressor mandibulae. Previous descriptions of avian jaw musculature are hindered by limited visual representation and inconsistency in the nomenclature. To address these issues, we: (1 present the 3D model produced from the segmentation process as a digital, fully interactive model in the form of an embedded 3D image, which can be viewed from any angle, and within which major components can be set as opaque, transparent, or hidden, allowing the anatomy to be visualised as required to provide a detailed understanding of the jaw anatomy; (2 provide a summary of the nomenclature used throughout the avian jaw muscle literature. The approach presented here provides considerable advantages for the documentation and communication of detailed anatomical structures in a wide range of taxa.

  5. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incumbent should have passed Diploma in Secretarial Practice or Bachelors of Commerce with at least 50% marks. Should be proficient in typing, shorthand and MS office. Age: Not more than. 25 years as on 1 April 2017. Preference will be given to male candidates. Experience: 2 years experience in the administrative ...

  6. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    meetings, maintenance of records, inter-departmental coordination etc. Stipend during the first year will be Rs 15,000/- per month. Application on a plain paper along with the CV, self-attested copy of experience, proof of age and other pertinent documents should be sent by email to execsec@ias.ac.in with the subject line.

  7. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Duties also include coordination and liaison with Chief Editors and other members of Editorial. Board and ensure smooth work flow and undertake activities of processing and production of journals. Educational Qualification: Master's/Bachelor's degree in science from a recognized university. Age limit: Candidate should not ...

  8. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science.

  9. Restoration of anatomical continuity after spinal cord transection depends on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wehner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains descriptive and experimental data on spinal cord regeneration in larval zebrafish and its dependence on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Analyzing spread of intraspinally injected fluorescent dextran showed that anatomical continuity is rapidly restored after complete spinal cord transection. Pharmacological interference with Wnt/β-catenin signaling (IWR-1 impaired restoration of spinal continuity. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the research article by Wehner et al. Wnt signaling controls pro-regenerative Collagen XII in functional spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish (Wehner et al., 2017 [1]. Keywords: Wnt, Beta-catenin, Regeneration, Spinal cord, Zebrafish

  10. Coronoid process of the ulna: paleopathologic and anatomic study with imaging correlation. Emphasis on the anteromedial ''facet''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Valle de Lemos Weber, Marcio; Barbosa, Diogo Miranda; Belentani, Clarissa; Negrao Ramos, Pedro Miguel; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the coronoid process of the ulna and to use magnetic resonance (MR) images and anatomic correlation with cadavers to show the macroscopic configuration of this structure. Photography and high-resolution radiography were performed in 26 ulna specimens from the collection of a local museum. MR imaging of the coronoid process of 11 cadaveric elbows was performed. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. The anteromedial rim of the coronoid process of the ulna had a regular surface, without osseous irregularities or facets in 69.2% of the specimens. In 30.8% of the specimens, the anteromedial rim was not regular and a small ridge could be identified. The insertion site of the joint capsule was onto the anterior aspect of the coronoid process, at an average distance of 5.9 mm distal to the tip. The attachment of the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament at the sublime tubercle was flush with the articular margin in 63.6% of the specimens. In 36.4% of the specimens, a more distal attachment, with a separation between the undersurface of the ligament and the adjacent tubercle, was seen. The brachialis tendon was attached to the coronoid process at a mean distance of 12.1 mm distal to the tip. The coronoid process of the ulna is a small osseous structure with a complex anatomy and presents some anatomical variations. (orig.)

  11. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p obese (p obese (p obesity and gender. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan; Lo, Pechin; Thomsen, Laura H; Wille, Mathilde M W; Dirksen, Asger; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for labeling anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given tree are evaluated based on distances to a training set of labeled trees. In tree-space, the tree topology and geometry change continuously, giving a natural way to automatically handle anatomical differences and noise. The algorithm is made efficient using a hierarchical approach, in which labels are assigned from the top down. We only use features of the airway centerline tree, which are relatively unaffected by pathology. A thorough leave-one-patient-out evaluation of the algorithm is made on 40 segmented airway trees from 20 subjects labeled by 2 medical experts. We evaluate accuracy, reproducibility and robustness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Performance is statistically similar to the inter- and intra-expert agreement, and we found no significant correlation between COPD stage and labeling accuracy.

  13. The current and ideal state of anatomic pathology patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen Spencer

    2014-01-01

    An anatomic pathology diagnostic error may be secondary to a number of active and latent technical and/or cognitive components, which may occur anywhere along the total testing process in clinical and/or laboratory domains. For the pathologist interpretive steps of diagnosis, we examine Kahneman's framework of slow and fast thinking to explain different causes of error in precision (agreement) and in accuracy (truth). The pathologist cognitive diagnostic process involves image pattern recognition and a slow thinking error may be caused by the application of different rationally-constructed mental maps of image criteria/patterns by different pathologists. This type of error is partly related to a system failure in standardizing the application of these maps. A fast thinking error involves the flawed leap from image pattern to incorrect diagnosis. In the ideal state, anatomic pathology systems would target these cognitive error causes as well as the technical latent factors that lead to error.

