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Sample records for analyzing polyvinyl chloride

  1. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  2. Modeling polyvinyl chloride Plasma Modification by Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changquan

    2018-03-01

    Neural networks model were constructed to analyze the connection between dielectric barrier discharge parameters and surface properties of material. The experiment data were generated from polyvinyl chloride plasma modification by using uniform design. Discharge voltage, discharge gas gap and treatment time were as neural network input layer parameters. The measured values of contact angle were as the output layer parameters. A nonlinear mathematical model of the surface modification for polyvinyl chloride was developed based upon the neural networks. The optimum model parameters were obtained by the simulation evaluation and error analysis. The results of the optimal model show that the predicted value is very close to the actual test value. The prediction model obtained here are useful for discharge plasma surface modification analysis.

  3. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of particulate fractions using polyvinyl chloride microculture wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, B E; Sealock, R

    1984-10-01

    A method is described for immunoelectron microscopy of particulate subcellular fractions using polyvinyl chloride (soft) microculture wells as mechanical supports and reaction vessels. Appropriate quantities of particles are centrifuged onto the well bottoms, fixed and permeabilized if necessary, then labeled by standard procedures, fixed in glutaraldehyde and tannic acid, and prepared for thin section electron microscopy. The centrifugation, the fixations, and the embedment in Epon are discussed in detail.

  4. Continuous microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride and compatibilization of polyvinyl chloride and polylactide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavesh

    This dissertation focuses on overcoming existing limitations of WPCs which prevent them from realizing their full market potential. These limitations include: (i) lack of a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its composites using supercritical fluids to reduce the high density of the WPCs, (ii) need for an efficient coupling agent for WPCs to overcome the poor compatibility between wood and plastic, and (iii) unproven use of wood as a filler for the biopolymer polylactide (PLA) to make "green" composites. These limitations were addressed through experimentation to develop a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming, and through surface modification of wood flour using natural coupling agents. The effects of wood flour, acrylic modifier and plasticizer content on the rheological properties of PVC based WPCs were studied using an extrusion capillary rheometer and a two-level factorial design. Wood flour content and acrylic modifier content were the major factors affecting the die swell ratio. Addition of plasticizer decreased the true viscosity of unfilled and filled PVC, irrespective of the acrylic modifier content. However, the addition of acrylic modifier significantly increased the viscosity of unfilled PVC but decreased the composite viscosity. Results of the rheological study were used to set baseline conditions for the continuous extrusion foaming of PVC WPCs using supercritical CO 2. Effects of material composition and processing conditions on the morphology of foamed samples were investigated. Foamed samples were produced using various material compositions and processing conditions, but steady-state conditions could not be obtained for PVC. Thus the relationships could not be determined. Incompatibility between wood flour and PVC was the focus of another study. The natural polymers chitin and chitosan were used as novel coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix

  5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  6. Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

  7. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  8. Plastics piping systems for industrial applications – Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) – Specifications for components and the system – Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsches Institut für Normung. Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications – Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) – Specifications for components and the system – Metric series

  9. The influence of polyvinyl chloride (P.V.C.) tubing on the isolated perfused rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Willebrands, A.F.; Durrer, D.

    1960-01-01

    Some brands of polyvinyl chlorides interfere with cardiac contraction, whereas other brands do not. Chemical investigation showed that the stabilizer is most probably responsibie for the cardiotoxic effect. It is suggested that all types of polyvinyl chloride used for medical and biological

  10. De invloed van plastic (polyvinyl-chloride) op het geïsoleerde overlevende rattehart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Willebrands, A.F.; Durrer, D.

    1959-01-01

    Sommige soorten plastic(polyvinyl-chloride)slang doen de mechanische activiteit van het overlevende, geïsoleerde rattehart verminderen, of verdwijnen. Dit polyvinyl-chloride wordt verkocht en gebruikt voor medische en biologische doeleinden. Chemische analyses toonden een duidelijk verschil tussen

  11. Polyphosphates as Inhibitors for Poly(vinyl Chloride Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina S. Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphosphates were used as inhibitors for poly(vinyl chloride (PVC photodegradation. The polyphosphates were added to PVC at a concentration of 0.5% by weight. The PVC films (40 µm thickness were irradiated at room temperature with ultraviolet (UV light for up to 300 h. The changes in PVC films after irradiation were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, weight loss, viscosity-average molecular weight determination, and atomic force microscopy. These changes were very noticeable in the blank PVC films compared to the ones obtained when additives were used. The polyphosphates can inhibit the PVC photodegradation through direct absorption of UV light, interactions with PVC chains, and acting as radical scavengers.

  12. Investigation of Polyvinyl Chloride and Thermoplastic Polyurethane Waste Blend Miscibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė LAUKAITIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the miscibility of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and poly-e-caprolactone based thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU waste blends were investigated by dilute solution viscometry. The miscibility criteria a, Db, DB, and D[h] were used to assess the degree of miscibility of polymers in tetrahydrofuran solution. Also, to assess the miscibility and microstructure of PVC/TPU blends obtained by solution casting have been characterized by X-ray diffraction. The tensile strength and deformability properties varying on the blend composition were determined. It was found that PVC and TPU are partially miscible, their blend is amorphous and show two-phase structure. TPU changes the mechanical behaviour of PVC the blends. Increase of TPU content causes PVC elongation at break increase and tensile strength decreases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3145

  13. Composition analysis and characterization of waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) recovered from data cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2017-02-01

    Cables and wires are the indispensable parts of electronic equipments for transmission of both information and electricity. Nowadays, data cables are widely used in the computer equipments for sending information and they become waste once its life cycle is completed. However, recycling of cables and wires are mainly concentrating into the recovery of metals such as aluminium and copper, rather than other polymer present. Polymeric materials from the waste data cables are often disposed into landfills or incinerated, since they have only lower value in recycling yard. From the data cables collected, it has been estimated that the major constituents are copper (58.3%), polyvinyl chloride (19.9%) and polyethylene (16%). Similarly, polycarbonate (2.9%), silicon rubber (1.6%), steel (1.4%) and other material (0.4%) such as cotton cord were also present as minor components. Out of these, polyvinyl chloride is the dominant polymer present in data cables. Hence, the present work investigates the reprocessability of the polyvinyl chloride recovered from the data cables and deals with issues such as premature degradation during life cycle, assessment of plasticizers and degradation after reprocessing. Torque measurement studies using torque rheometer revealed further mechanical recycling possibilites of the recovered polyvinyl chloride. Besides, the applicability of melt blending technique for processing recovered polyvinyl chloride can be found out by analysing thermal behaviour by using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and heat distortion temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Structure and Electrical Study of New Chemically Modified Poly(vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the structural and electrical properties of a new polymer obtained by functionalization of a commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC (Mw = 48000 by grafting aminoalkyl and aminoaryl groups. Modified poly(vinyl chloride was prepared in two steps. The structural properties of the polymer were systematically investigated by varieties of techniques as differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the polymer were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  15. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artifici...

  16. Studies on Optical-fiber Sensor to Monitor Temperature using Reversible Thermochromic Gel Type Cobalt (II) Chloride/Polyvinyl Butyral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, KiSeob; Lee, JunYoung; Park, JeaHeel; Ha, KiRyong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed an optical-fiber sensor using cobalt chloride solution to monitor temperature in real-time between long distance points unaffected by the electro-magnetic wave and the vibration. Cobalt chloride solutions were made using 10% water and 90% ethanol (v/v) solution. The transmittance of these solutions was analyzed on 655 nm using UV-Visible spectrometer regarding temperature change. Also 30.8 mM cobalt chloride solution was gelled by dissolving polyvinyl butyral and the transmittance of this was analyzed on 655 nm regarding temperature change. The results of transmittance and optical power measurement showed decrease of both transmittance and optical power with increase of temperature from 66.8% and 149.5 nW at 25 .deg. C to 7.1% and 48 nW at 70 .deg. C, respectively. These results support the possibility of gelled cobalt chloride/polyvinyl butyral as an optical-fiber sensor to monitor temperature change

  17. Poly(vinyl chloride)-paste/clay nanocomposites: Investigation of thermal and morphological characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peprníček, T.; Kalendová, A.; Pavlova, Ewa; Šimoník, J.; Duchet, J.; Gerard, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 12 (2006), s. 3322-3329 ISSN 0141-3910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(vinyl chloride) * clay * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  18. The influence of physical ageing on yielding and failure of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wolters, Mannes; Govaert, Leon E.

    2009-01-01

    Physical ageing can cause significant changes of the mechanical properties of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) pipes during service life. A model is presented which incorporates these changes and can predict long-term failure times quantitatively, based on short term tests

  19. Poly(vinyl chloride) polyacrylonitrile composite membranes for the dehydration of acetic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, G.H.; Nolten-Oude Hendrikman, J.A.M.; Nolten-Oude Hendrikman, J.A.M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Composite membranes have been prepared consisting of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) top layer on either a dense polyacrylonitrile (PAN) layer (bi-layer membrane) or a porous PAN support layer (normal composite membrane) and studied with respect to the dehydration of acetic acid. Especially, the

  20. Conversion of chlorinated waste streams from the production of polyvinyl chloride over La-based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, A.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Annually, more than one third of all chlorine consumption is used for the production of C2H3Cl. This is the monomer for the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Even though the production process of C2H3Cl is rather selective, by-products are formed in large amounts due to the large scale of the

  1. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  2. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of PVC by Micrococcus species with PVC as a sole carbon source was determined by their ability to release chloride from PVC polymer, increase their cell density in test media, carbon dioxide production and growth on the surface of PVC film in plate assay. The Micrococcus species showed 0.36% ...

