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Sample records for anaplasmosis

  1. Anaplasmosis bovina

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    Belkis Corona, Majela Rodríguez y Siomara Martínez.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale es una rickettsia del genogrupo II de las Ehrlichias, que parasita los eritrocitos maduros del ganado bovino y causa severas pérdidas económicas fundamentalmente en las zonas tropicales y subtropicales (Palmer y col., 1999. Este microorganismo presenta múltiple variabilidad antigénica, de morfología, virulencia, transmisibilidad por garrapatas y habilidad para inducir protección cruzada contra aislamientos heterólogos (Palmer y McElwain, 1995. Se han caracterizado seis proteínas de superficie de membrana de los cuerpos iniciales de este organismo, portadoras de epitopes B y T, denominadas proteínas mayoritarias de superficie (MSPs y designadas 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 4 y 5. Estas proteínas son reconocidas por anticuerpos neutralizantes y se encuentran en una estrecha relación intermolecular en la superficie de la membrana de los cuerpos iniciales. Algunas de estas proteínas inducen una protección total o parcial en animales vacunados, aunque el nivel y la uniformidad de la misma, es variable (Palmer y McElwain, 1995. A pesar de las cuantiosas pérdidas económicas producidas todos los años, a nivel mundial hasta el momento no se cuenta con un método de control eficaz contra la enfermedad, por lo que resulta de gran importancia desarrollar una vacuna capaz de prevenir la infección con este patógeno y contar con técnicas de diagnóstico más sensibles y específicas que permitan la detección de animales portadores para ser utilizadas en estudios epizootiológicos y para el control de la enfermedad (Echaide y col., 1998. Por lo que a partir de estas premisas nos proponemos como objetivo realizar una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica acerca de la anaplasmosis bovina y su agente causal, Anaplasma marginale.

  2. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  3. Anaplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nature of the symptoms. Most experience headaches, fever, chills, myalgia, and malaise that can be confused with ... week of a tick bite, and often includes fever, severe headaches, malaise, muscle pains, and chills. Other symptoms may include confusion, hemorrhages, and renal ...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrade, D D; Foley, J E; Borjesson, D L; Sykes, J E

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, horses, and dogs worldwide that is transmitted by Ixodid ticks and maintained in a variety of small wild mammal species. Recent studies suggest that multiple strains of A. phagocytophilum may be circulating in wild and domestic animal populations, and these strains may have differential host tropisms and pathogenicity. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils by disabling key neutrophil functions, including neutrophil motility, phagocytosis, the oxidative burst mechanism, and neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions, as well as interfering with neutrophil apoptosis. Coinfections with other tick-borne pathogens may occur, especially Borrelia burgdorferi. A. phagocytophilum causes an acute febrile illness in dogs with lethargy and inappetence. Less frequent signs include lameness, coughing, polydipsia, intermittent vomiting, and hemorrhages. Diagnosis is based on finding morulae within granulocytes in the peripheral blood, the combination of acute and convalescent serology using immunofluorescent antibody techniques, and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Whether persistent infection or reinfection with A. phagocytophilum occurs after natural infection requires additional study, with most reports suggesting that anaplasmosis is a self-limiting disease in dogs that responds well to a 2-week course of doxycycline therapy.

  8. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  9. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  10. Epidemiology and control of human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongtao; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan; Qian, Jun

    2012-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis worldwide. The obligate intracellular pathogen is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and infects neutrophils in humans and animals, resulting in clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic seroconversion to mild, severe, or fatal disease. Since the initial description of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the United States in 1990, HGA has been increasingly recognized in America, Europe, and Asia. This review describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of HGA and provides background information on the potential vectors and reservoirs of A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22217177

  11. Human anaplasmosis: the first Spanish case confirmed by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J C; Núñez, M J; Castro, B; Fraile, F J; López, A; Mella, M C; Blanco, A; Sieira, C; Loureiro, E; Portillo, A; Oteo, J A

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of human anaplasmosis (HA) fulfilling the confirmation criteria: epidemiologic data and clinical picture compatible with HA; presence of a morulae within polymorphonuclear leukocyte; and positive PCR assay for Anaplasma phagocytophilum: This case report shows the presence of HA in Spain. PMID:17114773

  12. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis: First Reported Case in Canada

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    Michael D Parkins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of peripheral blood neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. While this infection is increasingly recognized as endemic throughout much of the United States, no Canadian cases have been previously described, despite the agent being identified in Canadian ticks. Herein we present a case of HGA acquired in an urban Alberta centre. Canadian physicians must be aware of the possibility of tick-borne rickettsial diseases as etiology of fever in individuals presenting with leukopenia/lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases during periods of tick activity. Prompt recognition and treatment are important in minimizing resultant morbidity and mortality.

  13. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis: First reported case in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Church, Deirdre L; Jiang, Xiu Yan; Gregson, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial infection of peripheral blood neutrophils caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. While this infection is increasingly recognized as endemic throughout much of the United States, no Canadian cases have been previously described, despite the agent being identified in Canadian ticks. Herein we present a case of HGA acquired in an urban Alberta centre. Canadian physicians must be aware of the possibility of tick-borne rickettsial diseases as etiology of fever in individuals presenting with leukopenia/lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminases during periods of tick activity. Prompt recognition and treatment are important in minimizing resultant morbidity and mortality.

  14. Bayesian Space-Time Patterns and Climatic Determinants of Bovine Anaplasmosis.

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    Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Raghavan, Ram K; Ganta, Roman R; Anderson, Gary A

    2016-01-01

    The space-time pattern and environmental drivers (land cover, climate) of bovine anaplasmosis in the Midwestern state of Kansas was retrospectively evaluated using Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal models and publicly available, remotely-sensed environmental covariate information. Cases of bovine anaplasmosis positively diagnosed at Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (n = 478) between years 2005-2013 were used to construct the models, which included random effects for space, time and space-time interaction effects with defined priors, and fixed-effect covariates selected a priori using an univariate screening procedure. The Bayesian posterior median and 95% credible intervals for the space-time interaction term in the best-fitting covariate model indicated a steady progression of bovine anaplasmosis over time and geographic area in the state. Posterior median estimates and 95% credible intervals derived for covariates in the final covariate model indicated land surface temperature (minimum), relative humidity and diurnal temperature range to be important risk factors for bovine anaplasmosis in the study. The model performance measured using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) value indicated a good performance for the covariate model (> 0.7). The relevance of climatological factors for bovine anaplasmosis is discussed. PMID:27003596

  15. Development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a combined effort of FONAIAP, through the Technological Development Program (PRODETEC I), the University of Illinois (Agreement FONAIAP - ILLINOIS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the part of the Nuclear Investigations Applied to Agriculture Center (CINAGRI), in the Department of Parasitology II V, during the lapse 1982-1990 it was carried out a project whose main objective was the development and evaluation of immuno prophylactics for the control of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. The results were: (1) In babesiosis, a bivalent vaccine B.Bigemina / B.Bovis, in vitro culture origin ed, which was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions, showing an efficient protection in bovine vaccinated and exposed to the Babesia infection, either experimental or natural. 2) In anaplasmosis, a vaccine inactivated of initial bodies of Ana plasma marginal e, was developed. It was obtained in infected erythrocytes and purified by ultrasonics and differential centrifugation, which showed protective capacity in bovine susceptible of exposure, or parasitic challenge under controlled or field conditions. The obtained vaccines constitute an efficient method, practical and simple, with smaller risk and inferior cost, for protection of bovine against these hemo parasitic diseases illnesses that cause considerable economic lost in the national cattle

  16. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 14 equine granulocytic anaplasmosis cases

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    Pfister Kurt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (EGA is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-transmitted, obligate intracellular bacterium. In Europe, it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus. A large number of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum circulate in nature and have been found in ticks and different animals. Attempts have been made to assign certain genetic variants to certain host species or pathologies, but have not been successful so far. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causing agent A. phagocytophilum of 14 cases of EGA in naturally infected horses with molecular methods on the basis of 4 partial genes (16S rRNA, groEL, msp2, and msp4. Results All DNA extracts of EDTA-blood samples of the horses gave bands of the correct nucleotide size in all four genotyping PCRs. Sequence analysis revealed 4 different variants in the partial 16S rRNA, groEL gene and msp2 genes, and 3 in the msp4 gene. One 16S rRNA gene variant involved in 11 of the 14 cases was identical to the "prototype" variant causing disease in humans in the amplified part [GenBank: U02521]. Phylogenetic analysis revealed as expected for the groEL gene that sequences from horses clustered separately from roe deer. Sequences of the partial msp2 gene from this study formed a separate cluster from ruminant variants in Europe and from all US variants. Conclusions The results show that more than one variant of A. phagocytophilum seems to be involved in EGA in Germany. The comparative genetic analysis of the variants involved points towards different natural cycles in the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum, possibly involving different reservoir hosts or host adaptation, rather than a strict species separation.

  17. Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).

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    Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V

    2013-12-01

    Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985

  18. An Assessment of Whole Blood and Fractions by Nested PCR as a DNA Source for Diagnosing Canine Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis

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    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infect mainly white cells and platelets, respectively. The main DNA source for PCR is peripheral blood, but the potential of blood cell fractions has not been extensively investigated. This study aims at assessment of whole blood (WB and blood fractions potential in nested PCR (nPCR to diagnose canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified in 71.4, 17.8, 31.57, and 30% of the WB, granulocyte (G, mononuclear cells (M, and buffy coat (BC samples. Compared to the WB, the sensitivity of the PCR was 42.86% for the M, and BC fractions, 21.43% for the G, and 33.33% for the blood clot (C. There was fair agreement between the WB and M, BC and C, and slight with the G. Fair agreement occurred between the nPCR and morulae in the blood smear. One animal was coinfected with A. platys and E. canis. This study provided the first evidence of A. platys infection in dogs in Paraíba, Brazil, and demonstrated that WB is a better DNA source than blood fractions to detect Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by nPCR, probably because of the plasma bacterial concentration following host cell lysis.

  19. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Austria: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings in five consecutive patients from Tyrol, Austria.

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    Walder, Gernot; Fuchs, Dietmar; Sarcletti, Mario; Berek, Klaus; Falkensammer, Barbara; Huber, Klaus; Petrovec, Miro; Dierich, Manfred P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    We report five consecutive cases of Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum infection (the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)) from western Austria. All infections were acquired between June and August in 2003 and 2004 in the Inn valley (Tyrol, Austria). Four patients required hospitalisation, one patient was treated as an outpatient. During the acute stage of illness, laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia (5/5), elevated C-reactive protein (5/5), elevated neopterin (5/5), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (4/5), and elevation of liver enzymes (4/5). Leukopenia (3/5) and elevated procalcitonin (2/5) were less frequently observed. All patients were treated with tetracyclines, which led to prompt improvement of the clinical conditions. Anti-platelet antibodies were observed in one of four patients, but remained unchanged after complete covalescence.

  20. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Schotthoefer, A. M.; Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; Zhang, K.; Weiler, T.; Uphoff, T S; Fritsche, T R

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with ...

  1. Prevalence of canine monocitic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis in dogs suspected of hemoparasitosis in Cuiabá Mato Grosso

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    Rute Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis and Canine Thrombocytic Anaplasmosis in 77 dogs treated at the Veterinary Hospital (HOVET of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in 2009. An association among clinical and hematological, serological and molecular data was investigated. Dogs were evaluated by partial amplification of dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys and by Indirect Fluorescence Antigen Test (IFAT for E. canis. DNA of E. canis and A. platys were detected in 18 (23.3% and 07 (9.1% dogs respectively. Fifty four (70.1% dogs were positive by IFAT with titers ranging from 40 to 327,680. There were higher frequencies of E. canis positive PCR in dogs less than 12 months old, with anemia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia (P?0.05. Leukopenic dogs presented tendency to be A. platys PCR positive (P=0.07. Thrombocytopenia and hyperproteinemia of dogs were associated with high anti-E. canis antibody titers (P?0.05. Lymphadenopathy and pulmonary changes were observed in 15 (30.6% and 4 (57.1% E. canis PCR positive dogs (P?0.05. No other clinical features were associated between E. canis and A. platys infected dogs. E. canis was the only specie of Ehrlichia detected in dogs attended at the HOVET with a higher infection rate in young dogs, and statistically associated with anemic and thrombocytopenic dogs. On the other side, A. platys presented low occurrence among evaluated dogs.

  2. 人粒细胞无形体病预防控制技术指南(试行)%Guideline of human granulocytic anaplasmosis prevention and control technique (draft)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华人民共和国卫生部办公厅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 人粒细胞无形体病(human granulocytic anaplasmosis,HGA)是由嗜吞噬细胞无形体(anaplasma phagocytophilum,曾称为"人粒细胞埃立克体,human granulocytic ehrlichiae")侵染人末梢血中性粒细胞引起,以发热伴白细胞、血小板减少和多脏器功能损害为主要临床表现的蜱传疾病.

  3. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

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    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  4. The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Shapiro, Eugene D; Halperin, John J; Steere, Allen C; Klempner, Mark S; Krause, Peter J; Bakken, Johan S; Strle, Franc; Stanek, Gerold; Bockenstedt, Linda; Fish, Durland; Dumler, J Stephen; Nadelman, Robert B

    2006-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), and babesiosis were prepared by an expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous treatment guidelines published in 2000 (Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31[Suppl 1]:1-14). The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them. For each of these Ixodes tickborne infections, information is provided about prevention, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Tables list the doses and durations of antimicrobial therapy recommended for treatment and prevention of Lyme disease and provide a partial list of therapies to be avoided. A definition of post-Lyme disease syndrome is proposed.