  14. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  15. Elimination of the apposition in Latin anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Paul E

    2017-03-01

    The anatomical nomenclature rules require that terms be as short and simple as possible. One common exception to that rule is Latin terms that contain two nouns in nominative case, for example, Musculus masseter and Os ischium. Although these may appear to speakers of other languages to be compound nouns, they are appositions, grammatical structures in which one noun renames, defines or describes the entity named by the other noun. More than 125 terms in Terminologia Anatomica can be simplified, without loss of clarity, by prohibiting use of more than one noun in nominative case in Latin anatomical terms (e.g., Masseter and Os ischii). Clin. Anat. 30:156-158, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Thore M; Hill, Emma R; Robertson, James L; Maneas, Efthymios; Plumb, Andrew A; Nikitichev, Daniil I

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D) printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT)) to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  17. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses: what to inform the otolaryngologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval; Ramos, Laura Filgueiras Mourao; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses are common findings in daily practice. For a radiologist, to know these variations is necessary because of the pathological conditions related to them, and also because they are import for planning a functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, the procedure of choice for diagnosis, biopsy and treatment of various sinonasal diseases. To assure that this surgery is done safely, preventing iatrogenic injuries, it is essential that the surgeon has the mapping of these structures. Thus, a CT is indispensable for preoperative evaluation of paranasal sinuses. Since a general radiologist is expected to know these changes and their relationship to pathological conditions, a literature review and a iconographic essay were conducted with the aim of discussing the importance of major anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses. (author)

  18. The anatomic approach to primary, revision and augmentation anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Schreiber, Verena M.; Liu, T. Thomas; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomic approach is gaining popularity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It is predominantly applied during primary ACL reconstruction. However, following the same principles as during primary surgery, the anatomic approach can also be applied during revision and augmentation

  19. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  20. Computational investigation of nonlinear microwave tomography on anatomically realistic breast phantoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P. D.; Rubæk, Tonny; Mohr, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a nonlinear microwave tomography algorithm is tested using simulated data from anatomically realistic breast phantoms. These tests include several different anatomically correct breast models from the University of Wisconsin-Madison repository with and without tumors inserted....

  1. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu Jen; Hung, Kun-Long; Yang, Jui-Neng; Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chin, Chih-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI); the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic t...

  2. Anatomical description of the sinus in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate L., Rosse; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Díaz C., Diego; Laboratorio de Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe the macroscopic anatomy of the sinus in the alpaca. Ten skulls of adult alpacas were prepared by the maceration technique, and the description through longitudinal cuts was done using terminology recommended by the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. In addition, X-rays with contrast medium were taken to four adult alpacas to determine the relationships of sinus with other anatomical structures. Results showed that the frontal and maxillary sinus w...

  3. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Pepele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our clinic between June 2009 and March 2010, performed the anatomic double bundle ACLR with autogenous hamstring grafts 20 patients were evaluated prospectively with Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scores and in clinically for muscle strength and with Cybex II dynamometer. Results: The mean follow-up is 17.8 months (13-21 months. Patients%u2019 scores of Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm were respectively, preoperative 18.1, 39.3 and 39.8, while the post-op increased to 27.2, 76.3 and 86.3. In their last check, 17 percent of the patients according to IKDC scores (85% A (excellent and B (good group and 3 patients took place as C (adequate group. The power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups of patients who underwent surgery showed no significant difference compared with the intact knees. Discussion: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction is a satisfactory method. There is a need comparative, long-term studies in large numbers in order to determine improving clinical outcome, preventing degeneration and restoring the knee biomechanics better.

  4. Anatomía genital en los Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Viñolas Saborit, Amador

    2001-01-01

    Con el presente trabajo se inicia el estudio de la anatomía genital, tanto masculina como femenina, de los Tenebrionidae. Se explica la metodología de extracción y preparación microscópica, así como los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento en los géneros estudiados, todos ellos presentes en la Península Ibérica.

  5. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  6. Age prediction on the basis of brain anatomical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, S A; Hänggi, J; Mérillat, S; Jäncke, L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether age can be predicted on the basis of different anatomical features obtained from a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 3,144). From this sample we obtained different anatomical feature sets: (1) 11 larger brain regions (including cortical volume, thickness, area, subcortical volume, cerebellar volume, etc.), (2) 148 cortical compartmental thickness measures, (3) 148 cortical compartmental area measures, (4) 148 cortical compartmental volume measures, and (5) a combination of the above-mentioned measures. With these anatomical feature sets, we predicted age using 6 statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, ridge regression, neural network, k-nearest neighbourhood, support vector machine, and random forest). We obtained very good age prediction accuracies, with the highest accuracy being R 2  = 0.84 (prediction on the basis of a neural network and support vector machine approaches for the entire data set) and the lowest being R 2  = 0.40 (prediction on the basis of a k-nearest neighborhood for cortical surface measures). Interestingly, the easy-to-calculate multiple linear regression approach with the 11 large brain compartments resulted in a very good prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.73), whereas the application of the neural network approach for this data set revealed very good age prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.83). Taken together, these results demonstrate that age can be predicted well on the basis of anatomical measures. The neural network approach turned out to be the approach with the best results. In addition, it was evident that good prediction accuracies can be achieved using a small but nevertheless age-representative dataset of brain features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:997-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Learning-based stochastic object models for characterizing anatomical variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Steven R.; Lou, Yang; Anastasio, Mark A.; Li, Hua