  3. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  4. Fault Diagnosis Method on Polyvinyl Chloride Polymerization Process Based on Dynamic Kernel Principal Component and Fisher Discriminant Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that the production process of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization has more fault types and its type is complex, a fault diagnosis algorithm based on the hybrid Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis-Fisher Discriminant Analysis (DKPCA-FDA method is proposed in this paper. Kernel principal component analysis and Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis are used for fault diagnosis of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization process, while Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA method was adopted to make failure data for further separation. The simulation results show that the Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analyses to fault diagnosis of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization process have better diagnostic accuracy, the Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA can further realize the fault isolation, and the actual fault in the process of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization production can be monitored by Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of polyvinyl chloride photodegradation in blends with basic traps

    OpenAIRE

    Birer, Özgür

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-68. Polyvinyl chloride degrades via loss of HCI when it is exposed to heat, energetic particles or photons. The mechanism is known as the zip mechanism and results in conjugated segments, polyenes. Degradation also leads to loss of mechanical properties of PVC. However, from another poi...

  6. Improving the Healthiness of Sustainable Construction: Example of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Emina Kristina Petrović; Lydia K. Hamer

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing emphasis on sustainable construction, it has become important to better understand the impacts of common materials. This is especially paramount with the introduction of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which call for more comprehensive evaluations, adding many aspects of social consideration to the issues of environmental sustainability, including human health. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/vinyl can be seen as a material with potential for signific...

  7. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  8. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  9. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  10. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  11. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is into the compressor; by ducting any vinyl chloride between the two seals through a control system... accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section is to be ducted through a control system from which the... chloride discharged from the slip gauge through a control system from which the concentration of vinyl...

  12. Effect of bio-loading on polyvinyl chlorides morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammoukh M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To integrate the consideration of environmental issues in the design phase of a product eco-design is an ecological quality improvement and preventive approach of it while verifying that the resulting environmental gain is not at the expense of other environmental aspects and focusing on the preservation of its quality of use of its features or certain stages of its life cycle without losing the own global vision of eco-design. Following this vision, the use of bio-laden animal based polymers derived from a mode of production by implementing optimization practices respectful of natural resources sustainably, has become changing way of thinking largely replace the use of non-renewable resources for human activities, the depletion of fossil resources deposits and to fight against the impact of climate change generated by this practice. Our paper attempts to analyze first the mechanical behavior of a bio-load and then incorporated into a polymer material to test improved mechanical and thermal characteristics made to it after adding and optimizing subsequently, its use. This is a load in the form of powder or chips extracted from an animal sheath. Tensile tests are performed in a first step, in order to mechanically characterize the virgin material and eco-composite obtained after the combination, i.e. the maximum tensile strength, the relative deformation and the modulus of the elasticity, etc

  13. Chemical leucoderma induced by ear-ring stoppers made of polyvinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chemical leucoderma (CL in a 15-year-old girl, who developed patterned depigmentation at the back of both ear lobules after contact with plastic ear-ring stoppers made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC after continuous use for 6-7 months. Patch test with Indian standard series and cosmetic series was negative after 48 h, but she refused patch testing for extended duration as the possibility of induced depigmentation at the test site was unacceptable to her. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of plastic ear-ring stopper induced CL.

  14. The use of polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromo cresol purple in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Daher, Y.

    2010-09-01

    In this work,the use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with Bromo cresol purple in high dose radiation dosimetry has been studied according to the radio chromic change using visible spectrophotometry. The results show linear relationship between the relative absorbance (response) and the absorbed dose at the wavelength 417 nm in the range of 0-50 kGy. Dose rate, irradiation temperature, dye intensity have been investigated and found to be independent of the response. The effects of post-irradiation storage in dark and indirect daylight conditions on dosimetry performance are discussed. (Author)

  15. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J S; Van der Mei, H C; Nixon, M; Eastwood, I M; Greenhalgh, M; Read, S J; Robson, G D; Handley, P S

    1999-08-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to these substrata. Adhesion to pPVC was greater than that to uPVC by a maximum of 280% after a 4-h incubation with 10(8) blastospores ml(-1). That plasticizers enhance adhesion to PVC was confirmed by incorporating a dispersion of both DOA and DOP into the blastospore suspension. Adhesion to uPVC was increased by up to 308% in the presence of the dispersed plasticizers. Hydrophobic interactions were found to dominate adhesion to uPVC because (i) a strong positive correlation was observed between substratum hydrophobicity (measured by using a dynamic contact angle analyzer) and adhesion to a range of unplasticized polymers including uPVC, and (ii) neither the pH nor the electrolyte concentration of the suspension buffer, both of which influence electrostatic interactions, affected adhesion to uPVC. In contrast, adhesion to pPVC is principally controlled by electrostatic interactions. Enhanced adhesion to pPVC occurred despite a relative reduction of 13 degrees in the water contact angle of pPVC compared to that of uPVC. Furthermore, adhesion to pPVC was strongly dependent on both the pH and electrolyte concentration of the suspension medium, reaching maximum levels at pH 8 and with an electrolyte concentration of 10 mM NaCl. Plasticization with DOP and DOA therefore increases adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to pPVC through an interaction mediated by electrostatic forces.

  16. Poly(vinyl chloride-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes via Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach was developed for the surface modification of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with high percentage of grafting (PG% by the grafting of polymer via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The graft reaction conditions, such as the amount of catalyst added, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time were optimized for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the MWCNTs with poly(vinyl chloride (PVC with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3 as catalyst in chloroform (CHCl3. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Raman, and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed that PVC had been successfully grafted onto MWCNTs both at the ends and on the sidewalls by the proposed Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The PVC grafted MWCNTs (PVC-MWCNTs could be dispersed well in organic solvent and the dispersion was more stable.

  17. Comparative scanning electron microscope study of the degradation of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedrosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the analysis of several samples of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P waterproofing membrane. The samples were extracted from different areas of the same flat roof, which was in service for over 12 years. An original sample of an identical PVC-P membrane that was not installed on the roof was also analyzed. The analysis of the materials was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. An elemental analysis of every sample was also performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Micrographs and the elemental composition of the samples were compared with the data obtained in the analysis of the original sample. The results show dehydrochlorination of the polymer in two of the samples studied and great deterioration that was not visible to the naked eye in the sample that was totally exposed to the weather.

  18. Comparative scanning electron microscope study of the degradation of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane in different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, A.; Del Río, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the analysis of several samples of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P) waterproofing membrane. The samples were extracted from different areas of the same flat roof, which was in service for over 12 years. An original sample of an identical PVC-P membrane that was not installed on the roof was also analyzed. The analysis of the materials was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An elemental analysis of every sample was also performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micrographs and the elemental composition of the samples were compared with the data obtained in the analysis of the original sample. The results show dehydrochlorination of the polymer in two of the samples studied and great deterioration that was not visible to the naked eye in the sample that was totally exposed to the weather. [es

  19. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers exposed to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer at a polyvinyl chloride processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Akesson, B.; Nielsen, J.; Andersson, C.; Linden, K.; Attewell, R.; Moeller, T. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    To study whether exposure to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) causes increased risk for cancer morbidity and death from ischemic heart disease, a cohort study was performed among 2,031 male workers at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processing plant who had been employed for at least 3 months during the period 1945-1980. An almost significantly increased total mortality (SMR = 116, 95% CI 99-136) was found. Deaths caused by violence or intoxication were significantly increased (SMR = 153, 95% CI 109-213), but not deaths from ischemic heart disease (SMR = 100, 95% CI 73-135). A significant increase in total cancer morbidity was observed (SMR = 128, 95% CI 101-161). Respiratory cancers were significantly increased (SMR = 213, 95% CI 127-346). Furthermore, six brain tumors (vs. 2.6 expected) were observed. This increase, however, was not significant (SMR = 229, 95% CI 84-498). No liver hemangiosarcoma was observed. Applying a latency period of greater than or equal to 10 years from start of employment did not change the risk patterns. There were no significant exposure-response associations between exposure estimates for VCM, asbestos, and plasticizers and cancer morbidity.

  20. Long-term heat stabilisation by (natural) polyols in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van J.; Langerock, R.; Es, van D.S.; Haveren, van J.; Geus, J.W.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term heat stabilisation efficiency of (natural) polyol additives in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has been investigated. It is shown that polyols, such as sorbitol and xylitol, markedly reduce the dehydrochlorination rate and improve Congo Red values. Extraction

  1. Rheological characterization of solutions and thin films made from amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes and polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions and films made from blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) were investigated to better understand the polymer interactions and processing parameters. Aqueous solutions of Hex-Am displayed ...

  2. Influence of the tacticity of poly(methyl methacrylate) on the miscibility with poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorenkamp, E.J.; Brinke, G. ten; Meijer, J.G.; Challa, G.

    1985-01-01

    It can be concluded from earlier work that poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is more miscible with syndiotactic than with isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). By choosing different molar masses for the various tactic forms of PMMA it is possible to obtain blends with PVC with similar phase

  3. Polymer-filler interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) filled with glass beads : effect of grafted poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Gert; Folkersma, Rudy; Challa, Ger; Schouten, Arend Jan; Bosma, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  4. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...

  5. Electrical and mechanical investigations on polyvinyl chloride filled with haf black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Nashar, D.E.; Eid, M.A.M.; Abou Aiad, T.H.; Abd-El-Messieh, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was chosen to be loaded with various amount of high abrasion furnace black (HAF). The mechanical as well as electrical properties of the prepared composites were investigated. The Dielectric properties of these composites were investigated in the frequency range 10 2 - 10 5 Hz at temperature range from 30 to 120 degree C . In addition to the conductivity term, the experimental data of the dielectric losses ε were analyzed using a computer program based on both Havriliak-Nagami and Frohlich equations into two relaxation processes. The first relaxation process in the lower frequency range could be attributed to Maxwell Wagner effect. The second relaxation could be attributed to the combination of the large scale mobilization of the chains i.e. the glass rubber relaxation process in addition to a contribution of the motion of the large aggregates caused by the movement of the main chain, which are expected to be formed by the addition of different ingredients to PVC such as plasticizer. The percolation threshold concentration, which is the concentration after which the conductivity increases many orders of magnitude with very little increase in the filler amount for PVC/HAF composites depends upon the measuring temperature, whether it is below or above the glass transition of the polymer matrix. Stress strain plot, hardness, and other mechanical properties such as stress at yield, stress at rupture, strain at yield, strain at rupture and Young's Modulus were investigated at room temperature. This investigation led to the conclusion that all the mechanical properties are improved by increasing HAF content and reaches its optimum values at about 30 p hr HAF loading. On the other hand. The addition of HAF black by concentration up to 40 p hr increase the electrical conductivity to be in the order of 10 -10 Sm -1 at 30 degree C and 10 -9 Sm -1 at 120 degree C which highly recommend such composites to be used in anti static applications as the

  6. Improving the Healthiness of Sustainable Construction: Example of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina Kristina Petrović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing emphasis on sustainable construction, it has become important to better understand the impacts of common materials. This is especially paramount with the introduction of the United Nations (UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs which call for more comprehensive evaluations, adding many aspects of social consideration to the issues of environmental sustainability, including human health. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC/vinyl can be seen as a material with potential for significant adverse effects on a multiplicity of levels, and the construction industry is its single most significant consumer. This article presents a transdisciplinary review of adverse health impacts associated with PVC showing a number of issues: some that could be eliminated through design, but also some which appear inherent to the material itself and therefore unavoidable. The totality of issues revealed in relation to PVC presents a compelling case for a call for complete elimination of use of this material in sustainable construction.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the spectroscopic properties of Bromocresol green-polyvinyl chloride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Anuradha; Ram, Surendra; Singh, Shailendra K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Bromocresol Green (BCG) - Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film was prepared by dispersing the dye in the polymer matrix in a suitable solvent medium in the presence of an organic base and then solvent casting the formulation in the form of transparent colored film. Preliminary studies through UV-Vis Spectroscopic measurements show that the prepared PVC - dye films was sensitive to gamma radiation almost linearly in the dose range upto 8 kGy range. This spectroscopic change becomes visually distinguishable from 4 kGy onwards until 8 kGy where it finally changes color from green to yellow, beyond which no significant optical change was observed. The gamma response of the film could be tailored by varying the concentration of the pH sensitive dye and the organic base. (author)

  8. Polyvinyl chloride Waste as an Adsorbent for the Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donbebe Wankasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of Pb2+ from solution by polyvinyl chloride waste was investigated. The morphological features of the polymer sample were studied using the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic batch adsorption experiments were carried out by the concentration, time, and temperature effects, respectively. The morphological image of the polymer showed irregular small size particles which indicated a high surface area and porosity that facilitated sorption. The adsorption studies recorded relatively rapid uptake of Pb2+ by the polymer which was mainly diffusion controlled and followed a second order kinetic process. The thermodynamic studies suggested relatively low temperature (low energy favoured sorption which was exothermic with a physisorption mechanism.

  9. Performance of large diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes in water applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pradip P.

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes are used in water management utilities to manage safe and efficient water transport. The material's advantages includes strength, flexibility, anti-corrosive properties and easy installation methods. The disadvantages include joint failure, pipe fractures, material contamination and oxidative degradation. This thesis evaluates the use of 24 inch and larger diameter PVC pipes in water management utilities. Center of Undergraduate Infrastructure and Research Education (CUIRE) conducted surveys consisting of questions pertaining to PVC pipe material and installation practices to different water management utilities. While PVC material is most commonly used in pipelines less than 24", the CUIRE responses show that PVC pipes are not the most common type of pipe material in 24" and larger diameters installed in the facilities for various reasons. These reasons are discussed and evaluated in hopes of understanding the material's fallbacks in the piping industry. Finally, future research recommendations are constructed for researchers in the PVC piping industry.

  10. Mortality from liver disease among Italian vinyl chloride monomer/polyvinyl chloride manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Comba, P; Reggiani, A; Foa, V; Masina, A; Maltoni, C

    1990-01-01

    The possible association in humans between nonangiosarcoma primary liver tumors (PLC-non-A), particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is supported by both experimental and human data. This article presents a review of the information regarding 253 deaths that occurred in seven plants manufacturing VCM/PVC and one plant extruding PVC. The retrieval of clinical and pathological data, in addition to the information from death certificate, is referred to as "best evidence" (BE). BE has been carried out for 63 deaths. A total of 14 primary liver cancer (PLC) were detected: seven were angiosarcoma (PLC-A), and two of the remaining seven were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our series of 14 PLC cases, there was no significant difference between PLC-A and PLC-non-A as to length of exposure and latency. There was no noticeable difference in terms of job title between ASL and non-ASL cases. The list of longest held jobs shows the presence of various job titles, different from autoclave cleaner, for primary liver cancer, PLC-A and PLC-non-A. In conclusion, our observations show that VCM may have a broader carcinogenicity action on the liver and that exposure lower than that occurring in autoclave cleaning can cause primary liver cancer, both angiosarcoma and nonangiosarcoma.

  11. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery with polyvinyl chloride by mechanochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cathode materials (C/LiCoO 2 ) of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were co-processed via an innovative mechanochemical method, i.e. LiCoO 2 /PVC/Fe was co-grinded followed by water-leaching. This procedure generated recoverable LiCl from Li by the dechlorination of PVC and also generated magnetic CoFe 4 O 6 from Co. The effects of different additives (e.g. alkali metals, non-metal oxides, and zero-valent metals) on (i) the conversion rates of Li and Co and (ii) the dechlorination rate of PVC were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were explored. It was found that the chlorine atoms in PVC were mechanochemically transformed into chloride ions that bound to the Li in LiCoO 2 to form LiCl. This resulted in reorganization of the Co and Fe crystals to form the magnetic material CoFe 4 O 6 . This study provides a more environmentally-friendly, economical, and straightforward approach for the recycling of spent LIBs and waste PVC compared to traditional processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Photochromic properties of the molecule Azure A chloride in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Kumar, Rakesh; Darroudi, Mahdieh; Borzehandani, Mostafa Yousefzadeh; Gomar, Maryam; Hajikolaee, Fatemeh Haji

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, isomerization, photophysical properties and heat conductivity of the substance Azure A chloride (AZAC): 3-amino-7-(dimethlamino)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride under the action of UV radiation in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix was studied using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The electronic absorption spectra of AZAC in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution and in aqueous medium before and after UV radiation were calculated. The nature of absorption bands of AZAC and its tautomeric prototropic form with the transfer of the electron (AZAC1) in the visible and near UV spectral regions was interpreted. The solvent effect on the absorption spectrum of the AZAC has established. The comparison of measured FTIR, UV-Visible data allowed assignments of major special features of title molecules. The frontier molecular orbital HOMO-LUMO have been also presented that shows the charge transfer interactions taking place within these molecules. The excitation energies for both molecules AZAC and AZAC1 have also been calculated. The experimental as well as theoretical investigations of azure molecule have a close agreement and it gives other important clues about the properties of the system. Anisotropy of thermal conductivity in PVA-films containing AZAC and AZAC1 were also measured.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of ten organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride plastics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bin; Liu, Li; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Jingwu; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Xintian

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and effective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method has been developed systematically and studied for the simultaneous determination of 10 organotin compounds, dibutyltin-dichloride (DBT), n-butyltin-trichloride (MBT), triethyltinchloride (TET), fentin-chloride (TPhT), chlorotributylstannane (TBT), tri-n-propyltinchloride (TPrT), diphenyltin-dichloride (DPhT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), di-n-octyltin-dichloride (DOT), phenyltin trichloride (MPhT)), in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The PVC sample was dissolved with tetrahydrofuran and the polymer in the sample was precipitated with methanol, and then the target compounds were derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted with hexane under ultrasonication. The qualitative and quantitative analysis were carried out by GC-MS and the total ion chromatogram and selected ion chromatogram were obtained. The derivatization and extraction conditions, such as the derivatization time, derivatization pH value, dosages of derivatization reagent and precipitation reagent were optimized. The good linearities, recoveries and precisions were obtained. The linearity ranges were 0.5 - 50 mg/L. The linearity correlation coefficients of 10 organotin compounds were between 0.997 8 and 0.999 7. The average recoveries were 84.23% - 109.1% with relative standard deviations of 4.24% - 10.75%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of organotin compounds in PVC plastics.

  14. Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (σ 0 ), activation energy (ΔE) and T 0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T 0 . The calculated values of T 0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain

  15. Synthesis and Properties of a Novel Environmental Epoxidized Glycidyl Ester of Ricinoleic Acetic Ester Plasticizer for Poly(vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel renewable plasticizer based on castor oil, epoxidized glycidyl ester of ricinoleic acetic ester (EGERAE, was synthesized and applied into Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC for the first time. Its molecular structure was characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The effects of replacement of petroleum-based commercial plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP with EGERAE in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films were researched. Thermal stability, dynamic mechanical property and mechanical properties of PVC films were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and tensile tests. The results indicated that this castor oil-based plasticizer was able to improve the thermal stability of PVC blends when partially of completely substituting for DOP. Furthermore, EGERAE endowed PVC resin with enhanced flexibility. In addition, the exudation, volatility and extraction resistance characteristics of plasticizers were researched. The degradation mechanism and possible interaction between EGERAE and PVC molecules in the plasticized system were also investigated.

  16. Poly(vinyl chloride) film filled with microcrystalline cellulose prepared from cotton fabric waste: properties and biodegradability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuayjuljit, Saowaroj; Su-uthai, Siriwan; Charuchinda, Sireerat

    2010-02-01

    Hydrolysis of cotton fabric waste to produce microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was carried out using 2.5 N hydrochloric acid at 100 degrees C for 30 min. Characterization of the structure, morphology, particle size as well as the thermal decomposition of the obtained MCC were studied using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and laser light scattering particle size analyzer and thermogravimetric analyzer, respectively. These results indicated that the obtained MCC had a fibrous structure of a 40 microm average particle size and possessed a form of highly native crystalline cellulose I. In addition, its maximum degradation temperature was observed at 350 degrees C. The poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films in this work were produced by first blending the produced MCC with PVC resin in amounts of 5-30 parts per hundred of resin. The blends were then made into film using a two-roll mill. The tensile properties of the film were measured using a Universal Testing Machine. The biodegradation tests were carried out in soil and in a moisture-controlled chamber. The biodegradability was estimated by the loss of mass, moisture absorption capacity and electron microscope studies. It was found that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the blends increased with increasing amounts of MCC. Similarly, moisture absorption and biodegradability of the films were also increased as the amount of MCC increased. The results implied that MCC behaved not only as a reinforcing filler but also as a biodegradability promoter of PVC films.

  17. IR Laser Ablation of Poly(vinyl chloride): Formation of Monomer and Deposition of Nanofibers of Chlorinated Polyhydrocarbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan; Bastl, Zdeněk; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Galíková, Anna; Spaseska, D.; Pola, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2006), s. 213-220 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : poly(vinyl chloride) * laser ablation * degradation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  18. Estimating consumer product characteristics of highly filled polymer-mineral composite material based on polyvinyl chloride and waste TPP

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Barakhtenko

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the performance properties of highly filled polymer-fly ash mineral composite based on polyvinyl chloride which affect the durability of construction outdoor products. The article presents the results of studies to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of polymer-based composite mineral, filled with PVC TPP fly ash, to accelerate climatic tests, sample stability to UV radiation. The purpose of this is to predict the service life of products made from this m...

  19. Two cases of liver angiosarcoma among polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extruders of an Italian factory producing PVC bags and other containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Clini, C; Vicini, F; Masina, A

    1984-01-01

    Two cases are reported of liver angiosarcoma occurring among polyvinyl chloride (PVC) extruders from a small Italian factory producing PVC bags and other containers. The possibility that PVC extrusion carries a risk of liver angiosarcoma is important because of the very large number of people working with extruding, manufacturing and handling PVC, as compared with the number of people working in PVC polymerization and/or VC production. In the past, the level of vinyl chloride (VC) concentration in PVC extrusion workplaces has been thought to be "safe".

  20. Stability of 2 mg/mL Adenosine Solution in Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyolefin Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Michael; Ferrara, Alexander; Gregory, Kaleigh; Zammit, Kimberly; Zhao, Fang

    2018-04-01

    Adenosine is a potent endogenous mediator of vasodilation. Compounded sterile solutions of adenosine are used in cardiac catheterization lab to perform stress tests on the heart. These tests are used to determine the fractional flow reserve (FFR) and are commonly used in the management and diagnosis of cardiovascular conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical and chemical stability of 2 mg/mL adenosine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP in polyvinyl chloride [PVC]) and polyolefin infusion bags stored at room temperature (20°C-25°C) and under refrigeration (2°C-8°C). The compounding and analytical methods used in this study were very similar to those described in the prior publications from the authors' laboratory. To ensure a uniform starting concentration of all stability samples, a batch of 2 mg/mL adenosine solution was prepared and then packaged into empty PVC and polyolefin infusion bags. These stability samples were prepared in triplicate for each bag type and storage temperature (a total of 12 samples). The infusion bag samples were assessed for stability immediately after preparation and after 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days. At each time point, the infusion bags were first visually inspected against a light background for color change, clarity, and particulates. Aliquots were drawn from each sample at each time point for pH analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Over 14 days of storage at room temperature or refrigeration, no considerable change in visual appearance or pH was observed in any bags. All samples retained 90% to 110% of the initial drug concentration. No significant degradation peaks were observed in the HPLC chromatograms.

  1. THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING THE PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE STACK BY POWER INPUT VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Kharismawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermoacoustic refrigerator is an innovative alternative and did not use substances that had a negative impact on the environment such as freon, but using air as the working substance. The materials used the refrigerator were easily obtained and the construction components were simple so that made this refrigerator was cheap, easy to make and easy to maintain. Stack was used in the thermoacoustic refrigerator system used PVC (Polyvinyl chloride which is parallel cylindrical shape and diameter (1.50 ± 0.05 mm and length of 8 cm. Variations of loudspeaker input power that used were 20 watt, 30 watt, 40 watt, 50 watt and 60 watt. Variations of the input power that used to determine the effect of loudspeaker input power to decreasing temperature in the operating of the thermoacoustic refrigerator system using  PVC stack. From the result, loudspeaker input power influenced on the decreasing temperature that was 6.0 °C for 20 watts, 6.7 °C for 30 watts, 7.2 °C for 40 watts, 8.0 °C for 50 watts and 9.0 °C for 60 watts. From these results indicated optimum decreasing temperature depended on the amount of loudspeaker power that was directly proportional to the decreasing temperature obtained.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Nano ZnO on the Optical Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Al-Taa’y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of pure and doped poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films, prepared by using casting technique, with different nanosize zinc oxide (ZnO concentrations (1–20 wt% have been studied. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, Urbach energy, optical conductivity, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index were studied by using the absorbance and transmittance measurement from computerized UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1601 PC in the spectral range 200–800 nm. This study reveals that the optical properties of PVC are affected by the doping of ZnO where the absorption increases and transmission decreases as ZnO concentration increases. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index values were found to increase with increasing impurity percentage. The Urbach energy values are found to be decreasing with increasing ZnO concentration. The optical conductivity increased with photon energy after being doped and with the increase of ZnO concentration.

  4. Chemically Modified Polyvinyl Chloride for Removal of Thionine Dye (Lauth’s Violet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ma A. M. M. S. Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification of hydrophobic polymer matrices is an alternative way to elchange their surface properties. The introduction of sulfonic groups in the polymer changes the surface properties such as adhesion, wettability, catalytic ability, and adsorption capacity. This work describes the production and application of chemically modified polyvinyl chloride (PVC as adsorbent for dyes removal. Chemical modification of PVC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, which indicated the presence of sulfonic groups on PVC. The chemically modified PVC (PVCDS showed an ion exchange capacity of 1.03 mmol−1, and efficiently removed the thionine dye (Lauth’s violet from aqueous solutions, reaching equilibrium in 30 min. The adsorption kinetics was better adjusted for a pseudo second order model. This result indicates that the adsorption of thionine onto PVCDS occurs by chemisorption. Among the models for the state of equilibrium, SIPS and Langmuir exhibited the best fit to the experimental results and PVCDS showed high adsorption capacities (370 mg−1. Thus, it is assumed that the system presents homogeneous characteristics to the distribution of active sites. The modification promoted the formation of surface characteristics favorable to the dye adsorption by the polymer.

  5. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical and Tensile Properties of Carbon Black Reinforced Polyvinyl Chloride Conductive Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekharul Islam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive polymer composites are becoming more important and useful in many electrical applications. This paper reports on the carbon black (CB reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC conductive composites. Conductive filler CB was reinforced with thermoplastic PVC by compression molding technique to make conductive composites. The particle size of CB was measured, as it affects the electrical conductivity of the composites. Different types of CB-PVC compression-molded composites were prepared, using CB contents from 5 to 30 wt %. The electrical and tensile properties of these composites were studied and compared. Improved electrical properties were obtained for all CB-PVC conductive polymer composites compared to virgin PVC composite. However, the tensile properties of the CB-PVC composites increased up to 15 wt % CB loading, and then decreased, and elongation at break decreased with increasing CB loading. The structure of the CB, PVC and CB-PVC composites were studied by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis. ATR-FTIR spectra provide evidence of the formation of CB-PVC composites. The microstructural analyses showed a good dispersion of CB in PVC matrix.

  7. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Madhumita [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Hoon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Kiel [ReSEAT Program, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, 206-9 Cheongyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Dae-jeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jung-Suk, E-mail: sungjs@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Highlights: ► TEM and SAXS analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of graft copolymer membranes. ► Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests were performed on graft copolymer membranes. ► Boinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content.

  8. Degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) / hydrolyzed collagen (HC) blends active sludge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafiţei, Gabriela-Elena; Pascu, Mihaela; Cazacu, Georgeta; Vasile, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers represent a solution for the environment protection: they decrease the landfill space, by declining the petrochemical sources, and offer also an alternative solution for the recycling. The behavior during degradation in the presence of active sludge of some polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based blends with variable content of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) has been followed. Some samples were subjected to UV irradiation, for 30 hours. The modifications induced in the environment by the polymer systems (pH variation, bacterial composition), as well as the changes of the properties of the blends (weight losses, aspect etc.) were studied. During the first moments of degradation in active sludge, all the samples absorbed water, behavior which favored the biodegradation. The bacteriological analysis of the sludge indicates the presence of some microbiological species. Generally, the populations of microorganisms decrease, excepting the sulphito-reducing anaerobic bacteria, the actinomycetes and other anaerobic bacteria. PVC/HC blends are degraded with a significant rate in active sewage sludge. More susceptible for the degradation are the UV irradiated blends. After the migration of the components with a small molecular mass in the environment, the natural polymer is degraded. The degradation effect increases with the content in the natural polymer.

  9. Physical and chemical basics of modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by means of polyisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, Anvar; Fakhrutdinova, Venera; Abdrakhmanova, Lyailya

    2016-01-01

    This research presents data relating to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modification by means of reactive oligomer and measures technological, physical and mechanical properties of the modified composites. Polyisocyanate (PIC) has been chosen as the modifying reactive oligomer. It has been shown that insertion of the oligomer has a double effect on PVC. Primarily, PIC produces a plasticizing effect on PVC and in particular leads to an increase in thermal stability and melt flow index at the stage of processing. In addition, the molded PVC composites possess higher strength properties and lower deformability when exposed to temperature because of chemical transformations of PIC in polymer matrix and, as the result, the formation of cross-linked systems takes place. In this case, semi-interpenetrating structures are formed based on cross-linked products of PIC chemical transformations homogeneously distributed in the PVC matrix. It has been determined by means of IR-spectroscopy that the basic products of PIC curing are compounds with urea and biuret groups which leads to modifying effect on PVC especially: increase in strength, thermal and mechanical properties, and chemical resistance.

  10. Viscoelastic, Spectroscopic, and Microscopic Characterization of Novel Bio-Based Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the most widely consumed commodity plastics. Nevertheless, the commonly used plasticizers, particularly phthalates, are found to be detrimental to the environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the ability of an alternative greener material, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA, a kind of biopolyester and its thermally degraded oligoesters, to act as a compatible bioplasticizer for PVC. In this study, mcl-PHA were synthesized by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in shake flask fermentation using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO and subsequently moderately thermodegraded to low molecular weight oligoesters (degPHA. SEM, ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, and DMA were conducted to study the film morphology, microstructure, miscibility, and viscoelastic properties of the PVC-PHA and PVC/degPHA binary blends. Increased height and sharpness of tan δmax⁡ peak for all binary blends reveal an increase in chain mobility in the PVC matrix and high miscibility within the system. The PVC-PHA miscibility is possibly due to the presence of specific interactions between chlorines of PVC with the C=O group of PHA as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements also showed that mcl-PHA and their oligoesters could reduce the Tg of PVC, imparting elasticity to the PVC compounds and decreasing the stiffness of PVC.

  11. Acoustic characterization of polyvinyl chloride and self-healing silicone as phantom materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2015-03-01

    Phantoms are physical constructs used in procedure planning, training, medical imaging research, and machine calibration. Depending on the application, the material a phantom is made out of is very important. With ultrasound imaging, phantom materials used need to have similar acoustic properties, specifically speed of sound and attenuation, as a specified tissue. Phantoms used with needle insertion require a material with a similar tensile strength as tissue and, if possible, the ability to self heal increasing its overall lifespan. Soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone were tested as possible needle insertion phantom materials. Acoustic characteristics were determined using a time of flight technique, where a pulse was passed through a sample contained in a water bath. The speed of sound and attenuation were both determined manually and through spectral analysis. Soft PVC was determined to have a speed of sound of approximately 1395 m/s and attenuation of 0.441 dB/cm (at 1 MHz). For the silicone mixture, the respective speed of sound values was within a range of 964.7 m/s and 1250.0 m/s with an attenuation of 0.547 dB/cm (at 1 MHz).

  12. Characterization and Optical and Dielectric Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanocomposites Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abdel-Baset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method and mixed with different amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC to get nanocomposite films. The samples were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and FTIR. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM proved that the average particle size of the nanosilica is 15 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that the nanosilica was well dispersed on the surface of the PVC films. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra for nanocomposite films intimate a significant change in the intensity of the characteristic peaks of the functional group with addition of nanosilica. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the addition of nanosilica while the refractive index increased. The dielectric constant ε′, the dielectric loss modulus M′′, and AC conductivity (σAC were also studied. It was found that ε′ increases with temperature for all samples, clear dielectric α-relaxation observed from dielectric loss M′′ around the glass temperature (Tg, and this could be related to micro-Brownian motion of the main PVC chain. The activation energy was calculated, and the AC conductivity could be a hopping one. The results of this work are discussed and compared with previously obtained data.

  13. Sifat elektrik dan termal nanokomposit poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems encountered in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC processing is due to low thermal stability of the PVC. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of LDPE and flame retardant on to the electrical and thermal nanocomposites properties The nanocomposites were prepared using a laboplastomill with (15; 20; 25 and 30 phr LDPE and (30 and 35 phr flame retardant at 215 ºC and 50 rpm rotor speed. The thermal properties of nanocomposite was evaluated by TGA/DTA and DSC, electrical properties was evaluated by volume resistivity. Thermal analysis results revealed that decomposition of nanocomposites occured at 280 ºC. DSC results show that crystalisation temperatur (Tc at 250 ºC, melting temperature (Tm at 260 ºC and glass temperature (Tg at 60 ºC. The IR spectra of nanocomposites showed that there was absorption at 1579 cm-1 formed polyene (C=C. The electrical testing of nanocomposites fullfill the quality requirements of SNI 04-6504-2001 Lampu swaballast untuk pelayanan umum-persyaratan keselamatan ≥ 4 MΩ..

  14. Dielectric Behaviour of Zn/Al-NO3 LDHs Filled with Polyvinyl Chloride Composite at Low Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethar Y. Salih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have shown great interest in improving the thermal, mechanical, dielectric, and microwave properties of pure polymers through the use of polymer-based composites. The essential properties of polymer-based composites can be modified by varying the amount of Zn/Al-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Therefore, by determining the optimal ratio of LDH in the PVC matrix, the dielectric properties of PVC-LDH composites can be improved. An LDH was prepared using the coprecipitation method, while PVC-LDH composites were prepared using tetrahydrofuran (THF as the solvent. The composites were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and room temperature dielectric measurements were investigated using an RF Impedance/Material Analyzer (Agilent 4291. The results confirmed that the prepared composites were pure. Additionally, the presence of LDH in the PVC matrix was verified. The dielectric measurements showed that an increase in the LDH concentration leads to an increase in the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor. When used as dielectric filler in the PVC matrix, the LDH improved the dielectric properties of the fabricated composites. The results indicate that these composites show great potential for use as microwave absorbers at low microwave frequencies.

  15. Mercury transformation and distribution across a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production line in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen; Duan, Lei; Zhu, Zhenwu; Du, Wen; An, Zhongyi; Xu, Lingjun; Zhang, Chi; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2014-02-18

    The production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) via the calcium carbide process utilizes a catalyst containing large amounts of mercury (Hg) and is therefore one of the most important sources of anthropogenic Hg in China. To measure the emission of Hg from PVC production, we established a flowchart for the calcium carbide process, for which we quantified the Hg content of the material/product at each step. Results indicated that 71.5% of the total Hg (Hg(T)) was lost from the catalyst, most of which was recovered by the Hg remover, accounting for 46.0% of the total Hg (Hg(T)). We determined that 3.7% of the Hg(T) was released into the environment, mostly in solid wastes and byproducts such as hydrochloric acid. Furthermore, no Hg has been detected in the PVC end product. However, we were only able to account for 78.1% of the Hg across the whole system, leaving 21.7% unaccounted for in the mass balance. A rough estimation indicates that most of the "missing" Hg had accumulated in deposits on the inner surface of converters and downstream pipelines; however, the emission to the atmosphere was ≤ 1% of the Hg(T). For a PVC production line equipped with a Hg remover, emissions of Hg to the atmosphere have been estimated to be 4.9 g per tonne PVC. Currently, almost all calcium carbide facilities have been equipped with a Hg remover, which may reduce the release of Hg in China by ∼ 500 t/year.

  16. The effect of surface modification by nitrogen plasma on photocatalytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jing, L.; Guan-jun, Q.; Jie-rong, C.

    2008-08-01

    The solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films was investigated under the ambient air in order to assess the feasibility of developing photodegradable polymers. Nitrogen plasma was used to modify PVC films to enhance the photocatalytic degradation of PVC with nano-sized anatase TiO 2. The plasma parameter varied in this study is discharge power from 30 to 120 W for a constant treatment time of 60 s and a constant gas pressure of 10 Pa. The photodegradation of the plasma-treated PVC-TiO 2 films was compared with that of pure PVC films and PVC-TiO 2 films performing weight loss monitoring, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, contact angle measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the plasma-treated PVC is improved significantly. ESR revealed that the signal of radicals on the surface of the plasma-treated PVC film was enhanced after the treatment. Furthermore, the weight loss indicated that TiO 2 speeds up the photocatalytic degradation of PVC chains. The SEM image of the plasma-treated PVC-TiO 2 film showed a lot of crack on the film surface after irradiation. XPS indicated that the C and Cl atomic concentration reached minimum values on the surface of plasma-treated PVC-TiO 2 under identical photocatalytic condition. The experimental results reveal that plasma treatment can obviously enhance the photocatalytic degradation of PVC.

  17. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson's correlation, R =0.997 [ R 2 =0.994, P degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change on surface chemistry but do significantly increase nanoscale surface roughness and alters ion adsorption, which suggests that the unique properties of these materials, including their previously reported ability to decrease bacterial adhesion and growth, are due to the changes in the degree of the nanoscale roughness, not changes in their surface chemistry.

  18. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  19. Stability of Procainamide Injection in Clear Glass Vials and Polyvinyl Chloride Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of procainamide hydrochloride, 100 mg/mL, when repackaged in clear glass vials or diluted to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags when stored at either 23°C and exposed to light (ETL) or 5°C and protected from light (PFL). Solutions were assayed using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Samples (5 mL) were collected from triplicate containers on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56, 91, and 193. Color/clarity and pH changes were also monitored at each time interval. During the study, all samples remained clear and there was only a slight pH change. The color of the solutions stored at 23°C intensified but did not correlate with a significant decrease in concentration, while solutions stored at 5°C remained unchanged. Solutions repackaged in glass vials were stable for 193 days when stored at 23ºC and ETL or 5ºC and PFL. When further diluted to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in PVC bags, procainamide was also stable for 193 days at either 23ºC and ETL or 5°C and PFL. The stability of procainamide, 100 mg/mL, repackaged in clear glass vials was 193 days when stored at either 23ºC and ETL or 5ºC or PFL. If diluted further to 3 mg/mL with normal saline and packaged in PVC bags, the drug was also stable for 193 days at either 23ºC and ETL or 5°C and PFL.

  20. Stability of levothyroxine injection in glass, polyvinyl chloride, and polyolefin containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Anne Julie; MacLean, Robert D; Williamson, David; Marsolais, Pierre; Donnelly, Ronald F

    2011-09-15

    The 24-hour stability of a levothyroxine solution admixed and stored in three common infusion containers and infused through polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing was evaluated. Levothyroxine sodium 1-μg/mL injection prepared in glass bottles and PVC and polyolefin bags were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours; samples drawn directly from the containers, as well as from the distal end of attached PVC tubing, were assayed. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) for predicted and delivered doses was calculated; analysis of variance was used for comparison of the percentages of predicted and actual AUC values. The levothyroxine concentration was stable in glass bottles and polyolefin bags through 24 hours (mean ± S.D. percentage of initial concentration remaining, 103.5% ± 2.5% and 100.0% ± 2.9%, respectively). In the PVC infusion bags, the amount of drug decreased to 90% of the initial concentration within 1 hour and then rose and remained within acceptability limits. The levothyroxine concentration of the samples infused through PVC line from glass and polyolefin containers decreased after 1 hour by about 13%; the loss of the drug from the samples infused from PVC bags was higher (18%), presumably due to additive adsorptive effects. In all samples tested, the drug concentration rebounded and remained above 90% to the end of the study. Levothyroxine sodium 1-μg/mL solution was stable for 24 hours in glass bottles and polyolefin bags but when stored in PVC bags, the concentration decreased by 10% after 1 hour.

  1. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Kurose, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0 o ) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers

  2. Stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlage, Kelly; Earhart, Zachary; Green-Boesen, Kelly; Myrdal, Paul B

    2011-08-15

    The stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin bags under varying conditions was evaluated. Triplicate solutions of midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL were prepared in polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags by diluting midazolam hydrochloride injection 5 mg/mL with 5% dextrose injection. Bags were then stored under refrigeration (3-4 °C), exposed to light at room temperature (20-25 °C), or protected from light in amber bags at room temperature. Samples were taken immediately after preparation (day 0) and on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 27 for analysis with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay in order to determine solution concentration. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial drug concentration. The pH of each solution was also measured weekly. Sterility of the i.v. bags was determined at the end of the study by microbiological testing with culture in growth media. Differences in concentrations under the various storage conditions and bags used were analyzed using analysis of variance. All solutions retained over 98% of the initial midazolam hydrochloride concentration, with no statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) change in concentration over the four-week period. Stability was not affected by temperature, exposure to light, or bag type. The pH of all solutions remained between 3.2 and 3.4 throughout the study. Sterility after 28 days was retained. Midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL solutions diluted in 5% dextrose injection remained stable over 27 days in both polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags, regardless of storage condition.

  3. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaidi [Departement of Physics, UniversitasGadjahMada, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Departement of Physics, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat, E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi [Departement of Physics, UniversitasGadjahMada, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, UniversitasGadjahMada, Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  4. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaidi, E-mail: junaidi.1982@fmipa.unila.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Yunus, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.yunus@mail.ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Triyana, Kuwat, E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Harsojo,, E-mail: harsojougm@ugm.ac.id; Suharyadi, Edi, E-mail: esuharyadi@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  5. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  6. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi, Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  7. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  8. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi; Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo,; Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  9. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado MC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mary C Machado,1 Thomas J Webster2 1Center for Biomedical Engineering, Division of Engineering Brown University, Providence, RI, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.997 [R2=0.994, P<0.001] between the unetched and nanomodified PVC ETT spectra, demonstrating similar surface chemistry. This analysis showed no shifting or widening of the bands in the spectra and no significant changes in the intensity of the infrared peaks due to the degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change

  10. Polyvinyl chloride as a multimodal tissue-mimicking material with tuned mechanical and medical imaging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisi; Belmont, Barry; Greve, Joan M; Manders, Adam B; Downey, Brian C; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Zhen; Guo, Dongming; Shih, Albert

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical and imaging properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be adjusted to meet the needs of researchers as a tissue-mimicking material. For instance, the hardness can be adjusted by changing the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, mineral oil can be added for lubrication in needle insertion, and glass beads can be added to scatter acoustic energy similar to biological tissue. Through this research, the authors sought to develop a regression model to design formulations of PVC with targeted mechanical and multimodal medical imaging properties. The design of experiment was conducted by varying three factors-(1) the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, (2) the mass fraction of mineral oil, and (3) the mass fraction of glass beads-and measuring the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, hardness, viscoelastic relaxation time constant, and needle insertion friction force) and the medical imaging properties [speed of sound, acoustic attenuation coefficient, magnetic resonance imaging time constants T 1 and T 2 , and the transmittance of the visible light at wavelengths of 695 nm (T λ695 ) and 532 nm (T λ532 )] on twelve soft PVC samples. A regression model was built to describe the relationship between the mechanical and medical imaging properties and the values of the three composition factors of PVC. The model was validated by testing the properties of a PVC sample with a formulation distinct from the twelve samples. The tested soft PVC had elastic moduli from 6 to 45 kPa, hardnesses from 5 to 50 Shore OOO-S, viscoelastic stress relaxation time constants from 114.1 to 191.9 s, friction forces of 18 gauge needle insertion from 0.005 to 0.086 N/mm, speeds of sound from 1393 to 1407 m/s, acoustic attenuation coefficients from 0.38 to 0.61 (dB/cm)/MHz, T 1 relaxation times from 426.3 to 450.2 ms, T 2 relaxation times from 21.5 to 28.4 ms, T λ695 from 46.8% to 92.6%, and T λ532 from 41.1% to 86.3%. Statistically significant factors of each property were

  11. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, Luisa; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin; Isoshima, Takashi; Burillo, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from 60 Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C 1s and O 1s content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  12. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Luisa [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ruiz, Juan-Carlos [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Depto. de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin [Facultad de Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Ensenada-Tijuana 3917, Ensenada, B.C. C.P 22860 (Mexico); Isoshima, Takashi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from {sup 60}Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C{sub 1s} and O{sub 1s} content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  13. Synthesis and application of a novel environmental C26 diglycidyl ester plasticizer based on castor oil for poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, for the first time, a castor oil derived diglycidyl ester plasticizer (C26-DGE) was prepared and incorporated into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The chemical structure of the product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (...

  14. Migration of plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride) and multilayer infusion bags using selective extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haned, Zohra; Moulay, Saad; Lacorte, Silvia

    2018-04-12

    Flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of medical devices (tubes, probes, bags, primary packaging, etc.). The objective of the present study was to develop a procedure to evaluate the migration potential of nine plastic additives in aqueous infusion bags (NaCl 0.9% and glucose 5%): five phthalates, one adipate, two alkylphenols, and benzophenone. Two types of materials were analyzed: (i) new and outdated plasticized PVC (containing 40% of diethylhexyl phthalate DEHP); and (ii) tri-laminate polyethylene-polyamide-polypropylene, a multilayer material presumably exempt from DEHP. In addition, we evaluated the migration of plasticizers from PVC raw materials (film and grain) under controlled conditions to compare the migration levels according to Regulation 2011/10. Solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction with gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used in all tests. The migration of DEHP in PVC grain exceeded the maximum regulated level of 5000 μg/kg, whereas the levels were much lower in films. In new PVC bags, DEHP was the only compound detected at 4.31 ± 0.5 μg/L in NaCl 0.9% and 4.29 ± 0.25 μg/L in glucose 5% serums, whereas the levels increased 10 times in three-year shelf-life bags. In multilayer bags, DEHP was not found but instead, two plasticizers were detected namely dibuthylphthalate (DBP) and diethylphthalate (DEP) at 0.7 ± 0.1 μg/L and 4.14 ± 0.6 μg/L, respectively. These plasticizers are not mentioned as additives allowed in materials intended for parenteral use (European Pharmacopoeia 8.0, 3.1.5. and 3.1.6.). Caprolactam was tentatively identified and could have stemmed from the polyamide of the multilayer composite. The levels of phthalates remained low but not negligible and might constitute a risk to public health in the case of reiterative infusions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Use of poly(vinyl chloride)-PVC plastisol in the radiotherapy of cancer patients - radiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, K.D.; Pezin, A.P.T.; Mei, L.H.I.; Rocha, J.R.; Guedes, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the radiation therapy of patients with cancer, has made utilization of high energies of X rays (produced by megavoltage electron accelerators) and gamma rays (produced by cobalt-60). In treatment of superficial tumor it is necessary sometimes to displace the maximum radiation dose to the skin surface, which occur at some depth in range of 0.5 to 3.0cm, to the superficial skin, either to maximize the surface dose, or to spare body structure located near the tumour. This is done by adding sheets of tissue-equivalent material in the skin surface of patients. This study, initially be used the plastisol consist of resin polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dispersed in a plasticizer, generally dioctil phthalate (DOP). The tests of absorption suggest that this material is suitable to be tissue-equivalent. (author)

  16. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm -1 and 1165 cm -1 bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  17. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  18. Poly(vinyl chloride) catheters modified with pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid) with affinity for antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga-Zamorano, Ivette; Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Costoya, Alejandro; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-grafting of pH-responsive methacrylic acid (MAA) onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was carried out by the pre-irradiation method using gamma rays, which demonstrated to be an efficient and fast procedure for obtaining PVC-g-MAA copolymers. The influence of preparation conditions, such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature on the grafting yield was studied. The grafting of MAA onto PVC catheters was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The pH-responsiveness of the grafted copolymers (critical point 8.5) was measured by swelling under cyclic changes in the pH of the medium. Interestingly, PVC-g-MAA showed enhanced capability to immobilize benzalkonium chloride and, particularly, ciprofloxacin and to sustain the release this antimicrobial agent at both acid and alkaline pH. Tests carried out with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus point out that the developed functionalized catheters may play a role in the prevention/management of urinary tract infections.

  19. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride in the Presence of Organotin(IV Complexes as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L, Ph3SnL, Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, while the Ph3SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, (40 μm thickness upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10−7 when Ph3SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10−6. In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph3SnL2 after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph3SnL followed by Bu2SnL2 and Me2SnL2. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

  20. New insight into the formation of structural defects in poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmova, J; Pauwels, KFD; van Zoelen, W; Vorenkamp, EJ; Schouten, AJ; Coote, ML; Pauwels, Kim F.D.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    The monomer conversion dependence of the formation of the various types of defect structures in radical suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride was examined via both H-1 and C-13 NMR spectrometry. The rate coefficients for model propagation and intra- and intermolecular hydrogen abstraction

  1. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Reform Act UPL upper predictive limit VACO vinyl acetate copolymer VCM vinyl chloride monomer VCS... rule. Routine and maintenance shutdowns that cause temporary cessation of the vent stream flow from...-percent upper predictive limit (UPL) calculation. In the final rule, we used a 99-percent UPL calculation...

  2. Investigation on pretreatment of centrifugal mother liquid produced in the production of polyvinyl chloride by air-Fenton technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Hua, Xiuyi; Ge, Rui; Guo, Aitong; Guo, Zhiyong; Dong, Deming; Sun, Wentian

    2013-08-01

    Centrifugal mother liquid (CML) is one of the main sources of wastewater produced during the production of polyvinyl chloride in chlor-alkali industry. CML is a typical poorly biodegradable organic wastewater, containing many kinds of refractory pollutants. Specifically, it contains dissolved refractory polymers, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which can pass though the biotreatment processes and clog the membranes used for further treatment. In this study, to ensure the CML applicable to biotreatment and membrane treatment, a novel efficient and mild technique, air-Fenton treatment, was employed as a pretreatment technique to improve biodegradability of the CML and to break down the polymers in the CML. Firstly, the technique was optimized for the CML treatment by optimizing the main parameters, including the dosage of ferrous sulfate, initial pH of the wastewater, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)], aeration rate, reaction time, and temperature, based on removal efficiency of COD and PVA from the CML. Then, the optimized technique was tested and evaluated. The results indicated that under the optimized conditions, the air-Fenton treatment could remove 66, 98, and 55 % of the COD, PVA, and TOC, respectively, from the CML. After the treatment, biodegradability of the wastewater increased significantly (BOD/COD increased from 0.31 to 0.68), and almost all of the PVA polymers were removed or broken down. Meanwhile, concentration of the remaining iron ions, which were added during the treatment, was also quite low (only 2.9 mg/L). Furthermore, most of the suspended materials and ammonia nitrogen, and some of the phosphorus in the wastewater were removed simultaneously.

  3. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-20

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly- (vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligands (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42-3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.

  4. Influence of potassium fluoride on the syntheses of methylpiperazine-modified poly(vinyl chloride)s for use as fixed-site proton carrier membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudman, A R; Kusy, R P

    1998-03-15

    Aminated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes were prepared that had a Nernstian response over a wide range of pH. The reaction between PVC and methyl-piperazine (MePIP) in dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied over a wide range of time and temperature, and in the presence of the catalyst, potassium fluoride (KF). Time, temperature, and KF increased the nitrogen (N) content of the resulting polymers, but sometimes at the expense of decreasing their specific viscosities (molecular weights). Activation energies of processes that occurred in different temperature ranges were estimated assuming an Arrhenius relationship. A Nernstian response occurred once the N content approached to about 0.3 w/w %, and was accelerated by the presence of KF at elevated temperatures. Increasing the N content above about 3% led to a loss of the Nernstian response either because of an increase in the double bond content and a subsequent decrease in polymer mobility, or because of a decrease in the molecular weight of the copolymer and concomitant difficulties in film preparation.

  5. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  6. High efficiency chlorine removal from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pyrolysis with a gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, G; Chen, D; Yin, L; Wang, Z; Zhao, L; Wang, J Y

    2014-06-01

    In this research a gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor was developed for removing chlorine (Cl) from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to favor its pyrolysis treatment. In order to efficiently remove Cl within a limited time before extensive generation of hydrocarbon products, the gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor was running at 280-320 °C, where hot N2 was used as fluidizing gas to fluidize the molten polymer, letting the molten polymer contact well with N2 to release Cl in form of HCl. Experimental results showed that dechlorination efficiency is mainly temperature dependent and 300 °C is a proper reaction temperature for efficient dechlorination within a limited time duration and for prevention of extensive pyrolysis; under this temperature 99.5% of Cl removal efficiency can be obtained within reaction time around 1 min after melting is completed as the flow rate of N2 gas was set around 0.47-0.85 Nm(3) kg(-1) for the molten PVC. Larger N2 flow rate and additives in PVC would enhance HCl release but did not change the final dechlorination efficiency; and excessive N2 flow rate should be avoided for prevention of polymer entrainment. HCl is emitted from PVC granules or scraps at the mean time they started to melt and the melting stage should be taken into consideration when design the gas-liquid fluidized bed reactor for dechlorination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel process for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) from mixed plastic wastes by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Long

    2017-11-01

    A novel method, calcium hypochlorite (CHC) treatment, was proposed for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic from mixed plastic wastes (MPWs) by froth flotation. Flotation behavior of single plastic indicates that PVC can be separated from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by froth flotation combined with CHC treatment. Mechanism of CHC treatment was examined by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, separation of PVC from binary plastics with different particle sizes is achieved efficiently. The purity of PC, ABS, PMMA, PS and PET is greater than 96.8%, 98.5%, 98.8%, 97.4% and 96.3%, respectively. Separation of PVC from multi-plastics was further conducted by two-stage flotation. PVC can be separated efficiently from MPWs with residue content of 0.37%. Additionally, reusing CHC solution is practical. This work indicates that separation of hazardous PVC from MPWs is effective by froth flotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile) as Observed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, Alan S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    AES spectra of spun-cast films of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) were collected over a period of time to determine specimen damage during exposure to a 10kV electron beam. For the PVC, loss of chlorine was observed over a period of 203 minutes to the extent that the final chlorine concentration was only 20% of its original value. PAN exhibited a loss in nitrogen content over a period of 120 minutes, but the rate of damage to the polymer was significantly less than PVC. Figure 1 shows the atomic concentration in the PVC film as a function of dose (time). It takes a dose of approximately 7.0x10-5 Ccm-5 for the chlorine concentration to fall from its original value by 10% (one definition of critical dose). Figure 2 shows a similar drop in nitrogen concentration in the PAN film as a function of dose. For this polymer, it takes a dose of 1.3x10-3 Ccm-2 for the nitrogen concentration to fall by 10%

  9. Molecular dynamic study of Shock wave response of bulk amorphous polyvinyl chloride: effect of chain length and force field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2015-06-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics in conjunction with multi-scale shock technique is utilized to investigate shock wave response of bulk amorphous polyvinyl chloride. Dependence of chain length on physical and mechanical behaviour of polymeric material at ambient condition of temperature and pressure are well known but unknown for extreme conditions. Non-reactive force fields PCFF, COMPASS and PCFF+ were used to determine applicability of the force field for the study of the material subjected to shock loads. Several samples of PVC with various chain lengths were subjected to a range of shock compression from 1.5-10.0 km/s. Even though dependence of chain length was observed for lower shock strengths but was not for intense shock loads. The principle Hugoniot points, calculated by applying hydrostatic Rankine-Hugoniot equations and as well as multi-scale shock technique, were compared against LASL experimental shock data, demonstrating superior performance of PCFF+ force-field over PCFF and COMPASS. Shock induced melting characteristic and vibrational spectroscopic study were conducted and compared with experimental data to observe differences in response with relation to different force fields, chain length of the material for different shock intensities.

  10. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis of cooper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polyvinyl chloride matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Danubia Maria da Silva; Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2013-01-01

    Cooper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. CuS crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular aggregates of particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing CuS nanoparticles (PVC/CuS) at concentrations of 0.10; 0.30; 0.50 and 0.70 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M v ) was measured for PVC systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in viscosity molar mass was observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.5 wt% into PVC matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 84% in PVC matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PVC systems. The interactions between CuS and PVC favor action of nanoparticles as a good plasticizer in the PVC molecule. (author)

  12. Blood response to plasticized poly(vinyl chloride): dependence of fibrinogen adsorption on plasticizer selection and surface plasticizer level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X B; Courtney, J M

    2003-10-01

    The high level of plasticizer in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) ensures that plasticizer selection has an important influence on the suitability of PVC to function in blood-contacting applications. In this study, three types of plasticized PVC in sheet form, with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), tri-(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM) and n-butyryltri-n-hexyl citrate (BTHC) as plasticizer, were selected for assessment and single solute fibrinogen adsorption was utilized as an initial index of interactions with blood components. Fibrinogen adsorption behavior shows a strong dependence on the plasticizer selection, plasticizer level at the surface and the adsorption conditions, such as adsorption time and fibrinogen solution concentration. Results indicate that BTHC plasticized PVC possesses the lowest adsorption capacity in the three types of plasticized PVC, while TEHTM plasticized PVC seems to have the strongest reactivity in certain fibrinogen solution concentrations. The alteration of surface plasticizer level was achieved by a methanol-cleaning treatment with a variety of cleaning times and the fibrinogen adsorption on plasticized PVC decreases with the reduction of surface plasticizer level. The migration behavior of two phthalate esters (DEHP and TEHTM) was evaluated using UV-Spectrophotometer to determine the plasticizer level at the surfaces. In addition, the fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was examined with Freundlich adsorption modeling.

  13. Protein valves prepared by click reaction grafting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to electrospun poly(vinyl chloride) fibrous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Wei; Lin, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Chi-Jung; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Jem-Kun

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was electrospun into fibrous membranes and then reacted with NaN3 to generate azido-terminated PVC fibrous membranes. A propargyl-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was also synthesized and then grafted, through click reactions, onto the azido-terminated PVC fiber surface. Protrusion-, scale-, and joint-like structures of the PNIPAAm grafts on the PVC fibers were formed upon increasing the molecular weight of the PNIPAAm grafts. The PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibrous mats exhibited completely wetted surfaces at 25 °C because of their high roughness. The static water contact angle of the PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibrous mats reached 140° when the temperature was increased to 45 °C. This thermoresponsive behavior was significantly greater than that of the PNIPAAm grafted on a flat surface. Temperature-responsive membranes were constructed having a pore size of 1.38 μm and applied as protein valves to block and release an antibody (fluorescein-conjugated AffiniPure goat anti-rabbit IgG). At 25 °C, the collection efficiency remained at 94% for antibody concentrations up to 60 ng/L. As the temperature increased to 45 °C, the collection efficiency decreased abruptly, to 4%, when the antibody concentration was greater than 20 ng/L. Accordingly, this system of PNIPAAm-grafted PVC fibers functioned as a protein valve allowing the capture and concentration of proteins.