  5. Influence of dipping practices on the seroprevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone adjoining the Kruger National Park in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K B; Spickett, A M; Vosloo, W; Pfeiffer, D U; Dyason, E; Du Plessis, B

    2007-06-01

    A serological survey of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis was conducted in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone surrounding the Kruger National Park in South Africa between 2001 and 2003 to determine whether the withdrawal of government-subsidized dipping in certain regions had affected the seroprevalence of these tick-borne diseases. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis increased during the study period. This increase was greater in Limpopo Province where farmers had to supply their own acaricide than in Mpumalanga Province where dipping materials were provided by the local Veterinary Services. The number of animals testing positive for B. bigemina decreased in both provinces during the study period, which was attributed to possible vector displacement rather than more effective tick control measures. Responses to a questionnaire on ticks and tick-borne diseases revealed local knowledge on the subject to be highly variable and sometimes incorrect.

  6. Influence of dipping practices on the seroprevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone adjoining the Kruger National Park in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Stevens

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis was conducted in the foot-and-mouth disease buffer zone surrounding the Kruger National Park in South Africa between 2001 and 2003 to determine whether the withdrawal of government-subsidized dipping in certain regions had affected the seroprevalence of these tick-borne diseases. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis increased during the study period. This increase was greater in Limpopo Province where farmers had to supply their own acaricide than in Mpumalanga Province where dipping materials were provided by the local Veterinary Services. The number of animals testing positive for B. bigemina decreased in both provinces during the study period, which was attributed to possible vector displacement rather than more effective tick control measures. Responses to a questionnaire on ticks and tick-borne diseases revealed local knowledge on the subject to be highly variable and sometimes incorrect.

  7. Outbreak of anaplasmosis associated with the presence of different Anaplasma marginale strains in dairy cattle in the states of São Paulo and Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; André, Marcos Rogério; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Matos, Carlos Antonio; Obregón, Dasiel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale during anaplasmosis outbreaks in rural properties of the states of Goiás and São Paulo, Brazil. Mortality rates of 3.5% (37/1,050) in calves, 4.7% (45/954) in heifers and 1.1% (25/2,200) in lactating cows were observed in a cattle herd of the municipality of Mambaí, state of Goiás, central-western Brazil. In a cattle herd from the municipality of Lins, state of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, none of the animals died, despite presenting clinical signs suggestive of bovine anaplasmosis and exhibiting a drastic decrease in milk production. Thus, blood samples were collected from 100 animals with clinical signs suggestive of bovine anaplasmosis in the municipalities of Mambaí and Lins. Based on the microsatellite structure of the MSP1a of A. marginale, the genotypes E and H were observed in Lins, and the C, D and E genotypes were found in Mambaí. The analysis of the tandem repeat structures of the MSP1a showed nine different strains (τ-10 -15, α-β2, α-β3-13, α-β2 192, τ-β-100, α-β2-Γ, 193-β-100, 191-13-Γ and 191-13-18) in Lins and two (α-β3-Γ and E-F-φ2-F2) in Mambaí. Three new tandem repeats of MSP1a (191, 192 and 193) were described. The τ-10-15 and α-β3-Γ strains were predominantly associated with the occurrence of clinical anaplasmosis and mortality in calves, heifers and lactating cows. PMID:26648009

  8. Prevalence and first molecular characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs from Egypt

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    Mohamed W. Ghafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene integrated with sequence analysis were performed to investigate the prevalence and the molecular identity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Egyptian Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks attached to dogs. A total of 413 adult and nymphal R. sanguineus ticks were collected while attached to 72 free-roaming dogs from four locations (Imbaba, Boulaq, Haram, Monib in Giza Governorate, Egypt. DNA was successfully extracted from 401 specimens (133 nymphs and 268 adults. The overall prevalence rate was 13.7% and adult ticks showed a significantly higher infection rate (16.4% compared to nymphs (8.3%. Sequence comparisons of 218-bp showed that detected organism belongs to A. phagocytophilum. The sequence showed 99.1% similarity (2 nucleotide differences with some strains described as human pathogens and with that detected in the established tick vectors. Phylogenetic analysis placed the bacteria on a separate branch with that found in R. annulatus from Egypt (DQ379972 (99.5% similarity. Our variant strain was designated as A. phagocytophilum-Ghafar-EGY (AB608266. This report is the first molecular characterization of A. phagocytophilum in R. sanguineus in Egypt, suggesting that this tick species may act as a competent vector for a variant strain of human granulocytic anaplasmosis agent.

  9. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  10. Seroprevalence of canine dirofilariosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis of public health importance in dogs from India’s North East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Borthakur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vector-borne infections namely dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis are being recognized as emerging and/or re-emerging problems in dogs and man due to rapid extension of zoogeographical ranges of many causative agents through international tourism and increase mobility of dogs at national and international level towards meeting the demand for companion animals in the present day society. Anticipating such situation, a serological study was conducted in dogs from North East India to estimate the prevalence of zoonotically important Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi along with Ehrlichia canis. Materials and Methods: Serological study was carried out using enzyme immunoassay in commercial SNAP 4DX® test kit (Idexx Laboratories, USA. The study was conducted in 191 dogs comprising 82 pets, 57 stray and 52 working dogs owned by defence organizations. Results: The study revealed seroprevalence of mosquito-borne D. immitis (17.80%, tick-borne E. canis (22.51% and A. phagocytophilum (4.71% with an overall 41.88% prevalence of pathogens in single or co-infection. Serological evidence of tick-borne lyme borreliosis due to B. burgdorferi could not be established in dogs in the present study. Of the zoonotic species, highest prevalence of D. immitis was found in the stray dogs (22.80% and that of A. phagocytophilum in pet dogs (6.09%. Conclusion: The results of the present serological study serve as baseline information on the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reported for the first time in India and reaffirmation on the high prevalence of D. immitis and E. canis in the North East India.

  11. Epidemiologia e controle da tristeza parasitária bovina na região sudeste do Brasil Epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Macêdo Gonçalves

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A babesiose bovina e a anaplasmose (Tristeza Parasitária Bovina são enfermidades transmitidas pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus e por moscas hematófagas, respectivamente, ocorrendo em caráter endêmico no Brasil, acarretando elevadas perdas econômicas na pecuária. Nesse país, observa-se uma grande variedade de fatores epidemiológicos influenciando sua ocorrência, tais como: variação climática, práticas de manejo, controle de carrapato e introdução de bovinos susceptíveis. Assim, esta revisão aborda aspectos epidemiológicos do controle da anaplasmose e da babesiose bovina do Brasil, com ênfase na região sudeste. Fatores que influenciam a instabilidade e a estabilidade enzoótica de ambas as espécies também são discutidos. As medidas de controle empregadas atualmente são: quimioprofilaxia, o uso de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato vetor B. microplus, a premunição e a vacinação.Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are diseases transmitted by Boophilus microplus and haematophagous diptera, respectively, occurring in endemic character in Brazil, resulting in high economic loss on livestock production. In this country a wide range of epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence, such as climate variations, husbandry practices, tick control and susceptible purebreed cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks have been described. This review focuses the epidemiological control and some aspects of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Brazil, with emphasis in southeast region. Factors influencing enzootic stability and instability of both species are also discussed. The control measures employed at present are chemoprophylaxis, use of acaricides for B. microplus, premunition and vaccination.

  12. Human Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Stephen Dumler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A description of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma agents that have been linked to human disease is presented. A particular emphasis is given to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis. The clinical features associated with each agent, as well as the corresponding diagnosis and treatment are also described.

  13. 中国10个省级疾病预防控制中心无形体检测实验室质量控制分析%Evaluation on external qualitv control assessment for laboratory diagnosis of Anaplasmosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 吴建英; 岳永杰; 张铮; 李文涓; 邓红; 夏依旦; 禹惠兰; 王誓闻; 汪鹏; 姜霞; 钱振宇; 刘桂艳; 雷露; 刘学升; 雷霞; 南晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results of the external quality assessment (EQA) on the laboratory diagnosis of Anaplasmosis and differential diagnosis between Anaplasma and other rickettsiae in 10 provincial/municipal CDCs laboratories in China. Methods The micro-indirect immunofluoresce assay (mIFA) recommended by WHO Rickettsial Diseases Collaborating Center was adopted as a standard serological diagnosis technique. The performances of two nested PCR assays, one testing for most members of family Rickettsia to amplify groEL gene and other targeting members of family Anaplasma to amplify 16S rRNA gene were evaluated. The laboratories involved received a package containing primers and reference templates ( P1,P2, P3, P4, P5 ) for PCR tests and SI and S2 reference sera for serological assays.Each laboratory was required to perform these procedures based on its own laboratory condition including equipments and some reagents except the reference materials provided. Results Seven laboratories from the 10 CDCs reported the results for testing S1 and S2 references, and the results in 5 of them (71.4%) were qualified according to the assessment criteria. Eight laboratories reported PCR results, but the significant differences on specificity and sensitivity of PCR between them were found, 62. 5% (5/8) of laboratories provided acceptable results for P2 and P3 references and 50%(4/8) of laboratories provided acceptable results for P4, P5, P6 references. For repeatability evaluation, all the laboratories reported acceptable results according to the statistical procedures described. Conclusion This EQA demonstrated all the laboratory involved had systematic errors in their performances. It is necessary for these laboratories to improve their test condition, strengthen the internal quality control and take part in the external quality control activity regularly to improve the diseases diagnosis and differential diagnosis capacity.%目的 对10个省、市级疾病预防控制

  14. Ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and hepatozoonosis in dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies.

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    Patrick J Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although tick-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on the agents causing these infections in the Caribbean. METHODOLOGY: We used PCRs to test blood from a cross-section of dogs on St Kitts for Ehrlichia (E. canis, Babesia (B. spp., Anaplasma (A. spp. and Hepatozoon (H. spp. Antibodies against E. canis and A. phagocytophilum/platys were detected using commercial immunochromatography tests. Records of the dogs were examined retrospectively to obtain clinical and laboratory data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was serological and/or PCR evidence of infections of dogs with E. canis (27%; 46/170, Babesia spp. (24%; 90/372 including B. canis vogeli (12%; 43/372 and B. gibsoni (10%; 36/372, A. platys (11%; 17/157 and H. canis (6%; 15/266. We could not identify the Babesia sp. detected in nine dogs. There was evidence of multiple infections with dual infections with E. canis and B. canis vogeli (8%; 14/179 or B. gibsoni (7%; 11/170 being the most common. There was agreement between immunochromatography and PCR test results for E. canis for 87% of dogs. Only 13% of exposed dogs had signs of a tick-borne disease and 38% had laboratory abnormalities. All 10 dogs presenting for a recheck after treatment of E. canis with doxycycline were apparently healthy although all remained seropositive and six still had laboratory abnormalities despite an average of two treatments with the most recent being around 12 months previously. Infections with Babesia spp. were also mainly subclinical with only 6% (4/67 showing clinical signs and 13% (9/67 having laboratory abnormalities. Similarly, animals with evidence of infections with A. platys and H. canis were largely apparently healthy with only occasional laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs are commonly infected with tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean with most having no clinical signs or laboratory abnormalities.

  15. Travelers' Health: Rickettsial (Spotted and Typhus Fevers) and Related Infections (Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... being considered. PREVENTION No vaccine is available for preventing rickettsial infections. Antibiotics are not recommended for prophylaxis ...

  16. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute... poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders... osteoporosis. (13) Glanders (farcy). (14) Acute inflammatory lameness. (15) Extensive fistula. (b) Carcasses...

  17. Sir Arnold Theiler and the discovery of anaplasmosis : a centennial perspective : tick-borne diseases

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    G.H. Palmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sir Arnold Theiler's research in 1908/09 led to the discovery of the first rickettsial pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, and set the stage for his development and implementation of an effective live vaccine based on a less virulent strain, A. marginale ss. centrale. His 1910 report, describing A. marginale, is among the classic monographs in infectious disease research, presenting not only observations in exacting detail but also highlighting the deductive reasoning leading to association of a new pathogen with a specific disease. With a centennial perspective and both conceptual frameworks and molecular tools unimaginable in Theiler's time, the significance of several observations in the original report - cyclic bacteremia, strain superinfection, and taxonomic position - is now clear and highlight the broad applicability of key principles of pathogen biology.

  18. Genetic diversity of anaplasma species major surface proteins and implications for anaplasmosis serodiagnosis and vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    de la Fuente, J.; Lew, A.; Lutz, H.; Meli, M. L.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Shkap, V; Molad, T; Mangold, A J; Almazán, C; Naranjo, V.; Gortázar, C.; Torina, A; Caracappa, S.; García-Pérez, A. L.; Barral, M.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes several pathogens of veterinary and human medical importance. An understanding of the diversity of Anaplasma major surface proteins (MSPs), including those MSPs that modulate infection, development of persistent infections, and transmission of pathogens by ticks, is derived in part, by characterization and phylogenetic analyses of geographic strains. Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely in...

  19. Immunisation of smallholder dairy cattle against anaplasmosis and babesiosis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.;

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms...

  20. Agents of Human Anaplasmosis and Lyme Disease at Camp Ripley, Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Russell C.; Kodner, Carrie; Jarnefeld, Janet; Eck, Deborah K.; Xu, Yaning

    2011-01-01

    The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) among Ixodes scapularis (Is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at Camp Ripley, an area representative of central Minnesota. Prevalence of white-footed mouse infection with Ap and Bb were 20% and 42%, respectively, with a coinfection level of 14%. Peak levels of infection with both agents occurred in May. The average levels of seropositivity to Ap and Bb were 29.3% and 48%, respectively. Of the mice in...

  1. Effectiveness of enrofloxacin for the treatment of experimentally-induced bovine anaplasmosis Eficácia da enrofloxacina no tratamento da anaplasmose bovina experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Jorge Facury-Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Four groups of six Holstein calves were inoculated with 3.6 × 10(7 erythrocytes parasitized with Anaplasma marginale. The criteria for treatment of calves were increasing A. marginale rickettsemia and 30% reduction of baseline packed cell volume (PCV of each animal. Group 1 (G1 received 7.5 mg.kg-1 of enrofloxacin in a single dose; Group 2 (G2 7.5 mg.kg-1 of enrofloxacin twice every three days; Group 3 (G3 20 mg.kg-1 of long-acting oxytetracycline in a single dose; and Group 4 (G4 a single dose of PBS. Physical examinations, blood smears and PCV were performed daily. On day treatment, G1, G2 and G3 animals had a mean rickettsemia of 17, 23 and 12%, respectively. At 2 days after treatment (DAT G1 and G2 animals showed a significant reduction of rickettsemia (p Quatro grupos de seis bezerros da raça Holandesa foram inoculados com 3,6 × 10(7 eritrócitos parasitados com Anaplasma marginale. Os critérios para o tratamento dos bezerros foram aumento da rickettsemia do A. marginale e redução de 30% do valor basal de volume globular (VG de cada animal. O Grupo 1 (G1 recebeu 7,5 mg.kg-1 de enrofloxacina em dose única; o Grupo 2 (G2, 7,5 mg.kg-1 de enrofloxacina duas vezes a cada três dias; o Grupo 3 (G3, 20 mg.kg-1 de oxitetraciclina de longa ação em dose única; e o Grupo 4 (G4 uma única dose de PBS. Exames físicos, esfregaço sanguíneo e VG foram realizadas diariamente. No dia do tratamento, os animais G1, G2 e G3 apresentaram rickettsemia média de 17, 23 e 12%, respectivamente. Nos primeiros 2 dias após o tratamento (DAT os animais do G1 e G2 mostraram uma redução significativa de rickettsemia (p < 0,05 em relação ao G3. Animais do G3 tiveram altas taxas de rickettsemia nos 2 DAT e uma diminuição lenta até à estabilização em 9 de DAT. O VG médio no G1 e G2 aumentou e estabilizou após 7 e 8 DAT, respectivamente. A estabilização do VG do G3 foi aos 13 DAT. A enrofloxacina e a oxitetraciclina foram efetivas no tratamento da anaplasmose, mas a enrofloxacina apresentou redução da rickettsemia e recuperação do VG (p < 0,05 mais rápida em comparação com oxitetraciclina.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for cattle anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and trypanosomiasis in a Brazilian semiarid region Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para anaplasmose, babesiose e tripanosomíase bovina em uma região semiárida do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Medeiros de Mendonça Costa

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (IFA against each specific antigen. The mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75% for A. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40% for B. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7% for B. bovis. All cows tested negative for T. vivax. Higher prevalence for A. marginale was significantly associated with less frequent acaricide spraying per year and with higher use of injectable antihelminthics. Presence of cows positive for B. bigemina was significantly associated with acaricide use and with presence of horse flies on the farm. Both occurrence and higher prevalence of B. bovis were significantly associated with recent observations of ticks on cattle. Overall, the present results indicate that the region investigated is an enzootically unstable area for A. marginale, B. bigemina and B. bovis, since most animals were seronegative to at least one agent.A soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis e Trypanosoma vivax, assim como os fatores de risco para estas infecções, foram investigadas em 37 fazendas (total de 509 vacas da região semiárida da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. A presença de anticorpos nos soros dos animais foi detectada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando antígenos específicos. Os valores médios de soroprevalência por fazenda foram 15,0% (0-75% para A. marginale, 9,5% (0-40% para B. bigemina, e 26,9% (0-73,7% para B. bovis. Todas as vacas foram soronegativas para T. vivax. As maiores prevalências de A. marginale foram significativamente associadas com menor uso de carrapaticidas por ano e com uso mais frequente de antihelmínticos injetáveis. A soroprevalência de B. bigemina foi significativamente associada com o uso de carrapaticidas, e com a presença de mutucas na fazenda. Tanto a ocorrência como a maior soroprevalência para B. bovis nas fazendas foram significativamente associadas com a presença recente de carrapatos nos bovinos. No geral, os resultados indicam que as fazendas amostradas estão situadas em área de instabilidade enzoótica para A. marginale, B. bigemina, e B. bovis, uma vez que a maioria dos animais foi soronegativa para pelo menos um dos agentes.

  3. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  4. Disease: H01139 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crobiol Infect Dis 72:214-8 (2012) PMID:17114714 Bakken JS, Dumler JS Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078:236-47 (2006) ...

  5. Tick Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician’s Resources Contact About The Foundation Select Page Tick Paralysis Menu What is Tick Paralysis? Where is ... How to Remove a Tick Deer Tick Ecology Tick-Borne Diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Borrelia myamotoi Infections Colorado ...

  6. К ВОПРОСУ О ДИАГНОСТИКЕ АНАПЛАЗМОЗА КРУПНОГО И МЕЛКОГО РОГАТОГО СКОТА

    OpenAIRE

    ГЕОРГИУ Х.; Хамурзов, Р.; Горбунова, Е.; Орел, В.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion.The base jf the diagnosis anaplasmosis includes epizootologycal, clinical, pathologoanatomical data and results of laboratory tests and suggests microscopy blood smear and simultaneous in IHAT ICFT DCFT.

  7. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Janet E. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR-...

  8. Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Welc-Falęciak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA caused by [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in patients with early Lyme borreliosis, and [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients from an endemic region of potential high risk factors for tick-borne diseases.

  9. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio Darío

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins. PMID:27610385

  10. 21 CFR 522.1660a - Oxytetracycline solution, 200 milligrams/milliliter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cattle, dairy cattle, and calves including prerumenative (veal) calves—(i) Amounts and indications for... intravenously for treatment of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale, severe foot-rot, and advanced cases.... Not for use in lactating dairy animals. (2) Swine—(i) Amounts and indications for use—(A) Sows: 3...

  11. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodfellow Mark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.

  12. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfellow Mark; Shaw Susan

    2005-01-01

    Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.

  13. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Coipan, E Claudia; Fonville, Manoj; van Leeuwen, Arieke Docters; Hengeveld, Paul; Heylen, Dieter; Heyman, Paul; van Maanen, Cees; Butler, Catherine M; Földvári, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Tack, Wesley; Rijks, Jolianne M; van der Giessen, Joke; Takken, Willem; van Wieren, Sipke E; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  14. Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, S.; Coipan, E.C.; Fonville, M.; Leeuwen, van A.D.; Hengeveld, P.; Heylen, D.; Heyman, P.; Maanen, van C.; Butler, C.M.; Foldvari, G.; Szekeres, S.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Tack, W.; Rijks, J.M.; Giessen, van der J.; Takken, W.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takumi, K.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonoti

  15. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B; Meyer, Jason M;

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...

  16. Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio Darío

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins. PMID:27610385

  17. Assessment of bovine immunoprotecion against Rhipicephalus microplus using Bm86-CG antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...

  18. Tick-Associated Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alice; Chaney, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are eleven tick-associated diseases prevalent in the United States. Most commonly diagnosed are Lyme disease, anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis) and babeisois, with Lyme disease being the most common vector-borne disease in the country. In southeastern states, studies have shown the…

  19. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; p<0.001) in pairwise ranking indicated that the diseases were a common problem in selected districts. East Coast fever had the highest median score for incidence (18% [range: 2, 33]) in Moroto, followed by anaplasmosis (17.5% [8,32]) and CBPP (9% [1,21]). Most animals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed

  20. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  1. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN DISEASES OF ANIMALS IN INDONESIA (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeprapto Soekardono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An account on important protozoan diseases mostiy with obvious clinical symptoms are emphasized and their current status reviewed. Those diseases are surra, trichomonosis in catde, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, leucocyto-zoonosis in chicken, and coccidiosis. Toxoplasmosis, histomonosis, chicken malaria, balantidiosis and diseases caused by Giardia, Haemoproteus and Sarcocystis are not reviewed because significant problems caused by these parasites considered important economically do not appear in Indonesia.

  2. Clinical management and gross pathological findings of a severe anaplamosis in a dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2016-06-01

    Results: The cow did not survive the infection as it eventually died of the disease. Post mortem examination showed gross evidence of splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, distended bile duct and generalized jaundice. Conclusion: Based on the consequence of this case report, preventive vector control, prompt and appropriate treatment and improved management practices are recommended in order to prevent clinical anaplasmosis cases among cattle. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 195-199

  3. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgiç, Huseyin B.; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; Simuunza, Martin; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Eren, Hasan; Weir, William

    2013-01-01

    Tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the pathogen and continue to play a critical role in disease epidemiology, acting as reservoirs of infection. This study describes development and ...

  4. Expression and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Immunoreactive Surface Protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qiang; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2012-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease throughout the world. The first HGA cases in China were documented in 2008, and the greatest challenge posed by the disease is rapid and accurate diagnosis during the acute phage of illness. In this study, we successfully cloned and expressed an A. phagocytophilum immunoreactive surface protein (major surface protein 2 [MSP2]) and demonstrated that this recombinant protein ha...

  5. The ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (Tamias ochrogenys)

    OpenAIRE

    Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern California. The range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis. Chipmunks have high Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for Borrelia burgdorferi. We hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease...

  6. Prevalence of Human-Active and Variant 1 Strains of the Tick-Borne Pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Hosts and Forests of Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Keesing, Felicia; McHenry, Diana J.; Hersh, Michelle; Tibbetts, Michael; Jesse L Brunner; Killilea, Mary; LoGiudice, Kathleen; Kenneth A Schmidt; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by infection with the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In the eastern United States, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted to hosts through the bite of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. We determined the realized reservoir competence of 14 species of common vertebrate hosts for ticks by establishing the probability that each species transmits two important strains of A. phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum human-active, which causes ...

  7. Molecular biological identification of Babesia, Theileria, and Anaplasma species in cattle in Egypt using PCR assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Maged; Hotzel, Helmut; Gwida, Mayada; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Silaghi, Cornelia; Tomaso, Herbert

    2015-01-30

    In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and PCR assay results. In the Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and Anaplasma species. All investigated cattle were clinically examined. Blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and PCR assays. Seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were apparently healthy. In acutely ill cattle, Babesia/Theileria species (n=11) and Anaplasma marginale (n=10) were detected. Mixed infections with Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale were present in two further cases. A. marginale infections were also detected in apparently healthy subjects (n=23). The results of PCR assays were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All samples that were positive by PCR for Babesia/Theileria spp. gave also positive results in the microarray analysis. The microarray chips identified Babesia bovis (n=12) and Babesia bigemina (n=2). Cattle with babesiosis were likely to have hemoglobinuria and nervous signs when compared to those with anaplasmosis that frequently had bloody feces. We conclude that clinical examination in combination with microscopy are still very useful in diagnosing acute cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, but a combination of molecular biological diagnostic assays will detect even asymptomatic carriers. In perspective, parallel detection of Babesia/Theileria spp. and A. marginale infections using a single microarray system will be a valuable improvement.

  8. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  9. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  10. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  11. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and its look-alikes: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Michael; Chiang, Jason; Ahmed, Tahmeena; Galanakis, Dennis; Senzel, Lisa

    2012-02-01

    At presentation, variant or "look-alike" conditions can resemble TTP. We reviewed charts of 26 consecutive patients treated for presumed TTP. Of 15 classic TTP patients, 11 were tested for ADAMTS13; all showed severe deficiency, and inhibitor levels correlated with probability of relapse. The variant TMA group consisted of 8 patients who had active clinical disorders which overlapped with TTP. Variant TMA patients had higher creatinine and worse prognosis than classic TTP patients. "Look-alike" disorders included ITP with intravascular hemolysis following administration of WinRho™, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. These conditions had not been previously described as TTP look-alikes. PMID:22154043

  12. Clinico-epidemiologichesky aspects of the mixed tick-borne infections in the endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Aleshkovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of clinico-epidemiological features of the mixed tick-borne infections – tick-borne Lyme disease and a human granulocytic anaplasmosis was the purpose of the conducted research. During the spring – summer period 146 patients with tick-borne borreliosis were surveyed. As a result at 45 (30,82% patients authentically diagnosed the mixed tick-borne infection. Features of clinical manifestations of a mixed tick-borne infection revealed: catarrhal phenomena (20%, liver defeats (33%, nephros (31, 7%, frequent secondary erythems (20%. Changes in haemogram defined: thrombocytopenia (42,2%, anemia (20%, leukopenia (13,3%.

  13. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    César Rojano-Bolaño; V Contreras-Cogollo; L Miranda-Cortés; R Ávila-Avilán; Jorge Miranda-Regino; Laura Hernández-Fernández; Salim Mattar-Velilla; Santiago Monsalve-Buriticá

    2014-01-01

    La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente...

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmar, Pedro Veloso Facury; Carvalho, Antônio Último de; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Bastos, Camila Valgas; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8) for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1) were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9) A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2). Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5) erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2). The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:22832750

  15. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  16. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  17. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thomas R; Aly, Sharif S; Maas, John; Davy, Josh S; Foley, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  18. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  19. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.; Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Sattelle, David B.; de la Fuente, José; Ribeiro, Jose M.; Megy, Karine; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Koren, Sergey; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Joardar, Vinita S.; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Hammond, Martin P.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Abrudan, Jenica L.; Almeida, Francisca C.; Ayllón, Nieves; Bhide, Ketaki; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Buckingham, Steven D.; Caffrey, Daniel R.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Croset, Vincent; Driscoll, Timothy; Gilbert, Don; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Grabowski, Jeffrey M.; Jiang, David; Khalil, Sayed M. S.; Kim, Donghun; Kocan, Katherine M.; Koči, Juraj; Kuhn, Richard J.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Lees, Kristin; Lang, Emma G.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kwon, Hyeogsun; Perera, Rushika; Qi, Yumin; Radolf, Justin D.; Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Severo, Maiara S.; Silverman, Neal; Šimo, Ladislav; Tojo, Marta; Tornador, Cristian; Van Zee, Janice P.; Vázquez, Jesús; Vieira, Filipe G.; Villar, Margarita; Wespiser, Adam R.; Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Jiwei; Arensburger, Peter; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Park, Yoonseong; Rozas, Julio; Benton, Richard; Pedra, Joao H. F.; Nelson, David R.; Unger, Maria F.; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Tu, Zhijian; Robertson, Hugh M.; Shumway, Martin; Sutton, Granger; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Lawson, Daniel; Wikel, Stephen K.; Nene, Vishvanath M.; Fraser, Claire M.; Collins, Frank H.; Birren, Bruce; Nelson, Karen E.; Caler, Elisabet; Hill, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive DNA, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. Annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the genome, reveals 20,486 protein-coding genes and expansions of gene families associated with tick–host interactions. We report insights from genome analyses into parasitic processes unique to ticks, including host ‘questing', prolonged feeding, cuticle synthesis, blood meal concentration, novel methods of haemoglobin digestion, haem detoxification, vitellogenesis and prolonged off-host survival. We identify proteins associated with the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease, and the encephalitis-causing Langat virus, and a population structure correlated to life-history traits and transmission of the Lyme disease agent. PMID:26856261

  20. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  1. County-Scale Distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as causative agents of anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Its close relative in the far western United States, the western blacklegged tick Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, is the primary vector to humans in that region of the Lyme disease and anaplasmosis agents. Since 1991, when standardized surveillance and reporting began, Lyme disease case counts have increased steadily in number and in geographical distribution in the eastern United States. Similar trends have been observed for anaplasmosis and babesiosis. To better understand the changing landscape of risk of human exposure to disease agents transmitted by I. scapularis and I. pacificus, and to document changes in their recorded distribution over the past two decades, we updated the distribution of these species from a map published in 1998. The presence of I. scapularis has now been documented from 1,420 (45.7%) of the 3,110 continental United States counties, as compared with 111 (3.6%) counties for I. pacificus. Combined, these vectors of B. burgdorferi and other disease agents now have been identified in a total of 1,531 (49.2%) counties spread across 43 states. This marks a 44.7% increase in the number of counties that have recorded the presence of these ticks since the previous map was presented in 1998, when 1,058 counties in 41 states reported the ticks to be present. Notably, the number of counties in which I. scapularis is considered established (six or more individuals or one or more life stages identified in a single year) has more than doubled since the previous national distribution map was published nearly two decades ago. The majority of county status changes occurred in the North-Central and Northeastern states, whereas the distribution in the South remained fairly stable. Two previously distinct foci for I. scapularis in the

  2. First identification of Anaplasma platys in the blood of dogs from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Anaplasma platys is the causative agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs. This infection is worldwide and reported with a higher incidence in tropical and subtropical areas such as South America. Until now, there has been no report of this bacterium in French Guiana. The aim of this study was molecular investigation of A. platys occurrence in the blood of autochthonous dogs in this region. A total 65 blood samples were taken from the shelter dogs in the cities of Cayenne and Kourou, and from dogs of private owners in the city of Cayenne. The results show that at least 15.38% (10/65) were positive to this pathogen. The strain identified in this study has been reported worldwide. These findings should be considered in the way that local veterinarians handle suspected cases of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  3. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Levin, Michael L; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-07-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  4. Mechanisms of infection by pathogens transmitted by ticks on the example of bacteria: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi

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    Paula Wróblewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are transmission diseases belonging to the group of zoonoses but carried by ticks. These diseases are a major public health problem but also a problem for groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Ixodes ricinus is a species of ticks which is the most common reservoir and the vector of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans. It transfers, among others, bacteria of the species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The article discusses the mechanisms of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum for both ticks as well as for animals and humans. The two microorganisms discussed have developed many characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, as well as defense mechanisms against the body's immune response. Understanding the biology of ticks and the function of proteins produced by ticks and pathogenic microorganisms is the key in the development of effective treatments and prevention of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.

  5. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

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    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  6. Infection of Ixodes spp. tick cells with different Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolates induces the inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Pilar; Ayllón, Nieves; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Zweygarth, Erich; Stuen, Snorre; de la Fuente, José

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an intracellular rickettsial pathogen transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. In the United States, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is highly prevalent while TBF has not been reported. However, in Europe the situation is the opposite, with high prevalence for TBF in sheep and low prevalence of HGA. The origin of these differences has not been identified and our hypothesis is that different A. phagocytophilum isolates impact differently on tick vector capacity through inhibition of apoptosis to establish infection of the tick vector. In this study we used three different isolates of A. phagocytophilum of human, canine and ovine origin to infect the Ixodes ricinus-derived cell line IRE/CTVM20 and the Ixodes scapularis-derived cell line ISE6 in order to characterize the effect of infection on the level of tick cell apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry as early as 24h post-infection for both tick cell lines and all three isolates of A. phagocytophilum, suggesting that pathogen infection inhibits apoptotic pathways to facilitate infection independently of the origin of the A. phagocytophilum isolate and tick vector species. However, infection with A. phagocytophilum isolates inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway at different levels in I. scapularis and I. ricinus cells. These results suggested an impact of vector-pathogen co-evolution on the adaptation of A. phagocytophilum isolates to grow in tick cells as each isolate grew better in the tick cell line derived from its natural vector species. These results increase our understanding of the mechanisms of A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and suggest that multiple mechanisms may affect disease prevalence in different geographical regions.

  7. Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile ofAnaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashuma; Amrita Sharma; Lachhman Das Singla; Paramjit Kaur; Mandeep Singh Bal; Balwinder Kaur Batth; Prayag Dutt Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To do the systematic comparison of prevalence of anaplasmosis byPCR andGiemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) based parasitological assays in dairy cattle ofPunjab, which has not been reported yet.To analyse the haematobiochemical alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced byAnaplasma marginale (A. marginale) in latent and patent infection.Methods:Study was conducted on320 animals (236 cows,62 calves and22 buffaloes) ofPunjab,India.PCR on genome ofA. marginale was performed by targeting msp1β gene using specific primersBAP-2/AL34S, amplifies products of size407 bp.Questionnaires based data on the characteristics of the infected animals and management strategies of the farm were collected and correlated.Results:Higher prevalence and more significant association was observed in thePCR based molecular diagnosis (P=0.00012) as compared to that inGSTBS (P=0.0288) based diagnosis with various regions under study.With respect to the regions, highest prevalence was recorded inFerozepur byPCR based diagnosis, while that inJalandhar byGSTBS examination.Similar marked significant association of thePCR based diagnosis with the age of the animals under study (P=0.00013) was observed elucidating no inverse age resistance toA. marginale in cow calves.Haematobiochemical profile of infected animals revealed marked anemia, liver dysfunction and increase globulin concentrate indicating rise in immunoglobulin level to counteract infection.Conclusions:PCR is far more sensitive in detecting the disease even in latent infection which may act as nidus for spread of anaplasmosis to susceptible animals in endemic areas.Severity of anaemia and liver dysfunction were comparable both in patent as well as latent infection indicating pathogenicity of both.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture Avaliação da eficácia de uma vacina inativada de Anaplasma marginale derivada de cultura de células de carrapato

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    Pedro Veloso Facury Lasmar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8 for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated. Five calves (Group 1 were inoculated subcutaneously, at 21-day intervals, with three doses of vaccine containing 3 × 10(9 A. marginale initial bodies. Five control calves received saline solution alone (Group 2. Thirty-two days after the final inoculation, all the calves were challenged with approximately 3 × 10(5 erythrocytes infected with A. marginale high-virulence isolate (UFMG2. The Group 1 calves seroconverted 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. After the challenge, all the animals showed patent rickettsemia. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the Group 1 and 2 calves during the incubation period, patency period or convalescence period. All the animals required treatment to prevent death. The results suggest that the inactivated vaccine from A. marginale produced in IDE8 induced seroconversion in calves, but was not effective for preventing anaplasmosis induced by the UFMG2 isolate under the conditions of this experiment.Foi avaliada a eficácia de uma vacina protetora para Anaplasma marginale cultivada em células de carrapato (IDE8 para uso contra a anaplasmose bovina. Cinco bezerros (Grupo 1 foram inoculados por via subcutânea com três doses, intervalados de 21 dias, de vacina contendo 3 × 10(9 corpúsculos iniciais de A. marginale inicial. Cinco bezerros do grupo controle receberam apenas solução salina (Grupo 2. Trinta e dois dias após a inoculação final, todos os bezerros foram desafiados com aproximadamente 3 × 10(5 eritrócitos infectados com isolado de A. marginale alta virulência (UFMG2. Os bezerros do Grupo 1 soroconverteram-se 14 dias após a segunda dose da vacina. Após o desafio, todos os animais mostraram riquestsemia patente. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre bezerros do Grupo 1 e 2 em período de incuba

  9. Assessing different chemoprophylactic protocols against bovine tick-borne diseases and their influence on the weight gain of calves

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    Sergio Silva da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 87 Aberdeen Angus calves were used to assess the effects of low dose, agent-specific drugs on weight gain after a babesiosis and anaplasmosis outbreak. All animals were weighed on weaning (day –34 and again on day zero, with a mean (on day zero of 223.46 Kg and an average individual daily weight gain (ADG of 0.258 Kg. The animals were then separated in three groups: G1 was composed of 37 calves with below average ADG; G2 was composed of 35 animals with below average ADG; and G3 was composed of 15 animals with above average ADG. On day zero animals in G1 were treated with 1.17 mg Kg-1 of diminazene diaceturate and 6.7 mg Kg-1 of oxytetracycline; those in G2 were treated with 1.2 mg Kg-1 of imidocarb dipropionate; and those in G3 were not treated. The animals were then monitored daily for the onset of disease, and on days 15 and 34 they were weighed and had their blood harvested. Animals in G1 had the better overall ADG (0.613 Kg day-1 (P<0.05, with no clinical cases during the experiment. The performance in G2 was moderate, not differing from either G1 or G3 (mean ADG = 0.528 Kg day-1, however, this group had two clinical cases of anaplasmosis during the experiment. Animals in G3 had the worst performance, considering ADG (0.343 Kg day-1. When total weight gain per animal is compared for the study period (35 days, those in G1 gained an average of 20.851 Kg, followed by animals in G2 with 17.957 Kg, and then animals in G3 with 11.667 Kg. These results show that a low dose, agent specific (G1 drug protocol will considerably reduce the detrimental effects of subclinical tick borne diseases in the post weaning period and can be recommended as a rearing tool for calves destined for early slaughter.

  10. Serological and molecular investigation of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. in ticks and blood of dogs, in the Thrace Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Handan; Matur, Erdal; Akyazi, İbrahim; Ekiz, Elif Ergul; Aydin, Levent; Toparlak, Mufit

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, tick-borne diseases like ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis became widespread worldwide threatening the health of both human and companion animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. A total of 400 blood samples and 912 ticks were collected from dogs living in shelters that are located in four cities (Istanbul, Edirne, Tekirdag and Kirklareli) of the Thrace Region. Blood and buffy coat smears were prepared for microscopic examination. Hematologic and serologic analyses were performed using cell counter and commercial Snap3Dx test kit, respectively. Eight hundred fifty of collected ticks were classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 33 as Rhipicephalus turanicus and 29 as Ixodes ricinus. After DNA extraction from blood samples and pooled ticks (127 tick pools, in total), nested PCR was performed to detect the DNA of Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. The seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis was 27.25% (109) by Snap3Dx test and the total molecular positivity was 11.75% (47) in dog blood samples and 21.25% (27) in tick pools by nested PCR. The frequencies of the infected blood samples with E. canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys were detected as 6%, 4% and 6%, respectively. E. canis and A. platys were detected in R. sanguineus pools with a ratio of 15.75% and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, A. platys was also detected in R. turanicus pools (0.7%). A. phagocytophilum was found only in I. ricinus pools (3.93%). Morulae of three species were detected in buffy coat and blood smears. While anemia was observed in dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected (with one or more species), thrombocytopenia was observed only in co-infected dogs. This is the first study providing evidence for the presence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs and ticks in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Based on the results of the tests used in this study

  11. Understanding the human ehrlichiosisis and standing out a causal agent: anaplasma phagocytophilum

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    Hernández-Ayazo Helí

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracytoplasmatic bacteriathat belong to Rickettsiales order and that has been recognized as a cause of humandisease. Most of symptomatic patients report exposure to ticks (vector one or twoweeks before the beginning of the disease. They present a febrile disease, however theclinical status extends since asymptomatic infection until fatal disease.Clinical case: Male patient with prolonged fever and with negative proofs in the searchof hepatitis, malaria, dengue, leptospirosis and typhoid disease. In the peripheralblood smear with Wright’s stain, there were found granulocytes with intracytoplasmatic vacuoles called morulae (microcolonies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Diagnosticimpression was Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA. Treatment with tetracyclinewas done and good evolution was reported.Conclusion: HGA should be a disease to have present in patients with prolonged febrileprofile. A detailed clinical history with information about exposure to ticks should begotten. It is important an early diagnosis to establish the differences with other similarinfections and to apply promptly indicated antibiotic therapy. Rev.cienc.biomed.2013;4(1:165-169RESUMEN:Introducción: Anaplasma phagocytophilum es una bacteria intracitoplasmática obligadaque pertenece al orden Rickettsiales, reconocido como causante de enfermedaden humanos. Pacientes sintomáticos reportan exposición a las garrapatas (vector unao dos semanas antes del inicio de la enfermedad. Presentan una enfermedad febril, noobstante el rango clínico se extiende desde infección asintomática hasta enfermedadfatal.Caso clínico: paciente masculino con cuadro febril prolongado. Pruebas negativas enla búsqueda de hepatitis, paludismo, dengue, leptospirosis y enfermedad tifoidea. Enel extendido de sangre periférica, con tinción de Wright se encontraron granulocitoscon vacuolas intracitoplasmáticas llamadas mórulas (microcolonias

  12. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  13. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K; Hammond, Holly L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J; Bonventre, Joseph V; Velayutham, Thangam S; Evans, Sean M; Rodino, Kyle G; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M; Carbonetti, Nicholas H; Carlyon, Jason A; Miao, Edward A; McBride, Jere W; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H F

    2016-08-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  14. Chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M.; Wormser, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is often given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients are also treated for chronic co-infections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. Methods Five systematic literature searches were performed using Boolean operators and the PubMed search engine. Results The literature searches did not demonstrate convincing evidence of 1) chronic anaplasmosis infection, 2) treatment responsive symptomatic chronic babesiosis in immunocompetent persons in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 3) either geographically widespread or treatment responsive symptomatic chronic infection with Babesia duncani in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities and detectable parasitemia, 4) tick-borne transmission of Bartonella species, or 5) simultaneous Lyme disease and Bartonella infection. Conclusions The medical literature does not support the diagnosis of chronic, atypical tick-borne coinfections in patients with chronic, nonspecific illnesses. PMID:24929022

  15. Parasites and fungi as risk factors for human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Błaszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn's disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses. PMID:26878617

  16. Multiple myeloma in a dog with multiple concurrent infectious diseases and persistent polyclonal gammopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigy, Caroline; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Grest, Paula; Kircher, Patrick; Lutz, Hans

    2013-03-01

    A 12-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for acute hematuria, stranguria, polyuria, and polydipsia, as well as lameness for 8 days. Previous medical history included treatment for infection with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Leishmania infantum, and Dirofilaria immitis 6.5 years prior to presentation. Besides persistently increased antibody titers to E canis and A phagocytophilum, polyclonal gammopathy with a monoclonal spike and moderate hypercalcemia were observed. There was marked hematuria, and Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from urine. Two weeks after successful treatment of the urinary tract infection, radiographs showed an extensive destructive monostotic lesion of the right humerus. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates of this lesion revealed a neoplastic round cell population suggestive of multiple myeloma. The dog was treated with melphalan and prednisolone for suspected multiple myeloma and doxycycline for suspected ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Treatments lead to resolution of the clinical signs, hypercalcemia, and monoclonal gammopathy, and there was radiographic improvement of bone lesions; polyclonal gammopathy persisted. About one year after presentation the dog was still in clinical remission. This is a rare report of a dog with suspected multiple myeloma and a history of multiple chronic infectious diseases, suggesting that chronic infection and uncontrolled long-term stimulation of the immune system could contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. PMID:23278475

  17. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  18. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria species in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotindos, Lawrence P; Lazaro, Jonathan V; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease of domestic and wild animals that cause devastating economic loss in livestock in tropical and subtropical regions. Theileriosis is not yet documented in the Philippines as compared to babesiosis and anaplasmosis which are considered major tick-borne diseases that infect livestock in the country and contribute major losses to the livestock industry. The study was aimed to detect Theileria sp. at genus level in blood samples of cattle using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Specifically, it determined the phylogenetic relationship of Theileria species affecting cattle in the Philippines to other Theileria sp. registered in the GenBank. A total of 292 blood samples of cattle that were collected from various provinces were used. Theileria sp. was detected in 43/292 from the cattle blood samples using PCR assay targeting the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. DNA sequence showed high similarity (90-99%) among the reported Theileria sp. isolates in the GenBank and the Philippine isolates of Theileria. Phylogenetic tree construction using nucleotide sequence classified the Philippine isolates of Theileria as benign. However, nucleotide polymorphism was observed in the new isolate based on nucleotide sequence alignment. It revealed that the new isolate can be a new species of Theileria.

  19. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Wong, Johnny; Foley, Janet

    2016-10-01

    The Holarctic tick Ixodes angustus is a competent vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, and possibly Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. From 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding I. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central California, and tested for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Among 261 I. angustus collected (259 from hosts and two by flagging), the most common hosts were tree squirrels (20 % of ticks) and chipmunks (37 %). The PCR-prevalence for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi in ticks was 2 % and zero, respectively. The minimum infection prevalence on pooled DNA samples was 10 % for Rickettsia spp. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene identified this rickettsia as Candidatus Rickettsia angustus, a putative endosymbiont. A zero-inflated negative binomial mixed effects model was used to evaluate geographical and climatological predictors of I. angustus burden. When host species within study site and season within year were included in the model as nested random effects, all significant variables revealed that I. angustus burden increased as temperature decreased. Together with published data, these findings suggest that I. angustus is a host generalist, has a broad geographic distribution, is more abundant in areas with lower temperature within it's range, and is rarely infected with the pathogens A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi.

  20. Comparative microarray analyses of adult female midgut tissues from feeding Rhipicephalus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Willem A; Stutzer, Christian; Olivier, Nicholas A; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has a debilitating effect on the livestock industry worldwide, owing to its being a vector of the causative agents of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. In South Africa, co-infestation with R. microplus and R. decoloratus, a common vector species on local livestock, occurs widely in the northern and eastern parts of the country. An alternative to chemical control methods is sought in the form of a tick vaccine to control these tick species. However, sequence information and transcriptional data for R. decoloratus is currently lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying genes that are shared between midgut tissues of feeding adult female R. microplus and R. decoloratus ticks. In this regard, a custom oligonucleotide microarray comprising of 13,477 R. microplus sequences was used for transcriptional profiling and 2476 genes were found to be shared between these Rhipicephalus species. In addition, 136 transcripts were found to be more abundantly expressed in R. decoloratus and 1084 in R. microplus. Chi-square analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly overrepresented in R. microplus and R. decoloratus. This study is the first transcriptional profiling of R. decoloratus and is an additional resource that can be evaluated further in future studies for possible tick control. PMID:25448423

  1. Seminar on utilization of nuclear techniques in the agricultural research carried out in FONAIAP. Abstracts and lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lectures included in this seminar are related to: development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis (babesia bovis) in the livestock; the diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA; validation of the kit ELISA (FAO, OIEA, PANAFTOSA) to determine antibodies against the virus of the foot and mouth disease; variability generation in sugar cane for resistance to mosaic viruses and rusts (puccinia melanocephala) by means of the cultivation of explants and irradiated callus; bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding; biological fixation of nitrogen in three tropical feed crops leguminous and its transfer to Brachiaria humidicola in association; unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis; effect of the efficiency of N by use of different forms of fertilizer application in ground, evaluated by means of the isotopic technique and the N absorbed by the cultivation; application of progesterone and testosterone in the diagnose and control of reproduction in crossbreeds animal husbandry; advances in the monitoring of production systems in double purpose cattle raising in the area of Guayabal, Guarico State; aquatic investigations with nuclear energy techniques; development of the Venezuelan Edaphological Bibliographic Database

  2. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Daniel Mihalca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis. Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and Ixodes ricinus.

  3. Borrelia theileri: observação em carrapatos do gênero Boophilus microplus no município de Guaíba, RS, Brasil Borrelia theileri: observation on Boophilus microplus ticks in Guaiba, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.

  4. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  5. Cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e Babesia bigemina e de Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos no controle da tristeza parasitária bovina Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and of Anaplasma centrale as immunogens for tick borne disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sastre Sacco

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas cepas atenuadas de Babesia bovis e B. bigemina e Anaplasma centrale como imunógenos a serem utilizados no controle da Tristeza Parasitária Bovina. O processo de imunização demonstrou ser inócuo, imunogênico e eficiente, pelo menos no que diz respeito às babesias, pois protegeu os animais vacinados frente ao desafio com cepas heterólogas virulentas a campo, que provocou doença clínica e morte nos animais do grupo controle. O desafio a campo pelo Anaplasma marginale não se mostrou muito virulento ou patogênico, não sendo possível concluir que a imunização com A. centrale proteja os animais contra anaplasmose.Attenuated strains of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina and a strain of Anaplasma centrale were evaluated as immunogens against tick-borne disease. The immunization process was shown to be inocuous, immunogenic and efficient to protect cattle, at least against the babesias. Vaccinated animals proved to be protected when naturally challenged with heterologous and virulent strains, in contrast to control animals that showed clinical symptoms of the disease and had to be treated. The Anaplasma marginale challenge was not efficient since treatment was not necessary in the control animals, therefore it was not possible to conclude that immunization with A. centrale protected animals against anaplasmosis.

  6. Insights into the development of Ixodes scapularis: a resource for research on a medically important tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José; Coburn, Lisa A

    2015-11-14

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are arthropod ectoparasites dependent on a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host at each developmental stage for completion of their life cycle. This tick feeding cycle impacts animal health by causing damage to hides, secondary infections, immune reactions and diseases caused by transmission of pathogens. The genus Ixodes includes several medically important species that vector diseases, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged or deer tick, is a medically-important tick species in North America and therefore was the first tick genome to be sequenced, thus serving as an important resource for tick research. This Primer focuses on the normal developmental cycle and laboratory rearing of I. scapularis. Definition of normal morphology, along with a consistent source of laboratory-reared I. scapularis, are fundamental for all aspects of future research, especially the effects of genetic manipulation and the evaluation of tick vaccine efficacy. Recent research important for the advancement of tick research, namely the development of tick cell culture systems for study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, RNA interference for genetic manipulation of ticks and discovery of candidate antigens for development of tick vaccines, are briefly presented along with areas to target for future research.

  7. Vaccinomics Approach to Tick Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marinela; Villar, Margarita; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropod ectoparasites that transmit disease-causing pathogens to humans and animals worldwide. Vaccines using tick antigens have proven to be cost-effective and environmental friendly for the control of vector infestations and pathogen infection and transmission. However, new strategies are needed to identify tick protective antigens for development of improved vaccines. These strategies will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick-host-pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of tick antigens that affect both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission could be used for vaccines targeting human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vector capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health. In this chapter, we describe methods of the vaccinomics platform using transcriptomics and proteomics for the identification of candidate protective antigens in Ixodes scapularis, the vector for human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and Lyme disease.

  8. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Manipulates Host Cell Apoptosis by Different Mechanisms to Establish Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alberdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever of ruminants. This obligate intracellular bacterium evolved to use common strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate hosts and tick vectors. Herein, we discuss the different strategies used by the pathogen to modulate cell apoptosis and establish infection in host cells. In vertebrate neutrophils and human promyelocytic cells HL-60, both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors have been reported. Tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and differential regulation of apoptosis pathways have been observed in adult female midguts and salivary glands in response to infection with A. phagocytophilum. In tick midguts, pathogen inhibits apoptosis through the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway, while in salivary glands, the intrinsic apoptosis pathways is inhibited but tick cells respond with the activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. In Ixodes scapularis ISE6 cells, bacterial infection down-regulates mitochondrial porin and manipulates protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell glucose metabolism to inhibit apoptosis and facilitate infection, whereas in IRE/CTVM20 tick cells, inhibition of apoptosis appears to be regulated by lower caspase levels. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum uses different mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis for infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.

  9. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  10. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  11. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Schulze, Christoph; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular and tick-transmitted bacterium, which causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Although infection with A. phagocytophilum in domestic animals and vector ticks is documented, there is sparse information on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in wild animals. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as well as raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are wildlife species highly abundant in certain areas of Germany and represent a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To obtain data about the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by means of real-time PCR. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 10 out of 122 (8.2%) lungs of red foxes and in 3 out of 13 (23%) lungs of raccoon dogs. To the best of our knowledge, A. phagocytophilum was detected for the first time in red foxes and raccoon dogs in Germany.

  12. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  13. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Shaw, Dana K.; Hammond, Holly L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Rayamajhi, Manira; Shirey, Kari Ann; Perkins, Darren J.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Velayutham, Thangam S.; Evans, Sean M.; Rodino, Kyle G.; VieBrock, Lauren; Scanlon, Karen M.; Carbonetti, Nicholas H.; Carlyon, Jason A.; Miao, Edward A.; McBride, Jere W.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum. PMID:27482714

  14. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanna Rhee1, Daniel J Cameron21Medicine, San Diego, CA, 2Northern Westchester Hospital, Mount Kisco, NY, USAAbstract: Lyme disease (LD is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS, a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed.Keywords: neuroborreliosis, infection, obsessive-compulsive disorder, tic disorder, Borrelia burgdorferi, strep throat

  15. Towards livestock disease diagnosis and control in the 21st century. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock diseases remain a key constraint to livestock production in developing countries. Diseases like rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, brucellosis, trypanosomosis, tick borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, heartwater and East Coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and Newcastle disease have caused great economic losses in various parts of the world. The control, and ultimate eradication where possible, of these and other diseases is important for the economies of many nations. It is for this reason that both the IAEA and the FAO have put great emphasis on the control and eradication of livestock diseases. The success of any disease control or eradication programme relies heavily on the robustness and efficacy of tile diagnosis, surveillance or seromonitoring method or methods being used. Nuclear based and related techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have played and continue to play a vital role in this regard. The aim of this symposium is to review existing and emerging techniques used in disease diagnosis and control and to carefully put them in context for use in developing countries in the future

  16. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Getchell

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  17. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.

  18. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. PMID:26088935

  19. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  20. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana Ocorrência de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães domiciliados da região norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Ferreira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256 and 19.4% (49/256, respectively; while 5.47% (14/256 of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection. Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.Erliquiose monocítica canina, causada principalmente por Ehrlichia canis, e anaplasmose trombocítica canina, devida a infecção com Anaplasma platys, são importantes doenças transmitidas por carrapatos que acometem os cães, com evidências que podem também acometer o homem. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência desses agentes em amostras de sangue de 256 cães domiciliados na cidade de Jataizinho, na região Norte do Paraná, Brasil, utilizando a técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. A ocorrência de E. canis e A. platys foi de 16,4% (42/256 e 19,4% (49/256, respectivamente, com 5,47% (14/256 dos animais apresentando coinfecção. Não foi observada associação significativa com as variáveis sexo, idade, acesso à rua e presença de carrapatos no momento da

  1. Use of isotopes for research and control of vectors of animal diseases, host-pathogen relationships and the environmental impact of control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To cope with the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be utilized. As an example, nagana alone (animal trypanosomiasis) profoundly affects socioeconomic development in Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of the more than 7 million square kilometres where it is present. The need to control this disease has been emphasized by a mandate from the 1974 World Food Conference of the United Nations. If this disease alone could be eliminated, the cattle population could be increased by at least 120 million head with a resultant yearly increase in meat production of 1.5 million tons having a value totalling 750 million US dollars. The symposium was convened to discuss the various research and control aspects of nagana and related diseases and was the first of its kind to be convened by the sponsoring organizations The symposium amply demonstrated the value and usefulness of isotopes in the research and control of vectors of animal diseases, the elucidation of host-pathogen relationships and the degradation of pesticides. The symposium received an enthusiastic response, reflected in the large number of papers presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique (SIT) as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its different aspects such as mass-rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behaviour and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations on insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides. The technical sessions began with 3 review papers, one on the FAO Animal Health Division's field research on tsetse flies, the second on the

  2. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

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    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle

  3. Comparação entre diversos antígenos para o diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale por ELISA Comparison between several antigens for diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale by ELISA

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    Carlos A.N. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasmose bovina é uma doença com grande importância nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo por determinar perdas econômicas devido à mortalidade e redução da produtividade. É causada por Anaplasma marginale, uma riquétsia intraeritrocítica obrigatória cujo controle requer, além de uma vacina eficiente, uma acurada identificação de bovinos cronicamente infectados. Apesar de existirem atualmente diversos métodos de diagnóstico dessa riquétsia, os métodos sorológicos, em particular o ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática-ELISAs, são os mais utilizados devido à sua versatilidade e praticidade. No entanto, devido ao grande número de antígenos disponíveis, atualmente torna-se necessária uma avaliação para definir quais antígenos apresentam um melhor desempenho no diagnóstico da anaplasmose. Soros de bovinos positivos e negativos para A. marginale por PCR, e soros de animais provenientes do Brasil e Costa Rica, foram testados em ELISAs baseados em MSP1a, MSP2 e MSP5 recombinantes, um pool das três proteínas recombinantes, e antígeno de lisado de corpúsculos iniciais da riquétsia (CI. Utilizando soro de bovinos positivos para A. marginale por PCR, uma maior sensibilidade foi observada no ELISA CI. No entanto, uma maior especificidade, com soro de bovinos negativos a PCR, foi observada com os ELISAs recombinantes. O porcentual de bovinos positivos do Brasil e Costa Rica foi maior com ELISA CI. Razões para essas diferenças são discutidas.Bovine anaplasmosis is a major disease in tropical and subtropical regions of the world by determine economical loss due mortality and productive reduction. The disease is caused by Anaplasma marginale, an intraerythrocytic rickettsia whose control requires, besides an efficient vaccine, the accurate identification of chronically infected cattle. Although the existence of diverse methods of diagnosis of this rickettsia, the serological methods, in particular the enzyme

  4. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field samples of R

  5. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  6. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States.

  7. Metagenomic analysis of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS in Henan Province, China: discovery of a new bunyavirus.

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    Bianli Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, many cases of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS have emerged in Henan Province, China. Patient reports of tick bites suggested that infection could contribute to FTLS. Many tick-transmitted microbial pathogens were tested for by PCR/RT-PCR and/or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. However, only 8% (24/285 of samples collected from 2007 to 2010 tested positive for human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, suggesting that other pathogens could be involved. Here, we used an unbiased metagenomic approach to screen and survey for microbes possibly associated with FTLS. BLASTx analysis of deduced protein sequences revealed that a novel bunyavirus (36% identity to Tehran virus, accession: HQ412604 was present only in sera from FTLS patients. A phylogenetic analysis further showed that, although closely related to Uukuniemi virus of the Phlebovirus genus, this virus was distinct. The candidate virus was examined for association with FTLS among samples collected from Henan province during 2007-2010. RT-PCR, viral cultures, and a seroepidemiologic survey were undertaken. RT-PCR results showed that 223 of 285 (78.24% acute-phase serum samples contained viral RNA. Of 95 patients for whom paired acute and convalescent sera were available, 73 had serologic evidence of infection, with 52 seroconversions and 21 exhibiting a 4-fold increase in antibody titer to the virus. The new virus was isolated from patient acute-phase serum samples and named Henan Fever Virus (HNF virus. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed that the virus was a novel bunyavirus with genetic similarity to known bunyaviruses, and was most closely related to the Uukuniemi virus (34%, 24%, and 29% of maximum identity, respectively, for segment L, M, S at maximum query coverage. After the release of the GenBank sequences of SFTSV, we found that they were nearly identical (>99% identity. These results show that the novel bunyavirus (HNF virus is strongly correlated

  8. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm.

  9. Sp110 transcription is induced and required by Anaplasma phagocytophilum for infection of human promyelocytic cells

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    Naranjo Victoria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick-borne intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis after infection of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The human Sp110 gene is a member of the nuclear body (NB components that functions as a nuclear hormone receptor transcriptional coactivator and plays an important role in immunoprotective mechanisms against pathogens in humans. In this research, we hypothesized that Sp110 may be involved in the infection of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells with A. phagocytophilum. Methods The human Sp110 and A. phagocytophilum msp4 mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in infected human HL-60 cells sampled at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-infection. The effect of Sp110 expression on A. phagocytophilum infection was determined by RNA interference (RNAi. The expression of Sp110 was silenced in HL-60 cells by RNAi using pre-designed siRNAs using the Nucleofector 96-well shuttle system (Amaxa Biosystems, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. The A. phagocytophilum infection levels were evaluated in HL-60 cells after RNAi by real-time PCR of msp4 and normalizing against human Alu sequences. Results While Sp110 mRNA levels increased concurrently with A. phagocytophilum infections in HL-60 cells, the silencing of Sp110 expression by RNA interference resulted in decreased infection levels. Conclusion These results demonstrated that Sp110 expression is required for A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication in HL-60 cells, and suggest a previously undescribed mechanism by which A. phagocytophilum modulates Sp110 mRNA levels to facilitate establishment of infection of human HL-60 cells.

  10. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  11. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

  12. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  13. Comparison of Microscopy and PCR-RFLP for detection of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle

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    P Shayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Iran, anaplasmosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Anaplasma marginale in two different numbers of microscopic fields (50 and 100 using conventional Giemsa staining method compared with the PCR-RFLP technique."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of two microscopic fields (50 and 100 fields were compared with A. marginale specific PCR-RFLP. The degree of agreement between PCR-RFLP and the two microscopic tests was determined by Kappa (κ values with 95% confidence intervals."nResults: PCR-RFLP showed that 58 samples were A. marginale, while routine microscopy showed erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures in 16 and 75 blood samples determined in 50 and 100 microscopic fields respectively. Examination of 50 and 100 microscopic fields showed 25.8% and 91.4% sensitivity and 99% and 76.1% specificity compared to 100% sensitivity and specificity by PCR-RFLP. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (50 fields indicated a fair level of agreement (0.29. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (100 fields indicated a good level of agreement (0.64"nConclusion: Our results showed that the microscopic examination remains the convenient technique for day-to-day diagnosis of clinical cases in the laboratory but for the detection of carrier animal with low bacteremia, microscopy with 100 fields is preferable to Microscopy with 50 fields and molecular methods such as PCR-RFLP can be used as a safe method for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale.

  14. Gene expression profile suggests that pigs (Sus scrofa are susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum but control infection

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    Galindo Ruth C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of hosts and causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever in ruminants. Infection with A. phagocytophilum results in the modification of host gene expression and immune response. The objective of this research was to characterize gene expression in pigs (Sus scrofa naturally and experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum trying to identify mechanisms that help to explain low infection prevalence in this species. Results For gene expression analysis in naturally infected pigs, microarray hybridization was used. The expression of differentially expressed immune response genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection affected cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased both innate and adaptive immune responses by up regulation of interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1, T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCR-alpha, thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4 and Gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1 genes. Higher serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in infected pigs when compared to controls supported data obtained at the mRNA level. Conclusions These results suggested that pigs are susceptible to A. phagocytophilum but control infection, particularly through activation of innate immune responses, phagocytosis and autophagy. This fact may account for the low infection prevalence detected in pigs in some regions and thus their low or no impact as a reservoir host for this pathogen. These results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface and suggested a role for newly reported genes in the protection of pigs against A. phagocytophilum.

  15. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

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    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  16. Are patients with erythema migrans who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or tick-borne encephalitis virus?

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA are endemic in central part of Slovenia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with erythema migrans (EM from this region, who have leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia (typical findings in HGA and in the initial phase of TBE but not in patients with LB are coinfected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and/or with TBE virus, i.e. that cytopenia is a result of concomitant HGA or the initial phase of TBE. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings for 67 patients with EM who disclosed leukopenia/thrombocytopenia with the corresponding results in sex- and age-matched patients with EM and normal blood cell counts revealed no differences. In addition, patients with typical EM and leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia tested negative for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBE virus by ELISA as well as for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to A. phagocytophilum antigens by IFA in acute and convalescent serum samples. Thus, none of 67 patients (95% CI: 0 to 5.3% with typical EM (the presence of this skin lesion attests for early Lyme borreliosis and is the evidence for a recent tick bite was found to be coinfected with A. phagocytophilum or had a recent primary infection with TBE virus. The findings in the present study indicate that in Slovenia, and probably in other European countries endemic for LB, TBE and HGA, patients with early LB are rarely coinfected with the other tick-transmitted agents.

  17. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for the study of Anaplasma marginale population structure over space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; Ruybal, Paula; Lia, Verónica; Gonzalez, Sergio; Lew, Sergio; Zimmer, Patricia; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Rodriguez, Jose L; Rodriguez, Sonia Y; Frutos, Roger; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where Rhipicephalus microplus is considered the most significant biological vector. Molecular markers previously applied for A. marginale typing are efficient for isolate discrimination but they are not a suitable tool for studying population structure and dynamics. Here we report the development of an MLST scheme based on the study of seven genes: dnaA, ftsZ, groEl, lipA, recA, secY and sucB. Five annotated genomes (Saint Maries, Florida, Mississippi, Puerto Rico and Virginia) and 53 bovine blood samples from different world regions were analyzed. High nucleotide diversity and a large proportion of synonymous substitutions, indicative of negative selection resulted from DnaSP 5.00.02 package application. Recombination events were detected in almost all genes, this evidence together with the coexistence of more than one A. marginale strain in the same sample might suggest the superinfection phenomena as a potential source of variation. The allelic profile analysis performed through GoeBURST shown two main CC that did not support geography. In addition, the AMOVA test confirmed the occurrence of at least two main genetically divergent groups. The composition of the emergent groups reflected the impact of both historical and environmental traits on A. marginale population structure. Finally, a web-based platform "Galaxy MLST-Pipeline" was developed to automate DNA sequence editing and data analysis that together with the Data Base are freely available to users. The A. marginale MLST scheme developed here is a valuable tool with a high discrimination power, besides PCR based strategies are still the better choice for epidemiological intracellular pathogens studies. Finally, the allelic profile describe herein would contribute to uncover the mechanisms in how intracellular pathogens challenge virulence paradigm. PMID:25550150

  18. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  19. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

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    Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  20. SNP Analysis Infers that Recombination Is Involved in the Evolution of Amitraz Resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus.

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    Samantha Baron

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus microplus, better known as the Asiatic cattle tick, is a largely invasive ectoparasite of great economic importance due to the negative effect it has on agricultural livestock on a global scale, particularly cattle. Tick-borne diseases (babesiosis and anaplasmosis transmitted by R. microplus are alarming as they decrease the quality of livestock health and production. In sub-Saharan Africa, cattle represent a major source of meat and milk, but this region of the world is severely affected by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. The principal method for tick control is the use of chemical acaricides, notably amitraz, which was implemented in the 1990's after resistance to other acaricides surfaced. However, the efficiency of chemical control is hindered by an increase in the frequency of mutant resistance alleles to amitraz in tick populations. Presently, the only way to assess amitraz resistance is by means of larval packet tests, but this technique is time-consuming and not particularly cost effective. The main aims of this study were three-fold. First, we attempted to correlate two known SNPs in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr receptor with amitraz resistance in South African field samples of R. microplus. Second, we calculated gametic disequilibrium for these SNPs to determine whether they are randomly associated. Lastly, we conducted a study to assess the evolutionary effects of recombination within the OCT/Tyr receptor. Our results confirmed that the two SNPs are associated with amitraz resistance in the South African tick strain, and that they are in gametic disequilibrium. Additionally, recombination was detected in the OCT/Tyr receptor generating two recombinant haplotypes. These results are of concern to farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, and the emergence of amitraz resistance should be closely monitored in future. Therefore, we present a quick and affordable RFLP based diagnostic technique to assess amitraz resistance in field

  1. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  2. The natural history of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2010-02-10

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the recently designated name replacing three species of granulocytic bacteria, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, after the recent reorganization of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales. Tick-borne fever (TBF), which is caused by the prototype of A. phagocytophilum, was first described in 1932 in Scotland. A similar disease caused by a related granulocytic agent was first described in horses in the USA in 1969; this was followed by the description of two distinct granulocytic agents causing similar diseases in dogs in the USA in 1971 and 1982. Until the discovery of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA in 1994, these organisms were thought to be distinct species of bacteria infecting specific domestic animals and free-living reservoirs. It is now widely accepted that the agents affecting different animal hosts are variants of the same Gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium, which is transmitted by hard ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. One of its fascinating features is that it infects and actively grows in neutrophils by employing an array of mechanisms to subvert their bactericidal activity. It is also able to survive within an apparently immune host by employing a complex mechanism of antigenic variation. Ruminants with TBF and humans with HGA develop severe febrile reaction, bacteraemia and leukopenia due to neutropenia, lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia within a week of exposure to a tick bite. Because of the severe haematological disorders lasting for several days and other adverse effects on the host's immune functions, infected animals and humans are more susceptible to other infections. PMID:19811878

  3. Integrated Metabolomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics Identifies Metabolic Pathways Affected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Tick Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Margarita; Ayllón, Nieves; Alberdi, Pilar; Moreno, Andrés; Moreno, María; Tobes, Raquel; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Weisheit, Sabine; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; de la Fuente, José

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. These intracellular bacteria establish infection by affecting cell function in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Previous studies have characterized the tick transcriptome and proteome in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. However, in the postgenomic era, the integration of omics datasets through a systems biology approach allows network-based analyses to describe the complexity and functionality of biological systems such as host-pathogen interactions and the discovery of new targets for prevention and control of infectious diseases. This study reports the first systems biology integration of metabolomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data to characterize essential metabolic pathways involved in the tick response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The ISE6 tick cells used in this study constitute a model for hemocytes involved in pathogen infection and immune response. The results showed that infection affected protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and glucose metabolic pathways in tick cells. These results supported tick-Anaplasma co-evolution by providing new evidence of how tick cells limit pathogen infection, while the pathogen benefits from the tick cell response to establish infection. Additionally, ticks benefit from A. phagocytophilum infection by increasing survival while pathogens guarantee transmission. The results suggested that A. phagocytophilum induces protein misfolding to limit the tick cell response and facilitate infection but requires protein degradation to prevent ER stress and cell apoptosis to survive in infected cells. Additionally, A. phagocytophilum may benefit from the tick cell's ability to limit bacterial infection through PEPCK inhibition leading to decreased glucose metabolism, which also results in the inhibition of cell apoptosis that increases infection of tick cells. These results

  4. Systems biology of tissue-specific response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum reveals differentiated apoptosis in the tick vector Ixodes scapularis.

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    Nieves Ayllón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects cell function in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Global tissue-specific response and apoptosis signaling pathways were characterized in I. scapularis nymphs and adult female midguts and salivary glands infected with A. phagocytophilum using a systems biology approach combining transcriptomics and proteomics. Apoptosis was selected for pathway-focused analysis due to its role in bacterial infection of tick cells. The results showed tissue-specific differences in tick response to infection and revealed differentiated regulation of apoptosis pathways. The impact of bacterial infection was more pronounced in tick nymphs and midguts than in salivary glands, probably reflecting bacterial developmental cycle. All apoptosis pathways described in other organisms were identified in I. scapularis, except for the absence of the Perforin ortholog. Functional characterization using RNA interference showed that Porin knockdown significantly increases tick colonization by A. phagocytophilum. Infection with A. phagocytophilum produced complex tissue-specific alterations in transcript and protein levels. In tick nymphs, the results suggested a possible effect of bacterial infection on the inhibition of tick immune response. In tick midguts, the results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection inhibited cell apoptosis to facilitate and establish infection through up-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Bacterial infection inhibited the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in tick salivary glands by down-regulating Porin expression that resulted in the inhibition of Cytochrome c release as the anti-apoptotic mechanism to facilitate bacterial infection. However, tick salivary glands may promote apoptosis to limit bacterial infection through induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. These dynamic

  5. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

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    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH0032 Is Exposed on the Cytosolic Face of the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuole and Co-opts Host Cell SUMOylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Aminat T.; Huang, Bernice; Beyer, Andrea R.; May, Levi J.; Truchan, Hilary K.; Walker, Naomi J.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a member of the family Anaplasmataceae and the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, resides in a host cell-derived vacuole. Bacterial proteins that localize to the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole membrane (AVM) are critical host-pathogen interfaces. Of the few bacterial AVM proteins that have been identified, the domains responsible for AVM localization and the host cell pathways that they co-opt are poorly defined. APH0032 is an effector that is expressed and localizes to the AVM late during the infection cycle. Herein, the APH0032 domain that is essential for associating with host cell membranes was mapped. Immunofluorescent labeling of infected cells that had been differentially permeabilized confirmed that APH0032 is exposed on the AVM's cytosolic face, signifying its potential to interface with host cell processes. SUMOylation is the covalent attachment of a member of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) family of proteins to lysines in target substrates. Previous work from our laboratory determined that SUMOylation is important for A. phagocytophilum survival and that SUMOylated proteins decorate the AVM. Algorithmic prediction analyses identified APH0032 as a candidate for SUMOylation. Endogenous APH0032 was precipitated from infected cells using a SUMO affinity matrix, confirming that the effector co-opts SUMOylation during infection. APH0032 pronouncedly colocalized with SUMO1, but not SUMO2/3 moieties on the AVM. Ectopic expression of APH0032 in A. phagocytophilum infected host cells significantly boosted the bacterial load. This study delineates the first domain of any Anaplasmataceae protein that is essential for associating with the pathogen-occupied vacuole membrane, demonstrates the importance of APH0032 to infection, and identifies it as the second A. phagocytophilum effector that co-opts SUMOylation, thus underscoring the relevance of this post-translational modification to

  7. Parasite vaccines--a reality?

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    Dalton, J P; Mulcahy, G

    2001-07-12

    Over the last decade, the anti-parasitics market has been the fastest growing sector of the overall $18 billion animal health market. While drugs for the treatment of parasites of livestock still dominate this sector and will continue to be developed or re-formulated, because of consumer demands for chemical-free food and of concerns regarding the environment and animal welfare there is a growing interest in the development of safe and effective vaccines. There is also a call for vaccines in the lucrative $3 billion-plus companion animal market. These demands for vaccines will add a greater impetus to an area that has seen tremendous success in the last 15 years. A number of anti-parasite vaccines have been developed, e.g. the recombinant 45w and EG95 oncosphere proteins against Taenia ovis and Echinococcus granulosis, respectively, and the Bm86 vaccine against Boophilus microplus. In addition, the cathepsin L vaccines against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and the H11 vaccine against Haemonchus contortus are progressing well. There are also many additional vaccine candidates for H. contortus and for other nematodes such as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp. that may ultimately lead to broad-spectrum gastrointestinal worm vaccines. Live or attenuated-live vaccines are available for the control of avian coccidiosis, toxplasmosis in sheep and anaplasmosis in cattle, although molecular vaccines against protozoans are still proving elusive. The wealth of information in genomics, proteomics and immunology that has been forthcoming together will new methods of vaccine production and delivery should see many new vaccines reach the marketplace in the near future. PMID:11516584

  8. Assessment of antibodies against surface and outer membrane proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbková, L; Homola, L; Hlaváčová, A; Mikolášek, P; Bednářová, J; Čermáková, Z

    2016-09-01

    To examine evidence of positive antibodies against immunogenic proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with other tick-borne infections and to diagnose possible co-infections, 412 serum specimens were tested by immunoblotting using three specific Anaplasma antigens: surface proteins p44 and Asp62 and outer membrane protein A (OmpA). In total, 284 serum samples from children with Lyme borreliosis and 12 serum samples from children with tick-borne encephalitis were tested. Sera from patients with viral aseptic meningitis (n = 47) and from blood donors (n = 69) were used as controls. Among all serum specimens from patients with tick-borne infections submitted for this study, six samples (2·0%) showed positive IgM reactions and seven samples (2·4%) were IgG positive for A. phagocytophilum by immunoblot. Borderline reactivity was found in 30 samples (10·14%) for IgM and 36 samples (12·2%) for IgG. The difference between patients and blood donors was statistically significant for IgM (P = 0·006) and for IgG (P = 0·0007) antibodies. A statistically significant result was obtained for IgG (P = 0·02) but not for IgM between patients and children with aseptic meningitis. Immunoblot using three specific antigens provides novel information about the positivity of antibodies to A. phagocytophilum in children with other tick-borne infections. Taking into account clinical and laboratory findings of children despite antibody positivity, no case of human granulocytic anaplasmosis was demonstrated. PMID:27180603

  9. Whole genome transcription profiling of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in human and tick host cells by tiling array analysis

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    Chavez Adela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging tick-borne disease. Ap alternately infects ticks and mammals and a variety of cell types within each. Understanding the biology behind such versatile cellular parasitism may be derived through the use of tiling microarrays to establish high resolution, genome-wide transcription profiles of the organism as it infects cell lines representative of its life cycle (tick; ISE6 and pathogenesis (human; HL-60 and HMEC-1. Results Detailed, host cell specific transcriptional behavior was revealed. There was extensive differential Ap gene transcription between the tick (ISE6 and the human (HL-60 and HMEC-1 cell lines, with far fewer differentially transcribed genes between the human cell lines, and all disproportionately represented by membrane or surface proteins. There were Ap genes exclusively transcribed in each cell line, apparent human- and tick-specific operons and paralogs, and anti-sense transcripts that suggest novel expression regulation processes. Seven virB2 paralogs (of the bacterial type IV secretion system showed human or tick cell dependent transcription. Previously unrecognized genes and coding sequences were identified, as were the expressed p44/msp2 (major surface proteins paralogs (of 114 total, through elevated signal produced to the unique hypervariable region of each – 2/114 in HL-60, 3/114 in HMEC-1, and none in ISE6. Conclusion Using these methods, whole genome transcription profiles can likely be generated for Ap, as well as other obligate intracellular organisms, in any host cells and for all stages of the cell infection process. Visual representation of comprehensive transcription data alongside an annotated map of the genome renders complex transcription into discernable patterns.

  10. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  11. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 μg/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 μg/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on

  12. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

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    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR and participatory rural appraisal (PRA approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%, followed by Solanaceae (12.5%, Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%, Lamiaceae (6.25%, Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%, while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of

  13. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  14. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations

  15. The pathogen-occupied vacuoles of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale interact with the endoplasmic reticulum

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    Hilary Kay Truchan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma consists of tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacteria that invade white or red blood cells to cause debilitating and potentially fatal infections. A. phagocytophilum, a human and veterinary pathogen, infects neutrophils to cause granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. marginale invades bovine erythrocytes. Evidence suggests that both species may also infect endothelial cells in vivo. In mammalian and arthropod host cells, A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale reside in host cell derived pathogen-occupied vacuoles (POVs. While it was recently demonstrated that the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole (ApV intercepts membrane traffic from the trans-Golgi network, it is unclear if it or the A. marginale-occupied vacuole (AmV interacts with other secretory organelles. Here, we demonstrate that the ApV and AmV extensively interact with the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER in endothelial, myeloid, and/or tick cells. ER lumen markers, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase, and the ER membrane marker, derlin-1, were pronouncedly recruited to the peripheries of both POVs. ApV association with the ER initiated early and continued throughout the infection cycle. Both the ApV and AmV interacted with the rough ER and smooth ER. However, only derlin-1-positive rough ER derived vesicles were delivered into the ApV lumen where they localized with intravacuolar bacteria. Transmission electron microscopy identified multiple ER-POV membrane contact sites on the cytosolic faces of both species’ vacuoles that corresponded to areas on the vacuoles’ lumenal faces where intravacuolar Anaplasma organisms closely associated. A. phagocytophilum is known to hijack Rab10, a GTPase that regulates ER dynamics and morphology. Yet, ApV-ER interactions were unhindered in cells in which Rab10 had been knocked down, demonstrating that the GTPase is dispensable for the bacterium to parasitize the ER. These data establish the ApV and AmV as pathogen

  16. Essential domains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum invasins utilized to infect mammalian host cells.

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    David Seidman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging disease of humans and domestic animals. The obligate intracellular bacterium uses its invasins OmpA, Asp14, and AipA to infect myeloid and non-phagocytic cells. Identifying the domains of these proteins that mediate binding and entry, and determining the molecular basis of their interactions with host cell receptors would significantly advance understanding of A. phagocytophilum infection. Here, we identified the OmpA binding domain as residues 59 to 74. Polyclonal antibody generated against a peptide spanning OmpA residues 59 to 74 inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection of host cells and binding to its receptor, sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x-capped P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Molecular docking analyses predicted that OmpA residues G61 and K64 interact with the two sLe(x sugars that are important for infection, α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose. Amino acid substitution analyses demonstrated that K64 was necessary, and G61 was contributory, for recombinant OmpA to bind to host cells and competitively inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. Adherence of OmpA to RF/6A endothelial cells, which express little to no sLe(x but express the structurally similar glycan, 6-sulfo-sLe(x, required α2,3-sialic acid and α1,3-fucose and was antagonized by 6-sulfo-sLe(x antibody. Binding and uptake of OmpA-coated latex beads by myeloid cells was sensitive to sialidase, fucosidase, and sLe(x antibody. The Asp14 binding domain was also defined, as antibody specific for residues 113 to 124 inhibited infection. Because OmpA, Asp14, and AipA each contribute to the infection process, it was rationalized that the most effective blocking approach would target all three. An antibody cocktail targeting the OmpA, Asp14, and AipA binding domains neutralized A. phagocytophilum binding and infection of host cells. This study dissects OmpA-receptor interactions and demonstrates the effectiveness of binding

  17. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  18. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-01-01

    canine vector-borne diseases or antibodies to these pathogens have been identified in wild canids including visceral leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, heartworm, hepatozoonosis and anaplasmosis to name a few. These reports are relatively recent as they relate to wildlife-domestic animal interactions, globalisation, translocations, habitat fragmentation and climate change. These pathogens and their relationship to wild canids are described herein. Further research needs to be performed to elucidate the role of the 36 extant species of wild canids in the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases. PMID:19426446

  19. Detección de Anaplasma spp. en Garrapatas de Myrmecophaga tridactyla de Vida Libre en la Sabana Inundable de Casanare‚ Colombia -resumen-

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    César Rojano-Bolaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La anaplasmosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por rickettsias del género Anaplasma spp. Su relevancia esta principalmente determinada por el grado de afectación endémica en el ganado doméstico. Una amplia variedad de mamíferos silvestres también son susceptibles a la infección. Las bacterias pueden ser intracitoplasmáticas‚ dañando las estructuras de las células pudiendo causar anemia e ictericia. Algunas especies de Anaplasma spp han sido reportadas como microorganismos potencialmente zoonóticos‚ por lo tanto‚ la anaplasmosis‚ como otras enfermedades transmitidas por garrapatas‚ ha tomado una especial relevancia en la salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de Anaplasma spp.‚ en garrapatas colectadas en nueve osos palmeros (Myrmecophaga tridactyla de vida libre en el municipio de Pore‚ Casanare‚ entre los años 2013 y 2014‚ capturados con el método de búsqueda activa‚ y posteriormente fueron anestesiados utilizando un dardo con Ketamina (12 mg/kg y Xilacina (0‚5 mg/kg por vía intramuscular. Las garrapatas fueron colectadas directamente de los individuos‚ con ayuda de pinzas. En total se obtuvieron 204 ectoparásitos‚ que fueron almacenados en alcohol al 70%‚ y posteriormente fueron identificados como pertenecientes a la especie Amblyomma cajennense. Para este estudio se seleccionaron 55 pool de tres individuos y fueron analizadas por medio de la técnica de PCR en tiempo real. Se detectaron 2 pool de garrapatas positivos a este microorganismo (3‚6 % pertenecientes a dos osos palmeros. Los resultados preliminares de este estudio demuestran que Anaplasma spp. podría estar circulante entre garrapatas A. cajennense de animales silvestres en la sabana inundable del municipio de Pore‚ Casanare. Se hace necesario realizar nuevos muestreos para analizar un mayor número de garrapatas y determinar la especie de Anaplasma spp. presente.

  20. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  1. Survey on tick-borne anaplasmataceae in the south edge of Gurbantunggut desert%古尔班通古特沙漠南缘蜱携带无形体的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆玲; 乔军; 盛金良; 王俊伟; 王为升; 姚娜; 陈创夫; 张丽娟

    2012-01-01

    To understand the tick-borne anaplasmataceae in the south edge of Gurbantunggut desert, ticks specimens from 11 sites in three different habitats areas were collected and identified. Nested PCR was carried to detect positive ticks carring anaplasmataceae,and then 5% end variable region of 16S rRNA gene of anaplasmataceae was amplified by semi-nested PCR for cloning and sequencing. The obtained DNA sequences were compared with the GenBank sequence and phylogenetic tree was constructed with the Mega 5.0 software. The 708 ticks collected from 11 sites were identified as 4 genera and 8 species. 25 were detected positive in the 236 tick samples, with a positive rate of 10.59 %. By sequence analyses, Ehrlichia cha ff eensis , Ehrlichia eanis , Ana plasrna marginale and Ana plasrna ovis were positive in Hyalomrna asiaticum ,Rhipicephalus sanguineeus , Hyalornma detritum and Haemaphysalis longi- cornis,respectively. The results showed that there exists anaplasmataceae in ticks parasited in livestock from the south edge of Gurbantunggut desert,suggesting that the region may be one of natural loci of anaplasmosis.%为了解古尔班通古特沙漠南缘蜱携带无形体的状况,在该地域3个不同生境区域11个地点采集家畜寄生蜱标本,进行分类鉴定;运用套式PCR筛选无形体阳性蜱样本,并用半套式PCR扩增无形体科16SrRNA基因5′端高变区,进行克隆测序;将所获得的DNA序列与GenBank收录的序列作比对,并用Mega 5.0软件构建系统发育树,鉴定蜱携带无形体的种类。结果共采集708只蜱,鉴定为4个属8个种。在分类后的236份蜱样本中,检测出无形体阳性25份,阳性率为10.59%。序列比较发现,在亚洲璃眼蜱、血红扇头蜱、残缘璃眼蜱、长角血蜱中分别存在查菲埃立克体(Ehrlichia chaffeensis)、犬埃立克体(Ehrlichia canis)、边缘无形体(Anaplasma marginale)和绵羊无形体(Anaplasma ovis)的16SrRNA基因片段。研究结果证实

  2. Nachweis von Zytomegalie-Virus Immunglobulin G und M Antikrpernaus filtergetrocknetem Neugeborenenblut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Xiaohu

    2001-01-01

    Clin Microbiol, 1992,30:2353[13]Punnarugsa V, Mungmee V. Detection of rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in whole blood on whatmam paper: Comparison with detection in sera. J Clin Microbiol, 1991,29:2209[14]Ganju L, Gaur A, Talwar G P. Use of filter paper discs as substrate for collection and storage of blood samples for screening of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies. Diagn Clin Immunol, 1988,5: 262[15]Ssenyonga G S, Montenegro-James S, Kakoma I et al.Naplasmosis in Uganda I. Use of dried blood on filter papers and serum samples for serod iagnosis of anaplasmosis-a comparative study. Scand J Immunol, 1992, 11(Suppl): 103[16]Graczyk T K, Fried B. ELISA method for detecting anti-Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)immunoglobulins in experimentally infected ICR mice. J Parasitol, 1994,80: 544

  3. Cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of antibodies to several types of Rickettsia in human and livestock in Jiangsu province%江苏省几种主要类型人畜立克次体抗体阳性检出情况的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兆营; 李亮; 张丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main types of Rickettsia infection, prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia and associated factors among human and livestock in Jiangsu province. Methods Five survey sites in different areas in the Province, e. g. Lishui, Peixian, Xuyi, Yixing and Binhai, were selected. Indirect immunofluorescence was applied to detect antibody IgG and IgM to seven common types of Rickettsia such as Rickettsia mooseri ( RM ) , Rickettsia heilongjiangii ( RH ) , R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii ( CB ), Bartonella henselae/Bartonella quintana ( BH/BQ ) , Ehrlichia chaffeeusis ( MME ) and Human granulocytic anaplasmosis(HGA). Results The prevalence of BH/BQ infection was the highest in 2 562 sera in the five survey sites (24. 8% ). Prevalence of antibodies was higher in women than that in men, except prevalence of antibodies to HGA and BH/BQ, which was higher in men than that in women. Regional difference was found in all Rickettsia infections except RH/RS. Antibodies to seven types of zoonotic Rickettsia were all detected in animals. The prevalence of OT infection was the highest (31.8%). It mainly infected goats and the prevalence was different in various areas. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, sex, area and history of tick/mite bite were associated with the prevalence. Conclusions Several types of Rickettsia infection were prevalent in farming population and livestock in Jiangsu province. Infections by RM, BH/BQ and CB were dominant.%目的 了解江苏省人畜立克次体感染的主要类型、抗体阳性检出率及感染的可能影响因素.方法 按地理位置,选择江苏省溧水县、沛县、盱眙县、宜兴市和滨海县的5个调查点,采用间接免疫荧光法检测莫氏立克次体(RM)、黑龙江立克次体/西伯利亚立克次体(RH/RS)、恙虫病东方体(OT)、贝氏柯克斯体(CB)、横赛巴尔通体/五日热巴尔通体(BH/BQ)、查菲埃立克体(HME)及人粒细胞无形体(HGA)等7种常见立克次

  4. Effect of milk production system on the enzootic stability to Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bovis in calves in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, BrazilEfeito do sistema de produção de leite sobre a estabilidade enzoótica para Anaplasma marginale e Babesia bovis em bezerras na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional observational study, in order to determine the frequency of anti-A. marginale and anti-B. bovis antibodies in calves from four to 12 months of age from ten farms that producing B type milk and an equal number that produce raw milk refrigerated, located in the Campo das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais state, in the period September 2008 to August 2009. Blood smears were performed, serologic testing by indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFAT, given the packed cell volume, rickettsemia, and the clinical scores of animals infected by A. marginale. In the farms that produce B type milk, the overall average frequency of seropositive calves was 94.47% (166/176 and 89.20% (157/176 for A. marginale and B. bovis, respectively. Already on the farms that produce raw milk refrigerated, the overall average frequency of A. marginale was 92.59% (149/161 and for B. bovis from 86.30% (139/161, and there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the frequency of calves infected for both hemoparasitic between the two systems of milk production. Statistically significant (p 0.05 among calves from properties that produce B type milk and raw milk refrigerated. The results of this study indicate that, in the Campos das Vertentes region of Minas Gerais, the production system does not interfere with the enzootic stability for A. marginale and B. bovis in calves from dairy farms B milk or raw milk refrigerated, with low probability of anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis in adults animals.Foi realizado um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, com o objetivo de determinar a frequência de anticorpos anti-A. marginale e B. bovis em 337 bezerras com idade entre quatro a 12 meses, oriundas de dez propriedades produtoras de leite B e igual número de fazendas de leite cru refrigerado (leite C, na região do Campo das Vertentes de Minas Gerais, no período de setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Foram realizados esfregaços sangu

  5. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globalization and climate change have had an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing diseasecausing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wild life and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas, e.g. malaria. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. Insect-borne diseases are now present in temperate areas where the vector insects were non-existent in the past, e.g. trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, bluetongue. Humans are also at an increased risk from insect-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever. Warmer temperatures are already enabling insects and microorganisms to invade and reproduce in areas where they once could not due to severely low temperatures and seasonal chills. A small rise in temperatures can produce a 10-fold increase in a mosquito population causing an increase of malaria cases, and hence, malaria is now occurring in several Eastern European countries as well as in the highland areas of countries like Kenya where historically cooler climatic conditions had prevented the breeding of populations of diseasecarrying mosquitoes. Freshwater snails, intermediate hosts for fascioliasis, a disease that affects millions of herbivorous animals and humans can now be observed in areas above 4200 meters above sea level in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia as milder temperatures and altered environment conditions are more favourable to their survival. Important zoonotic diseases such as avian influenza, Lyme disease and Rift Valley fever are also likely to spread. Avian influenza viruses occur naturally in wild birds

  6. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  7. Doenças de bovinos no Sul do Brasil: 6.706 casos Diseases of cattle in southern Brazil: 6.706 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2010-05-01

    exams 29.9% were necropsies performed at the LPV-UFSM and 79.1% were mailed-in organ fragments from necropsies performed at the field by veterinary practitioners. Autolysis and non-representative sampling o mailed in organs were the main reasons for non-conclusive diagnosis. Poisoning by Senecio spp. was the main cause of death in cattle in this study and poisonous plants together with toxi-infections accounted for 22.8% of the cases with conclusive diagnosis. Inflammatory diseases together with parasitic diseases accounted for more than 30% of cattle diseases and babesiosis and anaplasmosis were the main diseases in this category. Other categories were distributed in the following order: neoplasms and tumor-like lesions (13.87%, diseases caused by physical agents (2.7%, metabolic and nutritional diseases (2.46%, circulatory disturbances (1.4%, degenerative diseases (1.1%, developmental disorders (0.54%, iatrogenic diseases and sundry lesions. The high prevalence of tumors in cattle in this study was attributed to the chronic ingestion of Pteridium aquilinum, a common toxicosis in the region. The main diseases in cattle from the studied region are related to environmental factors associated to the predominantly husbandry practices adopted in the region.

  8. 新疆和硕地区荒漠景观中无形体感染的流行病学调查%Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. infection in a desert landscape region of Heshuo, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂林; 孙响; 赵焱; 刘晓明; 郑重; 孙毅; 刘然

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence ot Anaptasmosts among human,domestic sheep and tick population in Heshuo area,southern Xinjiang and to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species.Methods Ticks were captured from wild field and blood samples were collected from healthy residents and their domestic sheep.Indirect fluorescent assay was carried out to determine the presence of Anaplasma specific IgG antibodies in blood sample of human and goats,respectively.Nested PCR and sequence alignment of Anaplasma partial 16S rDNA were used to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species.Results 43.31% (55/127) of human beings and 27.50% (55/200) of the goats were found positive forAnaplasma specific IgG.In total,367 ticks were captured,including 3 genus and 4 species,which mainly consisting of dominate Hyalomma (H.)asiaticum (47.41%) and Rhipicephalus (R.)pumilio (37.60%).5.00% (18/360) of the questing ticks and 4.49% (7/156) of the goat blood samples were found to have had 16S rDNA,representing Anaplasma sp.by nested PCR,but none was found from human beings.Results from sequencial alignment revealed that the positive amplicons were identified to be Anaplasma phagocytophilum (99.2% GU046565,99.5% GU064897 and 99.5% AB196721)and Anaplasma central (99.2%GU064903).Conclusion Human and zoonotic anaplasmosis,which were probably transmitted by H.asiaticum and R.pumilio,were co-circulating in the desert landscape of Heshuo area,Xinjiang.%目的 明确无形体病在新疆南部和硕地区人群、山羊与媒介蜱种群中流行状况,探明该地区无形体种属多样性.方法 采集当地健康人和山羊的血液样本,捕捉蜱样本;利用间接免疫荧光方法检测血清无形体特异性IgG抗体;通过巢式PCR方法检测无形体16S rDNA基因片段,通过序列比对分析确定无形体种属特征.结果 和硕地区农牧民、山羊血清中无形体特异性IgG抗体阳性率分别为43.31%(55/127)和27.50%(55/200)