    2018-03-01

    It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs. This may introduce phantom-specific bias into computer-simulation studies, where the study result is heavily dependent on which phantom is used. In certain applications, however, databases of high-quality volumetric images and organ contours are available that can facilitate this SOM development. In this work, a novel and tractable methodology for learning a SOM and generating numerical phantoms from a set of volumetric training images is developed. The proposed methodology learns geometric attribute distributions (GAD) of human anatomic organs from a broad patient population, which characterize both centroid relationships between neighboring organs and anatomic shape similarity of individual organs among patients. By randomly sampling the learned centroid and shape GADs with the constraints of the respective principal attribute variations learned from the training data, an ensemble of stochastic objects can be created. The randomness in organ shape and position reflects the learned variability of human anatomy. To demonstrate the methodology, a SOM of an adult male pelvis is computed and examples of corresponding numerical phantoms are created.

  8. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the

  9. Methodological Details and Full Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset has several components, The first part describes fully our literature review, providing details not included in the text. The second part provides all...

  10. Systematic significance of anatomical characterization in some euphorbiaceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy. While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus-characteristic. The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored. Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels. (author)

  11. A VRML-based anatomical visualization tool for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, P A; Funnell, W R

    1998-06-01

    The advent of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a portable file format for describing three-dimensional (3-D) scenes has enabled researchers, educators, and students to share anatomical models on the World Wide Web (WWW). The implication for medical teaching is that students can interactively examine anatomical structures and their 3-D spatial relationships by using current personal computer (PC) technology. This paper describes the creation of 3-D anatomical models that are accessible on the WWW, using high-resolution middle-ear data as an example. The 3-D models are created by interactive segmentation of the source images (histological and MRI sections) and 3-D surface reconstruction. The resulting models are translated into VRML format. Section images can be superimposed on the model, allowing students to view a section in its 3-D context. To enhance the viewing of these scenes, a VRML browser was modified to support transparent rendering of surfaces. Finally, a WWW interface was designed to allow users to choose the model structures, section images, and associated viewing parameters to build their own 3-D scenes.

  12. Anatomic measures of upper airway structures in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Barrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determine if anatomic dimensions of airway structures are associated with airway obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with (n = 14 and without (n = 14 OSA as determined by clinical symptoms and sleep studies; volunteer sample. Skeletal and soft tissue dimensions were measured from radiocephalometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The soft palate thickness, mandibular plane-hyoid (MP-H distance, posterior airway space (PAS diameters and area, and tongue volume were calculated. Results: Compared to controls, the OSA group demonstrated a significantly longer MP-H distance (P = 0.009 and shorter nasal PAS diameter (P = 0.02. The PAS area was smaller (P = 0.002 and tongue volume larger in the OSA group (P = 0.004. The MP-H distance, PAS measurements, and tongue volume are of clinical relevance in OSA patients. Conclusions: A long MP-H distance, and small PAS diameters and area are significant anatomic measures in OSA; however the most substantial parameter found was a large tongue volume. Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Anatomy, Anatomic measurement, Posterior airway space, Tongue volume, Hyoid position

  13. An anatomically realistic temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, Nadine N.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An anthropomorphic phantom with realistic electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the un-perfused case. We describe an anatomically realistic human head phantom that allows rapid 3D temperature mapping at 7 T. Methods The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA−) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Results Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2–4 minutes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically realistic phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. PMID:24549755

  14. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Detail-preserving construction of neonatal brain atlases in space-frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Shi, Feng; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    Brain atlases are commonly utilized in neuroimaging studies. However, most brain atlases are fuzzy and lack structural details, especially in the cortical regions. This is mainly caused by the image averaging process involved in atlas construction, which often smoothes out high-frequency contents that capture fine anatomical details. Brain atlas construction for neonatal images is even more challenging due to insufficient spatial resolution and low tissue contrast. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for detail-preserving construction of population-representative atlases. Our approach combines spatial and frequency information to better preserve image details. This is achieved by performing atlas construction in the space-frequency domain given by wavelet transform. In particular, sparse patch-based atlas construction is performed in all frequency subbands, and the results are combined to give a final atlas. For enhancing anatomical details, tissue probability maps are also used to guide atlas construction. Experimental results show that our approach can produce atlases with greater structural details than existing atlases. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2133-2150, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-04-18

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  18. The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: A Retrospective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa A.; Lawson, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational…

  19. Frequency in Usage of FCAT-Approved Anatomical Terms by North American Anatomists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bradford D.; Thorpe, Donna; Barnes, Richard; DeLeon, Michael; Hill, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    It has been 10 years since the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) published Terminologia Anatomica (TA), the current authority on anatomical nomenclature. There exists a perceived lack of unity among anatomists to adopt many FCAT recommended anatomical terms in TA. An e-mail survey was sent to members of the American Association…

  20. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage