WorldWideScience

Sample records for analyzing power measurements

  1. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Akdogan, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Clasie, B.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Franklin, W.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Kolster, H.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Tschalaer, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T 20 and T 21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50 fm -1 with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors G C and G Q were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of G C was confirmed at Q=4.19±0.05 fm -1 . The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T 20 and the first node of G C .

  2. Proton--proton analyzing power measurements at 16 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovoi, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to measure accurately the proton--proton analyzing powers at low energies. With the advent of polarized particle beams the measurement can now be made with high accuracy. Analyzing powers were measured at nine scattering angles from 10 0 to 35 0 in the laboratory system. As a check on systematic errors, analyzing power measurements were also made by scattering protons from 4 He. In the p vector-p case the measured values are in very good agreement with the phase shift predictions. The p vector- 4 He measurements, while giving the same form and sign as the phase shift predictions, differ from the predictions by as much as 11 standard deviations. The p vector-p analyzing powers had a maximum value of -0.0043 +- 0.0004 at 10 0 (laboratory) and decreased to zero near 25 0 . A new technique to measure analyzing powers without symmetric detectors is explained. This technique preserves the advantages of the symmetric arm method in that current integration, target density, detector efficiencies, and geometry are cancelled from the final expressions. A new scattering chamber, named the Supercube, is described. The Supercube was designed primarily to perform scattering experiments with a polarized beam. It contains both left-right and up-down detectors for use with both spin- 1 / 2 and spin-1 measurements. The Supercube was designed to make analyzing power measurements to an accuracy of 0.001 routine. The Supercube has proved to have low systematic errors and to perform as expected. The systematic errors were found to be equal to or less than 0.0002

  3. Unique electron polarimeter analyzing power comparison and precision spin-based energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Grames; Charles Sinclair; Joseph Mitchell; Eugene Chudakov; Howard Fenker; Arne Freyberger; Douglas Higinbotham; Poelker, B.; Michael Steigerwald; Michael Tiefenback; Christian Cavata; Stephanie Escoffier; Frederic Marie; Thierry Pussieux; Pascal Vernin; Samuel Danagoulian; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Renee Fatemi; Kyungseon Joo; Markus Zeier; Viktor Gorbenko; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Brian Raue; Riad Suleiman; Benedikt Zihlmann

    2004-01-01

    Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beamline of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the relative analyzing powers of the five polarimeters. This is the first time a precise comparison of the analyzing powers of Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering polarimeters has been made. Statistically significant disagreements among the values of the beam polarization calculated from the asymmetry measurements made with each polarimeter reveal either errors in the values of the analyzing power, or failure to correctly include all systematic effects. The measurements reported here represent a first step toward understanding the systematic effects of these electron polarimeters. Such studies are necessary to realize high absolute accuracy (ca. 1%) electron polarization measurements, as required for some parity violation measurements planned at Jefferson Laboratory. Finally, a comparison of the value of the spin orientation exiting the injector that provides maximum longitudinal polarization in each experimental hall leads to an independent and very precise (better than 10-4) absolute measurement of the final electron beam energy

  4. Time-domain measurement technique to analyze cyclic short-time interference in power supply networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Iwan; Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Azpurua, Marco; Silva, Ferran; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Conducted interference caused by equipment connected to power supply networks, and the interference in these networks, is conventionally measured using (slow) scanning tuned electromagnetic interference (EMI) receivers. A voltage sensor which separates common mode and differential mode in a

  5. Measurement of the analyzing power in antipp elastic scattering between 439 and 697 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, H.; Chaumeaux, A.; Faivre, J.C.; Vercellin, E.; Arvieux, J.; Yonnet, J.; Van den Brands, B.; Konter, J.A.; Gill, D.R.; Mango, S.; Wait, G.D.; Boschitz, E.; Gyles, W.; List, W.; Otterman, C.; Tacik, R.; Wessler, M.; Descrois, E.; Grossiors, J.Y.; Guichard, A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular distributions of the analyzing power A y and of the differential cross section dσ/DΩ in antipp elastic scattering have been measured at 439, 544 and 697 MeV/c. Our results of A y are compared with those measured at nearby energies, and with various theoretical models

  6. Measurement of the vector and tensor analyzing powers for dp-elastic scattering at 880 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilkin, P.K., E-mail: pkurilkin@jinr.ru [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ladygin, V.P. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Uesaka, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Itoh, K. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama (Japan); Janek, M. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, University of Zilina, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Karachuk, J.-T. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Kawabata, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Kizka, V.A. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Krasnov, V.A. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladygina, N.B. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Livanov, A.N. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maeda, Y. [Kyushi University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 812 (Japan); Malakhov, A.I.; Piyadin, S.M.; Reznikov, S.G. [VBLHEP-JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-08-29

    The vector A{sub y} and tensor analyzing powers A{sub yy} and A{sub xx} for dp-elastic scattering were measured at T{sub d}{sup lab}=880 MeV over the c.m. angular range from 60 Degree-Sign to 140 Degree-Sign at the JINR Nuclotron. The data are compared with predictions of different theoretical models based on the use of nucleon-nucleon forces only. The observed discrepancies of the measured analyzing powers from the calculations require the consideration of additional mechanisms.

  7. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at Remote Sites with New Low-Power Lightweight Fast Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liukang; Burba, George; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Zona, Donatella; McDermitt, Dayle K.; Anderson, Tyler; Oberbauer, Steven; Oechel, Walter; Komissarov, Anatoly; Riensche, Brad

    2010-05-01

    Majority of natural methane production happens at remote unpopulated areas in ecosystems with little or no infrastructure or easily available grid power, such as arctic and boreal wetlands, tropical mangroves, etc. Present approaches for direct measurements of CH4 fluxes rely on fast closed-path analyzers, which have to work under significantly reduced pressures, and require powerful pumps and grid power. Power and labor demands may be reasons why CH4 flux is often measured at locations with good infrastructure and grid power, and not with high CH4 production. An instrument was developed to allow Eddy Covariance measurements of CH4 flux with power consumption 30-150 times below presently available technologies. This instrument, LI-7700, uses good frequency response and undisturbed in-situ sampling. It enables long-term deployment of permanent, portable or mobile CH4 flux stations at remote locations with high CH4 production, because it can be powered by a solar panels or a small generator. Authors appreciate help and support provided by the LI-COR Engineering Team, Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC), and numerous colleagues involved in measurements, logistics, and maintenance of the experimental field sites. This project was supported by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) program of the Department of Energy (DOE), Grant Number DE-FG02-05ER84283.

  8. Analyzing-Power Measurements for Neutron Scattering from Hydrogen and Bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Gary James

    This dissertation presents two sets of analyzing power rm A_{y}(theta) data: n-p rm A_{y}( theta) at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, and 18.5 MeV and ^{209}Bi(n,n) rm A_{y}(theta) at 6.0 and 9.0 MeV. The two sets of data pertain to two contrasting and complimentary ways of studying the nuclear potential, both of which are reviewed: the n-p data is placed in the context of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction as modeled by meson-exchange approaches; the ^ {209}Bi data is modeled as a nucleon-nucleus interaction with the phenomenological optical model. Both experiments were done at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, using a Lamb-shift polarized ion source and a tandem Van de Graaff generator. In both cases the time -of-flight technique was used to identify elastically scattered neutrons: the n-p rm A_{y}( theta) data was taken with an active target, detecting scattered neutrons, and a d.c. beam; the ^{209}Bi data was taken with an inactive target and a pulsed beam. The n-p data was corrected for background and finite geometry effects: special care was taken with one finite-geometry effect, due to the presence of carbon in the neutron detectors. The final rm A_ {y}(theta) data are reported with low uncertainties, typically +/- 0.0015. Comparisons are made between the final n-p data and predictions of two NN potential models, the Bonn and the Paris, and two 0-350 MeV phase-shift studies due to R. Arndt and the University of Nijmegen. The Nijmegen analysis incorporates large charge-independence breaking effects in the NN interaction. The final data favors the Bonn and Paris predictions but proves to be of insufficient accuracy to conclusively confirm or reject the Nijmegen predictions. The ^{209}Bi(n,n) data are also corrected for background and finite geometry effects. To attain purely direct-reaction elastic scattering rm A_{y}(theta), elastic scattering through the compound-nucleus is modeled and removed from the data at low energies. An optical -model analysis

  9. Measurement of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen and dd→3Hp reactions at RIKEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.

    2000-01-01

    A new experiment is proposed to measure the angular distribution of the tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen and dd→ 3 Hp reactions using polarized deuteron beam at RIKEN. These polarization observables are sensitive to the spin-momentum distribution of neutron (proton) in 3 He( 3 H) at short distances in the framework of one-nucleon exchange approximation. These measurements will provide new insight into the 3-nucleon system spin structure at distances unreachable at the moment using electromagnetic probes

  10. Measurements of NN yields d. pi. very near threshold. Pt. 2; The pp yields d. pi. sup + analyzing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, E.; Li, Jin; Elliott, J.B.; Mack, D.J.; Rodning, N.L. (Nuclear Research Centre, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)); Hutcheon, D.A.; Abegg, R.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Miller, C.A. (Nuclear Research Centre, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada) TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-12-30

    We have measured analyzing powers for the reaction pp{yields}d{pi}{sup +} at beam energies 3 and 7 MeV above pion-production threshold. With the use of Watson's theorem to fix phases and effective range estimates of pion d-wave strength, we have been able to determine the NN{yields}d{pi} s-wave amplitude and the major p-wave amplitude at these energies. The results are compared to the Faddeev model predictions of Blankleider. (orig.).

  11. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  12. Analyzing power measurements for the d+d-d+p+n breakup reaction at 12MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsher, P.D.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Roberts, M.L.; Hanly, J.K.; Weisel, G.J,; Ohali, M. Al; Walter, R.L.; Slaus, I.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Mertens, G.; Fonseca, G.; Soldi, A.; Vlahovic, B.

    1997-07-10

    We report the most extensive set of vector iT11 and tensor T20 and T22 analyzing-power for the d=d-d=p=n reaction. Two-particle coincidence data have been measured for six deuteron-proton, three deuteron-neutron and three proton-neutron angle pairs at an incident deuteron energy of 12.0MeV. These data are compared to impulse-approximation calculations that threat the underlying nucleon-deuteron system exactly and include contributions from both target and projectile breakup processes. This model gives a good description of the analyzing-power and relative cross-section data. We show that the inclusion of nucleon-nucleon P interactions considerably improves the agreement with the spin observables. The disagreement between the data and theoretical predictions show the limitations in our model and the importance of the rescattering processes. We suggest that the d+d three-body breakup process will provide useful information on the nucleon-nucleon force when exact calculations become available. [S0556-2813(97)02907-5

  13. Cross-section and analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,pn)n reaction at 189 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B D; Sowinski, J; Baldwin, A R; Franklin, W; Watson, J W; Wissink, S; Wolanski, M; Yang, G; Glöckle, W; Witala, H

    2000-01-01

    We measured cross sections and analyzing powers for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H and sup 2 H(n,pn)n reactions at 189 MeV at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). These measurements are designed to search for evidence of three-body forces in the nuclear force and have the advantage that the Coulomb force is not involved. The analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H reaction are in close agreement with those from the analog sup 2 H(p,p) sup 2 H reaction at nearby energies and do not agree quantitatively with available three-body, Faddeev calculations, either with or without three-body forces included. The sup 2 H(n,pn)n measurements are still under analysis.

  14. Measurement of Analyzing Powers for the Reaction \\vec{p}+CH_2 at p_p = 1.75-5.3 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Azhgirey, L S; Basilev, S N; Bushuev, Yu P; Glagolev, V V; Kirillov, D A; Korovin, P P; Manyakov, P K; Piskunov, N M; Sitnik, I M; Slepnev, V M; Muvsinsky, J; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Punjabi, V; Jones, M K; Kumbartzki, G F; Atanasov, I

    2004-01-01

    We report a new measurement of analyzing powers for the reaction \\vec{p}+CH_2\\to one charged particle+X at proton momenta of 1.75, 3.8, 4.5 and 5.3 GeV/c. These results extend the existing data basis, necessary for proton polarimetry at intermediate energy, and confirm the feasibility of a large acceptance polarimeter based on this process.

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  16. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  17. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  18. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  19. Analyzing Technique of Power Systems Under Deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ishigame, Atsushi

    Deregulation of the electric utilities has been progressing. Even under the deregulation, the reliability should be the most important problem of power systems. However, according to the deregulation, operation and scheduling of power systems are changing and new techniques to analyze power systems are introducing. To evaluate reliability of power systems, adequacy and security are well employed recently. This paper presents the new analyzing technique which will be realized in near future from the viewpoint of adequacy and security. First, simulation tool to evaluate adequacy is described. As an example of this tool, MARS and other methods are mentioned. Next, to evaluate the security, security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) are mentioned. Finally, some topics concerning ancillary service are described.

  20. Analyzing power measurement of pp elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region with the 200-GeV/c polarized-proton beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Bonner, B.E.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Bravar, A.; Giacomich, R.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; van Rossum, L.; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Laghai, M.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Shima, T.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Iwatani, K.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Salvato, G.; Takashima, R.

    1993-01-01

    The analyzing power A N of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5x10 -3 to 5.0x10 -2 (GeV/c) 2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed

  1. Analyzing power measurements for the {rvec d}+d{r_arrow}d+p+n breakup reaction at 12 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsher, P.D.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.; Roberts, M.L.; Hanly, J.M.; Weisel, G.J.; Ohali, M.A.; Walter, R.L. [Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Slaus, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0308 (United States); Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 20057 (United States); Mertens, G. [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Fonseca, A.C. [Centro Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto, 2, P-1699 Lisbon (Portugal); Soldi, A.; Vlahovic, B. [North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We report the most extensive set of vector iT{sub 11} and tensor T{sub 20} and T{sub 22} analyzing-power data for the {rvec d}+d{r_arrow}d+p+n reaction. Two-particle coincidence data have been measured for six deuteron-proton, three deuteron-neutron and three proton-neutron angle pairs at an incident deuteron energy of 12.0 MeV. These data are compared to impulse-approximation calculations that treat the underlying nucleon-deuteron system exactly and include contributions from both target and projectile breakup processes. This model gives a good description of the analyzing-power and relative cross-section data. We show that the inclusion of nucleon-nucleon P interactions considerably improves the agreement with the spin observables. The disagreement between the data and theoretical predictions show the limitations in our model and the importance of the rescattering processes. We suggest that the d+d three-body breakup process will provide useful information on the nucleon-nucleon force when exact calculations become available. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Measurement of the inclusive p-C analyzing power and cross section in the 1 GeV region and calibration of the new polarimeter POMME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Fanet, H.; Fergerson, R.W.; Garcon, M.; Giorgetti, C.; Habault, J.; Le Meur, J.; Lombard, R.M.; Lugol, J.C.; Mayer, B.; Mouly, J.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Morlet, M.; Wiele, J. van de; Willis, A.; Greeniaus, G.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver; Gaillard, G.; Markowitz, P.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Abegg, R.; Hutcheon, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the polarimeter POMME, and give the results of its calibration in the region 200-1200 MeV, using the Saturne polarized proton beam. The high energy part of this domain (800-1200 MeV) was previously unexplored. Parametrizations of the inclusive p-C analyzing power and polarimeter efficiency as a function of scattering angle and incident energy are given, completing the data already available at lower energies. The optimization of proton polarimeters in this energy domain is also discussed. (orig.)

  3. ANALYZER OF QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE ELECTRIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Semilyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of the research center for “Energy Saving Technologies and Smart Metering in Electrical Power Engineering" is research work on the use of electronic devices and systems of intelligent power distribution, produced by Analog Devices and equipped with the accurate energy consumption measurement feature. The article focuses on the development of the analyzer of quantity and quality of electric energy.The main part of the analyzer is a metering IC by Analog Devices ADE7878, designed for use in commercial and industrial smart electricity meters. Such counters measure the amount of consumed or produced electric energy with high accuracy and have the means of remote meter reading.

  4. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2.......The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2....

  5. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  6. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  7. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  8. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn [Oak Ridge, TN; Chen, Da-Ren [Creve Coeur, MO

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  9. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  10. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  11. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  12. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  13. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  14. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  17. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  18. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki; Ishige, Takanori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring a power such as of a nuclear fission reactor or a thermonuclear reactor by utilizing a light emitting phenomenon by radiation rays of gases. Namely, a measuring vessel sealed with a gas scintillator is inserted to the inside of a reactor. The measuring vessel is optically connected to a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor is electrically connected with a signal processing device. With such a constitution, gases sealed in the measuring vessel are ionized by radiation rays released in proportion to the power of the reactor to cause scintillation emission. The light is converted into electric signals by the photoelectric convertor. Reactor power can be monitored by the signal processing device having the electric signals as an input. According to the present invention, since the gas scintillation detector is used, the device is simplified and time responsiveness can be improved. As a result, the function of the reactor power measuring device can be improved. (I.S.)

  19. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brihaye, Thomas; Jungers, Marc; Lasaulce, Samson

    2010-01-01

    Model checking (MC) is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control ( PC) problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors...... wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some...... objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired...

  20. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking (MC is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control (PC problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired properties are verified and determine a winning strategy.

  1. Synchronized Phasor Data for Analyzing Wind Power Plant Dynamic Behavior and Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the power grid. One of those is the implementation of 'wide area measurements' using phasor measurement units (PMUs) to dynamically monitor the operations and the status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. This project seeks to obtain PMU data from wind power plants and grid reference points and develop software tools to analyze and visualize synchrophasor data for the purpose of better understanding wind power plant dynamic behaviors under normal and contingency conditions.

  2. Digital Power Network Parameters Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hribik, J.; Fuchs, P.; Hruskovic, M.; Michalek, R.; Lojko, B.

    2005-01-01

    Exact measurement of the parameters of a power network is now possible by digital methods. The description of the proposed and realized instrument based on the digital sampling method is given. It can measure basic parameters of the three-phase power network such as rms values of voltages and currents, powers, energies, power factors and the network frequency. Questions concerning the accuracy of measurement, error sources, and error correction are also given. A method of calibration based on...

  3. Low-Power Architecture for an Optical Life Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey; Vakhtin, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Analog and digital electronic control architecture has been combined with an operating methodology for an optical trace gas sensor platform that allows very low power consumption while providing four independent gas measurements in essentially real time, as well as a user interface and digital data storage and output. The implemented design eliminates the cross-talk between the measurement channels while maximizing the sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range for each measured gas. The combination provides for battery operation on a simple camcorder battery for as long as eight hours. The custom, compact, rugged, self-contained design specifically targets applications of optical major constituent and trace gas detection for multiple gases using multiple lasers and photodetectors in an integrated package.

  4. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nike Shanku

    2010-01-01

    Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many m...

  5. The quality infrastructure measuring, analyzing, and improving library services

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    Summarizing specific tools for measuring service quality alongside tips for using these tools most effectively, this book helps libraries of all kinds take a programmatic approach to measuring, analyzing, and improving library services.

  6. Measuring National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    materialistic . It is not easy for the United States to do much about that backlash. When, moreover, the United States acts like a "normal" power, it breaks the...policies. To those for whom life centers on faith, America seems immodest and materialistic . Masoumeh Ebtekar, the highest-ranking woman in the...of art, films, and other icons of culture; Japanese films are now "cool" when the global teenager is not necessarily American. One could ask how much

  7. Development of general-purpose software to analyze the static thermal characteristic of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Koda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the general-purpose software by which static thermal characteristic of the power generation system is analyzed easily. This software has the notable features as follows. It has the new algorithm to solve non-linear simultaneous equations to analyze the static thermal characteristics such as heat and mass balance, efficiencies, etc. of various power generation systems. It has the flexibility for setting calculation conditions. It is able to be executed on the personal computer easily and quickly. We ensured that it is able to construct heat and mass balance diagrams of main steam system of nuclear power plant and calculate the power output and efficiencies of the system. Furthermore, we evaluated various heat recovery measures of steam generator blowdown water and found that this software could be a useful operation aid for planning effective changes in support of power stretch. (author)

  8. Zero-crossing angle of the np analyzing power below 300 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.A.; Abegg, R.; Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Gan, L.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Helmer, R.; Korkmaz, E.; Li, J.; Miller, C.A.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Zhao, J.

    1995-01-01

    The zero point of the analyzing power for neutron-proton scattering has been measured as a function of scattering angle for 4 incident neutron energies, 174.3, 202.4, 216.5, and 260.3 MeV. The accuracy is ±0.25 degree

  9. Zero-crossing angle of the {ital np} analyzing power below 300 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada)]|[University of Manitoba, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Abegg, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada)]|[University of Alberta, Department of Physics, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Gan, L. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G. [University of Alberta, Department of Physics, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Helmer, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Korkmaz, E.; Li, J. [University of Alberta, Department of Physics, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Miller, C.A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Opper, A.K. [University of Alberta, Department of Physics, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Zhao, J. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    1995-07-15

    The zero point of the analyzing power for neutron-proton scattering has been measured as a function of scattering angle for 4 incident neutron energies, 174.3, 202.4, 216.5, and 260.3 MeV. The accuracy is {plus_minus}0.25{degree}. (AIP)

  10. Cross section and analyzing power for quasifree (p,n) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddeucci, T.N.; Byrd, R.C.; Carey, T.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Rybarcyk, L.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Ciskowski, D.E.; Goodman, C.D.; Huang, W.; Gulmez, E.; Marchlenski, D.; Sugarbaker, E.; Prout, D.; Rapaport, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for 12 C(p,n) at 494 MeV and 795 MeV and for Pb(p,n) at 795 MeV. The data span an energy loss range of at least 200 MeV, which is sufficient to clearly reveal the large peak associated with quasifree neutron knockout. The kinematics, cross section, and analyzing power for this peak are compared to the corresponding observables for free nucleon-nucleon scattering and to the observables calculated with a relativistic Fermi-gas model. 15 refs., 3 figs

  11. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  12. N-16 power measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, K.F.

    1977-12-01

    The thermal power output of a reactor can be measured by monitoring the total amount of heat removed from the reactor core per unit of time. Other methods of measuring the power level indirectly, as for instance, utilizing the neutron flux outside the core, have the disadvantage of heavy influences on the accuracy due to changes of the neutron flux distribution in the core caused by control rod operation and xenon buildup effects. Heat balance (ΔT) measurements in the primary loop are used to measure reactor power but require hot leg RTD bypass loops and have slow time response. An N-16 system has been developed which shows several advantages over the ΔT and excore power measurements. The Nitrogen-16 (N-16) activity in the primary coolant water of a PWR has long been considered as a possible parameter for continuous measurement of reactor power level. The N-16 activity is formed by fast neutron activation of Oxygen-16 contained in the water. Activation results from a threshold reaction requiring >10 MeV neutrons. It can be shown that the N-16 content in the coolant is a direct measure of the integrated fast flux throughout the core and is thereby a direct measure of the fission rate and total power generated. Decay of the N-16 produces 6 MeV gamma rays which readily penetrate the wall of the high pressure piping. Thus, the N-16 concentration in the coolant can easily be monitored by measuring the gamma radiation outside the pipe--for instance, at the hot leg of the coolant loop. The N-16 power monitor is calibrated against secondary heat balance measurements, since these are assumed to give the most accurate information on the absolute thermal power level

  13. Feminized Power and Adversarial Advocacy: Levelling Arguments or Analyzing Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Celeste Michelle

    1989-01-01

    Examines the journalistic analysis of the 1988 Presidential Debates from a feminist perspective in order to identify the revisions needed in the debate process. Provides historical background of feminized power and adversarial advocacy. (MM)

  14. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  15. An electron density measurement using an analyzer based imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewer, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Using a monochromatic X-ray beam from a synchrotron source the electron density of a homogeneous target was determined by measuring the refraction that occurs at the air-target interface for a known angle of incidence. The angle of deviation that these X-rays undergo at the transition between materials is micro-radian to submicro-radian in scale. Existing analyzer based imaging systems are designed to measure submicro-radian angle changes and commonly use monochromatic hard X-ray beams generated from synchrotron sources. A preliminary experiment using the analyzer based imaging apparatus at the Canadian Light Source Biomedical Imaging and Therapy beamline and a half cylinder shaped plastic target will be presented. By measuring the angle of deviation of the photon beam at several discrete angular positions of the target the electron density of the target material was determined.

  16. FY17 CSSE L2 Milestone Report: Analyzing Power Usage Characteristics of Workloads Running on Trinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a FY17 CSSE L2 milestone to in- vestigate the power usage behavior of ASC workloads running on the ATS-1 Trinity plat- form. Techniques were developed to instrument application code regions of interest using the Power API together with the Kokkos profiling interface and Caliper annotation library. Experiments were performed to understand the power usage behavior of mini-applications and the SNL/ATDM SPARC application running on ATS-1 Trinity Haswell and Knights Landing compute nodes. A taxonomy of power measurement approaches was identified and presented, providing a guide for application developers to follow. Controlled scaling study experiments were performed on up to 2048 nodes of Trinity along with smaller scale ex- periments on Trinity testbed systems. Additionally, power and energy system monitoring information from Trinity was collected and archived for post analysis of "in-the-wild" work- loads. Results were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the workloads to ATS-1 compute node type (Haswell vs. Knights Landing), CPU frequency control, node-level power capping control, OpenMP configuration, Knights Landing on-package memory configuration, and algorithm/solver configuration. Overall, this milestone lays groundwork for addressing the long-term goal of determining how to best use and operate future ASC platforms to achieve the greatest benefit subject to a constrained power budget.

  17. Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Ion Behavior in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore

    2002-02-06

    Initial results obtained with the Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented. Magnetohydrodynamic activity and reconnection events cause depletion of the deuterium energetic ion distribution created by neutral-beam injection. Adding High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating to neutral-beam-heated discharges results in the generation of an energetic ion tail above the beam injection energy. NPA measurements of the residual hydrogen ion temperature are in good agreement with those from recombination spectroscopy.

  18. Initial Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Ion Temperature in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; M.P. Petrov; A.L. Roquemore; and E.V. Suvorkin

    2002-07-08

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer which measures the energy spectra of minority H and bulk D species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 msec. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from (delta)E/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector. The NPA measures thermal Maxwellian ion spectra to obtain line integrated ion temperatures, T{sub i}. For line integral electron densities below neL {approx} 3.5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -2}, good agreement is observed between the line integrated NPA T{sub i} and the central T{sub i}(0) measured by the spatially localized CHarge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic. However, with increasingly higher n{sub eL} the NPA T{sub i} falls below the central T{sub i}(0) measured by CHERS because the charge exchange neutral emissivity weights the line integrated NPA measurement outboard of the plasma core. An analytic neutral analysis code, DOUBLE, has been applied to the NPA data to correct for this effect and restore agreement with T{sub i}(0) measured by CHERS. A description of the NPA diagnostic on NSTX and initial ion temperature measurements along with an illustration of application of the DOUBLE code are presented.

  19. Fusion Power measurement at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertalot, L.; Barnsley, R.; Krasilnikov, V.; Stott, P.; Suarez, A.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fusion research aims to provide energy for the future in a sustainable way and the ITER project scope is to demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear fusion energy. ITER is a nuclear experimental reactor based on a large scale fusion plasma (tokamak type) device generating Deuterium - Tritium (DT) fusion reactions with emission of 14 MeV neutrons producing up to 700 MW fusion power. The measurement of fusion power, i.e. total neutron emissivity, will play an important role for achieving ITER goals, in particular the fusion gain factor Q related to the reactor performance. Particular attention is given also to the development of the neutron calibration strategy whose main scope is to achieve the required accuracy of 10% for the measurement of fusion power. Neutron Flux Monitors located in diagnostic ports and inside the vacuum vessel will measure ITER total neutron emissivity, expected to range from 1014 n/s in Deuterium - Deuterium (DD) plasmas up to almost 10 21 n/s in DT plasmas. The neutron detection systems as well all other ITER diagnostics have to withstand high nuclear radiation and electromagnetic fields as well ultrahigh vacuum and thermal loads. (authors)

  20. Forward angle quasi-free proton-neutron analyzing powers at 0.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    As the first step in determining the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes at small momentum transfers at 0.8 GeV, quasi-free p vector + n and p vector + p analyzing powers were obtained at laboratory scattering angles from 6 0 to 32.9 0 by scattering 800-MeV polarized protons from a liquid deuterium target. Forward-scattered protons were detected by the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), while recoil neutrons and protons were detected in coincidence with the event detected with the HRS by a 5 x 5 array of scintillators. A thin scintillator placed between the target and the array enabled discrimination of recoil particle type and facilitated the simultaneous measurement of both p vector n and n vector p analyzing powers. A comparison of the results with previously measured free p vector p and n vector p analyzing powers shows excellent agreement between the free and quasi-free p vector p analyzing powers. Poorer agreement is seen for the p vector n analyzing powers. The results of phase-shift analyses are presented in order to study the effects of the quasi-free analyzing power measurements on the determination of the pn scattering amplitudes. Amplitudes obtained from the phase-shift analyses are then used in KMT calculations. The results indicate that further nucleon-nucleon measurements are necessary in order to determine the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes unambiguously at 800 MeV

  1. A Portable, Field-Deployable Analyzer for Isotopic Water Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, E. S.; Gupta, M.; Huang, Y. W.; Lacelle, D.; McKay, C. P.; Fortson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water stable isotopes have for many years been used to study the hydrological cycle, catchment hydrology, and polar climate among other applications. Typically, discrete water samples are collected and transported to a laboratory for isotope analysis. Due to the expense and labor associated with such sampling, isotope studies have generally been limited in scope and time-resolution. Field sampling of water isotopes has been shown in recent years to provide dense data sets with the increased time resolution illuminating substantially greater short term variability than is generally observed during discrete sampling. A truly portable instrument also opens the possibility to utilize the instrument as a tool for identifying which water samples would be particularly interesting for further laboratory investigation. To make possible such field measurements of liquid water isotopes, Los Gatos Research has developed a miniaturized, field-deployable liquid water isotope analyzer. The prototype miniature liquid water isotope analyzer (mini-LWIA) uses LGR's patented Off-Axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) technology in a rugged, Pelican case housing for easy transport and field operations. The analyzer simultaneously measures both δ2H and δ18O from liquid water, with both manual and automatic water introduction options. The laboratory precision for δ2H is 0.6 ‰, and for δ18O is 0.3 ‰. The mini-LWIA was deployed in the high Arctic during the summer of 2015 at Inuvik in the Canadian Northwest Territories. Samples were collected from Sachs Harbor, on the southwest coast of Banks Island, including buried basal ice from the Lurentide Ice Sheet, some ice wedges, and other types of ground ice. Methodology and water analysis results from this extreme field deployment will be presented.

  2. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  3. Zero-crossing angle of the {ital n}-{ital p} analyzing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.A.; Abegg, R.; Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Gan, L.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Helmer, R.; Korkmaz, E.; Li, J.; Miller, C.A.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; van Oers, W.T.; Zhao, J. [University of Manitoba, Department of Physics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 2A3 (CANADA)]|[University of Alberta, Department of Physics, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2N5 (CANADA)

    1996-05-01

    The angles at which the {ital n}-{ital p} elastic scattering neutron analyzing power {ital A}{sub 00{ital n}0} crosses zero were measured with precision at four TRIUMF energies below 300 MeV. The mean interaction energies are also measured with greater precision than in previous experiments. The results are {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=175.26{plus_minus}0.23 MeV, {theta}{sub {ital zx}}=98.48{degree}{plus_minus}0.28{degree}; {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=203.15{plus_minus}0.20 MeV, {theta}{sub {ital zx}}=91.31{degree}{plus_minus}0.18{degree}; {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=217.24{plus_minus}0.19 MeV, {theta}{sub {ital zx}}=87.64{degree}{plus_minus}0.18{degree}; and {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=261.00{plus_minus}0.16 MeV, {theta}{sub {ital zx}}=80.18{degree}{plus_minus}0.19{degree}. After correction for charge symmetry breaking effects, the energy where the {ital averaged} neutron-proton analyzing power crosses zero at {theta}{sub {ital zx}}=90{degree} is found to be {ital E}{sub {ital n}}=206.8{plus_minus}0.6 MeV. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Zero-crossing angle of the n-p analyzing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.A.; Abegg, R.; Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Gan, L.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Helmer, R.; Korkmaz, E.; Li, J.; Miller, C.A.; Opper, A.K.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; van Oers, W.T.; Zhao, J.

    1996-01-01

    The angles at which the n-p elastic scattering neutron analyzing power A 00n0 crosses zero were measured with precision at four TRIUMF energies below 300 MeV. The mean interaction energies are also measured with greater precision than in previous experiments. The results are E n =175.26±0.23 MeV, θ zx =98.48 degree ±0.28 degree; E n =203.15±0.20 MeV, θ zx =91.31 degree ±0.18 degree; E n =217.24±0.19 MeV, θ zx =87.64 degree ±0.18 degree; and E n =261.00±0.16 MeV, θ zx =80.18 degree ±0.19 degree. After correction for charge symmetry breaking effects, the energy where the averaged neutron-proton analyzing power crosses zero at θ zx =90 degree is found to be E n =206.8±0.6 MeV. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2013-06-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analyzers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and season-long performance were not assessed. The open-path gas analyzer is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, whereas for G1301-f methane measurements interference from water vapor is straightforward to correct since the instrument measures both gases simultaneously. In any case, if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyzer is needed.

  6. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, M. E., E-mail: mgriswold@trialphaenergy.com; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  7. Analyzing wind turbine directional behavior: SCADA data mining techniques for efficiency and power assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Sdringola, Paolo; Proietti, Stefania; Terzi, Ludovico

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The directional behavior of four turbines of an onshore wind farm is investigated. • The positions of the nacelles are discretized to highlight clusterization effects. • The recurrent alignment patterns of the cluster are individuated and analyzed. • The patterns are studied by the point of view of efficiency and power output. • Significative performance deviations arise among the most frequent configurations. - Abstract: SCADA control systems are the keystone for reliable performance optimization of wind farms. Processing into knowledge the amount of information they spread is a challenging task, involving engineering, physics, statistics and computer science skills. This work deals with SCADA data analysis methods for assessing the importance of how wind turbines align in patterns to the wind direction. In particular it deals with the most common collective phenomenon causing clusters of turbines behaving as a whole, rather than as a collection of individuality: wake effects. The approach is based on the discretization of nacelle position measurements and subsequent post-processing through simple statistical methods. A cluster, severely affected by wakes, from an onshore wind farm, is selected as test case. The dominant alignment patterns of the cluster are identified and analyzed by the point of view of power output and efficiency. It is shown that non-trivial alignments with respect to the wind direction arise and important performance deviations occur among the most frequent configurations.

  8. Analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen(3Hp) reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V. P.; Kiselev, A. S.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Vasiliev, T. A.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Ladygina, N. B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Reznikov, S. G.; Uesaka, T.; Saito, T.; Hatano, M.; Kato, H.; Sakoda, S.; Uchigashima, N.; Yako, K.; Janek, M.; Maeda, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Ohnishi, T.; Sakamoto, N.

    2008-01-01

    Data for the deuteron analyzing powers in the dd→ 3 Hen( 3 Hp) reactions obtained at 140-270 MeV are discussed. The observed negative sign of the tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx and A xz at small angles clearly demonstrate the sensitivity to the ratio of the D and S state components of the 3 He wave function. The behavior of the tensor analyzing powers at backward angles is sensitive to the short-range spin structure of the deuteron. However, the one-nucleon exchange calculations using standard 3 He and deuteron wave functions fail to reproduce the strong variation of the tensor analyzing powers as a function of angle in the cms. Sensitivity to relativistic effects is also discussed

  9. Regional modeling approach for analyzing harmonic stability in radial power electronics based power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Changwoo; Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    -function creates an ambiguity of knowing the reason of instability and also there is no fixed way of choosing the sequence of the analysis. This paper suggests a method to perform a regional stability analysis in the distribution power system. The main idea is started from the simplest stability analysis entity...

  10. Approximate entropy normalized measures for analyzing social neurobiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sofia; Milho, João; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2012-01-01

    When considering time series data of variables describing agent interactions in social neurobiological systems, measures of regularity can provide a global understanding of such system behaviors. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was introduced as a nonlinear measure to assess the complexity of a system behavior by quantifying the regularity of the generated time series. However, ApEn is not reliable when assessing and comparing the regularity of data series with short or inconsistent lengths, which often occur in studies of social neurobiological systems, particularly in dyadic human movement systems. Here, the authors present two normalized, nonmodified measures of regularity derived from the original ApEn, which are less dependent on time series length. The validity of the suggested measures was tested in well-established series (random and sine) prior to their empirical application, describing the dyadic behavior of athletes in team games. The authors consider one of the ApEn normalized measures to generate the 95th percentile envelopes that can be used to test whether a particular social neurobiological system is highly complex (i.e., generates highly unpredictable time series). Results demonstrated that suggested measures may be considered as valid instruments for measuring and comparing complexity in systems that produce time series with inconsistent lengths.

  11. Correction of errors in power measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1998-01-01

    Small errors in voltage and current measuring transformers cause inaccuracies in power measurements.In this report correction factors are derived to compensate for such errors.......Small errors in voltage and current measuring transformers cause inaccuracies in power measurements.In this report correction factors are derived to compensate for such errors....

  12. Measuring the user experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Tullis, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the User Experience was the first book that focused on how to quantify the user experience. Now in the second edition, the authors include new material on how recent technologies have made it easier and more effective to collect a broader range of data about the user experience. As more UX and web professionals need to justify their design decisions with solid, reliable data, Measuring the User Experience provides the quantitative analysis training that these professionals need. The second edition presents new metrics such as emotional engagement, personas, k

  13. Measuring and Analyzing the Scholarly Impact of Experimental Evaluation Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelini, Marco; Ferro, Nicola; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation initiatives have been widely credited with contributing highly to the development and advancement of information access systems, by providing a sustainable platform for conducting the very demanding activity of comparable experimental evaluation in a large scale. Measuring the impact o...

  14. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  15. Analyzing Lagrange gauge measurements of spherical, cylindrical, or plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidun, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Material response characterizations that are very useful in constitutive model development can be obtained from careful analysis of in-material (embedded, Lagrangian) gauge measurements of stress and/or particle velocity histories at multiple locations. The requisite measurements and the analysis are feasible for both laboratory and field experiments. The final product of the analysis is a set of load paths (e.g., radial stress vs. radial strain, tangential vs. radial stress, tangential vs. radial strain, radial stress vs. particle velocity) and their possible variation with propagation distance. Material model development can be guided and constrained by this information, but extra information or assumptions are needed to first establish a parameterized representation of the material response

  16. Diagnostic Measurements for Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenbohlen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing age of the primary equipment of the electrical grids there exists also an increasing need to know its internal condition. For this purpose, off- and online diagnostic methods and systems for power transformers have been developed in recent years. Online monitoring is used continuously during operation and offers possibilities to record the relevant stresses which can affect the lifetime. The evaluation of these data offers the possibility of detecting oncoming faults early. In comparison to this, offline methods require disconnecting the transformer from the electrical grid and are used during planned inspections or when the transformer is already failure suspicious. This contribution presents the status and current trends of different diagnostic techniques of power transformers. It provides significant tutorial elements, backed up by case studies, results and some analysis. The broadness and improvements of the presented diagnostic techniques show that the power transformer is not anymore a black box that does not allow a view into its internal condition. Reliable and accurate condition assessment is possible leading to more efficient maintenance strategies.

  17. Large variation in the backward angles analyzing power of the p vectord→tπ+ reaction around 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, B.; Catz, H.; Gervino, G.P.; Lugol, J.C.; Sheppard, D.M.; Silverman, B.H.; Bedjidian, M.; Descroix, E.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guichard, A.; Haroutunian, R.; Pizzi, J.R.; Gaillard, G.; Nguyen van Sen; Abegg, R.; Hutcheon, D.

    1986-01-01

    The analyzing power angular distributions have been measured for the p vectord→tπ + reaction at 900, 1000 and 1100 MeV. At backwards angles the analyzing power varies rapidly with energy, an effect which can be traced back to a simple variation of the amplitudes with energy. (orig.)

  18. KMRR thermal power measurement error estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, B.W.; Sim, B.S.; Lim, I.C.; Oh, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal power measurement error of the Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor has been estimated by a statistical Monte Carlo method, and compared with those obtained by the other methods including deterministic and statistical approaches. The results show that the specified thermal power measurement error of 5% cannot be achieved if the commercial RTDs are used to measure the coolant temperatures of the secondary cooling system and the error can be reduced below the requirement if the commercial RTDs are replaced by the precision RTDs. The possible range of the thermal power control operation has been identified to be from 100% to 20% of full power

  19. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  20. Concerning tests of time-reversal invariance via the polarization-analyzing power equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous tests of time-reversal invariance via comparisons of polarizations and analyzing powers in nuclear scattering have been examined. It is found that all of these comparisons fail as adequate tests of time-reversal invariance either because of a lack of experimental precision or the lack of sensitivity to any time-reversal symmetry violation

  1. EPRI compact analyzer: A compact, interactive and color-graphics based simulator for power plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Chen, H.; Colley, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP2395-2) for design and development of an interactive, and color graphics based simulator for power plant analysis. The system is called Compact Analyzer and can be applied to engineering and training applications in the utility industry. The Compact Analyzer's software and system design are described. Results of two demonstration system for a nuclear plant, and a fossil plant are presented, and the applications of the Compact Analyzer to operating procedures evaluation are discussed

  2. Los Alamos Nuclear Plant Analyzer: an interactive power-plant simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.; Booker, C.; Giguere, P.; Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.; Turner, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a computer-software interface for executing the TRAC or RELAP5 power-plant systems codes. The NPA is designed to use advanced supercomputers, long-distance data communications, and a remote workstation terminal with interactive computer graphics to analyze power-plant thermal-hydraulic behavior. The NPA interface simplifies the running of these codes through automated procedures and dialog interaction. User understanding of simulated-plant behavior is enhanced through graphics displays of calculational results. These results are displayed concurrently with the calculation. The user has the capability to override the plant's modeled control system with hardware-adjustment commands. This gives the NPA the utility of a simulator, and at the same time, the accuracy of an advanced, best-estimate, power-plant systems code for plant operation and safety analysis

  3. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: an interactive TRAC/RELAP Power-Plant Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.; Booker, C.; Giguere, P.; Liles, D.; Mahaffy, J.; Turner, M.; Wiley, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a computer-software interface for executing the TRAC or RELAP5 power-plant systems codes. The NPA is designed to use advanced supercomputers, long-distance data communications, and a remote workstation terminal with interactive computer graphics to analyze power-plant thermal-hydraulic behavior. The NPA interface simplifies the running of these codes through automated procedures and dialog interaction. User understanding of simulated-plant behavior is enhanced through graphics displays of calculational results. These results are displayed concurrently with the calculation. The user has the capability to override the plant's modeled control system with hardware adjustment commands. This gives the NPA the utility of a simulator, and at the same time, the accuracy of an advanced, best-estimate, power-plant systems code for plant operation and safety analysis

  4. Quantum fluctuation theorems and power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, B; Watanabe, Gentaro; Talkner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Work in the paradigm of the quantum fluctuation theorems of Crooks and Jarzynski is determined by projective measurements of energy at the beginning and end of the force protocol. In analogy to classical systems, we consider an alternative definition of work given by the integral of the supplied power determined by integrating up the results of repeated measurements of the instantaneous power during the force protocol. We observe that such a definition of work, in spite of taking account of the process dependence, has different possible values and statistics from the work determined by the conventional two energy measurement approach (TEMA). In the limit of many projective measurements of power, the system’s dynamics is frozen in the power measurement basis due to the quantum Zeno effect leading to statistics only trivially dependent on the force protocol. In general the Jarzynski relation is not satisfied except for the case when the instantaneous power operator commutes with the total Hamiltonian at all times. We also consider properties of the joint statistics of power-based definition of work and TEMA work in protocols where both values are determined. This allows us to quantify their correlations. Relaxing the projective measurement condition, weak continuous measurements of power are considered within the stochastic master equation formalism. Even in this scenario the power-based work statistics is in general not able to reproduce qualitative features of the TEMA work statistics. (paper)

  5. Power function arguments in support of an alternative approach for analyzing management trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, A R

    1994-06-01

    Power function arguments are used in support of an alternative approach for analyzing management trials. Central to the arguments is the recognition that, based on interpreting the smallest clinically important difference as a point of indifference, management trials require different power functions than explanatory trials. This interpretation of the smallest clinically important difference implies a specific ideal power function, and the alternative approach, by testing a nonzero null hypothesis at the appropriate level, is designed to achieve a power function with intuitive appeal and some optimal properties with respect to this ideal function. The alternative approach, by moving away from the traditional null hypothesis, better reflects clinical considerations, and eliminates the conflict between statistical and clinical significance. In addition, with adequate sample size, a decision in favor of the superior treatment will be made with a predetermined high level of confidence, if the therapies differ significantly.

  6. Complete Set of Deuteron Analyzing Powers for dp Elastic Scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon and Three Nucleon Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers (iT11, T20, T21, T22 for elastic deuteron–proton scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon have been performed with polarized deuteron beams at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon–nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne’99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces.

  7. Analyzing the thermal regime of power supply units in portable betatrons by using infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonova O.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentials of infrared thermography in analyzing a thermal regime of the 7.5 MeV betatron power supply are discussed. Both the heating rate and thermal inertia of particular electronic components have been evaluated by processing pixel-based temperature histories. The data treatment has been performed by using the original ThermoFit Pro software to illustrate that some advanced processing algorithms, such as the Fourier transform and principle component analysis, are valuable in identifying thermal dynamics of particular power supply parts.

  8. Power Measurement Errors on a Utility Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive flight test data obtained from two recent performance tests of a UH 60A aircraft are reviewed. A power difference is calculated from the power balance equation and is used to examine power measurement errors. It is shown that the baseline measurement errors are highly non-Gaussian in their frequency distribution and are therefore influenced by additional, unquantified variables. Linear regression is used to examine the influence of other variables and it is shown that a substantial portion of the variance depends upon measurements of atmospheric parameters. Correcting for temperature dependence, although reducing the variance in the measurement errors, still leaves unquantified effects. Examination of the power difference over individual test runs indicates significant errors from drift, although it is unclear how these may be corrected. In an idealized case, where the drift is correctable, it is shown that the power measurement errors are significantly reduced and the error distribution is Gaussian. A new flight test program is recommended that will quantify the thermal environment for all torque measurements on the UH 60. Subsequently, the torque measurement systems will be recalibrated based on the measured thermal environment and a new power measurement assessment performed.

  9. Sound power measurement and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.

    1993-01-01

    It is anticipated that there will be a substantial growth in the exploitation of renewable energy from the wind over the next few years. A major factor in this expected growth is the environmental acceptance or otherwise of wind turbines and in particular their noise characteristics. It is generally accepted within the turbine community that reliable methods of measuring and quantifying a turbine's acoustic signature are essential if this exploitation is to be realised. This paper will seek to review current practice both in the UK and further afield and will describe the development of a practical and reliable test method, which will aid the Wind Turbine Manufacturer, Developer and Planner. (author)

  10. JPL 2-to-the-20th-power channel 300 MHz bandwidth digital spectrum analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A million (two to the 20th power) channel, 300 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer was considered. The design, fabrication, and maintenance philosophy of the modular, pipelined, fast fourier transform (FFT) hardware are described. The spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the region from 1.4 GHz to 26 GHz for radio frequency interference which may be harmful to present and future tracking missions of the Deep Space Network. The design has application to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence signals and radio science phenomena.

  11. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A model to analyze strategic products for photovoltaic silicon thin-film solar cell power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy H.I. [Department of Technology Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, Wu Fu Rd., Hsinchu 300 (China); Chen, Hsing Hung [Faculty of Management and Administration, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenue Wei Long, Taipa, Macau (China); Kang, He-Yau [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, 35, Lane 215, Sec. 1, Chung San Rd., Taiping, Taichung 411 (China)

    2011-02-15

    With natural resource scarcity and environmental protection, the use of renewable energy has become a promise for offering clean and plentiful energy. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell is one of the emerging renewable energy applications; however, it suffers a large difficulty in high production cost with low conversion efficiency currently. Hence, an urgent pressure to upgrade technology and to formulate product strategy is evident in the solar cell power industry. In order to prosper PV silicone solar cell power industry, the paper develops a conceptual model, which is composed of a fuzzy analytic network process with interpretive structural modeling and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks, to help analyze suitable strategic products. The empirical study shows that the conceptual model can effectively and precisely handle such a complicated problem and can lead to an outstanding performance result. (author)

  13. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during...... the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, especially since the SODAR was not able to measure wind speeds above 15 m/s due to an increasing back......-ground noise. Instead, using the SODAR as a profiler to establish representative wind speed profiles was successful. These wind speed profiles are combined with low height reference measurements to establish reliable hub height wind speed distributions. Representative wind speed profiles can be establish...

  14. Delayed gamma power measurement for sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Normand, S., E-mail: stephane.normand@cea.f [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ban, G., E-mail: ban@lpccaen.in2p3.f [ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Barat, E.; Montagu, T.; Dautremer, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brau, H.-P. [ICSM, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171 F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Dumarcher, V. [AREVA NP, SET, F-84500 Bollene (France); Michel, M.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Boudergui, K.; Bourbotte, J.-M. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jousset, P. [CEA, LIST, Departement des Capteurs, du Signal et de l' Information, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barouch, G.; Ravaux, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saurel, N. [CEA, DAM, Laboratoire Mesure de Dechets et Expertise, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Frelin-Labalme, A.-M.; Hamrita, H. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne tagging agents are produced by fast neutron flux. {sup 20}F signal has been measured at the SFR Phenix prototype. A random error of only 3% for an integration time of 2 s could be achieved. {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne power measurement has a reduced temperature influence. Burn-up impact could be limited by simultaneous {sup 20}F and {sup 23}Ne measurement. - Abstract: Previous works on pressurized water reactors show that the nitrogen 16 activation product can be used to measure thermal power. Power monitoring using a more stable indicator than ex-core neutron measurements is required for operational sodium-cooled fast reactors, in order to improve their economic efficiency at the nominal operating point. The fluorine 20 and neon 23 produced by (n,{alpha}) and (n,p) capture in the sodium coolant have this type of convenient characteristic, suitable for power measurements with low build-up effects and a potentially limited temperature, flow rate, burn-up and breeding dependence. This method was tested for the first time during the final tests program of the French Phenix sodium-cooled fast reactor at CEA Marcoule, using the ADONIS gamma pulse analyzer. Despite a non-optimal experimental configuration for this application, the delayed gamma power measurement was pre-validated, and found to provide promising results.

  15. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement algorithms for power system observability. The optimal placement problem (OPP) is formulated such that minimizing the number of PMU installations for full network observability. Three approaches, in this paper, are introduced aiming at reducing ...

  16. Vector analyzing power iT11 in the π+d-->pp reaction in the energy region Tπ=350-450 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhanov, N. A.; Efimovykh, V. A.; Fedorov, O. Ya.; Kalentarova, S. I.; Kovalev, A. I.; Murzin, V. I.; Popov, V. E.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Polyakov, V. V.; Shvedchikov, A. V.; Shchedrov, V. A.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Vovchenko, V. G.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Kazarinov, Yu. M.; Usov, Yu. A.; Boschitz, E.; Brinkmöller, B.; Wessler, M.

    1993-01-01

    The vector analyzing power iT11 of the reaction πd-->pp was measured at Tπ=350, 400, and 450 MeV. The results obtained at Tπ=350 MeV are in agreement with earlier measurements of iT11 at 325 MeV. With increasing energies our results show a marked increase in the vector analyzing power up to a value close to its theoretical limit at Tπ=450 MeV (√s =2.40 GeV). In this energy region broad structure has been found in earlier measurements of dσ/dΩ and Ay0.

  17. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Thermal Power Model in Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Fabanich, William A.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal power model that was built using the Thermal Desktop SINDA/FLUINT thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit (EU) test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's Ideas TMG thermal model. ASRG performance under (1) ASC hot-end temperatures, (2) ambient temperatures, and (3) years of mission for the general purpose heat source fuel decay was predicted using this model for the flight unit. The results were compared with those reported by Lockheed Martin and showed good agreement. In addition, the model was used to study the performance of the ASRG flight unit for operations on the ground and on the surface of Titan, and the concept of using gold film to reduce thermal loss through insulation was investigated.

  18. Phasor Measurement Units in the Eastern Danish power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Technology. After power system events data can be extracted and analyzed offline. The purpose of the project is to do research within various utilizations of PMU data. On 8 January 2005 a severe storm passed Denmark, and wind speeds were so high, that wind turbines disconnected from the transmission grid......In the Eastern Danish transmission system four Phasor Measurement Units (PMU’s) are installed at 400 kV and 132 kV voltage level. The PMU’s continuously record voltage and current phasors each 20 ms. Data are stored locally on the PMU’s and are also transferred to a database at Centre for Electric...... because of their self protection. Nysted offshore wind farm was among the wind power units that disconnected from the grid, and PMU data from that event are analyzed. The case illustrates the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area. The voltage phase angle...

  19. Cross sections and analyzing powers for nucleon scattering from 6Li and proton scattering from 27Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuetzner, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzing powers have been measured for neutron elastic scattering from 6 Li and inelastic scattering to the first excited state of 6 Li. These data were obtained in the neutron energy range of 5 to 17 MeV using the time-of-flight technique for determination of the neutron energy. A pulsed polarized deuteron beam was employed to produce a pulsed polarized neutron beam via the 2 H(d,n) 3 He reaction. Complementary proton analyzing power data as well as cross-section data were measured in the same energy range with four pairs of silicon surface-barrier detectors. An aluminum-foil backing used with the 6 Li foil target for the proton scattering measurement made it possible to simultaneously obtain analyzing power and cross-section data for 27 Al. The neutron and proton scattering data obtained in this work along with previously existing neutron cross-section data were analyzed with the spherical optical model. The present optical model analyses extend a previous model describing 6 Li along with several other 1-p shell nuclei but based only on cross-section data in a smaller energy range. A global optical model parameter set is presented with adequately describes neutron and proton elastic scattering data between 10 and 17 MeV. Poor quality fits were obtained below 10 MeV where resonance or compound nucleus effects occur, such effects are not accounted for by the optical mode. The present 27 Al proton scattering data were combined with proton scattering data between 15 and 23 MeV and neutron scattering data between 11 and 17 MeV from the literature to form a nucleon-nucleus data set for 27 Al. These data were fit with a spherical optical model. Reasonable fits were obtained above 10 MeV with deficiencies in the fits below that energy. The model fits equally well the proton and neutron data with asymmetry and Coulomb corection terms only in the real central potential

  20. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers for small angle neutron-proton elastic scattering between 378 and 1135 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, B.H.; Lugol, J.C.; Saudinos, J.; Terrien, Y.; Wellers, F.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured absolute differential cross sections and analyzing powers for neutron-proton elastic scattering for momentum transfer 0.01 2 at several energies between 378 and 1135 MeV. The ionization chamber IKAR filled with methane was used as both a gas target and recoil detector. For the analyzing-power measurements the scattered neutron was detected in scintillation counters in coincidence with the recoil proton detected in IKAR. Special care was taken to ensure a precise absolute normalization of the cross sections, with overall systematic uncertainties of 4-7%. (orig.)

  1. Diagnosis of power generator sets by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbazeille, M.

    2010-07-01

    This thesis deals with the diagnosis of a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine which runs a generator set in a nuclear plant. The objective is to make a diagnosis by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed variations. Only combustion related faults are investigated. As the engine is very large, the first crank shaft natural modes are in the low frequencies. Torsional vibrations of the flexible crank shaft strongly complicate the analysis of the angular speed variations. Little attention has been paid to such large engines in the literature. First, a dynamical model with the assumption of a flexible crank shaft is established. The parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an original automated diagnosis based on pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms is proposed. Indeed, any faulty cylinder in combustion stroke will distort the angular speed waveform in a specific way which depends on its location with respect to nodes and anti-nodes of the modes. Reference patterns, representative of the engine conditions, are computed with the model constituting the main originality of this work. Promising results are obtained in operational phase. An experimental fuel leakage fault was correctly diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder and an indication of the severity of the fault. (author)

  2. Measures to improve nuclear power project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinchao

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on correct application of ability level principle in setting organizational structure, the effective management system has been established, and 8 practical management regimes have been developed. Personnel training and management work shall be well done and enhanced. Experience feedback in construction management shall be well done for all systems. Exchange of construction and management techniques shall be actively carried out. All staff shall participate in safety management. KPI system is adopted for assessing stakeholders' project management method, and PDCA cycle is adopted for continued improved. Management level upgrading measures are proposed to ensure the smooth construction of nuclear power project. Setting forth and popularizing management theory can provide reference for and promote the smooth progress of various nuclear power projects. (author)

  3. Neutron measurements at nuclear power reactors [55

    CERN Document Server

    Scherpelz, R I

    2002-01-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute), have performed neutron measurements at a number of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Neutron radiation fields at light water reactor (LWR) power plants are typically characterized by low-energy distributions due to the presence of large amounts of scattering material such as water and concrete. These low-energy distributions make it difficult to accurately monitor personnel exposures, since most survey meters and dosimeters are calibrated to higher-energy fields such as those produced by bare or D sub 2 O-moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf sources. Commercial plants typically use thermoluminescent dosimeters in an albedo configuration for personnel dosimetry and survey meters based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator for dose rate assessment, so their methods of routine monitoring are highly dependent on the energy of the neutron fields. Battelle has participate...

  4. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  5. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  6. A military grade, field usable, Raman analyzer: measurement of captured fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne; Shende, Chetan; Patient, Michael; Huang, Hermes; Brouillette, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Portable Raman analyzers have emerged during the first part of this century as an important field tool for crime scene and forensic analysis, primarily for their ability to identify unknown substances. This ability is also important to the US military, which has been investigating such analyzers for identification of explosive materials that may be used to produce improvised explosive devices, chemicals that may be used to produce chemical warfare agents, and fuels in storage tanks that may be used to power US military vehicles. However, the use of such portable analyzers requires that they meet stringent military standards (specifically MIL-STD 810G). These requirements include among others: 1) light weight and small size (determine if captured fuels are suitable for use.

  7. Analyzing power of inclusive production of π+,π-, and KS0 by polarized protons at 13.3 and 18.5 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Krishna, N.M.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Moss, R.M.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Stevenson, P.M.; Tonse, S.R.; Birman, A.; Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Willutzki, H.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Mayes, B.W.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured the analyzing power in π + , π - , and K S 0 production by a polarized proton beam at 13.3 and 18.5 GeV/c. The data cover the central and the beam fragmentation region, in the transverse-momentum range up to 2 GeV/c. The results indicate that sizable effects are present at high x F and also persist into the hard-scattering region for K S 0 and π + . A zero value of the analyzing power was observed for π - production

  8. Modelling voltage sag mitigation using dynamic voltage restorer and analyzing power quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Laili; Hidzir, Hizrin Dayana Mohd; Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Ibrahim, Pungut; Ali, Che Ku Muhammad Sabri Che Ku

    2018-02-01

    Power quality problem which are arise due to a fault or a pulsed load can have caused an interruption of critical load. The modern power systems are becoming more sensitive to the quality of the power supplied by the utility company. Voltage sags and swells, flicker, interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortion to the sinusoidal waveform are the examples of the power quality problems. The most affected due to these problems is industrial customers who use a lot of sensitive equipment. There has suffered a huge loss to these problems. Resulting of broken or damage equipment if voltage sag exceeds the sensitive threshold of the equipment. Thus, device such as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has been created to solve this problem among users. DVR is a custom power device that most effective and efficient. This paper intended to report the DVR operations during voltage sag compensation.

  9. Reactor power measuring device and measuring method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kazumi; Izumi, Mikio; Sato, Michio; Goto, Yasushi.

    1995-01-01

    In the present invention, device for measuring a neutron flux level in a power region of a BWR type reactor is simplified and its life is elongated, to make a transfer mechanism unnecessary. Namely, an ultrasonic waveguide rod has cavities for heat insulation relative to coolants on every predetermined distance in the longitudinal direction, and is inserted into coolants in the reactor core. An ultrasonic wave transmitting/receiving device is electrically connected to the ultrasonic waveguide rod and placed outside of the reactor. A signal processing device converts the difference of transmitting time of ultrasonic wave pulses of the ultrasonic wave guide rod measured at the ultrasonic wave transmitting/receiving device into a reactor power. With such procedures, since the ultrasonic wave guide rod is inserted into the reactor core, the measurement can be conducted without moving the ultrasonic wave guide rod as a detector. As a result, a transfer device and transfer path are made unnecessary. In addition, since the ultrasonic wave guide rod is made of a single material, it is never broken. Since the ultrasonic wave transmitting/receiving device is placed at the outside with no high temperature, no high pressure and no high dose rate, the working life of the reactor can be extended. (I.S.)

  10. Analyze and Improve Lifetime in 3L-NPC Inverter from Power Cycle and Thermal Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Qunjing

    2014-01-01

    Three-level Neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) topology is becoming a realistic alternative to the conventional one in high-voltage and high-power application. Studies show that the power cycling mean time to failure (MTTF) of the semiconductor bond wire in 3L-NPC inverter system may be very short...... under some common conditions. Firstly, this paper shows the impact of some key parameters on power electronic system lifetime according the analysis of semiconductor failure mechanism. Secondly, a switching frequency reduction method based on the position relationship between the flowing current...... and load voltage is applied to reduce power cycle and switching losses. And then, three-level active neutral point-clamped topology is taken into account to wake the most thermo stressed device. In order to validate the improve lifetime method in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has...

  11. Decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 — Analyzing the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jägemann, Cosima; Fürsch, Michaela; Hagspiel, Simeon; Nagl, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80–95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The transition towards a low-carbon economy implies the almost complete decarbonization of Europe's power sector, which could be achieved along various pathways. In this paper, we evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector by applying a linear dynamic electricity system optimization model in over 36 scenarios. We find that the costs of decarbonizing Europe's power sector by 2050 vary between 139 and 633 bn € 2010 , which corresponds to an increase of between 11% and 44% compared to the total system costs when no CO 2 reduction targets are implemented. In line with economic theory, the decarbonization of Europe's power sector is achieved at minimal costs under a stand-alone CO 2 reduction target, which ensures competition between all low-carbon technologies. If, however, renewable energies are exempted from competition via supplementary renewable energy (RES-E) targets or if investments in new nuclear and CCS power plants are politically restricted, the costs of decarbonization significantly rise. Moreover, we find that the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets depend on the acceptance of alternative low carbon technologies. For example, given a complete nuclear phase-out in Europe by 2050 and politically implemented restrictions on the application of CCS to conventional power plants, supplementary RES-E targets are redundant. While in such a scenario the overall costs of decarbonization are comparatively high, the excess costs of supplementary RES-E targets are close to zero. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic implications of alternative energy policies for Europe's power sector. • Total decarbonization costs vary between 139 and 633 billion € 2010 up to 2050. • Decarbonization at minimal costs is ensured by competition between all low carbon technologies. • Excess costs of supplementary

  12. Modeling and analyzing of nuclear power peer review on enterprise operational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songbai; Xu Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the practice and analysis of peer review in nuclear power plants, the models on the Pareto improvement of peer review, and governance entropy decrease of peer review are set up and discussed. It shows that the peer review of nuclear power is actually a process of Pareto improvement, and of governance entropy decrease. It's a process of improvement of the enterprise operational efficiency. (authors)

  13. Magneto-optic Doppler analyzer: a new instrument to measure mesopause winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bifford P.; Tomczyk, Steven

    1996-11-01

    The magneto-optic Doppler analyzer (MODA) is a new type of passive optical instrument that one can use to measure the Doppler shift of the sodium nightglow emitted at approximately 91 km near the mesopause. From this measurement, horizontal wind signatures are inferred. The MODA is based on a sodium vapor magneto-optic filter that provides inherent wavelength stability at a low cost. The instrument has been used to take nightly zonal and meridional wind measurements since October 1994 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40 N, 105 W). We obtained an internally consistent wind signal and measured the semidiurnal tide for several seasons.

  14. Analyzing powers Ayy, Axx, Axz and Ay in the dd→3Hen reaction at 270 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janek, M.; Saito, T.; Hatano, M.; Kato, H.; Sakoda, S.; Uchigashima, N.; Yako, K.; Ladygin, V.P.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Ladygina, N.B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Reznikov, S.G.; Vasiliev, T.A.; Uesaka, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Nishikawa, J.; Ohnishi, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Sekiguchi, K.; Okamura, H.; Sakai, H.

    2007-01-01

    The data on the tensor A yy , A xx , A xz and vector A y analyzing powers in the dd → 3 Hen obtained at T d =270 MeV in the angular range 0 -110 in the c.m. are presented. The observed negative sign of the tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx and A xz at small angles clearly demonstrate the sensitivity to the ratio of the D- and S-wave component of the 3 He wave function. However, the one-nucleon exchange calculations by using the standard 3 He wave functions have failed to reproduce the strong variation of the tensor analyzing powers as a function of the angle in the c.m. (orig.)

  15. Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

  16. Apparatus for measuring resistance change only in a cell analyzer and method for calibrating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to resistance only monitoring and calibration in an electrical cell analyzer. Sample and sheath fluid flows of different salinities are utilized, the sample flow being diameter modulated to produce a selected pattern which is compared to the resistance measured across the flows.

  17. Effect of open-path gas analyzer wetness on eddy covariance flux measurements: A poposed solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Open-path gas analyzers are popular in eddy covariance flux measurements of trace gasses (i.e. CO2). The quality of the data, however, may be influenced by several factors. Exposure in an outdoor environment invariably causes the instrument to become colder or warmer than the air temperature.

  18. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  19. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  20. Microcontroller Power Consumption Measurement Based on PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Janković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are often used as central processing elements in embedded systems. Because of different sleep and performance modes that microcontrollers support, their power consumption may have a high dynamic range, over 100 dB. In this paper, a data acquisition (DAQ system for measuring and analyzing the power consumption of microcontrollers is presented. DAQ system consists of a current measurement circuit using potentiostat technique, a DAQ device based on system on chip PSoC 5LP and Python PC program for the analysis, storage and visualization of measured data. Both Successive Approximation Register (SAR and Delta-Sigma (DS ADCs contained in the PSoC 5LP are used for measuring voltage drop across the shunt resistor. SAR ADC samples data at a 10 times higher rate than DS ADC, so the input range of DS ADC can be adjusted based on data measured by SAR ADC, thus enabling the extension of current measuring range by 28%. Implemented DAQ device is connected with a computer through a USB port and tested with developed Python PC program.

  1. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  2. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  3. On-line measurement of oil contaminants in water by filter-based infrared analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelae, P.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a dedicated infrared analyzer for on-line measurement of the oil content of water, the Oili analyzer, are evaluated theoretically and with laboratory measurements. The analyzer was originally developed for controlling the discharge of ballast and bilge water from oil tankers and more than 200 such instruments have now been supplied for that purpose, representing about 10 % of the total market. Some technical improvements are suggested, and the improved instrument is shown to be capable of measuring oil in water to an accuracy of +- 20 % down to a detection limit of +5-10 ppm in the presence of high concentrations of interfering components and under varying environmental conditions. This opens up new potential applications for the instrument, e.g. the monitoring of water discharges from oil and gas production platforms. The infrared analyzer responds only to the dispersed oil fraction, and if the dissolved fraction is of interest as well, the instrument must be equipped with a UV option, as suggested here

  4. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: using an ARIMA time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each other but show a pattern of autocorrelation. This article addresses the statistical difficulties when analyzing real-time measurements for exposure assessment to manufactured nano objects. To account for autocorrelation patterns, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are proposed. A simulation study shows the pitfalls of using a standard t-test and the application of ARIMA models is illustrated with three real-data examples. Some practical suggestions for the data analysis of real-time exposure measurements conclude this article.

  5. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-11-14

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  6. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  7. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  8. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, E.; Pahkin, K.; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, A-L.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  9. On the use of log-transformation vs. nonlinear regression for analyzing biological power laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; White, E.P.; Hooten, M.B.; Durham, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Power-law relationships are among the most well-studied functional relationships in biology. Recently the common practice of fitting power laws using linear regression (LR) on log-transformed data has been criticized, calling into question the conclusions of hundreds of studies. It has been suggested that nonlinear regression (NLR) is preferable, but no rigorous comparison of these two methods has been conducted. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the error distribution determines which method performs better, with NLR better characterizing data with additive, homoscedastic, normal error and LR better characterizing data with multiplicative, heteroscedastic, lognormal error. Analysis of 471 biological power laws shows that both forms of error occur in nature. While previous analyses based on log-transformation appear to be generally valid, future analyses should choose methods based on a combination of biological plausibility and analysis of the error distribution. We provide detailed guidelines and associated computer code for doing so, including a model averaging approach for cases where the error structure is uncertain. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ladygin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A sub y sub y , A sub x sub x , and A sub x sub z in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the sup 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  11. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd → 3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.; )

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd → 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown [ru

  12. Review on recent research progress on laser power measurement based on light pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, WenChang; Zhou, Pu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate measuring the laser power is one of the most important issue to evaluate the performance of high power laser. For the time being, most of the demonstrated technique could be attributed to direct measuring route. Indirect measuring laser power based on light pressure, which has been under intensive investigation, has the advantages such as fast response, real-time measuring and high accuracy, compared with direct measuring route. In this paper, we will review several non-traditional methods based on light pressure to precisely measure the laser power proposed recently. The system setup, measuring principle and scaling methods would be introduced and analyzed in detail. We also compare the benefit and the drawback of these methods and analyze the uncertainties of the measurements.

  13. Development of a coal quality analyzer for application to power plants based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yao; Li, Yufang; Wang, Xin; Fan, Juanjuan; Dong, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2015-11-01

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the coal property rapidly to optimize the combustion process. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based coal quality analyzer comprising a LIBS apparatus, a sampling equipment, and a control module, has been designed for possible application to power plants for offering rapid and precise coal quality analysis results. A closed-loop feedback pulsed laser energy stabilization technology is proposed to stabilize the Nd: YAG laser output energy to a preset interval by using the detected laser energy signal so as to enhance the measurement stability and applied in a month-long monitoring experiment. The results show that the laser energy stability has been greatly reduced from ± 5.2% to ± 1.3%. In order to indicate the complex relationship between the concentrations of the analyte of interest and the corresponding plasma spectra, the support vector regression (SVR) is employed as a non-linear regression method. It is shown that this SVR method combined with principal component analysis (PCA) enables a significant improvement in cross-validation accuracy by using the calibration set of coal samples. The root mean square error for prediction of ash content, volatile matter content, and calorific value decreases from 2.74% to 1.82%, 1.69% to 1.22%, and 1.23 MJ/kg to 0.85 MJ/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding average relative error of the predicted samples is reduced from 8.3% to 5.48%, 5.83% to 4.42%, and 5.4% to 3.68%, respectively. The enhanced levels of accuracy obtained with the SVR combined with PCA based calibration models open up avenues for prospective prediction in coal properties.

  14. Image Processing for Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Measurement-BRET-Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastagnier, Yan; Moutin, Enora; Hemonnot, Anne-Laure; Perroy, Julie

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of tools now allow live recordings of various signaling pathways and protein-protein interaction dynamics in time and space by ratiometric measurements, such as Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) Imaging. Accurate and reproducible analysis of ratiometric measurements has thus become mandatory to interpret quantitative imaging. In order to fulfill this necessity, we have developed an open source toolset for Fiji- BRET-Analyzer -allowing a systematic analysis, from image processing to ratio quantification. We share this open source solution and a step-by-step tutorial at https://github.com/ychastagnier/BRET-Analyzer. This toolset proposes (1) image background subtraction, (2) image alignment over time, (3) a composite thresholding method of the image used as the denominator of the ratio to refine the precise limits of the sample, (4) pixel by pixel division of the images and efficient distribution of the ratio intensity on a pseudocolor scale, and (5) quantification of the ratio mean intensity and standard variation among pixels in chosen areas. In addition to systematize the analysis process, we show that the BRET-Analyzer allows proper reconstitution and quantification of the ratiometric image in time and space, even from heterogeneous subcellular volumes. Indeed, analyzing twice the same images, we demonstrate that compared to standard analysis BRET-Analyzer precisely define the luminescent specimen limits, enlightening proficient strengths from small and big ensembles over time. For example, we followed and quantified, in live, scaffold proteins interaction dynamics in neuronal sub-cellular compartments including dendritic spines, for half an hour. In conclusion, BRET-Analyzer provides a complete, versatile and efficient toolset for automated reproducible and meaningful image ratio analysis.

  15. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  17. Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive collaborative management emphasizes stakeholder engagement as a crucial component of resilient social-ecological systems. Collaboration among diverse stakeholders is expected to enhance learning, build social legitimacy for decision making, and establish relationships that support learning and adaptation in the long term. However, simply bringing together diverse stakeholders does not guarantee productive engagement. Using critical discourse analysis, we examined how diverse stakeholders negotiated knowledge and power in a workshop designed to inform adaptive management of riparian livestock grazing on a National Forest in the southwestern USA. Publicly recognized as a successful component of a larger collaborative effort, we found that the workshop effectively brought together diverse participants, yet still restricted dialogue in important ways. Notably, workshop facilitators took on the additional roles of riparian experts and instructors. As they guided workshop participants toward a consensus view of riparian conditions and management recommendations, they used their status as riparian experts to emphasize commonalities with stakeholders supportive of riparian grazing and accentuate differences with stakeholders skeptical of riparian grazing, including some Forest Service staff with power to influence management decisions. Ultimately, the management plan published one year later did not fully adopt the consensus view from the workshop, but rather included and acknowledged a broader diversity of stakeholder perspectives. Our findings suggest that leaders and facilitators of adaptive collaborative management can more effectively manage for productive stakeholder engagement and, thus, social-ecological resilience if they are more tentative in their convictions, more critical of the role of expert knowledge, and more attentive to the knowledge, interests, and power of diverse stakeholders.

  18. Analyze the factors effecting the development of hydro power projects in hydro rich regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameesh Kumar Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power is considered as the major back bone for all the nations throughout the world including India on the basis of which development of the country depends. If a country has the resources to generate the power at competitive price in that case the people of the country get the benefits in terms of improvement in their social and economical life. When we talk about India, various locations in the country where still there is no electricity people are living in dark without having the access of the modern technology. The total hydro power potential of India is 1, 50,000 MW out of this total hydro potential only 40,195 MW is exploited till 2014. More than 80% of the total hydro potential of the country is lying in the western Himalayan states (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Arunachal Pradesh. Small hydro projects are also playing a very important role in the modern world for the development of the remote areas which are not main grid connected specially in western Himalayan region of India. India has a total potential 19,749 MW of small hydro projects and of this total potential only 3990.9 MW harnessed till 2014. Ministry of new and renewable energy in India is also providing special incentives to hydro rich states of India. In this research article we are taken the case study of the small hydro projects in the western Himalayan region because theses states are having vast small hydro potential which is still needed to be harnessed. So, it is very important to identify the factors which are effecting the development of these small ventures especially in western Himalayan region in India.

  19. Problems in public perception of nuclear power: Fears and risks analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    In an ideal world, the industrial nations would be going all out for a massive nuclear energy program, not only to provide electricity for industrial, commercial, and domestic use and propulsion for merchant vessels, but also to make process heat to replace, to the greatest extent possible, the burning of fossil fuels. This would free up significant quantities of oil for the developing countries to tide them over until they will have the technical base and industrial infrastructure for their own nuclear or advanced high technology energy systems. But it is not an ideal world. An it is ironic that opposition to nuclear energy has emerged and grown and presently is spreading in most of the Western industrialized, energy-consuming nations. The anti-nuclear factions are often the same people who profess to care for the well being of the third world nations, but their actions are a contradiction in terms. Perhaps they have not stopped to consider the dreadful consequences of abandoning the nuclear power option or thought of a future world consisting of states perpetually at war with each other over control of whatever remained of each other's expendable energy resources. If nuclear power fails to fulfill its bright promise to provide sufficient energy for improved living conditions for all the world's people, it will not be because of flaws in the technology or failure to resolve the questions of fuel supply or waste disposal. It will be because the public perceives nuclear power to be undesirable. The author discusses his views on this subject in future detail

  20. Tiny Integrated Network Analyzer for Noninvasive Measurements of Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Krøyer, Ben; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Antenna mismatch and crosstalk are recurring issues in telecommunications. For electrically small antenna systems, these are very hard to measure without affecting the radiation performance of the system and, consequently, the measurement itself. Electrically small antennas are found in many...... applications ranging from consumer electronics to industrial systems. We propose a radically new approach to characterize crosstalk and mismatch based on vector network analysis. By miniaturizing the network analyzer, it can be integrated in the system under test, eliminating the need for cables leaving...

  1. INCA: method of analyzing in-core detector data in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, T.G.; Terney, W.B.; Marks, G.H.

    1975-04-01

    A method (INCA) is described by which signals from fixed in-core detectors are related to estimates of the three dimensional power distribution in an operating reactor core and to the maximum linear heat rate in the core. A description of the large library of data accompanying the method is provided. A detailed examination of the analytical verifications performed using the method is presented, and a summary of the uncertainty associated with the method is given. The uncertainty assigned to the maximum linear heat rate inferred by the method from operating reactor data is found to be 5.8 percent at a 95/95 confidence level. (U.S.)

  2. Analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the authors discussed the functioning of their own analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of high strength rocks. A sample is placed inside a hermetic measuring chamber, and then undergoes impact milling as a result of colliding with the vibrating blade of a knife which is rotationally driven by a high-speed brushless electric motor. The measuring chamber is equipped with all the necessary sensors, i.e. gas, pressure, and temperature sensors. Trial tests involving the comminution of dolomite and anhydrite samples demonstrated that the constructed device is able to break up rocks into grains so fine that they are measured in single microns, and the sensors used in the construction ensure balancing of the released gas. The tests of the analyzer showed that the metrological concept behind it, together with the way it was built, make it fit for measurements of the content and composition of selected gases from the rock pore space. On the basis of the conducted tests of balancing the gases contained in the two samples, it was stated that the gas content of Sample no. 1 was (0.055  ±  0.002) cm3 g-1, and Sample no. 2 contained gas at atmospheric pressure, composed mostly of air.

  3. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  4. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  5. A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K.; Rocha, Patricio; Babayigit, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes that connect each path. Thus, suppliers rely on forecasts of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to develop their FTR bids. In this paper, we present a game theoretic modeling approach to develop FTR bidding strategies for power suppliers assuming that they have forecasts of LMPs. The game theoretic model considers multiple participants as well as network contingencies. We apply the game theoretic model on a sample network to assess impacts of variations of bid and network parameters on the FTR market outcome. (author)

  6. Development of the nuclear plant analyzer for Korean standard Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Heon; Song, In Ho; Hong, Eon Yeong; Oh, Yeong Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop an NPA for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and 4, the first KSNP type plant. In this study, the process model simulating the overall plant systems, GUI and simulation executive which provide the functions of an engineering simulator were developed, and the NPA was completed by integrating them. The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : main feedwater system, auxiliary feedwater system, Chemical and Volume Control System(CVCS), Safety Injection System(SIS), Shutdown Cooling System(SCS), electric power supply system, Core Protection Calculator(CPC), various plant control system, development of the graphics screens for each system, real-time simulation, simulation control for the enhancement of functional capabilities, user friendly GUI, collection of the design and operating data, establishment of the NPA database, integration of the GUI and simulation control program with process model, collection of the data for the verification and validation of the developed NPA, collection of the plant test data, collection and review of the results of other computer codes, verification of the simulation accuracy by comparing the NPA results with the actual plant data, validation of the simulation capability of the NPA, comparison against available data from other analysis suing different computer codes.

  7. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  8. The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was

  9. Cross sections and analyzing powers of 15N(p,n)15O at 200 MeV and 494 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciskowski, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    Differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the 15 N(p,n) 15 O(g.s.) reaction at bombarding energies of 200 MeV and 494 MeV. The 494 MeV data were obtained at the LAMPF Neutron Time-Of-Flight Facility on an 82 m flight path with a resolution of about 2.7 MeV. The 200 MeV data were obtained at IUCF on a 76m flight path with a resolution of about 1.1 MeV. At both energies, the measured analyzing power is small, the magnitude is less than .2 for momentum transfers of less than 1 fm -1 . In contrast, both Relativistic and standard DWIA calculations predict a maximum of A=-.7 near q=0.7 fm -1 . 53 refs., 44 figs

  10. Can modern infrared analyzers replace gas chromatography to measure anesthetic vapor concentrations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wolf Andre M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gas chromatography (GC has often been considered the most accurate method to measure the concentration of inhaled anesthetic vapors. However, infrared (IR gas analysis has become the clinically preferred monitoring technique because it provides continuous data, is less expensive and more practical, and is readily available. We examined the accuracy of a modern IR analyzer (M-CAiOV compact gas IR analyzer (General Electric, Helsinki, Finland by comparing its performance with GC. Methods To examine linearity, we analyzed 3 different concentrations of 3 different agents in O2: 0.3, 0.7, and 1.2% isoflurane; 0.5, 1, and 2% sevoflurane; and 1, 3, and 6% desflurane. To examine the effect of carrier gas composition, we prepared mixtures of 1% isoflurane, 1 or 2% sevoflurane, or 6% desflurane in 100% O2 (= O2 group; 30%O2+ 70%N2O (= N2O group, 28%O2 + 66%N2O + 5%CO2 (= CO2 group, or air. To examine consistency between analyzers, four different M-CAiOV analyzers were tested. Results The IR analyzer response in O2 is linear over the concentration range studied: IR isoflurane % = -0.0256 + (1.006 * GC %, R = 0.998; IR sevoflurane % = -0.008 + (0.946 * GC %, R = 0.993; and IR desflurane % = 0.256 + (0.919 * GC %, R = 0.998. The deviation from GC calculated as (100*(IR-GC/GC, in % ranged from -11 to 11% for the medium and higher concentrations, and from -20 to +20% for the lowest concentrations. No carrier gas effect could be detected. Individual modules differed in their accuracy (p = 0.004, with differences between analyzers mounting up to 12% of the medium and highest concentrations and up to 25% of the lowest agent concentrations. Conclusion M-CAiOV compact gas IR analyzers are well compensated for carrier gas cross-sensitivity and are linear over the range of concentrations studied. IR and GC cannot be used interchangeably, because the deviations between GC and IR mount up to ± 20%, and because individual analyzers differ

  11. Analyzing the decision making process of certifying digital control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, Swu; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have performed basic research in analyzing certification process and developed a regulatory decision making model for nuclear digital control system certification. The model views certification as an evidence–confidence conversion process. ► We have applied this model to analyze previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences and obtained valuable insights. ► Furthermore, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system based on the model has been developed to enhance regulatory review efficiency. - Abstract: Safety-critical computing systems need regulators’ approval before operation. Such a permit issue process is called “certification”. Digital instrumentation and Control (I and C) certification in the nuclear domain has always been problematic and lengthy. Thus, the certification efficiency has always been a crucial concern to the applicant whose business depends on the regulatory decision. However, to our knowledge, there is little basic research on this topic. This study presents a Regulatory Decision-Making Model aiming at analyzing the characteristics and efficiency influence factors in a generic certification process. This model is developed from a dynamic operational perspective by viewing the certification process as an evidence–confidence conversion process. The proposed model is then applied to previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences to successfully explain why some cases were successful and some were troublesome. Lessons learned from these cases provide invaluable insights regarding to the regulatory review activity. Furthermore, to utilize the insights obtained from the model, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system has been developed to speed up review evidence preparation and manipulation; thus, regulatory review efficiency can be further improved.

  12. A computational system for analyze nuclear power plants structures, made by panels, using superelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of linear static behavior of folded-plate structures like the turbine building of a nuclear power plant by the Finite Element Method. Folded-plate isoparametric plane elements with 48 degrees of freedom each, 8 nodal points, in which shear deformations are considered, and super-elements, whose internal degrees of freedom are condensated, are used. Arbitrary shells can be analized too. A brief exposition of the method is present and the developing of the foregoing element and super-element is also shown. A computer program was developed for the CDC-CYBER 175 computer machine and the FORTRAN IV language was used. The coeficients of the equations system are stored by the technique of block partitioning with a compacted column storage scheme and special attention was dedicated to the preparation of the problem's data and some options were developed for this purpose. (Author) [pt

  13. A network centrality measure framework for analyzing urban traffic flow: A case study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangming; Zhao, Pengxiang; Cui, Yunfan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved network centrality measure framework that takes into account both the topological characteristics and the geometric properties of a road network in order to analyze urban traffic flow in relation to different modes: intersection, road, and community, which correspond to point mode, line mode, and area mode respectively. Degree, betweenness, and PageRank centralities are selected as the analysis measures, and GPS-enabled taxi trajectory data is used to evaluate urban traffic flow. The results show that the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the modified degree, the betweenness, and the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow in all periods are higher than the mean value of the correlation coefficients between the conventional degree, the betweenness, the PageRank centralities and the traffic flow at different modes; this indicates that the modified measurements, for analyzing traffic flow, are superior to conventional centrality measurements. This study helps to shed light into the understanding of urban traffic flow in relation to different modes from the perspective of complex networks.

  14. Measurement of ultrasound power using a calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, G.; Miqueleti, S.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the ultrasound power of a 1 MHz therapy equipment on the water using a calorimeter and a radiation force balance. For a range of 5 to 10 W, the results presented a normalized error less than 1, disclosing compatibility of the results from the developed system and the radiation force balance. The calorimetric method might be used as a faster and cheaper means for the verification of the ultrasonic power emitted by an equipment for physiotherapeutic treatment.

  15. Use of flow scintillation analyzer combined with amino acid analyzer for measuring low-level radioactivity of tritium-labelled amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashina, E V; Fedoseev, V M; Ksenofontov, A L; Baratova, L A; Dobrov, E N

    2002-01-01

    Potential application of the Radiomatic 150TR Flow Scintillation Analyzer (Packard Instrument Co., USA) for measuring low radioactivity of tritium-labelled amino acids in eluate from the Amino Acid Analyzer 835 (Hitachi, Japan) was studied. Six scintillating cocktails were tested and the Hionic-Fluor and Ultima-Flo AP cocktails proved the most appropriate for flow measurement of radioactivity. Efficiency of tritium radioactivity recording under various conditions of analysis was determined. Under optimal conditions the lower detection limit for the Hionic-Fluor was 150, while for Ultima-Flo AP-100 decays/min in the peak of amino acid

  16. Total Differential Errors in One-Port Network Analyzer Measurements with Application to Antenna Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zimourtopoulos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study uncertainty in antenna input impedance resulting from full one-port Vector Network Analyzer (VNA measurements. The VNA process equation in the reflection coefficient ρ of a load, its measurement m and three errors Es, determinable from three standard loads and their measurements, was considered. Differentials were selected to represent measurement inaccuracies and load uncertainties (Differential Errors. The differential operator was applied on the process equation and the total differential error dρ for any unknown load (Device Under Test DUT was expressed in terms of dEs and dm, without any simplification. Consequently, the differential error of input impedance Z -or any other physical quantity differentiably dependent on ρ- is expressible. Furthermore, to express precisely a comparison relation between complex differential errors, the geometric Differential Error Region and its Differential Error Intervals were defined. Practical results are presented for an indoor UHF ground-plane antenna in contrast with a common 50 Ω DC resistor inside an aluminum box. These two built, unshielded and shielded, DUTs were tested against frequency under different system configurations and measurement considerations. Intermediate results for Es and dEs characterize the measurement system itself. A number of calculations and illustrations demonstrate the application of the method.

  17. CT findings in adults with obstructive sleep apnea; Measurement of pharyngeal spaces with an image analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Fumiaki; Asakura, Kohji; Nakano, Yuji; Shintani, Tomoko; Akita, Nobuto; Kataura, Akikatsu (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. In this study, we performed CT scans in 20 adult OSAS patients and 6 control subjects, and measured the airspaces in the nasopharynx, mesopharynx and hypopharynx, using an image analyzer. The airspaces were significantly smaller at all sites of the pharynx in OSAS patients than in the control subjects, but they did not show a positive correlation with the apnea index or the body mass index. In good responders whose apnea indexes improved more than 50% after uvulo-palato-pharyngoplasty (UPPP), the nasopharyngeal and mesopharyngeal airspaces were significantly smaller, and the hypopharyngeal space tended to be larger than in poor responders. Our results suggest that CT scan is a helpful method for analyzing the area of the upper airway, especially in relation to the response to UPPP in adults with OSAS. (author).

  18. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  19. Analyzing power spectral of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to identify motoric arm movement using EMOTIV EPOC+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustomi, A.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation of motoric dysfunction from the body becomes the main objective of developing Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technique, especially in the field of medical rehabilitation technology. BCI technology based on electrical activity of the brain, allow patient to be able to restore motoric disfunction of the body and help them to overcome the shortcomings mobility. In this study, EEG signal phenomenon was obtained from EMOTIV EPOC+, the signals were generated from the imagery of lifting arm, and look for any correlation between the imagery of motoric muscle movement against the recorded signals. The signals processing were done in the time-frequency domain, using Wavelet relative power (WRP) as feature extraction, and Support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier. In this study, it was obtained the result of maximum accuracy of 81.3 % using 8 channel (AF3, F7, F3, FC5, FC6, F4, F8, and AF4), 6 channel remaining on EMOTIV EPOC + does not contribute to the improvement of the accuracy of the classification system

  20. Power Quality Measurement in a Modern Hotel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Strugar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of power quality characteristics at the 10 kV grids supplying a modern hotel complex in Montenegrin Adriatic coast. The consumer is characterized with different type of loads, of which some are with highly nonlinear characteristic. For example, smart rooms, lift drives, modern equipment for hotel kitchen, public electric lighting, audio, video and TV devices, etc. Such loads in the hotel complex may be source of negative effects regarding power quality at MV public distribution network (10 kV and 35 kV. In the first part of the paper, results of harmonic measurement at a 35/10 kV substation are presented. The measurements lasted one week in real operating conditions (in accordance with EN 50160. The results were the basis for developing a simulation model. The measurement results were analyzed and compared with simulation ones. Application of harmonic filter is simulated. Filter effects on harmonic level is calculated and discussed using simulation results.

  1. Influence of relative humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using ELF electric field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Tarao, Hiroo; Elovaara, Jarmo A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of humidity on analyzing electric field exposure using extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field measurements. The study included 322 measurements in a climate room. We used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300, and employed two measurement techniques in the climate room where we varied the temperature from 15 to 25 °C, the relative humidity from 55% to 95%, and the electric field from 1 to 25 kV/m. We calculated Pearson correlations between humidity and percentage errors for all data and for data at different levels of humidity. When the relative humidity was below 70%, the results obtained by the different measurement methods in terms of percentage errors were of the same order of magnitude for the considered temperatures and field strength, but the results were less reliable when the relative humidity was higher than 80%. In the future, it is important to take humidity into account when electric field measurement results will be compared to the values given in different exposure guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Research with the high resolution spectrometer at LAMPF. [Differential cross sections, analyzing power, neutron density, 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-31

    Differential cross sections, analyzing power, neutron density parameters, and the differences between neutron and proton rms radii are studied for the reactions of 800-MeV polarized protons elastically scattered from /sup 12/,/sup 13/C, /sup 40/,/sup 42/,/sup 44/,/sup 48/Ca, /sup 46/,/sup 48/,/sup 50/Ti, /sup 58/,/sup 64/Ni, /sup 116/,/sup 124/Sn, /sup 54/Fe, and /sup 208/Pb. 18 references. (JFP)

  3. Biomechanical Properties of the Cornea Measured With the Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer in Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Ha, Byoung Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer in young healthy adults. This prospective cross-sectional population study included 944 eyes of 472 participants aged 20 to 40 years. Participants underwent ophthalmic investigations, including evaluation of biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, manifest refraction, and measurements of keratometric values by autokeratometry, intraocular pressure (IOP) by noncontact tonometer, central corneal thickness (CCT) by ultrasound, and white-to-white distance by Scheimpflug tomography. Statistical analyses included determination of the reference interval with a bootstrapping method, linear quantile mixed-effects model, and Spearman correlation analysis between the corneal biomechanical parameters and other variables (age, manifest refraction spherical equivalent, CCT, IOP, white-to-white, and keratometric values). The 90% CIs of all corneal biomechanical parameters demonstrated that the ranges of the 90% CIs for the reference data were almost identical with and without bootstrapping. Quantile regression to determine the fifth, 50th, and 95th percentiles of each corneal biomechanical parameter supported the findings from the nonparametric method with the 90% CIs. Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the parameters and variables, but there was a relatively high Spearman correlation coefficient in the case of the correlations with the CCT and IOP. Using data from a large population of young healthy adults, we developed a database of normal values for multiple corneal biomechanical parameters obtained from the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer. We conclude that the biomechanical properties of the cornea are influenced by the CCT and IOP.

  4. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, R.E. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Overholt, P.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  5. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The OPP methodologies applied include the system observablility during normal operating conditions, as well as during single branch forced outages. In order to improve the speed of convergence, an initial PMU placement is provided by graph-theoretic procedure. The IEEE 14-bus, 118-bus standard test power systems ...

  6. Automation of capacitance measurements for power semiconductor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addresses the matters of circuit engineering of primary components, technical characteristics and software of a meter designed to automate the process of testing of capacitance parameters of power modules based on insulated gate bipolar transistors and fast recovery diodes. Unit testing results that prove the ...

  7. The Level of Power Quality Measurement and Evaluation in A Stone Crusher Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ŞEKKELİ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric power. Quality of electrical energy in the electrical system that is requested continuous power (uninterrupted power, constant frequency and with constant amplitude can be explained by sinusoidal voltage. Deformation of voltage in the form of sinusoidal waveform is explained as a harmonic. Harmonics are most important factors in decreasing quality of energy in the electrical system. In industrial plants, existence of harmocins and voltage drop, causes serious problems both in plant and network. This problem affects the cost. In this study, a power quality measurements are carried out in stone crusher plant. Harmonics and voltage drop has been measured and evaluated with the power analyzer. In the power quality measurements, harmonic level of the plant is not so bad. However, it is recommended that compensation system with harmonic elimination can be established in plant.

  8. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  9. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  10. The sequence coding and search system: an approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedback of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable changes in plant performance at the earliest opportunity to implement corrective measures to preclude the occurrence of a more serious event. One of NRC's principal tools for collecting and evaluating operating experience data is the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS). The SCSS consists of a methodology for structuring event sequences and the requisite computer system to store and search the data. The source information for SCSS is the Licensee Event Report (LER), which is a legally required document. This paper describes the objectives of SCSS, the information it contains, and the format and approach for constructing SCSS event sequences. Examples are presented demonstrating the use of SCSS to support the analysis of LER data. The SCSS contains over 30,000 LERs describing events from 1980 through the present. Insights gained from working with a complex data system from the initial developmental stage to the point of a mature operating system are highlighted. Considerable experience has been gained in the areas of evolving and changing data requirements, staffing requirements, and quality control and quality assurance procedures for addressing consistency, software/hardware considerations for developing and maintaining a complex system, documentation requirements, and end-user needs. Two other approaches for constructing and evaluating event sequences are examined including the Accident Precursor Program (ASP) where sequences having the potential for core damage are identified and analyzed, and the Significant Event Compilation Tree

  11. Measuring and analyzing excitation-induced decoherence in rare-earth-doped optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, C W; Macfarlane, R M; Cone, R L; Sun, Y; Böttger, T; Sinclair, N; Tittel, W

    2014-01-01

    A method is introduced for quantitatively analyzing photon echo decay measurements to characterize excitation-induced decoherence resulting from the phenomenon of instantaneous spectral diffusion. Detailed analysis is presented that allows fundamental material properties to be extracted that predict and describe excitation-induced decoherence for a broad range of measurements, applications and experimental conditions. Motivated by the need for a method that enables systematic studies of ultra-low decoherence systems and direct comparison of properties between optical materials, this approach employs simple techniques and analytical expressions that avoid the need for difficult to measure and often unknown material parameters or numerical simulations. This measurement and analysis approach is demonstrated for the 3 H 6 to 3 H 4 optical transition of three thulium-doped crystals, Tm 3+ :YAG, Tm 3+ :LiNbO 3 and Tm 3+ :YGG, that are currently employed in quantum information and classical signal processing demonstrations where minimizing decoherence is essential to achieve high efficiencies and large signal bandwidths. These new results reveal more than two orders of magnitude variation in sensitivity to excitation-induced decoherence among the materials studied and establish that the Tm 3+ :YGG system offers the longest optical coherence lifetimes and the lowest levels of excitation-induced decoherence yet observed for any known thulium-doped material. (paper)

  12. Power Outage, Business Continuity and Businesses' Choices of Power Outage Mitigation Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asgary; Yeganeh Mousavi-Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Power outage has been mentioned as one of the most experienced and perceived risks by various types of businesses and organizations. Thus, reducing the impacts of power outage has become a key agenda in business continuity planning. Back-up or stand-by generators are among the most well known measures taken by power consumers to tackle the power outage problem. Approach: A survey was conducted to understand various aspects of power outage and the impacts...

  13. Measurement Error and Equating Error in Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Power analysis is a fundamental prerequisite for conducting scientific research. Without power analysis the researcher has no way of knowing whether the sample size is large enough to detect the effect he or she is looking for. This paper demonstrates how psychometric factors such as measurement error and equating error affect the power of…

  14. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  15. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  16. Analyzing powers for the sup 3 He( rvec p ,. pi. sup + ) sup 4 He reaction in the region of the. Delta. sub 1232 resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furutani, K.M.; Falk, W.R. (Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)); Duncan, F.A. (Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Walden, P.L.; Yen, S. (TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Huber, G.M.; Bent, R.D. (Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Lolos, G.J. (Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)); Korkmaz, E. (Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

    1991-10-01

    Angular distributions of the analyzing powers have been measured for the {sup 3}He({ital {rvec p}},{pi}{sup +}){sup 4}He reaction at proton bombarding energies of 300, 416, and 507 MeV. These results, together with existing measurements at 178, 198, and 800 MeV, provide a comprehensive set of data spanning the region of the {Delta}{sub 1232} resonance. The results are compared with a phenomenological model that incorporates the amplitudes for the {ital pp}{r arrow}{ital d}{pi}{sup +} reaction and calculations from a microscopic ({ital p},{pi}{sup +}) model.

  17. Analyzing powers for the 3He(rvec p,π+)4He reaction in the region of the Δ1232 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutani, K.M.; Falk, W.R.; Duncan, F.A.; Walden, P.L.; Yen, S.; Huber, G.M.; Bent, R.D.; Lolos, G.J.; Korkmaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    Angular distributions of the analyzing powers have been measured for the 3 He(rvec p,π + ) 4 He reaction at proton bombarding energies of 300, 416, and 507 MeV. These results, together with existing measurements at 178, 198, and 800 MeV, provide a comprehensive set of data spanning the region of the Δ 1232 resonance. The results are compared with a phenomenological model that incorporates the amplitudes for the pp→dπ + reaction and calculations from a microscopic (p,π + ) model

  18. AC power flow importance measures considering multi-element failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Shi, Congling

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the criticality of individual components of power systems is essential for overall reliability and management. This paper proposes an AC-based power flow element importance measure, while considering multi-element failures. The measure relies on a proposed AC-based cascading failure model, which captures branch overflow, bus load shedding, and branch failures, via AC power flow and optimal power flow analyses. Taking the IEEE 30, 57 and 118-bus power systems as case studies, we find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of a bus or branch. It is observed that for a substation bus, its importance is statistically proportional to its power demand, but this trend is not observed for power plant buses. While comparing with other reliability, functionality, and topology-based importance measures popular today, we find that a DC power flow model, although better correlated with the benchmark AC model as a whole, still fails to locate some critical elements. This is due to the focus of DC-based models on real power that ignores reactive power. The proposed importance measure is aimed to inform decision makers about key components in complex systems, while improving cascading failure prevention, system backup setting, and overall resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a novel importance measure based on joint failures and AC power flow. • A cascading failure model considers both AC power flow and optimal power flow. • We find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of an element. • Power demand impacts the importance of substations but less so that of generators. • DC models fail to identify some key elements, despite correlating with AC models.

  19. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    and wind power production on the voltage unbalance was analyzed. PMU data and NTP-synchronized data from two different MV networks were used. It has been found that PV production has only a minor negative impact on the voltage unbalance whereas the wind power production has a great positive impact...

  20. The « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer for millisecond timescale electron measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Techer, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding electron acceleration mechanisms in planetary magnetospheres or energy dissipation at electron scale in the solar wind requires fast measurement of electron distribution functions on a millisecond time scale. Still, since the beginning of space age, the instantaneous field of view of plasma spectrometers is limited to a few degrees around their viewing plane. In Earth's magnetosphere, the NASA MMS spacecraft use 8 state-of-the-art sensor heads to reach a time resolution of 30 milliseconds. This costly strategy in terms of mass and power consumption can hardly be extended to the next generation of constellation missions that would use a large number of small-satellites. In the solar wind, using the same sensor heads, the ESA THOR mission is expected to reach the 5ms timescale in the thermal energy range, up to 100eV. We present the « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer concept that can change the game for future space missions because of its instantaneous hemispheric field of view. A set of 2 sensors is sufficient to cover all directions over a wide range of energy, e.g. up to 1-2keV in the solar wind, which covers both thermal and supra-thermal particles. In addition, its high sensitivity compared to state of the art instruments opens the possibility of millisecond time scale measurements in space plasmas. With CNES support, we developed a high fidelity prototype (a quarter of the full « 3-D donut » analyzer) that includes all electronic sub-systems. The prototype weights less than a kilogram. The key building block of the instrument is an imaging detector that uses EASIC, a low-power front-end electronics that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter and on the NASA Parker Solar Probe missions.

  1. Experimental testing of the digital multichannel analyzer for gamma spectrometry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novkovic, D.; Nadjdjerdj, L.; Kandic, A.; Vukanac, I.; Djurasevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results of experimental testing of the digital multichannel analyzer which digitalizes the signal after a preamplifier are presented. The recordings of some of the characteristics of the spectrometer containing a digital MCA, such as full-peak efficiency, net-area ratio of the two peaks and the stability of the peak position, were carried out under different input counting rates, with different radioactive sources. The tested MCA has shown some excellent features, like the stability of the peak position over a long-term period and flexibility in the adjusting of optimum measurement conditions. However, the performed tests have also shown some serious and unexpected disadvantages of the digital MCA when it operates under certain circumstances, one of them having to do with the automatic tuning of live-time correction at low-input counting rates. (author)

  2. Experimental testing of the digital multichannel analyzer for gamma spectrometry measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental testing of the digital multichannel analyzer which digitalizes the signal after a preamplifier are presented. The recordings of some of the characteristics of the spectrometer containing a digital MCA, such as full-peak efficiency, net area ratio of the two peaks and the stability of the peak position, were carried out under different input counting rates, with different radioactive sources. The tested MCA has shown some excellent features, like the stability of the peak position over a long-term period and flexibility in the adjusting of optimum measurement conditions. However, the performed tests have also shown some serious and unexpected disadvantages of the digital MCA when it operates under certain circumstances, one of them having to do with the automatic tuning of live-time correction at low-input counting rates.

  3. Nacelle power curve measurement with spinner anemometer and uncertainty evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Wagner, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to verify the feasibility of using the spinner anemometer calibration and nacelle transfer function determined on one reference turbine, to assess the power performance of a second identical turbine. An experiment was set up with a met-mast in a position...... suitable to measure the power curve of the two wind turbines, both equipped with a spinner anemometer. An IEC 61400-12-1 compliant power curve was then measured for both turbines using the met-mast. The NTF (Nacelle Transfer Function) was measured on the reference turbine and then applied to both turbines...... to calculate the free wind speed. For each of the two wind turbines, the power curve (PC) was measured with the met-mast and the nacelle power curve (NPC) with the spinner anemometer. Four power curves (two PC and two NPC) were compared in terms of AEP (Annual Energy Production) for a Rayleigh wind speed...

  4. Hydrogen solubility measurements of analyzed tall oil fractions and a solubility model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Pakkanen, Minna; Linnekoski, Juha; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen solubility was measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K. • Continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method was used. • A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions. • The complex composition of the samples was analyzed and is presented. - Abstract: Knowledge of hydrogen solubility in tall oil fractions is important for designing hydrotreatment processes of these complex nonedible biobased materials. Unfortunately measurements of hydrogen solubility into these fractions are missing in the literature. This work reports hydrogen solubility measured in four tall oil fractions between 373 and 597 K and at pressures from 5 to 10 MPa. Three of the fractions were distilled tall oil fractions their resin acids contents are respectively 2, 20 and 23 in mass-%. Additionally one fraction was a crude tall oil (CTO) sample containing sterols as the main neutral fraction. Measurements were performed using a continuous flow synthetic isothermal and isobaric method based on the visual observation of the bubble point. Composition of the flow was changed step-wise for the bubble point composition determination. We assume that the tall oil fractions did not react during measurements, based on the composition analysis performed before and after the measurements. Additionally the densities of the fractions were measured at atmospheric pressure from 293.15 to 323.15 K. A Henry’s law model was developed for the distilled tall oil fractions describing the solubility with an absolute average deviation of 2.1%. Inputs of the solubility model are temperature, total pressure and the density of the oil at 323.15 K. The solubility of hydrogen in the CTO sample can be described with the developed model with an absolute average deviation of 3.4%. The solubility of hydrogen increases both with increasing pressure and/or increasing temperature. The more dense fractions of the tall oil exhibit lower hydrogen

  5. A study on the linearity characteristics of neutron power measurement system for Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tai Ki; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Jun

    1999-06-01

    It is briefly described the general principles of neutron detection and the method of neutron measurement in the nuclear reactor which neutron flux varies widely and gamma radiation also exists. Wide-range Fission Chamber System which is excellent in electrical and mechanical performances has been selected for neutron power measurement system for Hanaro. The linearity characteristics of neutron power signals is a critical factor of the reliability in reactor power control. In particular , the linearity of the log power signal, which covers 10 decade form 10 {sup -8} %FP to 200 %FP was a matter of primary concern during commissioning. In case of the linear power signal for reactor control at high power condition, the output signals were additionally analyzed in connection with the reactor thermal power and the delayed neutron signal from the primary pipe as well asthe output signal from the compensated ion chamber as a reference signal. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 33 figs.

  6. A study on the linearity characteristics of neutron power measurement system for Hanaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tai Ki; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Jun

    1999-06-01

    It is briefly described the general principles of neutron detection and the method of neutron measurement in the nuclear reactor which neutron flux varies widely and gamma radiation also exists. Wide-range Fission Chamber System which is excellent in electrical and mechanical performances has been selected for neutron power measurement system for Hanaro. The linearity characteristics of neutron power signals is a critical factor of the reliability in reactor power control. In particular , the linearity of the log power signal, which covers 10 decade form 10 -8 %FP to 200 %FP was a matter of primary concern during commissioning. In case of the linear power signal for reactor control at high power condition, the output signals were additionally analyzed in connection with the reactor thermal power and the delayed neutron signal from the primary pipe as well as the output signal from the compensated ion chamber as a reference signal. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 33 figs

  7. Measuring Group Synchrony: A Cluster-Phase Method for Analyzing Multivariate Movement Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRichardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for assessing group synchrony is introduced as being potentially useful for objectively determining degree of group cohesiveness or entitativity. The cluster-phase method of Frank and Richardson (2010 was used to analyze movement data from the rocking chair movements of six-member groups who rocked their chairs while seated in a circle facing the center. In some trials group members had no information about others’ movements (their eyes were shut or they had their eyes open and gazed at a marker in the center of the group. As predicted, the group level synchrony measure was able to distinguish between situations where synchrony would have been possible and situations where it would be impossible. Moreover, other aspects of the analysis illustrated how the cluster phase measures can be used to determine the type of patterning of group synchrony, and, when integrated with multi-level modeling, can be used to examine individual-level differences in synchrony and dyadic level synchrony as well.

  8. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  9. Analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups: accounting for dynamic group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Dean, Danielle; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Researchers commonly collect repeated measures on individuals nested within groups such as students within schools, patients within treatment groups, or siblings within families. Often, it is most appropriate to conceptualize such groups as dynamic entities, potentially undergoing stochastic structural and/or functional changes over time. For instance, as a student progresses through school, more senior students matriculate while more junior students enroll, administrators and teachers may turn over, and curricular changes may be introduced. What it means to be a student within that school may thus differ from 1 year to the next. This article demonstrates how to use multilevel linear models to recover time-varying group effects when analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups that evolve over time. Two examples are provided. The 1st example examines school effects on the science achievement trajectories of students, allowing for changes in school effects over time. The 2nd example concerns dynamic family effects on individual trajectories of externalizing behavior and depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Presenting a model of repair and preventing maintenance of Bushehr nuclear power plants analyzing the data of similar nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikhan, Hammidreza

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increase application of nuclear energy for producing electricity, special attention must be paid to their maintenance activities in general and preventive maintenance in particular. It has been shown that a well established preventive maintenance programme will enhance the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. A model of preventive maintenance for Buhehr nuclear power plant which is due to be completed by 2001 is developed. The prescribed model is based on past experiences of VVER nuclear power plants around the world. The utilized data is provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. The data and past experiences reveal such important information as availability, energy loss, types of failures, duration of failure, etc. A strategy for designing a database is established. These data are then analyzed by statistical methods such as Pareto analysis, t-test, K-S test, analysis of variance, etc. The results of our analysis reveal important information in regard to establishment of a well-defined preventive maintenance programme in Buhshehr nuclear power plant. The results show that certain equipment such turbo-generator and control-rods play an important role in the maintenance of a VVER nuclear power plant. Other findings are discussed in great detail

  11. Analyzing power for the 16O(p,n)16F (4-, 6.37 MeV) reaction at 134 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, R.; Fazely, A.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Kalenda, A.M.; McCarthy, R.J.; Tandy, P.C.; Watson, J.W.; Bertozzi, W.; Buti, T.; Finn, M.; Kovash, M.; Pugh, B.; Foster, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the analyzing power for the 16 O(p,n) 16 F (4 - , 6.37 MeV) reaction at 134.0 MeV and the differential cross section for the same reaction at 135.2 MeV. The shape of the cross section for the transition to this unnatural parity stretched state is described well by a distorted-wave impulse-approximation calculation using a (πd/sub 5/2/, νp/sub 3/2//sup ts-1/) 4 /sub -/ configuration and the effective interaction derived by Love and Franey from nucleon-nucleon phase shifts. The analyzing power from this calculation reproduces all of the qualitative features of the data and supports the use of the impulse approximation as an excellent starting point for describing the reaction mechanism. Quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical analyzing power can be improved by eliminating the imaginary tensor term of this interaction and taking the real part to be that derived by Love from the Sussex matrix elements. The sensitivity of the calculations to the choice of optical potentials and the importance of spin-orbit distortion is explored

  12. Agreement of Power Measures between Garmin Vector and SRM Cycle Power Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Andrew R.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if the Garmin Vector (Schaffhausen, Switzerland) power meter produced acceptable measures when compared with the Schoberer Rad Messetechnik (SRM; Julich, Germany) power meter across a range of high-intensity efforts. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists completed power profiles (seven maximal mean efforts between 5 and…

  13. The Effect of a Finite Measurement Volume on Power Spectra from a Burst Type LDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; K. George, William

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the effects of a finite size measurement volume on the power spectrum computed fromdata acquired with a burst-type laser Doppler anemometer. The finite measurement volume causes temporal distortions in acquisition of the data resulting in phenomena such as finite processing time and dead...... time.We compare analytical expressions for the bias and distortion of the velocity power spectrum computed from computer-generated data. We then compare the spectrum from the computer-generated data and a power spectrum from a measurement on a free turbulent jet in air and conclude that we have a valid...

  14. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.

  15. Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were

  16. Measurement and Analysis of Power in Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Vartika Keshri; Prity Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Application with renewable energy  sources  such   as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar-wind power generation. Consumers prefer quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor.   To   obtain   quality   power   we   have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topol...

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  18. Measurement and simulation of laser power noise in GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J R; Degallaix, J; Freise, A; Grote, H; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Willke, B

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes measurements and simulations related to power fluctuations of the laser light in the GEO 600 laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector. Measurements of the relative fluctuations of the light power at three different ports of the main interferometer are presented. In addition, measurements and simulations of the coupling transfer functions from power fluctuations at the input laser to these ports are shown. The transfer function from the input laser to the output port of the interferometer is found to be non-trivial. Despite this, the numerical simulation produces an excellent match to it and gives insight to the mechanisms leading to the complicated shape. Furthermore, the coupling transfer functions of power fluctuations to the main (heterodyne) detector outputs are measured and simulated. These are used to evaluate the level with which laser power fluctuations contribute to the overall noise level of the instrument

  19. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santjer, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  20. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  1. The system of the measurement of reactor power and the monitoring of core power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianfeng

    1999-01-01

    The author mainly describes the measurement of the reactor power and the monitoring of the core power distribution in DAYA BAY nuclear power plant, introduces the calibration for the measurement system. Ex-core nuclear instrumentation system (RPN) and LOCA surveillance system (LSS) are the most important system for the object. they perform the measurement of the reactor power and the monitoring of the core power distribution on-line and timely. They also play the important roles in the reactor control and the reactor protection. For the same purpose there are test instrumentation system (KME) and in-core instrumentation system (RIC). All of them work together ensuring the exact measurement and effective monitoring, ensuring the safety of the reactor power plant

  2. Phasor measurement of wind power plant operation in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2007-01-01

    Four Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) record continuously voltage and current phasors in the 400 kV and 132 kV transmission system of Eastern Denmark. The abstract evaluates the unique concept for power system monitoring using PMUs. It focuses on utilization of synchronized phasor measurements fro...... measurements from a traditional SCADA system. The case reveals the close relation between voltages, power flows and voltage phase angles over a wide area....

  3. Data acquisition systems for uses of multi-counter time analyzer and one-dimensional PSD pulse height analyzer to neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayoshi; Tasaki, Seiji; Okamoto, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    A data acquisition system having the various modern electronic devices was designed and tested for practical use of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements with multiple counters. The system is principally composed of TOF logic units (load-able up to 128 units) with a control unit and a conventional micro-computer. The TOF logic unit (main memory, 2048 ch, 24 bits/ch) demonstrates about 1.7 times higher efficiency for neutron counting rate per channel than the one by a conventional TOF logic unit. Meanwhile, some data-access functions of the TOF logic unit were applied to position sensitive analyzer of one-dimensional neutron PSD for small angle scattering. The analyzer was tested with use of pulse generator. The result shows good linearity. (author)

  4. A Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) for analyzing decentralized forest governance: case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abrar Juhar; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-06-15

    This paper posits a Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) that makes three major improvements on the Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (APAF) developed by Agrawal and Ribot (1999). These improvements emphasize the nature of decentralized property rights, linking the outputs of decentralization with its outcomes and the inclusion of contextual factors. Applying MAPAF to analyze outputs and outcomes from two major decentralized forest policies in Ethiopia, i.e., delegation and devolution, has demonstrated the following strengths of the framework. First, by incorporating vital bundles of property rights into APAF, MAPAF creates a common ground for exploring and comparing the extent of democratization achieved by different decentralizing reforms. Second, the inclusion of social and environmental outcomes in MAPAF makes it possible to link the output of decentralization with local level outcomes. Finally, the addition of contextual factors enhances MAPAF's explanatory power by providing room for investigating exogenous factors other than democratization that contribute to the outcomes of decentralization reforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing degradation effects of organic light-emitting diodes via transient optical and electrical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias D., E-mail: Tobias.Schmidt@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Jäger, Lars; Brütting, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Bruetting@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Noguchi, Yutaka [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki (Japan); Center of Frontier Science, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Ishii, Hisao [Center of Frontier Science, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    Although the long-term stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) under electrical operation made significant progress in recent years, the fundamental underlying mechanisms of the efficiency decrease during operation are not well understood. Hence, we present a comprehensive degradation study of an OLED structure comprising the well-known green phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3}. We use transient methods to analyze both electrical and optical changes during an accelerated aging protocol. Combining the results of displacement current measurements with time-resolved investigation of the excited states lifetimes of the emitter allows for a correlation of electrical (e.g., increase of the driving voltage due to trap formation) and optical (e.g., decrease of light-output) changes induced by degradation. Therewith, it is possible to identify two mechanisms resulting in the drop of the luminance: a decrease of the radiative quantum efficiency of the emitting system due to triplet-polaron-quenching at trapped charge carriers and a modified charge carrier injection and transport, as well as trap-assisted non-radiative recombination resulting in a deterioration of the charge carrier balance of the device.

  6. Measurement of Uncertainty for Vaporous Ethanol Concentration Analyzed by Intoxilyzer® 8000 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Rong-Jen; Rogers, Craig; Beltran, Jada; Razatos, Gerasimos; Avery, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Reporting a measurement of uncertainty helps to determine the limitations of the method of analysis and aids in laboratory accreditation. This laboratory has conducted a study to estimate a reasonable uncertainty for the mass concentration of vaporous ethanol, in g/210 L, by the Intoxilyzer(®) 8000 breath analyzer. The uncertainty sources used were: gas chromatograph (GC) calibration adjustment, GC analytical, certified reference material, Intoxilyzer(®) 8000 calibration adjustment and Intoxilyzer(®) 8000 analytical. Standard uncertainties attributed to these sources were calculated and separated into proportional and constant standard uncertainties. Both the combined proportional and the constant standard uncertainties were further combined to an expanded uncertainty as both a percentage and an unit. To prevent any under reporting of the expanded uncertainty, 0.10 g/210 L was chosen as the defining point for expressing the expanded uncertainty. For the Intoxilyzer(®) 8000, all vaporous ethanol results at or above 0.10 g/210 L, the expanded uncertainty will be reported as ±3.6% at a confidence level of 95% (k = 2); for vaporous ethanol results below 0.10 g/210 L, the expanded uncertainty will be reported as ±0.0036 g/210 L at a confidence level of 95% (k = 2). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tensor analyzing powers in the 1H(d vector,pp)n reaction at 16 MeV. I. The symmetric, constant-relative-energy configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, F.D.; Ohlsen, G.G.; Brown, R.E.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Jarmie, N.; Schwandt, P.; Doleschall, P.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results for the tensor analyzing powers A/sub xx/ and A/sub yz/ in the 1 H(d-vector, pp)n reaction at 16 MeV for a series of symmetric, constant-relative-energy configurations are reported and compared with the results of recent Faddeev calculations using a separable NN potential. In general, the agreement seems fairly good, although there is some evidence that the measured values of A/sub yz/ tend to be slightly smaller than the prediction, whereas for A/sub xx/ the opposite appears to be true. 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Consistency among integral measurements of aggregate decay heat power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H.; Sagisaka, M.; Oyamatsu, K.; Kukita, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Persisting discrepancies between summation calculations and integral measurements force us to assume large uncertainties in the recommended decay heat power. In this paper, we develop a hybrid method to calculate the decay heat power of a fissioning system from those of different fissioning systems. Then, this method is applied to examine consistency among measured decay heat powers of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu at YAYOI. The consistency among the measured values are found to be satisfied for the {beta} component and fairly well for the {gamma} component, except for cooling times longer than 4000 s. (author)

  9. The footprint of atmospheric turbulence in power grid frequency measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Haehne, Hauke; Schottler, Jannik; Waechter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim; Kamps, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Fluctuating wind energy makes a stable grid operation challenging. Due to the direct contact with atmospheric turbulence, intermittent short-term variations in the wind speed are converted to power fluctuations that cause transient imbalances in the grid. We investigate the impact of wind energy feed-in on short-term fluctuations in the frequency of the public power grid, which we have measured in our local distribution grid. By conditioning on wind power production data, provided by the ENTS...

  10. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  11. Measurement over an interval method in measuring and monitoring of power quality

    OpenAIRE

    Beljić Željko; Vujičić Bojan; Župunski Ivan; Mitrović Zoran; Vujičić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring of power quality of supplied electric energy are important links in electro-distribution chain. Modern systems used for this purpose are complex. Goal of this paper is to present a new approach to the measurements of power quality, which can achieve equal or better performances using less complicated hardware. In this paper, we have presented the method of measuring over an interval in measurements of relevant factors of power quali...

  12. Measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates operation at Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chinjang; Wang Tunglu; Lin Chihpao

    2009-01-01

    Measurement Uncertainty Recapture PowerUprates (MUR PU) are achieved through the use of state-of-the-art feedwater flow measurement devices, i.e., ultrasonic flow meters (UFMs), that reduce the degree of uncertainty associated with feedwater flow measurement and in turn provide for a more accurate calculation of thermal power. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) teamed with Sargent and Lundy, LLC (S and L), Pacific Engineers and Constructors, Ltd (PECL), and AREVA to develop a program and plan for the Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) MUR PU Engineering Service Project and for the assistance to Kuosheng MUR PU operation. After regulator's approval of the licensing requests, KSNPS conducted the power ascension test and switchover to the new rated thermal power for Unit 2 and Unit 1 on 7/7/2007 and 11/30/2007, respectively. From then on, KNPS became the first nuclear power plant implementing MUR PU operation in Taiwan and in Asia. (author)

  13. Power-over-ethernet for remote measurement and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Murali, N.

    2011-01-01

    Power-Over-Ethernet (PoE) technology (IEEE standard 802.3af) allows Remote Measurement and Control in harsh environment where human access is difficult in various nuclear research fields. The terminal measurement and control unit receives power for its operation and communicates data over the same LAN cable, without needing to provide power supplies from different source. Almost all data acquisition systems require both data connectivity and a power supply. In a familiar example, telephones are powered from the telephone exchange through the same twisted pair that carries the voice. Now we can do the same thing with Ethernet devices by combining power and data. Only one set of wires is required to bring to the end measurement and control unit which will simplify installation and save space. Remote unit can be easily moved, to wherever a LAN cable can be laid with minimal disruption to the workplace. It is safer as no mains supply is required. Uninterrupted power supply can be guaranteed to the terminal unit during mains power failure. The terminal unit can be shut down and reset remotely without needing for a reset button and power switch. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) can be used to monitor and control the remote unit. PoE will enable to deploy many more embedded systems in nuclear and other industry like Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Security Camera, Tele-information System, Remote Access Control System, Intruder Detection System, and Tele-Medicine System, etc. (author)

  14. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power system networks incorporated with FACTS controllers. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this ...

  15. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  16. Power System State Estimation Accuracy Enhancement Using Temperature Measurements of Overhead Line Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydra Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.

  17. Static Pressure Measurements of a Low Power Arcjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    AFIT/GA/ENY/91D-6 AD-A243 898 DTICS EL E CT E JAN 0 3 1992 j STATIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS OF A LOW POWER ARCJET THESIS Kevin P. Talley, Captain...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS STATIC PRESSURE MEASUREMVENTS OF A LOW POWER ARCJET 6. AUTHOR(S) Kevin P. Talley, Captain, USAF 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...deliver 30 kW were on the drawing board and power available on commercial communications satellites had become large enough that low power arcjet thrusters

  18. Organization of multidimensnonal measurements on the UNO-4096-90 analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, M.Yu.; Regushevskij, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Organization of multidimensional analysis on the UNO-4096-90 analyzer and VECTOR system units is described. Analyzer for displacement of spectrometric units possesses a special frame of input units in which each unit is assinged to its own place. Development of the UNO-4096-90 analyzer and VECTOR system converters enabled to organize the multidimensional analysis under one of the following regimes: amplitude-amplitude, time-amplitude, time-time, amplitude-time with the use of time expander, multitransducer amplitude or time. Mentioned regimes were tested in operation, and gained experience enables to note that organized multidimensional regimes of analysis satisfy the experiment requirements

  19. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  20. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  1. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  2. The footprint of atmospheric turbulence in power grid frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehne, H.; Schottler, J.; Waechter, M.; Peinke, J.; Kamps, O.

    2018-02-01

    Fluctuating wind energy makes a stable grid operation challenging. Due to the direct contact with atmospheric turbulence, intermittent short-term variations in the wind speed are converted to power fluctuations that cause transient imbalances in the grid. We investigate the impact of wind energy feed-in on short-term fluctuations in the frequency of the public power grid, which we have measured in our local distribution grid. By conditioning on wind power production data, provided by the ENTSO-E transparency platform, we demonstrate that wind energy feed-in has a measurable effect on frequency increment statistics for short time scales (renewable generation.

  3. Comparison of spacing factors as measured by the air-void analyzer and ASTM C457.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) began using the Air-Void Analyzer (AVA) in : 2001 and first incorporated an AVA spacing factor requirement into paving specifications beginning in late : 2002. In 2005, a statewide investigation to evalu...

  4. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2013-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  5. Technical assessment of air quality measuring analyzers; Evaluation technique des analyseurs de mesure de la qualite de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, V. [Laboratoire de mesures a l`air ambiant, Dept. Mesures et Analyses, INERIS, (France)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measuring analyzers are assessed in order to verify their measuring performance and to examine their aptitude to field measurements. For ensuring such assessment, the INERIS institute (France) disposes of three climatic enclosures, gas mixture emission systems and data acquisition systems. The assessment methodology is presented together with the various possible results: response time, linearity and limits determination, calibration studies, thresholds, drifts, hysteresis, physical detrimental effects, etc. Applications such as analyzers for one or more pollutants in ambient air and at the emission source (portable multi-gas analyzers) are presented, together with their results

  6. Power-Consumption Measurements for LTE User Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads

    If you are designing smartphone chipsets or operating a mobile network, you need to determine how certain parameters affect a speciic smartphone’s power consumption and igure out how to adjust the parameters to improve battery life. In this application note we show how to use the Agilent E6621A PXT......, but we do not discuss how to make automated tests (for example, using VEE software). In this application note, we analyze smartphones adhering to the 3GPP LTE standard [1]....... wireless communications test set and the Agilent N6705B DC power analyzer to establish a power consumption model for LTE user equipment (UE). The model is useful when you need to examine the UE battery life in system-level simulations. We will explain how the Agilent equipment can be used in manual tests...

  7. Measurement of effect of electron cyclotron heating in a tandem mirror plasma using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Uehara, M.; Tsumura, K.; Ebashi, Y.; Kajino, S.; Endo, Y.; Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray and end-loss-electron analyses of the electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using a semiconductor detector array and an electrostatic energy analyzer in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The flux and the energy spectrum of the end loss electrons are measured by a multi-grid energy analyzer. Recently, the electron cyclotron heating power modulation experiments have been started in order to generate and control the high heat flux and to make the edge localized mode-like intermittent heat load pattern for the divertor simulation studies by the use of these detectors for electron properties.

  8. Noise measurement at wind power plants; Geraeuschmessung an Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Ralph [Cirrus Research plc, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Wind energy is a supporting pillar of the energy transition. For further expansion, it is important to reduce prejudices, for example by measurements as precise as possible and assessments of the often unobjectively discussed noise emissions. These measurements are based on instruments which can analyze and measure low-frequency sound.

  9. Nacelle power curve measurement with spinner anemometer and uncertainty evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Demurtas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to verify the feasibility of using the spinner anemometer calibration and nacelle transfer function determined on one reference wind turbine, in order to assess the power performance of a second identical turbine. An experiment was set up with a met mast in a position suitable to measure the power curve of the two wind turbines, both equipped with a spinner anemometer. An IEC 61400-12-1-compliant power curve was then measured for both wind turbines using the met mast. The NTF (nacelle transfer function was measured on the reference wind turbine and then applied to both turbines to calculate the free wind speed. For each of the two wind turbines, the power curve (PC was measured with the met mast and the nacelle power curve (NPC with the spinner anemometer. Four power curves (two PCs and two NPCs were compared in terms of AEP (annual energy production for a Rayleigh wind speed probability distribution. For each wind turbine, the NPC agreed with the corresponding PC within 0.10 % of AEP for the reference wind turbine and within 0.38 % for the second wind turbine, for a mean wind speed of 8 m s−1.

  10. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    ; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using ‘statistically optimised near field acoustic holography’ (SONAH...

  11. Verification of 3G and 4G Received Power Measurements in a Crowdsourcing Android App

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Mikkelsen, Lars Møller

    2016-01-01

    Many crowdsourcing Android applications are available for measuring network Key Performance Indicators such as received power, latency, and throughput. The data is useful for end-users, researchers, and Mobile Network Operators, but unfortunately the applications’ accuracy are rarely verified....... In this paper we verify the crowdsourcing Android application NetMap’s ability to measure LTE Reference Signal Received Power by analyzing the Root Mean Squared Error, being 2-3 dB, and cross-correlation coefficient, being above 0.8, with measurements obtained by use of a professional radio network scanner...

  12. Analyzing Capacity of Cooperative MIMO using Beamforming in Measured Channel Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maryam; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on capacity in cooperative base stations MIMO in a realistic MIMO channel measurement. Two widely separated base stations have been assumed in this work and measurement has been done simultaneously from both base stations to four users. The effect of beamforming on capacity...... in different scenarios in this novel measurement setup has been investigated. The results shows great increase in capacity after cooperation consideration and optimization applied....

  13. Ergonomics as aid tool to identify and to analyze factors that can affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luquetti Santos, I.J.A.; Carvalho, P.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    The study of ergonomics has evolved around the world as one of the keys to understand human behavior in interaction with complex systems as nuclear power plant and to achieve the best match between the system and its users in the context of task to be performed. Increasing research efforts have yielded a considerable body of knowledge concerning the design of workstations, workplace, control rooms, human-system interfaces, user-interface interaction and organizational design to prevent worker discomfort, illness and also to improve productivity, product quality, ease of use and safety. The work ergonomics analysis consists of gathering a series of observation in order to better understand the work done and to propose changes and improvements in the working conditions. The work ergonomics analysis implies both the correction of existing situations (safety, reliability and production problems) and the development of new work system. Operator activity analysis provides a useful tool for the ergonomics approach, based on work ergonomics analysis. The operators will be systematically observed in their real work environment (control room) or in simulators. The focus is on description of the distributed regulated mechanisms (in the sense that operators work in crew), both in nominal and degraded situations, observing how operators regulate collectively their work during an increase in workload or when confronted with situations where incidents or accidents occur. Audio, video recorders and field notes can be used to collect empirical data, conversations and interactions that occur naturally within the work environment. Our research develops an applied ergonomics methodology, based on field studies, that permits to identify and analyze situations, factors that may affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants. Our contribution is related to the following technical topic: How best to learn from and share operational safety experience and manage changes during

  14. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  15. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y; Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  16. Instantaneous input electrical power measurements of HITU transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Guelmez, Y [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagapol, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    HITU (High Intensity Theraupetic Ultrasound) transducers are widely used in therapeutic ultrasound in medicine. The output ultrasonic power of HITU transducer can be measured in number of methods described in IEC 61161 standard [1]. New IEC standards specifically for measurement of HITU equipment are under development. The ultrasound power radiated from a transducer is dependent on applied input electrical voltage and current and consequently power. But, up to now, no standardised method has been developed and adopted for the input electrical power measurements. Hence, a workpackage was carried out for the establishment of such method in the frequency range of 1 to 3 MHz as a part of EURAMET EMRP Era-net plus 'External Beam Cancer Therapy' project. Several current shunts were developed and evaluated. Current measurements were also realized with Philips current probe and preamplifier at NPL and Agilent current probe at UME. In this paper, a method for the measurement of instantaneous electrical power delivered to a reactive ultrasound transducer in the required frequency range is explored.

  17. Application of laser differential confocal technique in back vertex power measurement for phoropters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Li, Lin; Ding, Xiang; Liu, Wenli

    2012-10-01

    A phoropter is one of the most popular ophthalmic instruments used in optometry and the back vertex power (BVP) is one of the most important parameters to evaluate the refraction characteristics of a phoropter. In this paper, a new laser differential confocal vertex-power measurement method which takes advantage of outstanding focusing ability of laser differential confocal (LDC) system is proposed for measuring the BVP of phoropters. A vertex power measurement system is built up. Experimental results are presented and some influence factor is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the method based on LDC technique has higher measurement precision and stronger environmental anti-interference capability compared to existing methods. Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the measurement error of the method is about 0.02m-1.

  18. Meeting summary of the second CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers - Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Second CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation was held in Espoo, Finland, from September 29 through October 2, 1997. It was organised by CSNI Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2), Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic Applications (TG-THA), in co-operation with Technical Research Centre of Finland. The meeting in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. The previous meeting held in Lappeenranta, Finland, in 1992 collected some 85 participants from 12 countries, presenting a total of 40 papers. The meeting was structured into 6 sessions covering the important aspects of development and use of simulators and plant analyzers: Session I: New objectives, Requirements and Concepts. This session covered the progress experienced since the 1. simulator meeting and tried to address the changing role of simulators based on the changes in users' needs and developing possibilities. Session II: Trends in Simulation Technology. This session was reserved for studying the current trends in the simulation technology: software environments, visualisation, simulator configuration tools, programming languages and computer systems. Session III: Training and human factor studies using simulators. This session was created for studying the status of different uses of simulators such as educational simulators, human factor studies and integrated safety assessment in addition to traditional training. Regarding to the severe accidents, a question was raised whether the simulator use should be for training or education. Session IV: Modelling techniques. The session on modelling techniques was included to cover recent developments in the modelling techniques applicable to training

  19. Is chair rise performance a useful measure of leg power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Shah, Imran; Harridge, Stephen; Guralnik, Jack; Kuh, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Chair rise performance, which is simple to assess in a home or clinic setting, has been used as a method of predicting leg power deficit in older adults. More recently, chair rise performance has been assessed in younger populations as a baseline for assessment of subsequent age-related declines in function and power. However, as rising from a chair repeatedly not only requires lower limb strength and power but also good balance and coordination, it may not be purely a measure of leg power especially among these younger, well functioning groups who are yet to experience agerelated declines and deficits in function. The aim of this study was to assess whether chair rise performance can be considered as a predictor of leg power, and hence of deficits in this, in men and women in mid-life. We assessed the relationship of chair rise performance with leg extensor power (LEP), measured using the Nottingham Power Rig (NPR), and with standing balance performance. LEP was measured in a clinic setting in a sub-sample of 81 men and 93 women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative cohort born in Britain in 1946. The time taken to rise from a chair 10 times and standing balance time were assessed during home visits at the same age. Increasing LEP was associated with better chair rise performance among those who completed 10 chair rises in ≥15 seconds, after adjustment for body size (p=0.008). Better standing balance performance was associated with better chair rise performance in men, but not women. That LEP and standing balance are both related to chair rise time in men suggests that chair rise time should not be thought of purely as a proxy measure of leg power in middle-aged populations. This has implications for longitudinal studies which want to study age-related decline in chair rise performance.

  20. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  1. Measurement of power and energy consumption of a competition-mobile-robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Tsing-Tshih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy consumption are the two most important factors for successful operation; they also play important roles in performance identification. The measurement of power and energy consumption is a common test in the development process of a competition mobile robot. If the power of a competition mobile robot is not sufficient, the running time in the competition will be too long and winning the competition will not be possible. Thus, the power and energy consumption are basic and important measurement parameters for a competition mobile robot. In this paper, five types of hand-made competition mobile robots are successfully developed and their performances are measured. From the measurements, their powers and energy consumptions are evaluated and analyzed, respectively. The test results show large differences in the powers and energy consumptions of the five models, even though the same motors were used. The design and construction of the competition mobile robot are the key parameters that cause these huge differences. It is possible to develop the measurement techniques for power and energy consumption, quickly and precisely, to determine how to modify a competition mobile robot rapidly and efficiently to a condition optimal for a mobile robot competition.

  2. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-10-16

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  3. Measurement and Analysis of Power in Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Keshri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application with renewable energy  sources  such   as solar cell array, wind turbines, or fuel cells have increased significantly during the past decade. To obtain the clean energy, we are using the hybrid solar-wind power generation. Consumers prefer quality power from suppliers. The quality of power can be measured by using parameters such as voltage sag, harmonic and power factor.   To   obtain   quality   power   we   have different topologies. In our paper we present a new possible topology which improves power quality. This paper presents modeling analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI to be connected between sources, which supplies energy from a hybrid solar wind energy system to the ac grid. The objective of this paper is to show that, with an adequate control, the converter not only can transfer the dc from hybrid solar wind energy system, but also can improve the power factor and quality power of electrical system. Whenever a disturbance occurs on load side, this disturbance can be minimized using open loop and closed loop control systems.

  4. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  5. Measurement of lower hybrid hot spots using a retarding field analyzer in Tore Supra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Petržílka, Václav; Ekedahl, A.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Kočan, M.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, F.

    390-391, č. 1 (2009), s. 904-906 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/18th./. Toledo, 26.05.2008-30.5.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lower Hybrid * hot spots * ELECTRONS * POWER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXN-4VG7MW6-7&_user=6542793&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=944ed4d95df86a149fa36439db6215db

  6. Cotton Micronaire Measurements Using Small Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumba, Jimmy; Rodgers, James

    2016-05-01

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber's maturity and fineness. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instrumentation. International interest has been expressed by the industry in the measurement of fiber micronaire using small, portable NIR spectroscopy instruments for both laboratory and outside the laboratory (e.g., field or greenhouse) locations. New, very small NIR micro-spectrometers have been commercialized that offer the potential advantages of smaller size and lower weight, lower cost, and increased portability over current portable units. A program was implemented to determine the feasibility of a small NIR micro-spectrometer to measure fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and outside the laboratory, with initial emphasis on laboratory measurements prior to moving to field evaluations. In the laboratory, distinct spectral differences with increasing micronaire were observed. Optimal sampling and instrumental procedures and protocols for two units (different spectral wavelength capabilities) were established. Comparative evaluations established very good method micronaire agreement between the micro-spectrometer and a standard portable spectrometer, with high Regression (R) value, low residuals, and few outliers (less than 20%). The NIR micro-spectrometer measurements were fast (NIR micro-spectrometer was demonstrated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Evaluation of point-of-care analyzers' ability to reduce bias in conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Gunnewiek, J.K.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Most point-of-care testing analyzers use the conductivity method to measure hematocrit (hct). During open-heart surgery, blood-conductivity is influenced by shifts in electrolyte and colloid concentrations caused by infusion media used, and this may lead to considerable bias in the hct measurement.

  8. Low Power Shoe Integrated Intelligent Wireless Gait Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.; Bakar, N. A.; Anuar, A. F.; Zainol, M. Z.; Hamzah, F.

    2014-04-01

    Gait analysis measurement is a method to assess and identify gait events and the measurements of dynamic, motion and pressure parameters involving the lowest part of the body. This significant analysis is widely used in sports, rehabilitation as well as other health diagnostic towards improving the quality of life. This paper presents a new system empowered by Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU), ultrasonic sensors, piezoceramic sensors array, XBee wireless modules and Arduino processing unit. This research focuses on the design and development of a low power ultra-portable shoe integrated wireless intelligent gait measurement using MEMS and recent microelectronic devices for foot clearance, orientation, error correction, gait events and pressure measurement system. It is developed to be cheap, low power, wireless, real time and suitable for real life in-door and out-door environment.

  9. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  10. Analyzing powers of 3He(p vector,p)3He elastic scattering between 30 and 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, J.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Conzett, H.E.; von Rossen, P.; Larimer, R.M.; Watson, J.; Brown, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzing power data have been obtained for 3 He(p vector,p) 3 He elastic scattering at seven energies between 30 and 50 MeV at laboratory angles between 20 0 and 160 0 . Errors are typically less than 0.01. These results supplement earlier differential and total reaction cross-section and analyzing power data and new data obtained with a polarized 3 He target

  11. Novel Calibration Technique for a Coulometric Evolved Vapor Analyzer for Measuring Water Content of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S. A.; Miao, P.; Carroll, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Evolved vapor coulometry is a measurement technique that selectively detects water and is used to measure water content of materials. The basis of the measurement is the quantitative electrolysis of evaporated water entrained in a carrier gas stream. Although this measurement has a fundamental principle—based on Faraday's law which directly relates electrolysis current to amount of substance electrolyzed—in practice it requires calibration. Commonly, reference materials of known water content are used, but the variety of these is limited, and they are not always available for suitable values, materials, with SI traceability, or with well-characterized uncertainty. In this paper, we report development of an alternative calibration approach using as a reference the water content of humid gas of defined dew point traceable to the SI via national humidity standards. The increased information available through this new type of calibration reveals a variation of the instrument performance across its range not visible using the conventional approach. The significance of this is discussed along with details of the calibration technique, example results, and an uncertainty evaluation.

  12. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss,

  13. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  14. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  15. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  16. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  17. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  18. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  19. Measurement of expansin activity and plant cell wall creep by using a commercial texture analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro A. Perini

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The possibility of measuring expansin activity following this adapted protocol with a commercial texture meter could contribute to ease and increase the analysis of expansin in different systems, leading to a better understanding of the properties of these proteins under different experimental conditions.

  20. Using financial risk measures for analyzing generalization performance of machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Kanamori, Takafumi

    2014-09-01

    We propose a unified machine learning model (UMLM) for two-class classification, regression and outlier (or novelty) detection via a robust optimization approach. The model embraces various machine learning models such as support vector machine-based and minimax probability machine-based classification and regression models. The unified framework makes it possible to compare and contrast existing learning models and to explain their differences and similarities. In this paper, after relating existing learning models to UMLM, we show some theoretical properties for UMLM. Concretely, we show an interpretation of UMLM as minimizing a well-known financial risk measure (worst-case value-at risk (VaR) or conditional VaR), derive generalization bounds for UMLM using such a risk measure, and prove that solving problems of UMLM leads to estimators with the minimized generalization bounds. Those theoretical properties are applicable to related existing learning models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutral beam power measurements inside the ASDEX torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengliang, Y.; Staebler, A.; Vollmer, O.

    1982-11-01

    Neutral beam power measurements inside the ASDEX torus are done with a retractable calorimeter which is only radiation cooled. The calorimeter plate made from Molybdenum is subdivided into nine segments whose increase in energy content due to a shot yields the absorbed beam power. Different models for the backward extrapolation of the measured temperature curves are examined for a series of low energy shots with the result that pure radiation cooling is a valid assumption. Furthermore, a temperature correction to the measured power is derived from these experiments. The evaluation of the shots onto this calorimeter is done by a computer program. The application of this program to a few full power shots shows that a neutral power up to 3.2 MW has been injected into the ASDEX vessel by the two injectors with an overall efficiency of up to 40%. Reionization losses due to the ASDEX stray field are less than 10%; they do not show any dependence upon the pulse length for shots up to 200 ms. (orig.)

  2. A Case of Functional (Psychogenic Monocular Hemianopia Analyzed by Measurement of Hemifield Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Yoneda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional monocular hemianopia is an extremely rare condition, for which measurement of hemifield visual evoked potentials (VEPs has not been previously described. Methods: A 14-year-old boy with functional monocular hemianopia was followed up with Goldmann perimetry and measurement of hemifield and full-field VEPs. Results: The patient had a history of monocular temporal hemianopia of the right eye following headache, nausea and ague. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect, and a color perception test was normal. Goldmann perimetry revealed a vertical monocular temporal hemianopia of the right eye; the hemianopia on the right was also detected with a binocular visual field test. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography of the brain including the optic chiasm as well as orbital MRI revealed no abnormalities. On the basis of these results, we diagnosed the patient's condition as functional monocular hemianopia. Pattern VEPs according to the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV standard were within the normal range. The hemifield pattern VEPs for the right eye showed a symmetrical latency and amplitude for nasal and temporal hemifield stimulation. One month later, the visual field defect of the patient spontaneously disappeared. Conclusions: The latency and amplitude of hemifield VEPs for a patient with functional monocular hemianopia were normal. Measurement of hemifield VEPs may thus provide an objective tool for distinguishing functional hemianopia from hemifield loss caused by an organic lesion.

  3. Analyzing power in inclusive π+ and π- production at high xF with a 200 GeV polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Belikov, N.I.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Grachov, O.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; En'yo, H.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Iwatani, K.; Krueger, K.W.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Van Rossum, L.; Salvato, G.; Villari, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, N.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in χ F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing χ F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to -0.38 with increasing χ F for π - data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2≤χ F ≤0.9 and 0.2≤p T ≤2.0 GeV/c. In a simple model our data indicate that at large χ F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents. (orig.)

  4. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Machine learning to analyze images of shocked materials for precise and accurate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresselhaus-Cooper, Leora; Howard, Marylesa; Hock, Margaret C.; Meehan, B. T.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-09-14

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, called locally adaptive discriminant analysis (LADA), has been developed to locate boundaries between identifiable image features that have varying intensities. LADA is an adaptation of image segmentation, which includes techniques that find the positions of image features (classes) using statistical intensity distributions for each class in the image. In order to place a pixel in the proper class, LADA considers the intensity at that pixel and the distribution of intensities in local (nearby) pixels. This paper presents the use of LADA to provide, with statistical uncertainties, the positions and shapes of features within ultrafast images of shock waves. We demonstrate the ability to locate image features including crystals, density changes associated with shock waves, and material jetting caused by shock waves. This algorithm can analyze images that exhibit a wide range of physical phenomena because it does not rely on comparison to a model. LADA enables analysis of images from shock physics with statistical rigor independent of underlying models or simulations.

  6. Machine learning to analyze images of shocked materials for precise and accurate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus-Cooper, Leora; Howard, Marylesa; Hock, Margaret C.; Meehan, B. T.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-09-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, called locally adaptive discriminant analysis (LADA), has been developed to locate boundaries between identifiable image features that have varying intensities. LADA is an adaptation of image segmentation, which includes techniques that find the positions of image features (classes) using statistical intensity distributions for each class in the image. In order to place a pixel in the proper class, LADA considers the intensity at that pixel and the distribution of intensities in local (nearby) pixels. This paper presents the use of LADA to provide, with statistical uncertainties, the positions and shapes of features within ultrafast images of shock waves. We demonstrate the ability to locate image features including crystals, density changes associated with shock waves, and material jetting caused by shock waves. This algorithm can analyze images that exhibit a wide range of physical phenomena because it does not rely on comparison to a model. LADA enables analysis of images from shock physics with statistical rigor independent of underlying models or simulations.

  7. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  8. Prospects of Measuring the Angular Power Spectrum of the Diffuse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr. (2016) 37: 35. DOI: 10.1007/s12036-016-9413-x. Prospects of Measuring the Angular Power Spectrum of the Diffuse. Galactic .... In this section we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE), the details ... of the product of the primary beam pattern A(θ) and δI(θ) the angular fluctuation.

  9. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) electromagnetic noise. Initially, the diode detector output signal could not be recorded due to the high noise level persisting in the ambiance. It was found that the HPM pulse can be ...

  10. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  11. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  12. Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    networks incorporated with FACTS controllers for advanced power system monitoring, protection, and control. Also this paper ..... its impact on the number of PMU placements is explained. Initially, we ... estimations. These procedures will enable PMUs to report, with each measurement, the quality of the estimated phasor.

  13. A Monte Carlo approach to the ship-centric Markov decision process for analyzing decisions over converting a containership to LNG power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kana, A.A.; Harrison, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    A Monte Carlo approach to the ship-centric Markov decision process (SC-MDP) is presented for analyzing whether a container ship should convert to LNG power in the face of evolving Emission Control Area regulations. The SC-MDP model was originally developed as a means to analyze uncertain,

  14. The sequence coding and search system: An approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1989-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedstock of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable changes in plant performance at the earliest opportunity to implement corrective measures to preclude the occurrences of a more serious event. One of NRC's principal tools for collecting and evaluating operating experience data is the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS). The SCSS consists of a methodology for structuring event sequences and the requisite computer system to store and search the data. The source information for SCSS is the Licensee Event Report (LER), which is a legally required document. This paper describes the objective SCSS, the information it contains, and the format and approach for constructuring SCSS event sequences. Examples are presented demonstrating the use SCSS to support the analysis of LER data. The SCSS contains over 30,000 LERs describing events from 1980 through the present. Insights gained from working with a complex data system from the initial developmental stage to the point of a mature operating system are highlighted

  15. Micro-Fabricated DC Comparison Calorimeter for RF Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Neji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 \\(\\mu\\W to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm \\(\\times\\ 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 \\(\\times\\ \\(10^{-3}\\ V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 \\(\\mu\\W, and the best resolution is around 10 \\(\\mu\\W. The effective efficiency is 99.9\\% from 0–1 GHz and more than 97.5\\% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than \\(-25\\ dB from 0–2 GHz and less than \\(-16\\ dB at 2–4 GHz.

  16. Micro-fabricated DC comparison calorimeter for RF power measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-10-27

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10⁻³ V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0−1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0−2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2−4 GHz.

  17. Analyzing repeated measures semi-continuous data, with application to an alcohol dependence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Strawderman, Robert L; Johnson, Bankole A; O'Quigley, John M

    2016-02-01

    Two-part random effects models (Olsen and Schafer,(1) Tooze et al.(2)) have been applied to repeated measures of semi-continuous data, characterized by a mixture of a substantial proportion of zero values and a skewed distribution of positive values. In the original formulation of this model, the natural logarithm of the positive values is assumed to follow a normal distribution with a constant variance parameter. In this article, we review and consider three extensions of this model, allowing the positive values to follow (a) a generalized gamma distribution, (b) a log-skew-normal distribution, and (c) a normal distribution after the Box-Cox transformation. We allow for the possibility of heteroscedasticity. Maximum likelihood estimation is shown to be conveniently implemented in SAS Proc NLMIXED. The performance of the methods is compared through applications to daily drinking records in a secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial of topiramate for alcohol dependence treatment. We find that all three models provide a significantly better fit than the log-normal model, and there exists strong evidence for heteroscedasticity. We also compare the three models by the likelihood ratio tests for non-nested hypotheses (Vuong(3)). The results suggest that the generalized gamma distribution provides the best fit, though no statistically significant differences are found in pairwise model comparisons. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  19. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Erdener, Burcin Cakir; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding

  20. Vibrations measurement at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomoni, R.C.; Belinco, C.G.; Pastorini, A.J.; Sacchi, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    After the modifications made at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator to reduce its vibration level produced by electromagnetic phenomena, it was necessary to perform measurements at the new levels, under different areas and power conditions. To this purpose, a work was performed jointly with the 'Vibrations Team' of the ANSALDO Company (the generator constructor) and the Hydrodynamic Assays Division under the coordination and supervision of the plant's electrical maintenance responsible. This paper includes the main results obtained and the instrumentation criteria and analysis performed. (Author)

  1. Measurement of nuclear reactor noise at low power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velickovic, Lj.

    1968-01-01

    Theoretical interpretation of reactor noise experiments is based on stochastic model developed and described in this paper. Ratio l/β as well as subcriticality level can be determined bu measuring transfer function. In this paper the ratio l/β was determined directly from auto-correlation functions for different critical configurations of the RB zero power reactor core and not by transfer function. This simplified the procedure significantly. It was found that the 0.5 W power level is most suitable for experimental study of neutron fluctuations. In this case fluctuations are intense compared to noise of the detector and electronic devices used

  2. Current measurement method for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors with Silicon Steel Current Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    , it compensates the mechanical size limitations of the Pearson current monitor. Finally, experimental studied are carried out with both discrete Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET and high current (1000A) Silicon (Si) IGBT power modules. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.......This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...... regarding three essential qualities: high bandwidth, suitable physical size, and galvanic isolation. Then, the proposed current measurement method with SSCT is mathematically analyzed, which proves that the proposed method has the capability of measuring fast switching current. Simultaneously...

  3. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  4. Measurement over an interval method in measuring and monitoring of power quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and monitoring of power quality of supplied electric energy are important links in electro-distribution chain. Modern systems used for this purpose are complex. Goal of this paper is to present a new approach to the measurements of power quality, which can achieve equal or better performances using less complicated hardware. In this paper, we have presented the method of measuring over an interval in measurements of relevant factors of power quality: grid voltage frequency, grid voltage RMS and grid voltage distortion factor. Also given is the analysis of performances from metrology point of view, which shows that the measurement uncertainty of proposed method is many times lower than required, regarding maximum deviations from nominal values, defined by the European norm EN50160.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019: Measurement in concept of smart grid

  5. Power system dynamics and stability with synchrophasor measurement and power system toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    Sauer, Peter W; Chow, Joe H

    2017-01-01

    This new edition addresses the needs of dynamic modeling and simulation relevant to power system planning, design, and operation, including a systematic derivation of synchronous machine dynamic models together with speed and voltage control subsystems. Reduced-order modeling based on integral manifolds is used as a firm basis for understanding the derivations and limitations of lower-order dynamic models. Following these developments, a multi-machine model interconnected through the transmission network is formulated and simulated using numerical simulation methods. Energy function methods are discussed for direct evaluation of stability. Small-signal analysis is used for determining the electromechanical modes and mode-shapes, and for power system stabilizer design. Time-synchronized high-sampling-rate phasor measurement units (PMUs) to monitor power system disturbances ave been implemented throughout North America and many other countries. In this second edition, new chapters on synchrophasor measurement ...

  6. Evaluation of photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzer in measuring concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted from feedlot soil/manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photo-acoustic infrared multigas analyzers (PIMAs) are being increasingly utilized to measure concentrations and fluxes of greenhouse gases (i.e., N2O, CO2, and CH4) at the soil surface because of their low cost, portability, and ease of operation. This research evaluated a PIMA in combination with ...

  7. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  8. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAMBOUR KWABENA A.; CAKIR BURCIN; BOLADO LAVIN RICARDO; DIJKEMA GERARD

    2017-01-01

    Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy sy...

  9. Extrapolation of ZPR sodium void measurements to the power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.L.; Collins, P.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Grasseschi, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sodium-voiding measurements of ZPPR assemblies 2 and 5 are analyzed with ENDF/B Version IV data. Computations include directional diffusion coefficients to account for streaming effects resulting from the plate structure of the critical assembly. Bias factors for extrapolating critical assembly data to the CRBR design are derived from the results of this analysis

  10. Analysis of the sources of error in the determination of sound power based on sound intensity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Sound intensity measurements make it possible to determine the sound power of a source in situ, even in the presence of other sources. However, the very fact that intensity-based sound power measurements can take place under widely different conditions makes it extremely difficult to evaluate...... the resulting measurement uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the most common sources of error in sound power determination based on sound intensity measurements. In particular the influence of the scanning procedure used in approximating the surface integral of the intensity...

  11. Measuring temperature using MRI: a powerful and versatile technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert; Streicher, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The Larmor frequency of water protons has reliably linear temperature dependence. Since this frequency shift is easily measurable using relatively simple MRI techniques, a remarkable opportunity arises for uniquely non-invasive and accurate temperature evaluation, deep within any water-containing object. Major applications are appearing in the field of image-guided surgery. The cutting-edge papers collected in this Special Issue demonstrate both the versatility and the power of MRI thermometry.

  12. Sensitivity of tensor analyzing power in the process d+p→d+X to the longitudinal isoscalar form factor of the Roper resonance electroexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Rekalo, M.P.; Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.; Iachello, F.

    1999-01-01

    The tensor analyzing power of the process d+p→d+X, for forward deuteron scattering in the momentum interval 3.7 to 9 GeV/c, is studied in the framework of ω exchange in an algebraic collective model for the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances. We point out a special sensitivity of the tensor analyzing power to the isoscalar longitudinal form factor of the Roper resonance excitation. The main argument is that the S 11 (1535),thinspD 13 (1520), and S 11 (1650) resonances have only isovector longitudinal form factors. It is the longitudinal form factor of the Roper excitation, which plays an important role in the t dependence of the tensor analyzing power. We discuss possible evidence of swelling of hadrons with increasing excitation energy. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Sensitivity of tensor analyzing power in the process d+p{r_arrow}d+X to the longitudinal isoscalar form factor of the Roper resonance electroexcitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Rekalo, M.P. [DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS, Laboratoire National Saturne, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]|[DAPNIA/SPhN, C.E.A./Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, U.N.A.M., A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The tensor analyzing power of the process d+p{r_arrow}d+X, for forward deuteron scattering in the momentum interval 3.7 to 9 GeV/c, is studied in the framework of {omega} exchange in an algebraic collective model for the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances. We point out a special sensitivity of the tensor analyzing power to the isoscalar longitudinal form factor of the Roper resonance excitation. The main argument is that the S{sub 11}(1535),thinspD{sub 13}(1520), and S{sub 11}(1650) resonances have only isovector longitudinal form factors. It is the longitudinal form factor of the Roper excitation, which plays an important role in the {ital t} dependence of the tensor analyzing power. We discuss possible evidence of swelling of hadrons with increasing excitation energy. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Revel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.

  15. Diagnostic and Measuring Systems of the Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the diagnostic and measuring systems dedicated for complex output tests of power transformers aswell as their diagnostic is dcscribcd. The aim of research in this area was to elaborate the problem of so-called open loop measuring system controlled by PC. The attribute "open" means the possibility to adapt the system for different electric equipment, different measurands and an zdaptation of the way of monitoring, evaluation and distribution of output information according to specific requirements the controlled transformer.

  16. Power curve measurement with a nacelle mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nacelle-based lidars are an attractive alternative to conventional mast base reference wind instrumentation where the erection of a mast is expensive, for example offshore. In this paper, the use of this new technology for the specific application of wind turbine power performance measurement...... is tested. A pulsed lidar prototype, measuring horizontally, was installed on the nacelle of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. A met mast with a top-mounted cup anemometer standing at two rotor diameters in front of the turbine was used as a reference. After a data-filtering step, the comparison of the 10 min...

  17. A Nanometer Aerosol Size Analyzer (nASA) for Rapid Measurement of High-concentration Size Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.-S.; Chen, D.-R.; Pui, David Y.H.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a fast-response nanometer aerosol size analyzer (nASA) that is capable of scanning 30 size channels between 3 and 100 nm in a total time of 3 s. The analyzer includes a bipolar charger (Po 210 ), an extended-length nanometer differential mobility analyzer (Nano-DMA), and an electrometer (TSI 3068). This combination of components provides particle size spectra at a scan rate of 0.1 s per channel free of uncertainties caused by response-time-induced smearing. The nASA thus offers a fast response for aerosol size distribution measurements in high-concentration conditions and also eliminates the need for applying a de-smearing algorithm to resulting data. In addition, because of its thermodynamically stable means of particle detection, the nASA is useful for applications requiring measurements over a broad range of sample pressures and temperatures. Indeed, experimental transfer functions determined for the extended-length Nano-DMA using the tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique indicate the nASA provides good size resolution at pressures as low as 200 Torr. Also, as was demonstrated in tests to characterize the soot emissions from the J85-GE engine of a T-38 aircraft, the broad dynamic concentration range of the nASA makes it particularly suitable for studies of combustion or particle formation processes. Further details of the nASA performance as well as results from calibrations, laboratory tests and field applications are presented below

  18. Uncertainty evaluation in the measurement of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from AC overhead power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztoupis, I N; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from alternating current power lines are carried out in order to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body on the general public. For any electromagnetic field measurement, it is necessary to define the sources of measurement uncertainty and determine the total measurement uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the problems of measurement uncertainty estimation, as the measurement uncertainty budget calculation techniques recommended in standardising documents and research studies are barely described. In this work the total uncertainty of power frequency field measurements near power lines in various measurement sites is assessed by considering not only all available equipment data, but also contributions that depend on the measurement procedures, environmental conditions and characteristics of the field source, which are considered to increase the error of measurement. A detailed application example for power frequency field measurements is presented here by accredited laboratory.

  19. Analyzing Operator Actions to Gain Time in Loss of AC Power with Subsequent Loss of Secondary Heat Sink Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, B; Parzer, I.

    2002-01-01

    The thermohydraulic analysis of plant response on total loss of AC power is very demanding and challenging job due to a number of phenomena included. Such an analysis became even more complicated and interesting if we include also the assumption of total loss of secondary heat sink. If we want to prevent escalation of this type of accident into severe accident, then the AC power should be restored before the core is uncovered or before the core is damaged. Core damage occurs if the core exit thermocouples indicate temperature above 923K for more than 30 minutes. In this situation the timing to perform mitigating actions is essential. Operators should restore AC power or at least secondary heat sink as soon as possible. There are some operator's actions that have very important influence on the available time. Available time is considered to be the time before the core is damaged - partially or completely melted or the time before the RCS fails due to core melting (creep failure of reactor vessel or primary piping). In this paper we are going to present the plant specific analysis of complete loss of AC power with subsequent total loss of secondary heat sink and influence of key operator actions on the available time to recover AC power before the core damage occurs. The analyses will be performed with three different state of the art codes used at NPP Krsko and IJS: RELAP5/mod2, MAAP4 and ANTHEM. The last two codes are used in the plant specific full scope simulator, one for the simulation of the design bases transients and accidents and second for simulation of the severe accidents. This type of analyses has been done also for the simulator validation, performed during acceptance testing. (author)

  20. The Happiness Analyzer : a New Technique for Measuring Subjective Well-Being : The Happiness Analyzer : een nieuwe techniek voor het meten van subjectief welbevinden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ludwigs (Kai)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013 the OECD published a guideline that represents the gold standard for measuring subjective well-being in greater detail to collect data in the quality needed as a basis for efficient decisions to improve subjective well-being and the evaluation of those decisions to enable

  1. A Guide for Measuring, Analyzing, and Evaluating Accelerations Recorded During Seakeeping Trials of High-Speed Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SPEED CRAFT by Michael R. Riley, The Columbia Group Kelly D. Haupt, NSWCCD Dr. Timothy W. Coats, NSWCCD Dr. H.C. Neil Ganey, NSWCCD Heidi P...for Measuring, Analyzing, and Evaluating Accelerations Recorded During Seakeeping Trials of High-Speed Craft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...of full-scale high speed craft . Minimum requirements for instrumentation systems are summarized, and standardized data processing methods are

  2. Measurement of Dielectric Properties at 75 - 325 GHz using a Vector Network Analyzer and Full Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Khanal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast and easy to use method to determine permittivity and loss tangent in the frequency range of 75 to 325 GHz. To obtain the permittivity and the loss tangent of the test material, the reflection and transmission S-parameters of a waveguide section filled with the test material are measured using a vector network analyzer and then compared with the simulated plots from a full wave simulator (HFSS, or alternatively the measurement results are used in mathematical formulas. The results are coherent over multiple waveguide bands.

  3. Acoustic measuring of partial discharge in power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Niño, J; Pascacio, A

    2009-01-01

    Power transformers' reliability can be seriously affected by partial discharges. For this reason, it is necessary to implement technical methods to identify endangered equipment before catastrophic failures occur. A well-known method that can be applied either in the laboratory or in the field is the detection and localization of partial discharges, by means of the analysis of the acoustic signals they produced. An innovative partial discharge detector was developed based on the analysis of an acoustic or electrical PD signal envelope. This paper describes the architecture of the developed acoustic detector, which is composed of a set of ultrasonic sensors, signal conditioning and control modules, a graphical interface and the required software for the location of the affected area within the transformer. The conditioning and control modules perform analog to digital conversion, arrival time measurement, communication and control operations. Finally, some power transformer diagnostic testing is presented and discussed

  4. Use of Smart Sensors in the Measurement of Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moreno-Muñoz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s businesses depend heavily on electrical services for lighting, general power, computer hardware and communications hardware. With the generalized use of sophisticated electronic devices, industries are shifting toward almost entirely electronic IT systems. PQ events are of increasing concern for the economy because today’s equipment, particularly computers and automated manufacturing devices, is highly sensitive to such imperfections. Traditionally the control and supervision of a plant distribution network has mainly been focused on the protection of the network. Relatively little attention has been focused on the quality of the electrical energy. Metering technologies and communications systems have advanced to enable the development of web-based sensors. Power Quality is one area where these smart sensors can be very valuable. This paper investigates the challenges and possibilities in the development of distributed PQ measurement systems. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned from this work.

  5. Signal validation in nuclear power plants using redundant measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glockler, O.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Morgenstern, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principles of a multivariable signal validation software system utilizing redundant sensor readings of process variables in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The technique has been tested in numerical experiments, and was applied to actual data from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The simultaneous checking within one redundant measurement set, and the cross-checking among redundant measurement sets of dissimilar process variables, results in an algorithm capable of detecting and isolating bias-type errors. A case in point occurs when a majority of the direct redundant measurements of more than one process variable has failed simultaneously by a common-mode or correlated failures can be detected by the developed approach. 5 refs

  6. Does Trust Matter? Analyzing the Impact of Trust on the Perceived Risk and Acceptance of Nuclear Power Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonjae Ryu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, trust has been in vogue in the social sciences. However, in risk studies, there have been few causal models of trust. This study proposes and tests a causal model of trust in which (1 source credibility influences trust and (2 two kinds of trust—i.e., trust in government and trust in regulation—affect the perceived risk and acceptance of nuclear energy. Based on survey data with a sample of 1014 local residents living near a nuclear power station, we tested a causal model using structural equation modeling. As for the results of the analysis: first, we confirmed the validity of the proposed causal model of trust. Second, on the causal path, credibility directly influenced trust in government and trust in regulation and indirectly affected the perceived risk and acceptance of nuclear power. Third, the two kinds of trust had (indirect impacts on perceived risk and acceptance. Trust in regulation had more power to explain perceived risks and acceptance than trust in government. Trust is important, but the kind of trust is more important.

  7. A method for detecting power system disturbances based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Saeki, O.; Tsuji, K. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Div. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The longitudinal structure of western Japan's 60 Hz power system produces various system oscillations. This study is part of a larger project to establish a method to analyze power measurements and to clarify the oscillations in power systems. Eight phasor measurement units (PMUs) connected to 100V outlets were placed in universities in the 60 Hz power system. The PMUs are synchronized based on global positioning system (GPS) and measured data was transmitted via the Internet. The purpose of this paper was to construct a method to extract system disturbance data from a huge amount of PMU data. The characteristics of phase differences between the observation points were examined and a new detection method was proposed. Specifically, the paper presented the evaluation indicator for determining system disturbances by using PMU data. By applying the algorithm to the huge volume of accumulated data, seventeen system disturbance data were found. Large-scale power station accidents were included in the data and successfully identified. It was expected that disturbance data results using the proposed method would be applied to dynamic characteristic analysis and stability analysis. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J. [NSTec; Wu, M. [SNL; Jacoby, K. D. [NSTec; Loisel, G. P. [SNL

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    -core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...... been measured using a vector network analyzer. The inductances, magnetic coupling factor and effective turns ratio of the transformers have been extracted from the the measured Z-parameters. The measurements of the proposed transformer configuration shows promising properties for the use in resonant...... power converters for very high frequencies. The magnetic coupling factor of both transformers is approx. 60 % and the mutual coupling inductance is dominant up to a frequency of 50 MHz....

  10. The impact of model detail on power grid resilience measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, S.; Kleis, K.; Schultz, P.; Kurths, J.; Hellmann, F.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme events are a challenge to natural as well as man-made systems. For critical infrastructure like power grids, we need to understand their resilience against large disturbances. Recently, new measures of the resilience of dynamical systems have been developed in the complex system literature. Basin stability and survivability respectively assess the asymptotic and transient behavior of a system when subjected to arbitrary, localized but large perturbations in frequency and phase. To employ these methods that assess power grid resilience, we need to choose a certain model detail of the power grid. For the grid topology we considered the Scandinavian grid and an ensemble of power grids generated with a random growth model. So far the most popular model that has been studied is the classical swing equation model for the frequency response of generators and motors. In this paper we study a more sophisticated model of synchronous machines that also takes voltage dynamics into account, and compare it to the previously studied model. This model has been found to give an accurate picture of the long term evolution of synchronous machines in the engineering literature for post fault studies. We find evidence that some stable fix points of the swing equation become unstable when we add voltage dynamics. If this occurs the asymptotic behavior of the system can be dramatically altered, and basin stability estimates obtained with the swing equation can be dramatically wrong. We also find that the survivability does not change significantly when taking the voltage dynamics into account. Further, the limit cycle type asymptotic behaviour is strongly correlated with transient voltages that violate typical operational voltage bounds. Thus, transient voltage bounds are dominated by transient frequency bounds and play no large role for realistic parameters.

  11. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  12. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  13. Sound power flux measurements in strongly exited ducts with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Keith R.; Davies, Peter O. A. L.; van der Walt, Danie C.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution describes new robust procedures for the measurement of sound power flux at appropriate axial positions along a duct with flow, using pairs of flush wall mounted microphones, or pressure transducers. The technology includes the application of selective averaging, order tracking, and optimized sampling rate methods to identify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated along the flow path in a reverberent, or highly reactive duct system. Such measurements can also be used to quantify the local acoustic characteristics that govern the generation, transfer, and propagation of wave energy in the system. Illustrative examples include the determination of the acoustic characteristics of individual silencing elements installed in IC engine intakes and exhausts both on the flow bench and during controlled acceleration or run down on a test bed, where the wave component spectral levels approached 170 dB.

  14. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Bass, T. D.; Dawkins, J. M.; Fry, J.; Haddock, C.; Horton, J. C.; Luo, D.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Walbridge, S. B. [Indiana University and Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Barrón-Palos, L.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Bass, C. D. [LeMoyne College, 1419 Salt Springs Road, Syracuse, New York 13214 (United States); Crawford, B. E. [Gettysburg College, 300 North Washington Street, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 (United States); Crawford, C. [University of Kentucky, 177 Chem.-Phys. Building, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States); Esposito, D. [University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Gardiner, H. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Gan, K. [The George Washington University, 2121 I Street N.W., Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States); Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E., E-mail: swanson@npl.washington.edu [University of Washington/Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Box 354290, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of dϕ/dz = 1 × 10{sup −7} rad/m.

  15. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  16. Apparatus for reducing pulse pileup in an elemental analyzer measuring gamma rays arising from neutron capture in bulk substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H. III.

    1979-01-01

    The active reduction of the number of analyzed events with pulse amplitudes which pileup has distorted improves measurement accuracy and response time in an apparatus for neutron-capture-based on-line elemental analysis of bulk substances. Within the apparatus, the analyzed bulk substance is exposed to neutrons, and neutron capture generates prompt gamma rays therefrom. A detector interacts with some of these gamma rays to produce electrical signals used to measure their energy spectrum by pulse-height analysis. Circuits associated with this pulse-height analysis also detect the pileup of the signals of two or more independent gamma rays using one or more of several techniques. These techniques include multiple outputs from a special amplifier-discriminator system, which has been optimized for low pulse-pair resolving time and may have adaptive thresholds, and the requirement that the relative amplitudes of the outputs of slow and fast amplifiers be consistent with a single event producing both outputs. Pulse-width measurements are also included in the pileup detection

  17. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.

  18. A highly stable DC power supply for precision magnetic field measurements and other purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    A homogeneous magnetic field is essential for the (3)He neutron spin filter used to polarize neutron beams and analyze neutron spins in neutron scattering. The required spatial uniformity of the magnetic field is on the order of 10(-4)/cm or less. To measure such uniformity, one needs a DC current source with a current stability much better than 10(-4). However, laboratory DC power supplies, which are commonly used in many (3)He neutron spin filters, do not have such stabilities. To attain a highly stable current with a common laboratory DC power supply for every (3)He neutron spin filter, a simple feedback circuit has been developed to keep the output current stable up to 10(-6). Such a highly stable current or voltage from a common laboratory DC power supply can also be used for various other research applications. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  19. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-11-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (I) removing the contaminant signal, (II) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (III) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (I), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (II), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (II) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  20. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  1. Design and Analyze a New Measuring Lift Device for Fin Stabilizers Using Stiffness Matrix of Euler-Bernoulli Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lihua; Sun, Mingxiao; Shi, Hongyu; Luan, Tiantian

    2017-01-01

    Fin-angle feedback control is usually used in conventional fin stabilizers, and its actual anti-rolling effect is difficult to reach theoretical design requirements. Primarily, lift of control torque is a theoretical value calculated by static hydrodynamic characteristics of fin. However, hydrodynamic characteristics of fin are dynamic while fin is moving in waves. As a result, there is a large deviation between actual value and theoretical value of lift. Firstly, the reasons of deviation are analyzed theoretically, which could avoid a variety of interference factors and complex theoretical derivations. Secondly, a new device is designed for direct measurement of actual lift, which is composed of fin-shaft combined mechanism and sensors. This new device can make fin-shaft not only be the basic function of rotating fin, but also detect actual lift. Through analysis using stiffness matrix of Euler-Bernoulli beam, displacement of shaft-core end is measured instead of lift which is difficult to measure. Then quantitative relationship between lift and displacement is defined. Three main factors are analyzed with quantitative relationship. What is more, two installation modes of sensors and a removable shaft-end cover are proposed according to hydrodynamic characteristics of fin. Thus the new device contributes to maintenance and measurement. Lastly, the effectiveness and accuracy of device are verified by contrasting calculation and simulation on the basis of actual design parameters. And the new measuring lift method can be proved to be effective through experiments. The new device is achieved from conventional fin stabilizers. Accordingly, the reliability of original equipment is inherited. The alteration of fin stabilizers is minor, which is suitable for engineering application. In addition, the flexural properties of fin-shaft are digitized with analysis of stiffness matrix. This method provides theoretical support for engineering application by carrying out finite

  2. Evaluation of point-of-care analyzers' ability to reduce bias in conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerenstra, Steven; Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2014-04-01

    Most point-of-care testing analyzers use the conductivity method to measure hematocrit (hct). During open-heart surgery, blood-conductivity is influenced by shifts in electrolyte and colloid concentrations caused by infusion media used, and this may lead to considerable bias in the hct measurement. We evaluated to what extent different analyzers correcting for 0, 1, 2, or 3 factors, respectively, compensated for this electrolyte/colloid interference: (1) the conductivity method with no correction (IRMA), (2) with a [Na(+)]-correction (GEM Premier 3000), (3) with a [Na(+)]/[K(+)]-correction (i-STAT), and (4) with a [Na(+)]/[K(+)]-correction in combination with an algorithm that estimates the protein dilution [i-STAT in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-mode]. Bias in hct was measured during three consecutive stages of a CPB procedure: (I) before CPB, (II) start of CPB and (III) after cardioplegia. In order of high to low electrolyte/colloid interference: the analyzer with no correction, [Na(+)]-correction, [Na(+)/]/[K(+)]-correction, and [Na(+)/]/[K(+)]/estimated protein-correction showed a change of bias from stage I to stage III of -3.9 ± 0.5, -3.4 ± 0.4, -2.1 ± 0.5, -0.3 ± 0.5%. We conclude that correcting for more parameters (Na(+), K(+), estimated protein) gives less bias, but residual bias remains even after [Na(+)/]/[K(+)]/estimated protein-correction. This suggests that a satisfactory algorithm should also correct for other colloidal factors than protein.

  3. Agreement of measures obtained radiographically and by the OSI CA-6000 Spine Motion Analyzer for cervical spinal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Cheryl M; Schuit, Dale; Johnson, Robert D; Knecht, H; Levine, Phyllis

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between angular measures of cervical spinal motion obtained from radiographs and from measures recorded by the OSI CA 6000 Spine Motion Analyzer (OSI SMA) in asymptomatic subjects. Fourteen subjects performed each of the following motions two times while wearing the OSI SMA: cervical flexion, extension, side bending to the right and left. Each motion was performed once for the cervical radiograph. The difference between the values obtained by the two methods was plotted against the average of those values for each subject to illustrate the level of agreement of the two methods. The plotted points were widely scattered, with a large range between the limits of agreement. Range of motion values taken from the OSI SMA were not similar to those obtained from radiographs for the motions of the cervical spine.

  4. Analyzing Source Apportioned Methane in Northern California During DISCOVER-AQ-CA Using Airborne Measurements and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric concentrations in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were 5.30 Gg/day (Gg 1.0 109 grams) (equating to 1.9 103 Gg/yr) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes 30 of total emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 concentrations over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 concentrations in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) -5 and linear regression slope 0.25). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when hot spots of local emission sources were measured and atmospheric CH4 concentrations reached values 3.0 parts per million (model NMB -10). Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California and further the understanding of the physical processes

  5. Analysis of bias in measurements of potassium, sodium and hemoglobin by an emergency department-based blood gas analyzer relative to hospital laboratory autoanalyzer results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The emergency departments (EDs of Chinese hospitals are gradually being equipped with blood gas machines. These machines, along with the measurement of biochemical markers by the hospital laboratory, facilitate the care of patients with severe conditions who present to the ED. However, discrepancies have been noted between the Arterial Blood Gas (ABG analyzers in the ED and the hospital laboratory autoanalyzer in relation to electrolyte and hemoglobin measurements. The present study was performed to determine whether the ABG and laboratory measurements of potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels are equivalent, and whether ABG analyzer results can be used to guide clinical care before the laboratory results become available.Study power analyses revealed that 200 consecutive patients who presented to our ED would allow this prospective single-center cohort study to detect significant differences between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin levels. Paired arterial and venous blood samples were collected within 30 minutes. Arterial blood samples were measured in the ED by an ABL 90 FLEX blood gas analyzer. The biochemistry and blood cell counts of the venous samples were measured in the hospital laboratory. The potassium, sodium, and hemoglobin concentrations obtained by both methods were compared by using paired Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and Deming regression.The mean ABG and laboratory potassium values were 3.77±0.44 and 4.2±0.55, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory sodium values were 137.89±5.44 and 140.93±5.50, respectively (P<0.0001. The mean ABG and laboratory Hemoglobin values were 12.28±2.62 and 12.35±2.60, respectively (P = 0.24.Although there are the statistical difference and acceptable biases between ABG- and laboratory-measured potassium and sodium, the biases do not exceed USCLIA-determined limits. In parallel, there are no statistical differences and

  6. An Improved Walsh Function Algorithm for Use in Sinusoidal and Nonsinusoidal Power Components Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulnizam Bin Abdul Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved Walsh function IWF algorithms as an alternative approach for active and reactive powers measurement in linear and nonlinear, balanced and unbalanced sinusoidal three-phase load system. It takes advantage of Walsh function unified approach, simple algorithm and its intrinsic high level of accuracy as a result of coefficient characteristics and energy behaviour representation. The developed algorithm was modeled on the Matlab Simulink software; different types of load, linear and nonlinear, were also modeled based on practical voltage and current waveforms and tested with the proposed improved Walsh algorithms. The IEEE standard 1459–2000 which is based on fast Fourier transform FFT approach was used as benchmark for the linear load system. The data obtained from laboratory experiment to determine power components in harmonic load systems using Fluke 435 power quality analyzer PQA which complies with IEC/EN61010-1-2001 standard was modeled and used to validate the improved algorithm for nonlinear load measurement. The results showed that the algorithm has the potential to effectively measure three-phase power components under different load conditions.

  7. Evaluation of fine ceramics raw powders with particle size analyzers having different measuring principle and its problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Osamu; Nakahira, Kenji; Tsubaki, Junichiro.

    1995-01-01

    Many kinds of analyzers based on various principles have been developed for measuring particle size distribution of fine ceramics powders. But the reproducibility of the results, interchangeability of the models, reliability of the ends of the measured distribution have not been investigated for each principle. In this paper, these important points for particle size analysis were clarified by measuring raw material powders of fine ceramics. (1) in the case of laser diffraction and scattering method, the reproducibility in the same model is good, however, interchangeability of the different models is not so good, especially at the ends of the distribution. Submicron powders having high refractive index show such a tendency remarkably. (2) the photo sedimentation method has some problems to be conquered, especially in measuring submicron powders having high refractive index or flaky shape particles. The reproducibility of X-ray sedimentation method is much better than that of photo sedimentation. (3) the light obscuration and electrical sensing zone methods, show good reproducibility, however, sometime bad interchangeability is affected by calibration and so on. (author)

  8. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  9. Measurement-based harmonic current modeling of mobile storage for power quality study in the distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenge Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs can be utilized as mobile storages in a power system. The use of battery chargers can cause current harmonics in the supplied AC system. In order to analyze the impact of different EVs with regardto their number and their emission of current harmonics, a generic harmonic current model of EV types was built and implemented in the power system simulation tool PSS®NETOMAC. Based on the measurement data for different types of EVs three standardized harmonic EV models were developed and parametrized. Further, the identified harmonic models are used by the computation of load flow in a modeled, German power distribution system. As a benchmark, a case scenario was studied regarding a high market penetration of EVs in the year 2030 for Germany. The impact of the EV charging on the power distribution system was analyzed and evaluated with valid power quality standards.

  10. Factor validation of an instrument measuring group power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold; Dunn, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Few publications have reported empirical findings regarding the measurement of nursing group power. This article reports the confirmatory factor analyses of the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power Within Organizations (SKAGPO) for instrument and middle-range theory development. Secondary analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data collected in 1999. The target population of the initial research was the chief nurse executives (CNEs) of all hospitals within the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii). A sample of 600 hospitals from across the United States was selected through a stratified random sampling process. A total of 350 executives comprised the final sample. Second-order confirmatory 8-factor analysis revealed factor loadings ranging from .43 to .89. The overall fit of the proposed model was: X2 = 1,360, df = 586, p < .00, GFI = .82, CFI = .86, and RMSEA = .06, indicating an acceptable fit with the data. Statistical support was found for the proposed model with the subsequent development of an alternate model that better fit the data. The study results indicated that the SKAGPO has acceptable psychometric properties.

  11. GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Signal Power Measurements: Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A threat to GNSS receivers is posed by a spoofing transmitter that emulates authentic signals but with randomized code phase and Doppler values over a small range. Such spoofing signals can result in large navigational solution errors that are passed onto the unsuspecting user with potentially dire consequences. An effective spoofing detection technique is developed in this paper, based on signal power measurements and that can be readily applied to present consumer grade GNSS receivers with minimal firmware changes. An extensive statistical analysis is carried out based on formulating a multihypothesis detection problem. Expressions are developed to devise a set of thresholds required for signal detection and identification. The detection processing methods developed are further manipulated to exploit incidental antenna motion arising from user interaction with a GNSS handheld receiver to further enhance the detection performance of the proposed algorithm. The statistical analysis supports the effectiveness of the proposed spoofing detection technique under various multipath conditions.

  12. LOW-POWER SOLUTION FOR EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENTS OF METHANE FLUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.; Burba, G. G.; Komissarov, A.; McDermitt, D. K.; Xu, L.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W. C.; Schedlbauer, J. L.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Riensche, B.; Allyn, D.

    2009-12-01

    Open-path analyzers offer a number of advantages for measuring methane fluxes, including undisturbed in-situ flux measurements, spatial integration using the Eddy Covariance approach, zero frequency response errors due to tube attenuation, confident water and thermal density terms from co-located fast measurements of water and sonic temperature, and possibility of remote and mobile solar-powered or small-generator-powered deployments due to lower power demands in the absence of a pump. The LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer is a VCSEL (vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser)-based instrument. It employs an open Herriott cell and measures levels of methane with RMS noise below 5 ppb at 10 Hz sampling in controlled laboratory conditions. The power consumption of the stand-alone LI-7700 in steady-state is about 8W, so it can be deployed in any methane-generating location of interest on a portable or mobile solar-powered tower, and it does not have to have grid power or permanent industrial generator. Eddy Covariance measurements of methane flux using the LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer were conducted in 2006-2009 in five ecosystems with contrasting weather and moisture conditions: (1) sawgrass wetland in the Florida Everglades; (2) coastal wetlands in an Arctic tundra; and (3) pacific mangroves in Mexico; (4) maize field and (5) ryegrass field in Nebraska. Methane co-spectra behaved in a manner similar to that of the co-spectra of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and air temperature, demonstrating that the LI-7700 adequately measured fluctuations in methane concentration across the whole spectrum of frequencies contributing to vertical atmospheric turbulent transport at the experimental sites. All co-spectra also closely followed the Kaimal model, and demonstrated good agreement with another methane co-spectrum obtained with a TDLS (Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscope; Unisearch Associates, Inc.) over a peatland. Overall, hourly methane fluxes ranged from near-zero at

  13. Analyzing the effect of dynamic loads on economic dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, non-uniform increase of demand on a power system turns the research toward the dynamic analysis. In this paper, to perform dynamic analysis and to solve economic load dispatch problem using optimal power flow (OPF, four realistic load levels are considered. Further, the effectiveness of the objective has been enhanced in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC. An optimal location identification methodology for IPFC based on line stability index (LSI is also presented. The effect of ramp-rate limits on generations and the effect of dynamic loads on generation fuel cost and transmission losses are also analyzed on standard IEEE-30 bus and real time 23 bus test systems with supporting validations, numerical and graphical results.

  14. Development of a research reactor power measurement system using Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Brício M.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear research reactors are usually located in open pools, to allow visibility to the core and bluish luminosity of Cherenkov radiation. Usually the thermal power released in these reactors is monitored by chambers that measure the neutron flux, as it is proportional to the power. There are other methods used for power measurement, such as monitoring the core temperature and the energy balance in the heat exchanger. The brightness of Cherenkov's radiation is caused by the emission of visible electromagnetic radiation (in the blue band) by charged particles that pass through an insulating medium (water in nuclear research reactors) at a speed higher than that of light in this medium. This effect was characterized by Pavel Cherenkov, which earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958. The project's objective is to develop an innovative and alternative method for monitoring the power of nuclear research reactors. It will be performed by analyzing and monitoring the intensity of luminosity generated by Cherenkov radiation in the reactor core. This method will be valid for powers up to 250 kW, since above that value the luminosity saturates, as determined by previous studies. The reactor that will be used to test the method is the TRIGA, located at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), which currently has a maximum operating power of 250 kW. This project complies with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations on reactor safety. It will give more redundancy and diversification in this measure and will not interfere with its operation. (author)

  15. Development of a research reactor power measurement system using Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Brício M.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: briciomares@hotmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear research reactors are usually located in open pools, to allow visibility to the core and bluish luminosity of Cherenkov radiation. Usually the thermal power released in these reactors is monitored by chambers that measure the neutron flux, as it is proportional to the power. There are other methods used for power measurement, such as monitoring the core temperature and the energy balance in the heat exchanger. The brightness of Cherenkov's radiation is caused by the emission of visible electromagnetic radiation (in the blue band) by charged particles that pass through an insulating medium (water in nuclear research reactors) at a speed higher than that of light in this medium. This effect was characterized by Pavel Cherenkov, which earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958. The project's objective is to develop an innovative and alternative method for monitoring the power of nuclear research reactors. It will be performed by analyzing and monitoring the intensity of luminosity generated by Cherenkov radiation in the reactor core. This method will be valid for powers up to 250 kW, since above that value the luminosity saturates, as determined by previous studies. The reactor that will be used to test the method is the TRIGA, located at Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), which currently has a maximum operating power of 250 kW. This project complies with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations on reactor safety. It will give more redundancy and diversification in this measure and will not interfere with its operation. (author)

  16. A Case Study of Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC Methodology in Garment Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the empirical application of Six Sigma and Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC methodology to reduce product defects within a garments manufacturing organization in Bangladesh which follows the DMAIC methodology to investigate defects, root causes and provide a solution to eliminate these defects. The analysis from employing Six Sigma and DMAIC indicated that the broken stitch and open seam influenced the number of defective products. Design of experiments (DOE and the analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were combined to statistically determine the correlation of the broken stitch and open seam with defects as well as to define their optimum values needed to eliminate the defects. Thus, a reduction of about 35% in the garments defect was achieved, which helped the organization studied to reduce its defects and thus improve its Sigma level from 1.7 to 3.4.

  17. Flow Measurements in Low-Head Hydro Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Michel; Andree, Gunilla; Klason, Peter; Sundstroem, Joel

    2012-11-15

    Hydropower stands for a large part of the energy production portfolio in Sweden and provides about 50% of the electricity needs. Most of the turbines were built some decades ago and are in a need of refurbishment. An important refurbishment period started some years ago and will be continuous. Substantial production gains and adaptation to new market demands may be achieved with such refurbishments. Refurbishments are also stimulated by the government through the electricity certificate system. Efficiency step-ups are thus of importance but challenging due to the presence of mainly low head (H<50 m) machines in Sweden. During the last decades, the Winter-Kennedy method has been used to verify improvements of the efficiency by measuring before and after a refurbishment. The results have for a number of cases shown unpredictable results. There is a need of development to measure accurately the efficiency in order to evaluate the outcome of different refurbishment projects. The working group suggests several actions for the development of flow measurements in low head machines. They are divided in 2 categories; long term and short term. The long term actions are typical SVC projects for PhD or/and senior researcher while short term actions are projects for consultant or/and senior researcher. The following actions are suggested in a hierarchical order. Long term projects: 1. Development of the pressure-time method as an absolute and relative method. 2. Evaluation of scale-up formula and influence of the parameters differing between model and prototype such spiral inlet boundary conditions. Short term projects: 1. Procedure/road book for implementation, evaluation and reporting of the Winter-Kennedy method. Continue working on the common guideline drafted in SEK-TK4. 2. Systematic error analysis of the Winter-Kennedy method. 3. Testing of the volumetric method on a full-scale unit to investigate capabilities and evaluate necessary development for low head hydro power

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Haswell Power and Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Song [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, Michael Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pakin, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fu, Song [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-19

    This is a presentation intended for the NMC seminar. Its primary objective was to understand power-performance of Haswell EP for HPC; test four benchmark programs on PowerEdge R730 with control knobs; as well as test more applications, use more compute nodes, examine the effects of control knobs, and implement power capping.

  19. Measurement-Based Investigation of Inter- and Intra-Area Effects of Wind Power Plant Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Alicia J.; Singh, Mohit; Muljadi, Eduard; Santoso, Surya

    2016-12-01

    This paper has a two pronged objective: the first objective is to analyze the general effects of wind power plant (WPP) integration and the resulting displacement of conventional power plant (CPP) inertia on power system stability and the second is to demonstrate the efficacy of PMU data in power system stability analyses, specifically when knowledge of the network is incomplete. Traditionally modal analysis applies small signal stability analysis based on Eigenvalues and the assumption of complete knowledge of the network and all of its components. The analysis presented here differs because it is a measurement-based investigation and employs simulated measurement data. Even if knowledge of the network were incomplete, this methodology would allow for monitoring and analysis of modes. This allows non-utility entities and study of power system stability. To generate inter- and intra-area modes, Kundur's well-known two-area four-generator system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. A doubly-fed induction generator based WPP model, based on the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) standard model, is included to analyze the effects of wind power on system modes. The two-area system and WPP are connected in various configurations with respect to WPP placement, CPP inertia and WPP penetration level. Analysis is performed on the data generated by the simulations. For each simulation run, a different configuration is chosen and a large disturbance is applied. The sampling frequency is set to resemble the sampling frequency at which data is available from phasor measurement units (PMUs). The estimate of power spectral density of these signals is made using the Yule-Walker algorithm. The resulting analysis shows that the presence of a WPP does not, of itself, lead to the introduction of new modes. The analysis also shows however that displacement of inertia may lead to introduction of new modes. The effects of location of inertia displacement (i.e. the effects on

  20. Different body fluid volumes measured by single- and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers in overweight/obese renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusztal, Mariusz; Dzierżek, Przemysław; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian

    2015-05-17

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an affordable, non-invasive and fast alternative method to assess body composition. The purpose of this study was to compare two different tetrapolar BIA devices for estimating body fluid volumes and body cell mass (BCM) in a clinical setting among patients with kidney failure. All double measurements were performed by multi-frequency (MF) and single-frequency (SF) BIA analyzers: a Body Composition Monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) and BIA-101 (Akern, Italy), respectively. All procedures were conducted according to the manufacturers' instructions (dedicated electrodes, measurement sites, positions, etc). Total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW) and BCM were compared. The study included 39 chronic kidney disease patients (stage III-V) with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8 years (21 men and 18 women) who had a wide range of BMI [17-34 kg/m2 (mean 26.6 ±5)]. A comparison of results from patients with BMI obese renal patients.

  1. Tensorial analyzing power T20 at 1800C.M. in d vector p elastic scattering between 0.3 and 2.3 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the measurement of the analysing power T 20 at 180 0 CM in d vector p elastic scattering for 16 energies between 300 and 2300 MeV are presented. The values which have been obtained are badly reproduced by the calculations based on neutron transfer (ONT) and Δ excitation in the intermediate state (TME) mechanisms, principal beyond 1 GeV. The excitation of possible tribaryon resonances, which are introduced in an elementary way, is added to these two mechanisms. The results of these calculations show that one could thus obtain a satisfying agreement with the experimental values. A measurement of angular distribution of the analysing powers Asub(y) and Asub(yy) between 70 and 180 0 CM at 1200 MeV is also presented [fr

  2. Metric for Measuring Software Power | Akwukwuma | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term “power” has been used to describe Software in Software community especially Software vendors. However, there has been no formal definition of Software power, nor has there been any scientific method of determining Software power. It is therefore the objective of this paper to examine the attributes of Software ...

  3. Power control of water reactors using nitrogen 16 activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariod, R.; Merchie, F.; O'byrne, G.

    1964-01-01

    At the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, the open-core swimming pool reactors Melusine (2 MW) and Siloe (15 MW) are controlled at a constant overall power using nitrogen-16 channels. The conventional linear control channels react instantaneously to the rapid power fluctuations, this being necessary for the safety of the reactors, but their power indications are erroneous since they are affected by local deformations of the thermal flux caused by the compensation movements of the control rods. The nitrogen-16 channels on the other hand give an indication of the overall power proportional to the mean fission flux and independent of the rod movements, but their response time is 15 seconds, A constant overall power control is thus possible by a slow correction of the reference signal given by the automatic control governed by thu linear channels by means of a correction term given by the 'N-16' channels: This is done automatically in Melusine and manually in Siloe. (authors) [fr

  4. Advanced power cycling test for power module with on-line on-state VCE measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-min; Trintis, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    estimation of power semiconductor devices and capacitors have been done. Accelerated power cycling test is one of the common tests to assess the power device module and develop the lifetime model considering the physics of failure. In this paper, a new advanced power cycling test setup is proposed for power...... for condition monitoring of the test device is discussed. Finally, a characterization method of test device regarding on-state VCE for junction temperature estimation is proposed. The experimental results of the prototype confirm the validity and the effectiveness of proposed test setup....

  5. Assessing the impact of primary measures for NOx reduction on the thermal power plant steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupar, Goran; Tucaković, Dragan; Živanović, Titoslav; Belošević, Srdjan

    2015-01-01

    The European normatives prescribe content of 200 mg/Nm 3 NO x for pulverized coal combusting power plants. In order to reduce content of NO x in Serbian thermal power plant (TPP) 'Kostolac B' it's necessary to implement particular measures until 2016. The mathematical model of lignite combustion in the steam boiler furnace is defined and applied to analyze the possibility of implementing certain primary measures for reducing nitrogen oxides and their effects on the steam boiler operation. This model includes processes in the coal-fired furnace and defines radiating reactive two-phase turbulent flow. The model of turbulent flow also contains sub-model of fuel and thermal NO x formation and destruction. This complex mathematical model is related to thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the steam boiler within a unified calculation system in order to analyze the steam boiler overall work. This system provides calculations with a number of influential parameters. The steam boiler calculations for unit 1 (350 MWe) of TPP 'Kostolac B' are implemented for existing and modified combustion system in order to achieve effective, reliable and ecological facility work. The paper presents the influence analysis of large number of parameters on the steam boiler operation with an accepted concept of primary measures. Presented system of calculations is verified against measurements in TPP 'Kostolac B'. - Highlights: • Modern steam boilers need to operate according to ecological standards. • Possibility of applying some of the primary measures of NO x reduction. • Conventional calculations have no possibility to estimate sub-stoichiometric combustion. • Develop a new method of connecting the calculations. • Analysis shows the most favorable operation boiler regime (efficiency and ecology)

  6. A real time measurement of junction temperature variation in high power IGBT modules for wind power converter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    is decreased at higher fundamental frequency due to change in on-state time from the change in output frequency. The junction temperature is estimated using the on-state collector-emitter voltage of the IGBT module. Lower output frequency is thermally a higher stressing zone for wind power converters, hence......This paper presents a real time measurement of on-state forward voltage and estimating the junction temperature for a high power IGBT module during a power converter operation. The power converter is realized as it can be used for a wind turbine system. The peak of the junction temperature...

  7. The measurement of gold on activated carbon using the X-MET portable X-ray analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerman, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Small quantities of activated carbon can conveniently be analyzed for gold by x-ray fluorescence analysis using a portable analyzer with a radionuclide source. Accurate results can be obtained for powder in seconds or minutes despite possible interferences. The analysis of granules is slightly less accurate. The assays provide valuable carbon in pulp plant control information, complimenting analysis of gold in solution

  8. Real-time measurements and their effects on state estimation of distribution power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; You, Shi; Thordarson, Fannar

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the potential value of using different real-time metering and measuring instruments applied in the low voltage distribution networks for state-estimation. An algorithm is presented to evaluate different combinations of metering data using a tailored state estimator....... It is followed by a case study based on the proposed algorithm. A real distribution grid feeder with different types of meters installed either in the cabinets or at the customer side is selected for simulation and analysis. Standard load templates are used to initiate the state estimation. The deviations...... between the estimated values (voltage and injected power) and the measurements are applied to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated grid states. Eventually, some suggestions are provided for the distribution grid operators on placing the real-time meters in the distribution grid....

  9. The tensor analyzing power T20 in the dd → 3Hen and dd → 3Hp reactions at the energies 140, 200 and 270 MeV at zero angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; ); Uesaka, T.; Saito, T.

    2006-01-01

    The data on the tensor analyzing power T 20 in the dd → 3 Hen and dd → 3 Hp reactions at 140, 200 and 270 MeV of the deuteron kinetic energy and at zero angle obtained at RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility are presented. The observed positive sign of T 20 clearly demonstrates the sensitivity to the D/S wave ratios in the 3 He and 3 H in the energy domain of the measurements. The T 20 data for the 3 Hen and 3 Hp channels are in agreement within experimental accuracy [ru

  10. Measurement campaign for wind power potential in west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow Jakobsen, Kasper

    2013-04-01

    Experiences and results from a wind resource exploring campaign 2003- in west Greenland. Like many other countries, Greenland is trying to reduce its dependency of fossil fuel by implementing renewable energy. The main challenge is that the people live on the coast in scattered settlements, without power infrastructure. Based on this a wind power potential project was established in 2002, funded by the Greenlandic government and the Technical University of Denmark. We present results and experiences of the campaign. 1 Field campaign There were only a few climate stations in or close to settlements and due to their positioning and instrumentation, they were not usable for wind resource estimation. To establish met stations in Arctic areas with complex topography, there are some challenges to face; mast positioning in complex terrain, severe weather conditions, instrumentation, data handling, installation and maintenance budget. The terrain in the ice free and populated part, mainly consists of mountains of different heights and shapes, separated by deep fjords going from the ice cap to the sea. With a generally low wind resource the focus was on the most exposed positions close to the settlements. Data from the nearest existing climate stations was studied for background estimations of predominant wind directions and extreme wind speeds, and based on that the first 10m masts were erected in 2003. 2 Instruments The first installations used standard NRG systems with low cost NRG instruments. For most of the sites this low cost setup did a good job, but there were some problems with the first design, including instrument and boom strains. In subsequent years, the systems were updated several times to be able to operate in the extreme conditions. Different types of instruments, data logger and boom systems were tested to get better data quality and reliability. Today 11 stations with heights ranging from 10-50m are installed and equipped according to the IEC standard

  11. Measuring the power consumption of social media applications on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunia, A. I. M.; Suherman; Rambe, A. H.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-03-01

    As fully connected social media applications become popular and require all time connection, the power consumption on mobile device battery increases significantly. As power supplied by a battery is limited, social media application should be designed to be less power consuming. This paper reports the power consumption measurement of social media running on a mobile device. Experimental circuit was developed by using a microcontroller measuring an android smartphone on a 802.11 controlled network. The experiment results show that whatsapp consumes the power less than others in stand by and chat. While other states are dominated by line. The blackberry consumes the power the worst.

  12. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M S; Iqbal bin Omar, M; Malek, M F Abd; Mohamed, Latifah; Sabri, Naseer; Juni, K M

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  13. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. S.; Abd Malek, M. F.; Sabri, Naseer; Omar, M. Iqbal bin; Mohamed, Latifah; Juni, K. M.

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  14. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  15. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tesla transformer acts as a source of intense electromagnetic noise during the operation of the KALI-1000 pulse power system. After the copper mesh anode flange, there is an axial virtual cathode oscillator chamber (length 25 cm, diameter 25 cm) for microwave generation. The IREB is injected to the VIRCATOR chamber ...

  16. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  17. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 2, User`s guide and manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  18. Measuring Effects Of Lightning On Power And Telephone Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, William; Thompson, E. M.; Medelius, P.; Rubinstein, M.; Tzeng, A.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical antenna senses both horizontal and vertical fields simultaneously. Measures "fast" components of electric field used in conjunction with other equipment, including antenna measuring "slow" vertical component of electric field; microphone that senses thunder; cameras making visual records, which locate lightning; magnetic-field sensor; optical sensors; and instruments measuring speed and direction of wind.

  19. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  20. Cross sections and tensor analyzing powers A_yy of the reaction ^1H(|vec|d,pp)n in SCRE geometries at E_d=19 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Ley; C. Dueweke; A. Emmerich; A. Imig; H. Paez gen. Schieck; J. Golak; H. Witala; Evgeny Epelbaum; A. Deltuva; A. C. Fonseca; W. Gloeckle; Ulf-G. Meissner; A. Nogga; P. U. Sauer

    2006-02-01

    We measured the cross sections and tensor analyzing powers of the 1H({approx}d,pp)n breakup reaction at Ed=19 MeV in four symmetric constant relative energy (SCRE) configurations. The data are compared with theoretical predictions from three different approaches: one based on high precision (semi)phenomenological potentials alone or combined with model three-nucleon forces, another on chiral forces up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the chiral expansion. In both cases, the Coulomb interaction is not included. In addition, a comparison to predictions based on CD Bonn including the Lambda excitation and the Coulomb force is presented. In all cases the measured cross sections are significantly below the theoretical values whereas the magnitude of the tensor analyzing powers agree within the error bars in three of the four cases. The apparent discrepancies in the breakup cross sections are similar to the known differences for the space-star breakup. This adds to the data base of unsolved low-energy discrepancies.

  1. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  2. Validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, U; Farahmand, P; Klenk, J; Blatzonis, K; Becker, C

    2015-09-01

    To investigate construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand performance power in older people by showing associations with relevant functional performance and physiological parameters. Cross-sectional study. Movement laboratory of a geriatric rehabilitation clinic. Eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). Sit-to-stand performance power and leg power were assessed using a linear encoder and the Nottingham Power Rig, respectively. Gait speed was measured on an instrumented walkway. Maximum quadriceps and hand grip strength were assessed using dynamometers. Mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area of both legs was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Associations of sit-to-stand performance power with power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig, maximum gait speed and muscle cross-sectional area were r=0.646, r=0.536 and r=0.514, respectively. A linear regression model explained 50% of the variance in sit-to-stand performance power including muscle cross-sectional area (p=0.001), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and power assessed by the Nottingham Power Rig (p=0.006). Construct validity of linear encoder measurement of sit-to-stand power was shown at functional level and morphological level for older women. This measure could be used in routine clinical practice as well as in large-scale studies. DRKS00003622. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chair Rise Peak Power in Daily Life Measured With a Pendant Sensor Associates With Mobility, Limitation in Activities, and Frailty in Old People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Geraedts, Hilde; Baldus, Heribert; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical relevance of sensor-based daily life chair rise performance measured in old people. A pendant-sensor was worn during standardized tests and in daily life to detect chair rise transfers and analyze transfer peak power. Linear correlations between

  4. X-ray Spectral Measurements of the JMAR High-Power Laser-plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Robert R.; Dozier, Charles M.; Newman, Daniel A.; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Gaeta, Celestino J.; Cassidy, Kelly L.; Powers, Michael F.; Kleindolph, Thomas; Morris, James H.; Forber, Richard A.

    2002-10-01

    X-ray spectra of Cu plasmas at the focus of a four-beam, solid-state diode-pumped laser have been recorded. This laser-plasma X-ray source is being developed for JMAR's lithography systems aimed at high- performance semiconductor integrated circuits. The unique simultaneous overlay of the four sub-nanosecond laser beams at 300 Hertz produces a bright, point-plasma X-ray source. PIN diode measurements of the X-ray output indicate that the conversion efficiency (ratio of X-ray emission energy into 2π steradians to incident laser energy) was approximately 9 percent with average X-ray power yields of greater than 10 Watts. Spectra were recorded on calibrated Kodak DEF film in a curved-crystal spectrograph. A KAP crystal (2d = 26.6 Angstroms) was used to disperse the 900 eV to 3000 eV spectral energies onto the film. Preliminary examination of the films indicated the existence of Cu and Cu XX ionization states. Additional spectra as a function of laser input power were also recorded to investigate potential changes in X-ray yields. These films are currently being analyzed. The analysis of the spectra provide absolute line and continuum intensities, and total X-ray output in the measured spectral range.

  5. Power measurements and analysis for dynamic circuit specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Amit; Bonamy, Robin; Stroobandt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Circuit Specialization (DCS) is a technique for optimized FPGA implementation and is built on top of Partial Reconfiguration (PR). Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) provides an opportunity to share the silicon area between different Partially Reconfigurable Modules (PRMs) and therefore results in smaller and faster designs that potentially also reduce the power consumption. In this paper, we show that energy consumption is an important factor that has to be considered while implem...

  6. Purchasing-Power Parity: Definition, Measurement, and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; Lawrence Schembri

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the concept of purchasing-power parity (PPP) and its implications for the equilibrium value of the Canadian exchange rate. PPP has two main applications, as a theory of exchange rate determination and as a means to compare living standards across countries. Concerning exchange rate determination, PPP is mainly useful as a reminder that monetary policy has no long-run impact on the real exchange rate, since the exchange rate can deviate persistently from its PPP value in ...

  7. Microwave Power Measurements on the Recirculating Planar Magnetron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N. M.; Franzi, M.; Greening, G. B.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, B. W.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2014-10-01

    The recirculating planar magnetron (RPM) is a high power microwave generator that recirculates the beam in two-coupled, planar magnetrons. Experiments on the first L-band prototype have successfully produced 50--200 μs, 30-130 MW microwave pulses with instantaneous electronic efficiencies of up to 30% at approximately 1 GHz. The device is driven using MELBA-C, with parameters of: -300 kV for 0.3-1.0 μs, and 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic fields. Recent RPM experiments have explored the effect of cathode surface treatment on the extracted microwave power, efficiency, and pulse width. This work utilized a proof of principle extraction system with antennas on the center vane of each oscillator to couple RF power into two, coaxial transmission lines. An advanced design, the Coaxial All Cavity Extractor, is in fabrication and will be discussed. Research supported by AFOSR Grant #FA9550-10-1-0104 and by AFRL.

  8. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  9. Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Nian Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.

  10. Determination of temperature measurements uncertainties of the heat transport primary system of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, Marcelo E.; Coutsiers, Eduardo E.; Moreno, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the systematic errors in temperature measurements in inlet and outlet headers of HTPS coolant channels of Embalse nuclear power plant are evaluated. These uncertainties are necessary for a later evaluation of the channel power maps transferred to the coolant. The power maps calculated in this way are used to compare power distributions using neutronic codes. Therefore, a methodology to correct systematic errors of temperature in outlet feeders and inlet headers is developed in this work. (author)

  11. Measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from P.F. fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, S. A.; Laird, C. K.

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) was measured in the flue gas from four wall-fired and three corner-fired 500 MW boilers, fitted with either conventional or low-NO x burners, at four C.E.G.B. power stations. Measurements were made both by on-line non-dispersive infra red (NDIR) monitors and by extractive sampling for later laboratory analysis by electron capture gas chromatography (ECD GC). It was found that the on-line and laboratory methods were in good agreement for samples analyzed within 1-3 h of sampling, but that the nitrous oxide concentration in the stored samples had a tendency to increase with time, which was dependent on the concentration of water in the sample. Experiments with synthetic mixtures showed that the increase in nitrous oxide concentration was consistent with the overall reaction2NO+SO 2→N 2O+SO 3 in which nitric oxide is reduced by sulphur dioxide. The highest average N 2O concentration measured by the on-line analyzer was 16 vpm, and for most of the boilers monitored the concentration was less than 10 vpm. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured N 2O emissions from normal boilers and those fitted with low-NO x burners. It is suggested that these values are close to the true levels of N 2O emissions from p.f. fired boilers and that recent reports of high levels (up to 200 vpm) are likely to be an artefact resulting from the observed generation of N 2O in stored samples. A consequence of these measurements of N 2O is that current estimates of the contribution of emissions from p.f. fired boilers to the global N 2O budget are likely to be too high.

  12. Evaluation of a Fully-Automated Analyzer for Rapid Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms for Applications in Soil Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and description of important soil processes such as water vapor transport, volatilization of pesticides, and hysteresis require accurate means for measuring the soil water characteristic (SWC) at low water potentials. Until recently, measurement of the SWC at low water...... sorption isotherms. In this technical note we present a comprehensive evaluation of the VSA instrument for a wide range of differently textured soils and discuss optimal measurement settings. The effects of operation mode, air-flow rate, sample pretreatment, test temperature, sample mass, and mass trigger...

  13. Nacelle lidar for power curve measurement - Avedøre campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Davoust, Samuel

    measurement of the wind speed away from the instrument. In the first phase of the EUDP project: “Nacelle lidar for power performance measurement”, a measurement campaign with a na-celle lidar prototype placed on an onshore turbine demonstrated the poten-tial of the technology for power curve measurement....... The main deviations of this method to the requirement of the IEC 61400-12-1 were identified and a procedure was established for the use of a nacelle lidar specifically for power curve measurement. This report describes the results of a sec-ond measurement campaign aiming at testing and finalising...

  14. Isolated systems with wind power. Results of measurements in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Saleh, L.; Hafiez, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the measurements were to characterise different types of consumer loads in order to be able to construct load patterns to be used in feasibility studies where the available data often will be incomplete, not available or not existing. Measurements have been carried out at five di...

  15. Characteristic study of non-power detectors for measurement of gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shengren; Li Mingfei

    1993-01-01

    Some plate-type non-power detectors for the measurement of gamma-ray doses with different thicknesses of the dielectric and the induction body and different ratios of the two sided capacitances have been made. The characteristics of plate-type non-power detectors with different structures were studied quantitatively. Some measurement results are given and discussed systematically. The best possibilities and work conditions of the plate-type non-power detector are discussed. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  16. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The current IEC standard for wind turbine power performance measurement only requires measurement of the wind speed at hub height assuming this wind speed to be representative for the whole rotor swept area. However, the power output of a wind turbine depends on the kinetic energy flux, which...

  17. First nondestructive measurements of power MOSFET single event burnout cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique to nondestructively measure single event burnout cross sections for N-channel power MOSFETs is presented. Previous measurements of power MOSFET burnout susceptibility have been destructive and thus not conducive to providing statistically meaningful burnout probabilities. The nondestructive technique and data for various device types taken at several accelerators, including the LBL Bevalac, are documented. Several new phenomena are observed

  18. A fully automated system for ultrasonic power measurement and simulation accordingly to IEC 61161:2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Felix, R.P.B.; Alvarenga, A.V.; Hekkenberg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrasonic power measurement, worldwide accepted, standard is the IEC 61161, presently in its 2nd edition (2006), but under review. To fulfil its requirements, considering that a radiation force balance is to be used as ultrasonic power detector, a large amount of raw data (mass measurement)

  19. Neural network applications to measurement calibration verification in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Peng, C.M.; Colley, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant operations and safety rely on the proper operation of the plant monitoring, controls and protection systems. These systems in turn, depend on plant instrumentation for a correct reporting of equipments status and the thermofluid condition of the process. The incorrect reading can be due to instrument failure or drift in calibration. Plant instrumentation are therefore recalibrated on a periodic basis. This is a time consuming and costly operation. This paper presents the preliminary results of an EPRI sponsored research project to develop a neural network-based analytical redundancy technique for instrument calibration reduction. The neural network will be used to predict the reading of a target instrument using readings from other dissimilar instruments. This technique is similar to the conventional on-line parameter identification and model-based observer methods. A methodology for selecting required dissimilar instruments inter-related to the target instrument, and determining the neural network structure is presented

  20. Comparison of net CO2 fluxes measured with open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers in an urban complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Mammarella, I.; Eugster, W.

    2009-01-01

    improved the performance of the open-path analyzer by reducing discrepancies in NSE at the urban site to 2% and decreasing the difference in NSE from 67% to 7% at the forest site. Overall, the site-specific approach gave the best results at both sites and, if possible, it should be preferred in the sensor......Simultaneous eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CO2 fluxes made with open-path and closed-path analyzers were done in urban area of Helsinki, Finland, in July 2007–June 2008. Our purpose was to study the differences between the two analyzers, the necessary correction procedures...... and their suitability to accurately measure CO2 exchange in such non-ideal landscape. In addition, this study examined the effect of open-path sensor heating on measured fluxes in urban terrain, and these results were compared with similar measurements made above a temperate beech forest in Denmark. The correlation...

  1. A New Time Measurement Method Using a High-End Global Navigation Satellite System to Analyze Alpine Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2011-01-01

    Accurate time measurement is essential to temporal analysis in sport. This study aimed to (a) develop a new method for time computation from surveyed trajectories using a high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS), (b) validate its precision by comparing GNSS with photocells, and (c) examine whether gate-to-gate times can provide more…

  2. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  3. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  4. Measurement of the Muon Stopping Power in Lead Tungstate

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; 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Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    A large sample of cosmic ray events collected by the CMS detector is exploited to measure the specific energy loss of muons in the lead tungstate of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The measurement spans a momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The results are consistent with the expectations over the entire range. The calorimeter energy scale, set with 120 GeV/c electrons, is validated down to the sub-GeV region using energy deposits, of order 100 MeV, associated with low-momentum muons. The muon critical energy in lead tungstate is measured to be 160+5/-6 plus or minus 8 GeV, in agreement with expectations. This is the first experimental determination of muon critical energy.

  5. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  6. Optimization of an enclosed gas analyzer sampling system for measuring eddy covariance fluxes of H2O and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stefan; Burba, George; Burns, Sean P.; Blanken, Peter D.; Li, Jiahong; Luo, Hongyan; Zulueta, Rommel C.

    2016-03-01

    Several initiatives are currently emerging to observe the exchange of energy and matter between the earth's surface and atmosphere standardized over larger space and time domains. For example, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS) are set to provide the ability of unbiased ecological inference across ecoclimatic zones and decades by deploying highly scalable and robust instruments and data processing. In the construction of these observatories, enclosed infrared gas analyzers are widely employed for eddy covariance applications. While these sensors represent a substantial improvement compared to their open- and closed-path predecessors, remaining high-frequency attenuation varies with site properties and gas sampling systems, and requires correction. Here, we show that components of the gas sampling system can substantially contribute to such high-frequency attenuation, but their effects can be significantly reduced by careful system design. From laboratory tests we determine the frequency at which signal attenuation reaches 50 % for individual parts of the gas sampling system. For different models of rain caps and particulate filters, this frequency falls into ranges of 2.5-16.5 Hz for CO2, 2.4-14.3 Hz for H2O, and 8.3-21.8 Hz for CO2, 1.4-19.9 Hz for H2O, respectively. A short and thin stainless steel intake tube was found to not limit frequency response, with 50 % attenuation occurring at frequencies well above 10 Hz for both H2O and CO2. From field tests we found that heating the intake tube and particulate filter continuously with 4 W was effective, and reduced the occurrence of problematic relative humidity levels (RH > 60 %) by 50 % in the infrared gas analyzer cell. No further improvement of H2O frequency response was found for heating in excess of 4 W. These laboratory and field tests were reconciled using resistor-capacitor theory, and NEON's final gas sampling system was developed on this

  7. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  8. Mixture Of Probabilistic Factor Analyzers For Market Risk Measurement: Empirical Evidence From The Tunisian Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nidhal Mosbahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for Basel-Compliant Value-at-Risk (VaR estimation in financial portfolio risk management, which combines Gaussian Mixture Models with probabilistic factor analysis models. This new mixed specification provides an alternative, compact, model to handle co-movements, heterogeneity and intra-frame correlations in financial data. This results in a model which concurrently performs clustering and dimensionality reduction, and can be considered as a reduced dimension mixture of probabilistic factor analyzers. For maximum likelihood estimation we have used an iterative approach based on the Alternating Expectation Conditional Maximization (AECM algorithm. Using a set of historical data in a rolling time window, from the Tunisian foreign exchange market, the model structure as well as its parameters are determined and estimated. Then, the fitted model combined with a modified Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm was used to predict the VaR. Through a Backtesting analysis, we found that this new specification exhibits a good fit to the data compared to other competing approaches, improves the accuracy of VaR prediction, possesses more flexibility, and can avoid serious violations when a financial crisis occurs.

  9. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.

    2015-04-01

    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  10. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYZE OF JUMP SHOOT MOTION IN BASKETBALL USING A 3-D ACCELERATION AND GYROSCOPIC SENSOR

    OpenAIRE

    谷口, 惇; TANIGUCHI, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement and analysis of a player's motion while making a jump shot in basketball. In order to increase the probability of a shot going into the basket, a player must develop good shooting form. We find the features of the motion that leads to a good jump shot using a simple sensoring device that combines a 3-D acceleration sensor and a gyroscopic sensor. Players practiced jump shots with the device mounted on the back of their hand to help them correct the errors ...

  11. Analyzing cross-reference transactions between authors by use of an asymmetric proximity measure and multidimensional unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores simultaneous modelling of cross-reference activity between authors by use of asymmetric proximities and multidimensional unfolding. We thereby model and map both citing and cited relations between authors in a common space. This enables a more comprehensive comparison...... into the maps as relationships become overt. Finally, the study discusses how high publication activity influences mapping results considerably. To counter this effect, we demonstrate the appropriateness of correcting data for main effects by use of an asymmetric proximity measure of odds ratios....

  12. Measurement of The Muon Stopping Power in Lead Tungstate

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, Andrea Davide

    2010-01-01

    During October-November 2008 the CMS Collaboration conducted a data-taking exercise in order to complete the commissioning of the experiment for extended operation. A large sample of cosmic ray triggered events has been recorded with the solenoid at its nominal axial field strength of 3.8~T. The events collected have been exploited to perform a measurement of specific energy loss of muons in lead tungstate - the electromagnetic calorimeter material - over a wide momentum range (from 5~GeV/c to 1~TeV/c). The results are consistent with the expectations over the entire range. A comparison of collision losses with radiative losses allowed for a first experimental determination of muon critical energy in lead tungstate, measured to be 160^{+5}_{-6}pm8~GeV, in agreement with expectations.

  13. Mechanical power curve measured in the wake of pied flycatchers indicates modulation of parasite power across flight speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Maeda, Masateru; Henningsson, Per; Hedenström, Anders

    2018-01-01

    How aerodynamic power required for animal flight varies with flight speed determines optimal speeds during foraging and migratory flight. Despite its relevance, aerodynamic power provides an elusive quantity to measure directly in animal flight. Here, we determine the aerodynamic power from wake velocity fields, measured using tomographical particle image velocimetry, of pied flycatchers flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find a shallow U-shaped power curve, which is flatter than expected by theory. Based on how the birds vary body angle with speed, we speculate that the shallow curve results from increased body drag coefficient and body frontal area at lower flight speeds. Including modulation of body drag in the model results in a more reasonable fit with data than the traditional model. From the wake structure, we also find a single starting vortex generated from the two wings during the downstroke across flight speeds (1-9 m s -1 ). This is accomplished by the arm wings interacting at the beginning of the downstroke, generating a unified starting vortex above the body of the bird. We interpret this as a mechanism resulting in a rather uniform downwash and low induced power, which can help explain the higher aerodynamic performance in birds compared with bats. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Natural radioactivity measurements at the proposed nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojuangco, J.G.; Salomon, A.Ph.

    1976-01-01

    Natural radioactivity measurement in the Philippines aims to establish baseline radioactivity levels in the environment of items essential to man. In this article, results of the environmental surveillance conducted in Bagac, Bataan from 1973 to 1974 are presented. Analyses were made on air parti-culates, sea and fresh water, grass, and soil samples for gross beta-gamma activities. Results obtained showed activity levels below the maximum permissible concentration recommended by the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP)

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.

  16. Mechanism and application method to analyze the carrier scattering factor by electrical conductivity ratio based on thermoelectric property measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guiying; Ren, Pan; Lin, Tie; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yanhua; Niu, Sitong; Bailey, Trevor P.

    2018-01-01

    Carrier scattering factor is one of the most important parameters for semiconductors. In this paper, we propose the mechanism and the application method to analyze the carrier scattering factor(s) by comparing the ratios of electrical conductivity σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) vs. temperature T in the theoretical calculation and experimental results. It is demonstrated that σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) is only related to the carrier scattering factor when the density of states effective mass, m*, is assumed to be constant in small temperature ranges. Therefore, the carrier scattering factor dependence of the ratios of σ(T)/σ(T0 = 300 K) can be used to pinpoint the carrier scattering mechanism. Taking Bi0.5Sb1.5Te2.7+xSe0.3 as an example, it is found that no matter what theoretical models for the Seebeck coefficient over a range of the reduced Fermi energy are used, the analysis results for the scattering mechanism are unique. The reason behind such an observation is that the ratio of σ(T)/σ(T0) is only dependent on the carrier scattering for a certain material. As such, we can neglect the effect of degeneracy on the carrier scattering mechanism, and select the simplest theoretical Seebeck coefficient model to estimate the scattering mechanism before the self-consistent η(T) (reduced Fermi level) is obtained. The effect of temperature dependence of the m*(T) on the σ(T)/σ(T0) is also discussed.

  17. Differential magnetometer method applied to measurement of geomagnetically induced currents in Southern African power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matandirotya, Electdom; Cilliers, Pierre. J.; Van Zyl, Robert R.; Oyedokun, David T.; de Villiers, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in conductors connected to the Earth are driven by an electric field produced by a time-varying magnetic field linked to magnetospheric-ionospheric current perturbations during geomagnetic storms. The GIC measurements are traditionally done on the neutral-to-ground connections of power transformers. A method of inferring the characteristics of GIC in power lines using differential magnetic field measurements is presented. Measurements of the GIC in the power lines connected to a particular power transformer are valuable in the verification of the modeling of GIC in the power transmission network. The differential magnetometer method (DMM) is an indirect method used to estimate the GIC in a power line. With the DMM, low-frequency GIC in the power line is estimated from the difference between magnetic field recordings made directly underneath the power line and at some distance away, where the magnetic field of the GIC in the transmission line has negligible effect. Results of the first application of the DMM to two selected sites of the Southern African power transmission network are presented. The results show that good quality GIC measurements are achieved through the DMM using Commercially-Off-The-Shelf magnetometers.

  18. {sup 20}F power measurement for generation IV sodium fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Michel, M.; Barbot, L.; Domenech, T.; Boudergui, K.; Bourbotte, J.M.; Kondrasovs, V.; Frelin-Labalme, A.M.; Hamrita, H. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); BAN, G. [ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brau, H.P. [ICSM, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171 F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Dumarcher, V. [AREVA NP, SET, F-84500 Bollene (France); Portier, J.L. [Centrale PHENIX, Centre de Marcoule, Groupe Essais Statistiques, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Jousset, P. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Diamant, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saurel, N. [CEA, DAM, Laboratoire Mesure de Dechets et Expertise, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille, France.F-84500 Bollene (France)

    2010-07-01

    The Phenix nuclear power plant has been a French Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) prototype producing electrical power between 1973 and 2010. The power was monitored using ex-core neutron measurements. This kind of measurement instantly estimates the power but needs to be often calibrated with the heat balance thermodynamic measurement. Large safety and security margins have then been set not to derive above the nominal operating point. It is important for future SFR to reduce this margin and working closer to the nominal operating point. This work deals with the use of delayed gamma to measure the power. The main activation product contained in the primary sodium coolant is the {sup 24}Na which is not convenient for neutron flux measurement due to its long decay period. The experimental study done at the Phenix reactor shows that the use of {sup 20}F as power tagging agent gives a fast and accurate power measurement closed to the thermal balance measurement thanks to its high energy photon emission (1.634 MeV) and its short decay period (11 s). (authors)

  19. The sound power measurement and certification of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.; Henderson, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is anticipated that there will be a substantial growth in the exploitation of renewable energy from the wind over the next few years. A major factor in this expected growth is the environmental acceptance or otherwise of wind turbines and in particular their acoustic characteristics. It is generally accepted within the turbine community that reliable methods of measuring and quantifying a turbine's acoustic signature are essential if this exploitation is to be realised. This paper will seek to review current practice both in the UK and further afield and will describe the development of a practical and reliable test method, which will aid the wind turbine Manufacturer, Developer and Planner. (author)

  20. A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Cloutier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units. We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation.

  1. Comparison of two averaging methods for improving the measurement accuracy of power loss

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Y; Todaka, T; Nakata, T

    2000-01-01

    When the magnetic characteristic of amorphous magnetic materials is measured by an SST, the induced voltages of the H-coil are small compared to the noise. In order to decrease the noise effect on the power loss measurement, hundreds of averaging of the measured values are effective. As the induced voltages are input to a computer through A/D converters, usually the instantaneous values of these data are averaged, and finally the power loss is calculated. Another averaging method is compared with the method mentioned above. The power loss is calculated at every measurement, and hundreds of measured power losses are averaged. When a transmission method of A/D converter is added, the second method is superior to the first method.

  2. An automated analyzer to measure surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of water soluble inorganic aerosol compounds and reactive trace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rick M; Trebs, Ivonne; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet A C; Ten Brink, Harry; Phillips, Gavin; Kortner, Michael; Meixner, Franz X; Nemitz, Eiko

    2009-03-01

    Here, we present a new automated instrument for semicontinuous gradient measurements of water-soluble reactive trace gas species (NH3, HNO3, HONO, HCl, and SO2) and their related aerosol compounds (NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-)). Gas and aerosol samples are collected simultaneously at two heights using rotating wet-annular denuders and steam-jet aerosol collectors, respectively. Online (real-time) analysis using ion chromatography (IC) for anions and flow injection analysis (FIA) for NH4+ and NH3 provide a half-hourly averaged gas and aerosol gradients within each hour. Through the use of syringe pumps, IC preconcentration columns, and high-quality purified water, the system achieves detection limits (3sigma-definition) under field conditions of typically: 136/207,135/114, 29/ 22,119/92, and 189/159 ng m(-3) for NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-, HONO/ NO2-, HCl/Cl- and SO2/SO4(2-), respectively. The instrument demonstrates very good linearity and accuracy for liquid and selected gas phase calibrations over typical ambient concentration ranges. As shown by examples from field experiments, the instrument provides sufficient precision (3-9%), even at low ambient concentrations, to resolve vertical gradients and calculate surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes undertypical meteorological conditions of the atmospheric surface layer using the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  3. Comparison of a human portable blood glucose meter, veterinary portable blood glucose meter, and automated chemistry analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beth M; Fry, Michael M; Flatland, Bente; Kirk, Claudia A

    2009-12-01

    To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. Validation study. 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used with Bland-Altman plots to determine agreement. Clinical relevance was assessed via error grid analysis. Although correlation between results of both PBGMs and the standard analyzer was > 0.90, disagreement was greater than could be explained by instrument imprecision alone. Mean difference between PBGM-H and chemistry-analyzer values was -15.8 mg/dL. Mean difference between PBGM-D and chemistry-analyzer values was 2.4 mg/dL. Linear regression analysis revealed proportional bias of PBGM-H (greater disagreement at higher glucose concentrations); no proportional bias was detected for PBGM-D. No constant bias was detected for either PBGM. Error grid analysis revealed all measurements from both PBGMs were within zones without an anticipated effect on clinical outcome. Neither PBGM had exact agreement with the automated analyzer; however, the disagreement detected did not have serious clinical consequences. Our findings stressed the importance of using the same device for monitoring trends in dogs and using instrument-specific reference ranges.

  4. Subcritical reactivity measurement at Angra 1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Renato Yoichi Ribeiro; Miranda, Anselmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    In order to speed up the Angra 1 NPP physics tests, this work intends to develop a digital reactivity meter combined with a methodology of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with correction factors for subcriticality measurements at Angra 1 NPP. In the first part of this work, we have applied the Modified Neutron Source Multiplication (MNSM) Method with fundamental mode extraction, in order to improve the monitoring of the subcriticality at Angra 1 NPP during the criticality approach. In the second part, we developed a preliminary subcritical reactivity meter algorithm based on the point-reactor inverse kinetic model with six delayed neutron groups and external neutron source. The source strength was obtained through the Least Squares Inverse Kinetics Method (LSIKM). (author)

  5. Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn

    The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary characteristic of the machine as it is the basis of the warranty for it power production. The current IEC standard for power performance measurement only requires the measurement of the wind speed at hub height and the air density to characterise...... the vertical wind shear and the turbulence intensity. The work presented in this thesis consists of the description and the investigation of a simple method to account for the wind speed shear in the power performance measurement. Ignoring this effect was shown to result in a power curve dependant on the shear...... condition, therefore on the season and the site. It was then proposed to use an equivalent wind speed accounting for the whole speed profile in front of the turbine. The method was first tested with aerodynamic simulations of a multi-megawatt wind turbine which demonstrated the decrease of the scatter...

  6. A Modified Technique of Active Power Measurement for Industrial Frequency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra BERA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of electric power and energy is very important aspect in any electrical application. A very simple design of measurement of active power for industrial frequency application is described in the paper. In this design a light emitting diode and light dependent resistor based electronic circuit has been fabricated to measure active power in terms of the DC output voltage of the circuit. Theoretical equations have been derived to find a linear relation between the DC output voltage and input power. The whole unit has been designed, fabricated and experimentally tested. The experimental results are reported in the paper and are found to follow the theoretical equations. It has been observed that the analog DC output voltage of the proposed circuit is linearly related with the power within tolerable limit.

  7. Measurement of power density distribution and beam waist simulation for electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chunlong; Peng, Yong; Wang, Kehong; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to measure the power density distribution of the electron beam (EB) for further estimating its characteristics. A compact device combining deflection signal controller and current signal acquisition circuit of the EB was built. A software modelling framework was developed to investigate structural parameters of the electron beam. With an iterative algorithm, the functional relationship between the electron beam power and its power density was solved and the corresponding contour map of power density distribution was plotted through isoline tracking approach. The power density distribution of various layers of cross-section beam was reconstructed for beam volume by direct volume rendering technique. The further simulation of beam waist with all-known marching cubes algorithm reveals the evolution of spatial appearance and geometry measurement principle was explained in detail. The study provides an evaluation of promising to replace the traditional idea of EB spatial characteristics. - Highlights: ► We build a framework for measuring power density distribution for electron beam. ► We capture actual electron and build transient spatial power distribution for EB. ► Tracing algorithm of power density contour for cross-section was designed. ► The volume and waist of the beam are reconstructed in 4D mode. ► Geometry measurement is finished which is befit for designing of process welding.

  8. Construction of scales to measure leadership behavior at nuclear power plants. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Shinohara, Shinobu

    1994-01-01

    In order to construct scales to measure leadership behavior of managers and supervisors at nuclear power plants, we prepared questionnaire covering all the leadership behaviors of leaders and then had their subordinates fill out the questionnaire. We selected questionnaire items for use in measuring leadership behaviors, analyzing the responses by means of factor analysis, etc. For the section chiefs, five factors were named, i.e., 'consideration' and 'self-righteousness' that belong to group maintenance behavior and 'thorough dissemination of information', 'specialty, planning' and 'pressure' that belong to goal achievement behavior. For the maintenance subsection chiefs were found seven factors, i.e., 'example setting', 'appropriate handling of work', 'planning', 'rigidity', 'educational guidance' that belong to goal achievement behavior and 'consideration for work' and 'personal consideration' that belong to group maintenance behavior. For maintenance and repair foremen were named six factors, i.e., 'consideration' that belongs to group maintenance behavior and 'specialty, planning', 'reporting, liaison', 'adjustment, rigidity', 'paper work confirmation', and 'example setting' that belong to goal achievement behavior. For subcontractors' field leaders were named seven factors, i.e., 'example setting, specialty and planning', 'careful guidance', 'rigidity', 'observance of rules' and 'paper work handling' that belong to goal achievement behavior and, 'consideration', 'frank communication'. In order to examine the validity of these items, we analyzed relationship between the 'morale'-(satisfaction, etc.) variables of the company's regular employees and subcontractors' employees and their leadership. It was found that the three leadership behavior scales for the section chiefs, maintenance and repair subsection chiefs and subcontractor leaders were very much the same as those found in private sector. (J.P.N.)

  9. Measures geared to maintain the competence of operating personnel at Grohnde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1986-01-01

    Organizational structure of the German power plant 'Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Grohnde GmbH'. The plant characteristics of the tasks and duties and definition of competence. Measures to maintain competence. The experience by the realization of training programs to maintain competence. (orig.)

  10. Internet Enabled Remote Driving of a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System for Duty Cycle Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodell, Jarrett; Compere, Marc; Smith, Wilford; Holtz, Dale; Brudnak, Mark; Pozolo, Mike; Paul, Victor; Mohammad, Syed; Mortsfield, Todd; Shvartsman, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a human-in-the-loop motion-based simulator interfaced to hybrid-electric power system hardware, both of which were used to measure the duty cycle of a combat vehicle in a virtual...

  11. Reflected Power Measurement of Antennas between 0 and 4 GHz Using Optical Mixing of Distributed Feedback Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garcia Juarez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflected power measurement of antennas by using an alternative microwave photonic system is presented in this paper. The proposed experimental setup is based on optical mixing of two distributed feedback (DFB lasers, where combined beams are detected by a photo-detector. The resulting photocurrent corresponds to a microwave signal which is continuously tuned on bandwidths from 0 to 4 GHz. The obtained swept frequency is applied to an antenna in order to measure its reflected power. Error sources that limit the measurement accuracy of optical mixing such as effect of power deviation in the linewidth of the beat signal and errors introduced by extra fixture are studied. Results of the measurements obtained with the proposed photonic technique are calibrated and compared with traditional electrical measurements. The most important motivation on the use of the proposed technique in this paper lies in that with a simple configuration we were able to characterize microwave devices in a very wide frequency range, avoiding the use of a vector network analyzer (VNA, and thus, a complicated and tedious calibration procedure, contributing to the field of instrumentation and characterization by using photonic techniques.

  12. Development of Wall-Thinning Evaluation Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant Piping—Part 1: Quantification of Thickness Measurement Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe wall thinning by flow-accelerated corrosion and various types of erosion is a significant and costly damage phenomenon in secondary piping systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs. Most NPPs have management programs to ensure pipe integrity due to wall thinning that includes periodic measurements for pipe wall thicknesses using nondestructive evaluation techniques. Numerous measurements using ultrasonic tests (UTs; one of the nondestructive evaluation technologies have been performed during scheduled outages in NPPs. Using the thickness measurement data, wall thinning rates of each component are determined conservatively according to several evaluation methods developed by the United States Electric Power Research Institute. However, little is known about the conservativeness or reliability of the evaluation methods because of a lack of understanding of the measurement error. In this study, quantitative models for UT thickness measurement deviations of nuclear pipes and fittings were developed as the first step for establishing an optimized thinning evaluation procedure considering measurement error. In order to understand the characteristics of UT thickness measurement errors of nuclear pipes and fittings, round robin test results, which were obtained by previous researchers under laboratory conditions, were analyzed. Then, based on a large dataset of actual plant data from four NPPs, a quantitative model for UT thickness measurement deviation is proposed for plant conditions.

  13. Simple method for measuring vibration amplitude of high power airborne ultrasonic transducer: using thermo-couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Vibration amplitude of transducer's elements is the influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers to control the optimum vibration without material yielding. The vibration amplitude of elements of provided high power airborne transducer was determined by measuring temperature of the provided high power airborne transducer transducer's elements. The results showed that simple thermocouples can be used both to measure the vibration amplitude of transducer's element and an indicator to power transmission to the air. To verify our approach, the power transmission to the air has been investigated by other common method experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with presented approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  15. Measures of the zero power nuclear reactor's kinetic parameters with application of noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to establish an experimental technique based on noise analysis for measuring the ratio of kinetic parameters β/ Λ and the power of the Zero Power Nuclear Reactor IPEN-MB 01. A through study of the microscopic and macroscopic noise analysis techniques has been carried out. The Langevin technique and the point kinetic model were chosen to describe the stochastic phenomena that occur in the zero power reactor. Measurements have been made using two compensated ionization chambers localized in the water reflector at symmetric positions in order to minimize spatial effects on the neutron flux fluctuation. Power calibrations based on the low frequency plateau of the cross-power spectral density has also been carried out. (author)

  16. Measurement of magnetic fields in the direct proximity of power line conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamishev, A.V.; Russell, B.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    Modeling and managing of power frequency magnetic fields requires verification of theory with actual measurements. Measurements only at ground level are not always sufficient for comprehensive studies. The technique and the results of three-dimensional mapping of the power frequency magnetic fields high above ground level are presented in this paper. Comparative calculations illustrate relevance and approximations of the existing theoretical approach to field modeling. The influence of harmonics on the elliptical rotation of the magnetic field vector is illustrated. The possibility of use of the magnetic fields for the power line proximity detection is discussed.

  17. Measurement of magnetic fields in the direct proximity of power line conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamishev, A.V.; Russell, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and managing of power frequency magnetic fields requires verification of theory with actual measurements. Measurements only at ground level are not always sufficient for comprehensive studies. The technique and the results of three-dimensional mapping of the power frequency magnetic fields high above ground level are presented in this paper. Comparative calculations illustrate relevance and approximations of the existing theoretical approach to field modeling. The influence of harmonics on the elliptical rotation of the magnetic field vector is illustrated. The possibility of use of the magnetic fields for the power line proximity detection is discussed

  18. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line....... The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using...

  19. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Southern Sweden and Eastern Denmark comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line....... The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using...

  20. Measurement based analysis of active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind farms and CHPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the active and reactive power losses in a distribution network with wind turbines and combined heat and power plants. The investigation is based on 15 min average power measurements and load flow calculations in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory...

  1. [Diagnostic ability of power measurement of different grip forms for distal median nerve lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, N; Mentzel, M; Krischak, G; Häderer, C; Gülke, J

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral lesions of the median nerve cause characteristic changes of the grip function of the hand. For evaluating grip force changes, measurement by dynamometers (JAMAR dynamometer and pinch dynamometer) is of high relevance. In this study the ability of grip force measurements of different grip forms was evaluated to discriminate between a simulated median nerve lesion and healthy subjects. In 21 healthy subjects, the grip force of power grip was measured by the JAMAR dynamometer at the second stage including measurement of force at the fingertips and the thenar by a sensor glove. With a pinch dynamometer the power of palmar abduction, precision grip, pincer grip and pinch grip was determined. Measurements were performed with and without median nerve block at the wrist. In power grip of the JAMAR dynamometer at the second stage a significant reduction of the grip force of 13.4% was found (p power distribution between the fingers D2-D5 did not change with median nerve block. The most relevant reduction of grip force in median nerve block compared with the healthy control was measured in palmar abduction (72.1%, p block there was a limited relevance of the measurement of the power grip and force distribution at the fingers by the JAMAR dynamometer. However, the best distinction was observed by dynamometric measurement of other grips than power grip, such as palmar abduction, precision grip, pincer grip and pinch grip. The results could be relevant for the clinical diagnostics and rehabilitation of median nerve lesion, complementing the widespread measurement of the power grip by other grip forms.

  2. High precision, continuous measurements of water vapor isotopes using a field deployable analyzer with a novel automated calibration system to facilitate ecohydrological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Crosson, E.; Richman, B. A.; Apodaca, R. L.; Green, I.

    2009-12-01

    The use of stable isotopic analysis techniques has proved quite valuable in establishing links between ecology and hydrology. We present an alternative and novel approach to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for making high-precision D/H and 18O/16O isotope ratio measurements of water vapor at a field site using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) based technology. This WS-CRDS analyzer allows continuous real-time measurements of water vapor with automated periodic calibration using liquid standards, needing no human intervention for weeks during deployment. The new automated calibration system, designed specifically for field deployment, uses syringe pumps and is robust, consistent and reliable. The advanced temperature and pressure control within the analyzer are some of the key design features that allow high precision (0.2‰ for δ18O and 1.0‰ for δD) performance at extremely low drift (water vapor analyzer, a field trial was conducted where the common isotopologues of water vapor were measured at a local ecological site over a period of a few days. The resulting high resolution data gives us the ability to understand the impact of meteorology and plant physiology on the isotopic composition of water vapor in ambient air. Such measurements of water vapor, when combined with measurements of the isotopic composition of liquid water in plants, soil water and local water bodies, will close the eco-hydrological loop of any region. The ability of the WS-CRDS analyzer to make continuous, real-time measurements with a resolution on the order of a few seconds will aid in understanding the complex interdependencies between ecological and hydrological processes and will provide critical information in refining existing models of water transport in ecosystems. These studies are critical to understanding the impact of global climate change on landscapes.

  3. Calorimeters for Precision Power Dissipation Measurements on Controlled-Temperature Superconducting Radiofrequency Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Binping P.; Kelley, Michael J.; Reece, Charles E.; Phillips, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Two calorimeters, with stainless steel and Cu as the thermal path material for high precision and high power versions, respectively, have been designed and commissioned for the surface impedance characterization (SIC) system at Jefferson Lab to provide low temperature control and measurement for CW power up to 22 W on a 5 cm dia. disk sample which is thermally isolated from the RF portion of the system. A power compensation method has been developed to measure the RF induced power on the sample. Simulation and experimental results show that with these two calorimeters, the whole thermal range of interest for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) materials has been covered. The power measurement error in the interested power range is within 1.2% and 2.7% for the high precision and high power versions, respectively. Temperature distributions on the sample surface for both versions have been simulated and the accuracy of sample temperature measurements have been analysed. Both versions have the ability to accept bulk superconductors and thin film superconducting samples with a variety of substrate materials such as Al, Al 2 O 3 , Cu, MgO, Nb and Si

  4. From short term power forecasting to nowcasting - Benefiting from meteorological forecasts and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Britta; Braun, Axel; Good, Garrett; Vogt, Stephan; Wessel, Arne; Dobschinski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Today, wind and solar power forecasts with time horizons from zero to about three hours are essential for the reliable grid and market integration of wind and solar energy. With respect to closure times of German intra-day markets, power forecasts with time horizons of about one to two hours and an update frequency of 15 minutes are required for final trading activities, reducing the uncertainty of the day-ahead forecast of the previous day. Regarding grid security aspects, grid operators utilize such forecasts to create continuous intra-day grid congestion forecasts. In addition to these preventive measures, wind and solar power become more and more important for the provision of ancillary services by wind and solar farm operators. This use case mainly requires power forecasts with time horizons of less than one hour. In general, forecasts with time horizons below three hours are investigated within the nowcasting research area. Nowcasting models are mainly based on current observations and extrapolation methods. With respect to wind and solar power forecasts with horizons of up to three hours, it has been shown in studies that real-time power measurements have the highest information content as compared to other potential model input parameters. We will present results from studies focusing on the benefit of meteorological data (forecasts and/or measurements) in the field of solar and wind power forecasts with time horizons of up to a few hours. Wind farm forecast errors are for example reduced by using numerical weather prediction (NWP) data in the wind power prediction model along with real-time wind farm power measurements. Furthermore, spatially distributed NWP data in combination with German total wind power measurements helped in the reduction of extreme forecast errors. By using global radiation forecasts as an input for wind power forecasts, forecast error during sunrise and sunset could be reduced. In the field of German total solar power, nowcasting

  5. Change in the temporal coordination of the finger joints with ulnar nerve block during different power grips analyzed with a sensor glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, N J; Mentzel, M; Häderer, C; Krischak, G D; Gülke, J

    2018-02-01

    Ulnar nerve injuries can cause deficient hand movement patterns. Their assessment is important for diagnosis and rehabilitation in hand surgery cases. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in temporal coordination of the finger joints during different power grips with an ulnar nerve block by means of a sensor glove. In 21 healthy subjects, the onset and end of the active flexion of the 14 finger joints when gripping objects of different diameters was recorded by a sensor glove. The measurement was repeated after an ulnar nerve block was applied in a standardized setting. The change in the temporal coordination of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with and without the nerve block was calculated within the same subject. In healthy subjects, the MCP joints started their movement prior to the PIP joints in the middle and ring finger, whereas this occurred in the reverse order at the index and little finger. The DIP joint onset was significantly delayed (Pblock, this coordination shifted towards simultaneous onset of all joints, independent of the grip diameter. The thumb and index finger were affected the least. With an ulnar nerve block, the PIP joints completed their movement prior to the MCP joints when gripping small objects (G1 and G2), whereas the order was reversed with larger objects (G3 and G4). The alterations with ulnar nerve block affected mainly the little finger when gripping small objects. With larger diameter objects, all fingers had a significant delay at the end of the PIP joint movement relative to the MCP and DIP joints, and the PIP and DIP joint sequence was reversed (Ppower grips, there are biomechanical effects of loss of function of the intrinsic muscles caused by an ulnar nerve block on the fine motor skills of the hand. This can be important for the diagnosis and rehabilitation of ulnar nerve lesions of the hand. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier

  6. Uncertainty of power curve measurement with a two-beam nacelle-mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael Stephen; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    we present and demonstrate a procedure fulfilling these needs. A nacelle lidar went through a comprehensive calibration procedure. This calibration took place in two stages. First with the lidar on the ground, the tilt and roll readings of the inclinometers in the nacelle lidar were calibrated...... already been demonstrated to be suitable for use in power performance measurements. To be considered as a professional tool, however, power curve measurements performed using these instruments require traceable calibrated measurements and the quantification of the wind speed measurement uncertainty. Here...... upwind of the turbine. The wind speed uncertainty related to the lidar tilting was calculated based on the tilt angle uncertainty derived from the inclinometer calibration and the deviation of the measurement height from hub height. The resulting combined uncertainty in the power curve using the nacelle...

  7. Measuring changes in aerodynamic/rolling resistances by cycle-mounted power meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Allen C; Homestead, Eric P; Edwards, Andrew G; Carver, Todd C; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2011-05-01

    To develop a protocol for isolating changes in aerodynamic and rolling resistances from field-based measures of power and velocity during level bicycling. We assessed the effect of body position (hands on brake hoods vs drops) and tire pressure changes (414 vs 828 kPa) on aerodynamic and rolling resistances by measuring the power (Pext)-versus-speed (V) relationship using commercially available bicycle-mounted power meters. Measurements were obtained using standard road bicycles in calm wind (Aerodynamic resistance per velocity squared (k) was calculated as the slope of a linear plot of tractive resistance (RT=power/velocity) versus velocity squared. Rolling resistance (Rr) was calculated as the intercept of this relationship. Aerodynamic resistance per velocity squared (k) was significantly greater (Paerodynamic and rolling resistances associated with modest changes in body position and substantial changes in tire pressure. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  8. Greenhouse gas emission measurement and economic analysis of Iran natural gas fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahsavari Alavijeh, H.; Kiyoumarsioskouei, A.; Asheri, M.H.; Naemi, S.; Shahsavari Alavije, H.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the natural gas fired power plants in Iran. The required data from natural gas fired power plants were gathered during 2008. The characteristics of thirty two gas turbine power plants and twenty steam power plants have been measured. Their emission factor values were then compared with the standards of Energy Protection Agency, Euro Union and World Bank. Emission factors of gas turbine and steam power plants show that gas turbine power plants have a better performance than steam power plants. For economic analysis, fuel consumption and environmental damages caused by the emitted pollutants are considered as cost functions; and electricity sales revenue are taken as benefit functions. All of these functions have been obtained according to the capacity factor. Total revenue functions show that gas turbine and steam power plants are economically efficient at 98.15% and 90.89% of capacity factor, respectively; this indicates that long operating years of power plants leads to reduction of optimum capacity factor. The stated method could be implemented to assess the economic status of a country’s power plants where as efficient capacity factor close to one means that power plant works in much better condition. - Highlights: • CO 2 and NO x emissions of Iran natural gas fired power plants have been studied. • CO 2 and NO x emission factors are compared with EPA, EU and World Bank standards. • Costs and benefit as economic functions are obtained according to capacity factor. • Maximum economic profit is obtained for gas turbine and steam power plants. • Investment in CO 2 reduction is recommended instead of investment in NO x reduction

  9. Measuring sound absorption: considerations on the measurement of the active acoustic power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Using a local plane wave assumption, one can determine the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of a surface by measuring the acoustic pressure and the particle velocity normal to that surface. As the measurement surface lies in front of the material surface, the measured active and

  10. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  11. Development of ultrasonic velocity profile method for flow rate measurements of power plant (effect of measurement volume on turbulent flow measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshige, Kikura; Gentaro, Yamanaka; Tsuyoshi, Taishi; Masanori, Aritomi; Yasushi, Takeda; Michitsugu, Mori

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic Velocity Profile method has many advantages for flow rate measurement of power plant over the conventional flow measurement methods, such as measurement of the instantaneous velocity profile along the measuring line and its applicability to opaque liquids. Furthermore, the method has an advantage of being non-intrusive. Hence, it is applicable to various flow conditions, although it requires a relatively large measurement volume. In this paper, the effects of the measurement volume on the mean velocity profile for flow rate measurements of power plant and the Reynolds stress measurement have been investigated for fully developed turbulent pipe flows in a vertical pipe. The results are then compared with data obtained by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). (authors)

  12. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  13. Measurements of the reactivity temperature coefficient during zero-power tests in the nuclear power plant Gundremmingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaag, Stefan; Grosshans, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    According to the regulatory codes during the zero-power tests before the beginning of each reactor cycle it is mandatory to demonstrate by measurements that the reactivity temperature coefficient reaches negative values before reaching the operation temperature. In the past the reactivity temperature coefficient of the fuel loading composed of uranium fuel elements with final burnup smaller 40 MWd/kg was negative at about 20 C. For modern fuel loadings with higher enriched uranium fuel elements or mixed oxide fuel elements that reach final burnup of 60 MWd/kg the reactivity temperature coefficient is negative at relatively high temperatures. This fact increases the metrological expenses for the conventional measuring method. The authors describe a modified measuring technique that allows a significant time saving.

  14. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  15. Force sensor for measuring power transfer between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    A force sensor with capacitive readout is designed and realized for the measurement of mechanical power transfer. The ultimate aim is to integrate this in a glove that determines the complete mechanical interaction between the human hand and the environment. The sensor measures the normal force and

  16. ABOUT NOTION OF MEASUREMENT RELIABILITY WHEN MONITORING OPERATION MODES OF POWER UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring process of measurement reliability in respect of variables that characterize operation modes of power units is investigated in the paper. Control algorithms based on the minimax criterion have been developed. These algorithms take into account the uncertainty in the notion of measurement reliability, the probability distribution laws for the variables under control, and the values of monitoring errors.

  17. Use of FET in automatic scanning of measurements using thermocouples and self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages lying in using FET switches in the relays of multiplexing systems are shown with two examples of application. Their performance as regard fast reliable operation are used in temperature measurement scanning inside nuclear reactors. As for current measurements using self-powered neutron detectors, the weak leakage currents of said switches ( [fr

  18. Prototype of a Dsp-Based Instrument for In-Service Wireless Transmitter Power Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angrisani Leopoldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a DSP-based instrument for in-service transmitter power measurements is presented. The instrument implements a signal-selective algorithm for power measurements that is suitable for use in wireless environments, where possible uncontrolled interfering sources are present in the radio channel and are overlapped to the signal emitted by the transmitter under test, possibly in both time and frequency domain. The measurement method exploits the principles of cyclic spectral analysis, which are briefly recalled in the paper. Potentialities, as well as limitations of the prototype use are discussed, and the results of experiments with both modulated and unmodulated interfering sources are presented.

  19. Direct Measurement of Power Dissipated by Monte Carlo Simulations on CPU and FPGA Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Papini, Davide; Nannarelli, Alberto

    In this technical report, we describe how power dissipation measurements on different computing platforms (a desktop computer and an FPGA board) are performed by using a Hall effectbased current sensor. The chosen application is a Monte Carlo simulation for European option pricing which is a popu......In this technical report, we describe how power dissipation measurements on different computing platforms (a desktop computer and an FPGA board) are performed by using a Hall effectbased current sensor. The chosen application is a Monte Carlo simulation for European option pricing which...... is a popular algorithm used in financial computations. The Hall effect probe measurements complement the measurements performed on the core of the FPGA by a built-in Xilinx power monitoring system....

  20. Operational and environmental performance in China's thermal power industry: Taking an effectiveness measure as complement to an efficiency measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jieming; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The trend toward a more fiercely competitive and strictly environmentally regulated electricity market in several countries, including China has led to efforts by both industry and government to develop advanced performance evaluation models that adapt to new evaluation requirements. Traditional operational and environmental efficiency measures do not fully consider the influence of market competition and environmental regulations and, thus, are not sufficient for the thermal power industry to evaluate its operational performance with respect to specific marketing goals (operational effectiveness) and its environmental performance with respect to specific emissions reduction targets (environmental effectiveness). As a complement to an operational efficiency measure, an operational effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to increase its electricity generation through the improvement of operational efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its electricity generation activities to match electricity demand. In addition, as a complement to an environmental efficiency measure, an environmental effectiveness measure not only reflects the capacity of an electricity production system to decrease its pollutant emissions through the improvement of environmental efficiency, but it also reflects the system's capability to adjust its emissions abatement activities to fulfill environmental regulations. Furthermore, an environmental effectiveness measure helps the government regulator to verify the rationality of its emissions reduction targets assigned to the thermal power industry. Several newly developed effectiveness measurements based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) were utilized in this study to evaluate the operational and environmental performance of the thermal power industry in China during 2006-2013. Both efficiency and effectiveness were evaluated from the three perspectives of operational

  1. Inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen and sperm motion parameters as measured by a computer-assisted semen analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Yasuda, Kengo; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between sperm motion parameters obtained by a computer-assisted semen analyzer and levels of reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen. In total, 847 patients, except for azoospermic patients were investigated. At the time of each patient's first consultation, semen parameters were measured using SMAS™ or CellSoft 3000™, and production of reactive oxygen species was measured using a computer-driven LKB Wallac Luminometer 1251 Analyzer. The patients were divided into two groups: reactive oxygen species - positive and negative. The semen parameters within each group were measured using one of the two computer-assisted semen analyzer systems and then compared. Correlations between reactive oxygen species levels and sperm motion parameters in semen from the reactive oxygen species - positive group were also investigated. Reactive oxygen species were detected in semen samples of 282 cases (33.3%). Sperm concentration (P reactive oxygen species - positive group than in the reactive oxygen species - negative group. Among the sperm motion parameters in the reactive oxygen species - positive group, sperm concentration (P reactive oxygen species levels. Therefore, this study demonstrated that excessive reactive oxygen species in semen damage sperm concentration, motility, and other sperm motion parameters.

  2. Influence of in-plant air pollution control measures on power plant and system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurten, H.

    1990-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuels causes the emission of air pollutants which have harmful environmental impact. Consequently many nations have in the last few years established regulations for air pollution control and have initiated the development and deployment of air pollution control systems in power plants. The paper describes the methods used for reducing particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions, their application as backfit systems and in new plants, the power plant capacity equipped with such systems in the Federal Republic of Germany and abroad and the additional investment and operating costs incurred. It is to be anticipated that advanced power plant designs will produce lower pollutant emissions and less waste at enhanced efficiency levels. A comparison with power generation in nuclear power plants completes the first part of the paper. This paper covers the impact of the above-mentioned air pollution control measures on unit commitment in daily operation

  3. Measuring derived acoustic power of an ultrasound surgical device in the linear and nonlinear operating modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosić, Antonio; Ivancević, Bojan; Svilar, Dragoljub

    2009-06-01

    The method for measuring derived acoustic power of an ultrasound point source in the form of a sonotrode tip has been considered in the free acoustic field, according to the IEC 61847 standard. The main objective of this work is measuring averaged pressure magnitude spatial distribution of an sonotrode tip in the free acoustic field conditions at different electrical excitation levels and calculation of the derived acoustic power at excitation frequency (f0 approximately 25 kHz). Finding the derived acoustic power of an ultrasonic surgical device in the strong cavitation regime of working, even in the considered laboratory conditions (anechoic pool), will enable better understanding of the biological effects on the tissue produced during operation with the considered device. The pressure magnitude spatial distribution is measured using B&K 8103 hydrophone connected with a B&K 2626 conditioning amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope LeCroy Waverunner 474, where pressure waveforms in the field points are recorded. Using MATLAB with DSP processing toolbox, averaged power spectrum density of recorded pressure signals in different field positions is calculated. The measured pressure magnitude spatial distributions are fitted with the appropriate theoretical models. In the linear operating mode, using the acoustic reciprocity principle, the sonotrode tip is theoretically described as radially oscillating sphere (ROS) and transversely oscillating sphere (TOS) in the vicinity of pressure release boundary. The measured pressure magnitude spatial distribution is fitted with theoretical curves, describing the pressure field of the considered theoretical models. The velocity and displacement magnitudes with derived acoustic power of equivalent theoretical sources are found, and the electroacoustic efficiency factor is calculated. When the transmitter is excited at higher electrical power levels, the displacement magnitude of sonotrode tip is increased, and nonlinear behaviour

  4. Innovative measuring system for wear-out indication of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Due, Jens; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Power converter failures are a major issue in modern Wind turbines. One of the key elements of power converters for high power application is the IGBT modules. A test bench capable of performing an accelerated wear-out test through power cycling of IGBT modules has been made. In the test bench...... it is possible to stress the IGBT module in a real life working point, controlling the voltage, current and phase of the device under test. An analysis of failure mechanisms has been carried out, indicating that VCE can be used as an sign of wear out of the IGBT module. Therefore an innovative measuring system...... for VCE monitoring with an accuracy as low as a few mV has been implemented. The measurements on the IGBT in the test bench show that it is possible to monitor VCE and use this as an indicator of wear-out....

  5. Measurements of corona ion induced atmospheric electricity modification near to HV power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J C; Buckley, A J; Keitch, P A; Wright, M D; Henshaw, D L [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: J.C.Matthews@Bristol.ac.uk

    2008-12-01

    Corona ions emitted from high voltage power lines and propagated by the wind can attach at a given rate to atmospheric aerosols and will create disturbances in the Earth's DC electric field. Local electric field variations have been measured using field meters upwind and downwind of power lines and a fixed site monitoring station has been built to enable space charge near a power line to be continuously recorded. At similar sites, the high resolution mobility spectra of atmospheric ions and charged small aerosols have been ascertained using two custom-built mobility spectrometers. These measurement techniques have indicated an increase in the charge state of small aerosols at ground level and an increase in space charge with high variability downwind of high voltage power lines.

  6. Wind turbine performance: Methods and criteria for reliability of measured power curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [Advanced Wind Turbines Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the performance of prototype turbines, and to quantify incremental changes in performance through field testing, Advanced Wind Turbines (AWT) has been developing methods and requirements for power curve measurement. In this paper, field test data is used to illustrate several issues and trends which have resulted from this work. Averaging and binning processes, data hours per wind-speed bin, wind turbulence levels, and anemometry methods are all shown to have significant impacts on the resulting power curves. Criteria are given by which the AWT power curves show a high degree of repeatability, and these criteria are compared and contrasted with current published standards for power curve measurement. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenderka, K V; Durando, G; Karaboece, B; Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  8. Peak power factor determination of the RA-6 Argentinean Research Reactor using measurement-calculations correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F. A.; Blaumann, H.; Lopasso, E.; Longhino, J

    2009-01-01

    The maximum power of a reactor is limited by the power peaking factor. During the design stage it is calculated with neutronic calculation codes. This is not enough for ensuring its value due to modelling approximations. For the RA-6s low enrichment new core a calculus-measurement correlation method have been applied. Position and magnitude of the maximum power density estimated by calculus are used by this method. For this work 249 cooper-gold alloy (1.55% Au) wires have been distributed along the core using 19 aluminium blades. Their positions have been selected using information given by a 5 groups PUMA reactor model. Wire s activity have been measured with a HPGe detector. Gold activity have been used only for verifying the calculated core spectrum. The measured power peaking factor was 2.48±0.3 (3σ), 15% above the calculated value. About 97% of measured points had less than 20% calculation-measurement difference and about 80% had less than 10%. The power peaking factor determined by this method consolidates also the calculations models. [es

  9. Multi-MW wind turbine power curve measurements using remote sensing instruments - the first Hoevsoere campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Courtney, M.

    2009-02-15

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the scatter in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. LiDAR are found to be more accurate than SoDAR and therefore more suitable for power performance measurement. The equivalent wind speed calculated from LiDAR profile measurements gave a small reduction of the power curve uncertainty. Several factors can explain why this difference is smaller than expected, including the experimental design and errors pertaining to the LiDAR at that time. This first measurement campaign shows that used of the equivalent wind speed at least results in a power curve with no more scatter than using the conventional method. (au)

  10. Inter-laboratory comparison of HITU power measurement methods and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenderka, K V [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Durando, G [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Karaboece, B [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Rajagopal, S; Shaw, A, E-mail: kvjend@ieee.org [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) is gaining in importance among the spectrum of therapeutic options to combat cancer. HITU has already been approved and is in clinical use for the treatment of organs like the prostate, the liver and the uterus. Nevertheless, the metrology of the applied high power ultrasound fields, and in consequence, reliable treatment planning and monitoring, is still a challenge. As part of a European Metrology Research Programme project, the four National Metrology Institutes from the UK, Germany, Italy and Turkey conducted an inter-laboratory comparison of their power measurement capabilities at power levels of 5, 25, 75 and 150 W each at frequencies of 1.1, 1.5 and 3.3 MHz. The task was to measure the total, time-averaged ultrasonic output power, emitted by the circulated transducers under specified electrical excitation conditions into an anechoic water load, and the actual rms transducer input voltage. The output value to be reported was the electro-acoustic radiation conductance including the associated standard and expanded uncertainties. Several different measurement techniques were applied to gain further insight into HITU power measurement. The deviations from the calculated comparison reference value found for the different techniques are discussed and conclusions for the further improvement of measuring procedures are drawn.

  11. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  12. Self-Powered Neutron and Gamma Detectors for In-Core Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1971-11-01

    The performance of various types of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors intended for control and power distribution measurements in water cooled reactors is discussed. The self-powered detectors are compared with other types of in-core detectors and attention is paid to such properties as neutron and gamma sensitivity, high-temperature performance, burn-up rate and time of response. Also treated are the advantages and disadvantages of using gamma detector data for power distribution calculations instead of data from neutron detectors. With regard to neutron-sensitive detectors, results from several long-term experiments with vanadium and cobalt detectors are presented. The results include reliability and stability data for these two detector types and the Co build-up in cobalt detectors. Experimental results which reveal the fast response of cobalt detectors are presented, and the use of cobalt detectors in reactor safety systems is discussed. Experience of the design and installation of complete flux probes, electronic units and data processing systems for power reactors is reported. The investigation of gamma-sensitive detectors includes detectors with emitters of lead, zirconium, magnesium and Inconel. Measured gamma sensitivities from calibrations both in a reactor and in a gamma cell are given, and the signal levels of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors when applied to power reactors are compared

  13. The Temperature Measurement in a Three-Phase Power Transformer under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karakoulidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is a powerful non contact method with the ability to fast inspection of abnormal situations in many electrical systems and equipments. With the aim of a high resolution thermal camera a laboratory power transformer was checked under different scenarios. These scenarios include thermal measurements for 58%, 87% and 116% of rated load conditions, problems in primary or secondary phases and an asymmetric charge. The thermograpic system illustrate fast and reliable the changes in the windings of the power transformer.

  14. Emissivity-corrected power loss calibration for lock-in thermography measurements on silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemann, Martin; Walter, Benjamin; Meinhardt, Christoph; Ebser, Jan; Kwapil, Wolfram; Warta, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes power loss calibration procedures with implemented emissivity correction. The determination of our emissivity correction matrix does neither rely on blackbody reference measurements nor on the knowledge of any sample temperatures. To describe the emissivity-corrected power calibration procedures in detail, we review the theory behind lock-in thermography and show experimentally that the lock-in signal is proportional to the power dissipation in the solar cell. Experiments show the successful application of our emissivity correction procedure, which significantly improves the informative value of lock-in thermography images and the reliability of the conclusions drawn from these images

  15. Measuring the level of agreement between a veterinary and a human point-of-care glucometer and a laboratory blood analyzer in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-12-01

    Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.

  16. Power system observability and dynamic state estimation for stability monitoring using synchrophasor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Kang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Growing penetration of intermittent resources such as renewable generations increases the risk of instability in a power grid. This paper introduces the concept of observability and its computational algorithms for a power grid monitored by the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchrophasors, e.g. phasor measurement units (PMUs). The goal is to estimate real-time states of generators, especially for potentially unstable trajectories, the information that is critical for the detection of rotor angle instability of the grid. The paper studies the number and siting of synchrophasors in a power grid so that the state of the system can be accurately estimated in the presence of instability. An unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted as a tool to estimate the dynamic states that are not directly measured by synchrophasors. The theory and its computational algorithms are illustrated in detail by using a 9-bus 3-generator power system model and then tested on a 140-bus 48-generator Northeast Power Coordinating Council power grid model. Case studies on those two systems demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach using a limited number of synchrophasors for dynamic state estimation for stability assessment and its robustness against moderate inaccuracies in model parameters.

  17. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  18. Power Measurement and Data Logger with High-Resolution for Industrial DC-Grid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apse-Apsitis Peteris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy measurement and monitoring is a key factor for many industries in terms of energy and cost efficiency evaluation. Due to trends of Smart Grid concept application in industrial environment, including decentralized DC-Grid implementation, for precise evaluation – faster and low-cost measurement equipment is needed. Manufacturing industry widely uses industrial robots that have dynamic load characteristics for which faster measurement equipment is needed.

  19. Measurements and Observations of 134Cs and 137Cs around a Nuclear Power Plant in Busan, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, H. Y.; Park, J. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the change of representative species 134Cs and 137Cs of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power station nearby for the last five years(2010~2014). The Kori Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear power facility located near Busan, is located in the south-east coast of Korea and about 21km north-east away from the Haeundae and about 25km south away from the Ulsan. An administrative district is Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. A point was selected on the basis of the "Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan around Nuclear Power Plants" and periodically samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were collected from the soils of the surface in the Wolnae area (NW, 1.7km). The soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) of 40% relative efficiency and were measured for 80,000 sec. As a results of soil analysis, 137Cs were detected in samples only selected in March 2013. The activity concentration of 137Cs founded in the soil sample was 0.513±0.052Bq/kg-dry. In the other hands, the concentration of 137Cs in the year 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA). 40K, natural radionuclides which is widely present, was detected in the soil samples and other artificial radionuclides were not detected. The result of overall comparison of the environmental radioactivity survey around Kori Nuclear Power Plant for the last five years is that radioactivity levels are within average range. However, it is necessary to continue to carefully observe a fine change in regional or the monthly radiation concentration.

  20. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmen; Pérez-Prieto, Sandra; López-Cardona, Juan D; Tapetado, Alberto; Blanco, Enrique; Moreno-López, Jorge; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C

    2018-02-06

    We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  1. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vázquez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  2. A Novel Device for Total Acoustic Output Measurement of High Power Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S.; Twomey, R.; Morris, H.; Zanelli, C. I.

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a device for ultrasound power measurement applicable over a broad range of medical transducer types, orientations and powers, and which supports automatic measurements to simplify use and minimize errors. Considering all the recommendations from standards such as IEC 61161, an accurate electromagnetic null-balance has been designed for ultrasound power measurements. The sensing element is placed in the water to eliminate errors due to surface tension and water evaporation, and the motion and detection of force is constrained to one axis, to increase immunity to vibration from the floor, water sloshing and water surface waves. A transparent tank was designed so it could easily be submerged in a larger tank to accommodate large transducers or side-firing geometries, and can also be turned upside-down for upward-firing transducers. A vacuum lid allows degassing the water and target in situ. An external control module was designed to operate the sensing/driving loop and to communicate to a local computer for data logging. The sensing algorithm, which incorporates temperature compensation, compares the feedback force needed to cancel the motion for sources in the "on" and "off" states. These two states can be controlled by the control unit or manually by the user, under guidance by a graphical user interface (the system presents measured power live during collection). Software allows calibration to standard weights, or to independently calibrated acoustic sources. The design accommodates a variety of targets, including cone, rubber, brush targets and an oil-filled target for power measurement via buoyancy changes. Measurement examples are presented, including HIFU sources operating at powers from 1 to 100.

  3. Power spectral density measurements with 252Cf for a light water moderated research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.T.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method of determining the reactivity of far subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with 252 Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to evaluate the ability to perform these measurements with moderated reactors which have long prompt neutron lifetimes, measurements were performed with a small plate-type research reactor whose neutron lifetime (57 microseconds) was about a factor of three longer than that of a PWR and approx. 50% longer than that of a boiling water reactor. The results of the first measurements of power spectral densities with 252 Cf for a water moderated reactor are presented

  4. Magnetostrictive device for high-temperature sound and vibration measurement in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, R.; Podgorski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The demands on the monitoring systems in nuclear power stations are increasing continuously, not only because of more stringent safety requirements but also for reasons of plant availability and thus economic efficiency. The noise and vibration measurements which therefore have to be taken make it necessary to provide measuring devices with a high degree of efficiency, adequate sensitivity and resistance to high temperatures, radiation and corrosion. Probes using the magnetostrictive effect, whereby a ferromagnetic core changes its length in a magnetic field - a phenomenon which has been known for approximately fifty years - fulfill all the conditions for application in nuclear power stations. (orig.) [de

  5. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  6. Chair Rise Peak Power in Daily Life Measured With a Pendant Sensor Associates With Mobility, Limitation in Activities, and Frailty in Old People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Geraedts, Hilde; Baldus, Heribert; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical relevance of sensor-based daily life chair rise performance measured in old people. A pendant-sensor was worn during standardized tests and in daily life to detect chair rise transfers and analyze transfer peak power. Linear correlations between mean, median, 25th, and 75th percentile transfer peak powers in daily life and mean peak power in standardized tests were evaluated with Pearson correlation ( r). Associations between transfer peak powers in different experiments and outcomes of a clinical mobility test [timed-up-and-go (TUG)], a test of limitation in activities [Groningen activity restriction scale (GARS)], and a frailty test [Groningen frailty indicator (GFI)] were evaluated with Spearman correlation (ρ). Twenty-five old people (70-85 years) participated in the study. The results showed that chair rise peak powers assessed based upon one-week of daily life activities significantly correlated with peak power measured in standardized tests (r: [0.66, 0.74], p Chair rise peak power in daily life significantly associated with TUG scores (ρ: [-0.71, -0.58], ), GARS (ρ: [-0.62, -0.48], ), and GFI (ρ: [-0.52, -0.43], ). Chair rise peak powers in daily life had stronger associations with clinical measurements than standardized tests. In addition, chair rise peak powers measured in old people using assistive devices was significantly lower compared to those not using assistive devices. These results indicate usefulness of the pendant-sensor-based chair rise performance analysis in continuous monitoring and assessment of mobility, limitations in activities and frailty associated variables in old people's daily life.

  7. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  8. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  9. Determination of the in-core power and the average core temperature of low power research reactors using gamma dose rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Poku, L.

    2012-01-01

    Most reactors incorporate out-of-core neutron detectors to monitor the reactor power. An accurate relationship between the powers indicated by these detectors and actual core thermal power is required. This relationship is established by calibrating the thermal power. The most common method used in calibrating the thermal power of low power reactors is neutron activation technique. To enhance the principle of multiplicity and diversity of measuring the thermal neutron flux and/or power and temperature difference and/or average core temperature of low power research reactors, an alternative and complimentary method has been developed, in addition to the current method. Thermal neutron flux/Power and temperature difference/average core temperature were correlated with measured gamma dose rate. The thermal neutron flux and power predicted using gamma dose rate measurement were in good agreement with the calibrated/indicated thermal neutron fluxes and powers. The predicted data was also good agreement with thermal neutron fluxes and powers obtained using the activation technique. At an indicated power of 30 kW, the gamma dose rate measured predicted thermal neutron flux of (1* 10 12 ± 0.00255 * 10 12 ) n/cm 2 s and (0.987* 10 12 ± 0.00243 * 10 12 ) which corresponded to powers of (30.06 ± 0.075) kW and (29.6 ± 0.073) for both normal level of the pool water and 40 cm below normal levels respectively. At an indicated power of 15 kW, the gamma dose rate measured predicted thermal neutron flux of (5.07* 10 11 ± 0.025* 10 11 ) n/cm 2 s and (5.12 * 10 11 ±0.024* 10 11 ) n/cm 2 s which corresponded to power of (15.21 ± 0.075) kW and (15.36 ± 0.073) kW for both normal levels of the pool water and 40 cm below normal levels respectively. The power predicted by this work also compared well with power obtained from a three-dimensional neutronic analysis for GHARR-1 core. The predicted power also compares well with calculated power using a correlation equation obtained from

  10. Study on the Concentration Measurement of the Pollution Gases from Coal-Fired Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L J; Li, W

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a main kind of pollution gases discharged from coal-fired power station. The relationship between gas concentration and pressure, temperature is deduced base on the law of Beer-Lambert and the theory of gas line-shape. The tunable diode laser spectral technology is used to analyze the changing regularity of the peak, half-peak width of the absorption curve with pressure and temperature

  11. Performance predictions and measurements for space-power-system heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature liquid metal heat pipes designed for space power systems have been analyzed and tested. Three wick designs are discussed and a design rationale for the heat pipe is provided. Test results on a molybdenum, annular wick heat pipe are presented. Performance limitations due to boiling and capillary limits are presented. There is evidence that the vapor flow in the adiabatic section is turbulent and that the transition Reynolds number is 4000

  12. Calculating realistic voltages across the US power grid utilizing measured impedances and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.; Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Rigler, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather induces significant geoelectric fields within Earth's subsurface that can adversely affect electric power grids. The complex interaction between space weather and the solid Earth has traditionally been approached with the use of simple 1-D impedance functions relating the inducing magnetic field to the induced geoelectric field. Ongoing data collection through the NSF EarthScope program has produced measured impedance data across much of the continental US. In this work, impedance data are convolved with magnetic field variations, obtained from USGS magnetic observatories, during a geomagnetic storm. This convolution produces geoelectric fields within the earth. These geoelectric fields are then integrated across power transmission lines to determine the voltage generated within each power line as a function of time during a geomagnetic storm. The voltages generated within the electric power grid will be shown for several historic geomagnetic storms. The estimated voltages calculated from 1-D and 3-D impedances differ by more than 100 V across some transmission lines. In combination with grounding resistance data and network topology, these voltage estimates can be utilized by power companies to estimate geomagnetically-induced currents throughout the network. These voltage estimates can provide information on which power lines are most vulnerable to geomagnetic storms, and assist power grid companies investigating where to install additional protections within their grid.

  13. Development and Validation of a Novel Gas Analyzer for Simultaneous Measurements of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in Ambient Air at 20 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Owano, T.; Fellers, R.; Dong, F.; Baer, D.

    2008-12-01

    Methane has increased significantly with human population levels. Pre-1750 ice core data indicates that pre- industrialization levels were about 700 ppbv, while current levels are over 1750 ppbv. In current budget estimates of atmospheric methane, major contributors include both natural (wetlands) and anthropogenic sources (energy, landfills, ruminants, biomass burning, rice agriculture). The strengths of these sources vary spatially and temporally. Estimates of emissions from wetlands are also uncertain due to the extreme variability of these ecosystems. Because methane lifetime is relatively long (8.4 years), atmospheric variations in concentration are small and accuracy in measurement is important for understanding spatial and temporal variability. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane rose sharply in 2007. Global CO2 climbed by 0.6 percent, or 19 billion tons, in 2007. Methane increased by 27 million tons after nearly a decade with little or no increase. Atmospheric CO2 levels currently stand at 385 ppmv, or about 38 percent higher than pre- industrial levels and the rise in CO2 concentrations has been accelerating since the 1980s when annual increases were around 1.5 ppm per year. Last year the increase was 2.4 ppm. We report on the development, application and independent performance characterization of a novel gas analyzer based on cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The Analyzer provides simultaneous measurements of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in ambient air in the field for applications that require high data rates (eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that are ten times typical ambient levels or higher) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Analyzer provides continuous measurements at data rates up to 20 Hz and with replicate precision of 1 ppbv for methane (1 second measurement time), 0.2 ppmv for carbon dioxide (1 second

  14. Causality in Statistical Power: Isomorphic Properties of Measurement, Research Design, Effect Size, and Sample Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eric Heidel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is the ability to detect a significant effect, given that the effect actually exists in a population. Like most statistical concepts, statistical power tends to induce cognitive dissonance in hepatology researchers. However, planning for statistical power by an a priori sample size calculation is of paramount importance when designing a research study. There are five specific empirical components that make up an a priori sample size calculation: the scale of measurement of the outcome, the research design, the magnitude of the effect size, the variance of the effect size, and the sample size. A framework grounded in the phenomenon of isomorphism, or interdependencies amongst different constructs with similar forms, will be presented to understand the isomorphic effects of decisions made on each of the five aforementioned components of statistical power.

  15. Measurements of geomagnetically induced current in a power grid in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, S.; Kunitake, M.; Kitamura, K.; Hori, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shiokawa, K.; Nishitani, N.; Kataoka, R.; Kamide, Y.; Aso, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Tsuneta, Y.

    2009-03-01

    There have been numerous reports showing that space weather affects power grids through a geomagnetically induced current (GIC). Generally, power grids consist of power lines connected to transformers, of which neutral points are directly grounded. The GIC flows into those transformers through the neutral points if geomagnetic variations cause a ground level potential. These currents can damage power grids, especially transformers. It has been tacitly assumed, however, that the effect of the GIC is minor in Japan because of the country's location at geomagnetically lower latitudes. To examine the GIC effect in Japan, we conducted approximately 2 years of GIC measurements in Hokkaido, Japan. It is found that GICs associated with substorms can be detected in Japan even at the solar minimum although intense GICs do occur mostly during geomagnetic storms. Temporal variations of GICs show high correlation with geomagnetic field variations, rather than time derivatives of the geomagnetic field.

  16. A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Yoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind power systems. Fast fault detection can help the wind power systems maintain the DC-link voltage in a safe region. The proposed fault detection method is based on on-line adaptive parameter estimation. The performance of the proposed method is verified in comparison to the conventional voltage measurement method defined in the IEC 61400-21 standard.

  17. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  18. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  19. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  20. Study of the solubility of iron in zirconium by thermoelectric power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrelly, R.; Merle, P.; Adami, L.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 69 - Villeurbanne

    1990-01-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements are used to determine the solubility of iron in α-zirconium. A preliminary study shows that TEP is very sensitive to elements in solid solution, to cold-working and to the texture due to rolling in a temperature range including room temperature which is choosen for thermoelectric power measurements. The solutioning of iron obtained by a homogenization treatment and water-quench leads to a decrease of thermoelectric power. The conditions of homogenization treatments such that TEP variations are only due to the variation of iron content in solid solution have been determined. From these results the solubility of iron α-zirconium as a function of temperature has been determined. Moreover, the α-domain of the Zr-rich part of the Zr-Fe diagram has been completely delimited. A micrographic study has been made to confirm these results. (orig.)

  1. Accurate acoustic power measurement for low-intensity focused ultrasound using focal axial vibration velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Guo, Gepu; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong; Hu, Jimin

    2017-07-01

    Low-intensity focused ultrasound is a form of therapy that can have reversible acoustothermal effects on biological tissue, depending on the exposure parameters. The acoustic power (AP) should be chosen with caution for the sake of safety. To recover the energy of counteracted radial vibrations at the focal point, an accurate AP measurement method using the focal axial vibration velocity (FAVV) is proposed in explicit formulae and is demonstrated experimentally using a laser vibrometer. The experimental APs for two transducers agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulations, showing that AP is proportional to the square of the FAVV, with a fixed power gain determined by the physical parameters of the transducers. The favorable results suggest that the FAVV can be used as a valuable parameter for non-contact AP measurement, providing a new strategy for accurate power control for low-intensity focused ultrasound in biomedical engineering.

  2. Measurement and evaluation of human factor training in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of human factor training aimed at awareness and behavioral changes, conducted by electric power company for the nuclear power plant staff. As the first step, the researcher investigated recent trends in training measurement and evaluation methods in the United States. It was found that many instances of training measurement/evaluation had been reported, and that the ROI model was the mainstream method for such measurement and evaluation. However, there had been no instances reported in which the effectiveness of human factor training for plant staff had been measured. The researcher therefore developed a new questionnaire-type of effectiveness measurement/evaluation method, based on the framework of the ROI model. Two-years of research was then conducted, in which the effectiveness of a human factor training program was measured using the newly developed method. This research revealed that participants' overall satisfaction and knowledge/skill acquisition levels were high. The percentage of participants who demonstrated awareness/behavioral change after returning to the workplace increased from 50% at first measurement to 81% at second measurement. It can therefore be concluded that the effectiveness of the second training is greater than that of the first training. Use of the new effectiveness measurement/evaluation method will enable quantification of human factor training effectiveness and help improve training quality. (author)

  3. USCEA/NIST measurement assurance programs for the radiopharmaceutical and nuclear power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golas, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supervises and administers two measurement assurance programs for radioactivity measurement traceability. One, in existence since the mid 1970s, provides traceability to suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals, dose calibrators, and nuclear pharmacy services. The second program, begun in 1987, provides traceability to the nuclear power industry for utilities, source suppliers, and service laboratories. Each program is described, and the results of measurements of samples of known, but undisclosed activity, prepared at NIST and measured by the participants are presented

  4. Description of the local dose rate measuring system for the Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Lilian Rose Sobral da; Souza Mendes, Jorge Eduardo de

    1995-01-01

    The equipment used and the measured value processing involved in the Local Dose Rate Measuring System is described including the installation points for the measuring equipment in the reactor building, the auxiliary building and at the main gate of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Under normal operating conditions protecting of the personnel is ensured by measuring the local dose rate at those points which are generally accessible. In some cases , fixed sensors are not suitable so that mobile equipment is used. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  5. Alzheimer's disease: relationship between cognitive aspects and power and coherence EEG measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between specific cognitive aspects and quantitative EEG measures, in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD. METHOD: Thirty-eight AD patients and 31 controls were assessed by CERAD neuropsychological battery (Consortium to Establish a Registry for AD and the electroencephalogram (EEG. The absolute power and coherences EEG measures were calculated at rest. The correlations between the cognitive variables and the EEG were evaluated. RESULTS: In the AD group there were significant correlations between different coherence EEG measures and Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency, modified Boston naming, word list memory with repetition, word list recall and recognition, and constructional praxis (p<0.01. These correlations were all negative for the delta and theta bands and positive for alpha and beta. There were no correlations between cognitive aspects and absolute EEG power. CONCLUSION: The coherence EEG measures reflect different forms in the relationship between regions related to various cognitive dysfunctions.

  6. Measurement of laser power for photo-triggered drug delivery in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, F.; Zhang, Z. L.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhao, E. M.; Liu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Thus far, despite many investigations have been carried out for photo-triggered drug delivery systems, most of them suffer from an intrinsic drawback of without real-time monitoring mechanism. Incident intensity of light is a feasible parameter to monitor the drug release profiles. However, it is difficult to measure the incident laser power irradiated onto the photo-triggered carriers in drug delivery systems during in vivo therapy. We design an online measurement method based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique through upconversion nanoparticles. FIR value varies with temperature of sample due to the thermal effect induced by the incident laser, which validates the laser power measurement. Effects of rare earth doping concentration, as well as experimental conditions including laser spots and wavelengths on the measurement behavior were also investigated.

  7. CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL METHOD USED IN MEASURING AND ANALYZING COMPANIES LISTED IN PEFINDO25 AT INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE PERIOD 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M HUTABARAT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The industry in Indonesia is an interesting business to capitalize. In Indonesia many companies were established since it is profitable. The capital market serves as an economic pillar in most countries. Indonesia is a rich country, rich in many ways especially in natural resources. However, the industry has its ups and downs in the stock market. It is interesting to see the performance of the companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange.  This study aimed to measure and analyze companies listed in Pefindo25 at Indonesian Stock Exchange using Capital Asset Pricing Model. The sample used is 25 companies listed at Pefindo25 index. Based on the results of the study, it can conclude that after analyzing the companies listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange using Capital Asset Pricing Model that based on Beta analysis, the companies have the type of stocks that are aggressive and defensive. With positive and negative return. The company with aggressive beta shows that the company tend to face higher risk, as JPFA find itself with positif return 15.47% expected return. And companies with defensive type of stocks tend to have positive return such as: FISH, STTP, AISA, APLN, and others since they are not sensitive to market changes. It is recommended for further research to look on this CAPM method in analyzing the stock investment.

  8. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuko; Hayashi, Chikio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  9. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  10. Transitions in the computational power of thermal states for measurement-based quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Sean D.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Jennings, David; Doherty, Andrew C.; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-01-01

    We show that the usefulness of the thermal state of a specific spin-lattice model for measurement-based quantum computing exhibits a transition between two distinct 'phases' - one in which every state is a universal resource for quantum computation, and another in which any local measurement sequence can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. Remarkably, this transition in computational power does not coincide with any phase transition, classical, or quantum in the underlying spin-lattice model.

  11. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  12. Nuclear data measurement and evaluation activities for nuclear power technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioux, P.; Mouney, H.; Rowlands, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Activity in the field of nuclear data for the fission power technology applications is reviewed. The present situation is of concern to the French nuclear industry because of the few measurement facilities which are now funded for work in the field and the reductions in the number of scientists expert in measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. It is argued that there are requirements which justify work to improve many items of nuclear data. (authors)

  13. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko'lu, E; Bilgic, E

    2011-01-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  14. Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Schreiter, W.

    1975-11-01

    A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

  15. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  16. Research Design and the Predictive Power of Measures of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this enquiry was to examine how research design impacts on the predictive power of measures of self-efficacy. Three cautions for designing research into self-efficacy drawn from the seminal work of Albert Bandura (1986) and a further caution proposed by the current author together form the analytical framework for this enquiry. For…

  17. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko' lu, E; Bilgic, E, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  18. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  19. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  20. Bias Errors in Measurement of Vibratory Power and Implication for Active Control of Structural Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Henriksen, Eigil; Laugesen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainties in power measurements performed with piezoelectric accelerometers and force transducers are investigated. It is shown that the inherent structural damping of the transducers is responsible for a bias phase error, which typically is in the order of one degree. Fortunately, such bias ...