  14. Controlled Extraction Studies Applied to Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyethylene Materials: Conclusions from the ELSIE Controlled Extraction Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Andrew; Jahn, Michael; Bailey, Simon; Feilden, Andrew; Taylor, Graham; Corcoran, Marta L; Malick, Robert; Jenke, Dennis; Stults, Cheryl L M; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-06-01

    The effective management of leachables in pharmaceutical products is a critical aspect of their development. This can be facilitated if extractables information on the materials used in a packaging or delivery system is available to assist companies in selecting materials that will be compatible with the drug product formulation and suitable for the intended use. The Extractables and Leachables Safety Information Exchange (ELSIE) materials working group developed and executed a comprehensive extraction study protocol that included a number of extraction solvents, extraction techniques, and a variety of analytical techniques. This was performed on two test materials, polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that were selected due to their common use in pharmaceutical packaging. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the protocol could be simplified such that (i) a reduced number or even a single extraction technique could be used and (ii) a reduced number of solvents could be used to obtain information that is useful for material selection regardless of product type. Results indicate that, at least for the PVC, such reductions are feasible. Additionally, the studies indicate that levels of extractable elemental impurities in the two test materials were low and further confirm the importance of using orthogonal analytical detection techniques to gain adequate understanding of extraction profiles.

  15. Enhancement of the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane/polyvinyl chloride blend by loading single walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hezma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of pure blend and nanocomposites based on polyurethane (PU and polyvinyl chloride (PVC doped with low different content of single walled-carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were studied. The nanocomposites at different concentration were prepared via casting technique. The interaction between PU/PVC and CNTs were examined via FT-IR studies. The changes in the structures of the nanocomposites were examined using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the results indicated that the amorphous domains of nanocomposites increased with increasing SWCNTs content. Transmission electron microscope (TEM observation indicated that SWCNTs surface was wrapped with the polymer with the thermal properties of nanocomposites improved. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated as a function of SWCNTs content. The main enhancement in tensile properties was observed, e.g., the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased compared with the pure blend, which may be attributed to the interaction and adhesion between CNTs and the polymer matrices due to the hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups (C=O of polymer blend chains and carboxylic acid (COOH groups of CNTs.

  16. An organotin mixture found in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe is not immunotoxic to adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Copeland, Carey B; Luebke, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe production are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because they leach from supply pipes into drinking water and are reported multisystem toxicants. Immune function was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the mixture of organotins used in PVC pipe production. Although several of these organotins are reported immunotoxicants, their immunotoxicity as a mixture when given by drinking water has not been evaluated. Adult male rats were given drinking water for 28 d containing a mixture of dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC), dimethyltin dichloride (DMTC), monobutyltin trichloride (MBT), and monomethyltin trichloride (MMT) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio, respectively, at 3 different concentrations (5:5:2.5:2.5, 10:10:5:5, or 20:20:10:10 mg organotin/L), MMT alone (20 or 40 mg MMT/L), or plain water as a control. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, antibody synthesis, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity were evaluated in separate endpoint groups (n = 8/dose; 24/endpoint) immediately after exposure ended. The evaluated immune functions were not affected by the mixture or by MMT alone. Our data suggest that immunotoxicity is unlikely to result from the concentration of organotins present in drinking water delivered via PVC pipes, as the concentrations used were several orders of magnitude higher than those expected to leach from PVC pipes.

  17. Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Xu, Ying; Rice, Glenn; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Carlson-Lynch, Heather; Little, John C

    2009-11-01

    The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water. These OTs, principally mono- and di-substituted species of butyltins and methyltins, are a potential health concern because they belong to a broad class of compounds that may be immune, nervous, and reproductive system toxicants. In this article, we develop probability distributions of U.S. population exposures to mixtures of OTs encountered in drinking water transported by PVC pipes. We employed a family of mathematical models to estimate OT leaching rates from PVC pipe as a function of both surface area and time. We then integrated the distribution of estimated leaching rates into an exposure model that estimated the probability distribution of OT concentrations in tap waters and the resulting potential human OT exposures via tap water consumption. Our study results suggest that human OT exposures through tap water consumption are likely to be considerably lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) "safe" long-term concentration in drinking water (150 microg/L) for dibutyltin (DBT)--the most toxic of the OT considered in this article. The 90th percentile average daily dose (ADD) estimate of 0.034 +/- 2.92 x 10(-4)microg/kg day is approximately 120 times lower than the WHO-based ADD for DBT (4.2 microg/kg day).

  18. Migration of nonylphenol and plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride stretch film into food simulants, rapeseed oil, and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Ogawa, Yuko; Mutsuga, Motoh

    2017-05-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) has been suspected as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Japanese polyvinyl chloride (PVC) stretch films contained 0.5-3.3 mg/g of NP and 100-400 mg/g of plasticizers such as diisononyl adipate (DINA), di- n -alkyl adipate (DAA), and diacetyllauroyl glycerol (DALG). Migration of NP and plasticizers from PVC stretch films into food simulants (water; 4% acetic acid; 20%, 50%, and 95% ethanol; and heptane), rapeseed oil, and foods was investigated. Plasticizers migrated only in small amounts into aqueous simulants and foods, although they migrated at much higher levels into 50% and 95% ethanol, heptane, rapeseed oil, and fatty foods, whereas NP more easily migrated into aqueous simulants and foods. At 5°C for 24 hr, migration of NP into vegetable and fruit was 2.9%-6.4% of their contents, and that of DINA and DAA was 0.1%-0.3%. The migration ratios of NP into aqueous foods were much higher than those of DINA and DAA. The migration ratio of NP into fatty foods, such as minced tuna and pork, was 33% and 24%, which was almost similar to that of DINA and DAA. The estimated daily intakes of NP and DINA for Japanese individuals of those days were 35 and 1,050 μg, respectively, and should not be associated with any safety concerns.

  19. DIELECTRIC AND PYROELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE COMPOSITES OF FERROELECTRIC CERAMIC AND POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Olszowy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [PZT/PVC] and barium titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [BaTiO3/ PVC] composites were studied. Flexible composites were fabricated in the thin films form (200-400 μm by hot-pressed method. Powders of PZT or BaTiO3 in the shape of ≤ 75 μm ceramics particles were dispersed in a PVC matrix, providing composites with 0-3} connectivity. Distribution of the ceramic particles in the polymer phase was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of the thermally stimulated currents (TSC have also been done. The changes of dielectric and pyroelectric data on composites with different contents of ceramics up to 40% volume were investigated. The dielectric constants were measured in the frequency range from 600 Hz to 6 MHz at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient for BaTiO3/PVC composite at 343 K is about 35 μC/m2K which is higher than that of β-PVDF (10 μC/m2 K.

  20. Flexural properties of sugarcane bagasse pith and rind reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, R.; Sapuan, S. M.; Robiah, Y.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two major components. They are pith and rind. Pith is the inner part of sugarcane bagasse while rind is the outer part of it. In this study, the flexural properties of pith reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites were compared to that of rind composites with the same matrix in variation of fibre content. The composites were produced by compression moulding method. The fibre contents were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in weight. Three-point bending tests were carried out to measure the flexural properties of the composites. It has been found that, in general, the addition of fibre improved the flexural modulus of the materials. Meanwhile, the rind composites were of superior flexural properties compared to the pith composites.

  1. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......) in pure form are reported. We studied if qualitative and quantitative determination of the adipate ester content would be possible based on the use of proper reference samples. It was found that AEs as a group cannot be definitively identified by their characteristic Raman bands because other aliphatic...... plastics sample does not contain significant amounts of phthalate esters because these plasticizers do have strong bands at around 1060 cm-1. Furthermore it must be remembered that bands may occur at around 1040 cm1 in a PVC sample for other reasons than phthalate ester content....

  2. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  3. Study on Shape Memory of Poly(vinyl chloride/Thermoplastic Polyester Urethane Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rashidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, shape memory effect of polycaprolactone based polyurethane/poly(vinyl chloride blends in which the PVC weight percentage are 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 were studied using DMA apparatus. The compatibility, tension and dynamic-mechanical properties of these blends have been studied by the authors and this paper specifically deals with the tests results of shape memory effect. The results of tension tests in about 20 percent showed that with increasing PVC content in the blends, recovery rate of temporary shape to permanent shape, the degree of recovery, and the fixity in quantity of temporary shape are improved. Therefore, the supplementary shape memory tests were performed on the blend with the highest PVC weight percent (80 percent. In this blend, with increasing tension in thermomechanical cycle, the amount of recovery to earlier shape is decreased due to higher plastic strain. The shape memory tests in consecutive cycles were done on this blend and the behavior of the first cycle was compared with the second and the third cycles. One small tensile handy apparatus was used in order to accomplish shape memory tests in higher tension values and the DMA results were registered. In this research the blend with 80 weight percent of PVC as the best shape memory effect was selected.

  4. A novel process for separation of polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride and polymethyl methacrylate waste plastics by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Luo-Luo

    2017-07-01

    A novel process was proposed for separation of ternary waste plastics by froth flotation. Pretreatment of plastics with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution was conducted to aid flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastics. The effect of pretreatment parameters including KMnO 4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate on flotation recovery were investigated by single factor experiments. Surface treatment with KMnO 4 changes selectively the flotation behavior of PC, PVC and PMMA, enabling separation of the plastics by froth flotation. Mechanism of surface treatment was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Effect of frother concentration and flotation time on flotation behavior of plastic mixtures was further studied for flotation separation. The optimized conditions for separation of PC are KMnO 4 concentration 2mmolL -1 , treatment time 10min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300rpm, flotation time 1min and frother concentration 17.5mgL -1 . Under optimum conditions, PVC and PMMA mixtures are also separated efficiently by froth flotation associated with KMnO 4 treatment. The purity of PC, PVC and PMMA is up to 100%, 98.41% and 98.68%, while the recovery reaches 96.82%, 98.71% and 98.38%, respectively. Economic analysis manifests remarkable profits of the developed process. Reusing KMnO 4 solution is feasible, enabling the process greener. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of iatrogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis intercellar adhesion operon on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianhua, Ye; Yunchao, Huang; Guangqiang, Zhao; Kun, Yang; Xing, Liu; Fengli, Guo

    2014-12-01

    The intercellular adhesion gene (ica) of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key factor for bacterial aggregation. This study explored the effect of ica on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Genes related to bacterial biofilm formation, including 16S rRNA, autolysin (atlE), fibrinogen binding protein gene (fbe), and ica were identified and sequenced from 112 clinical isolates of iatrogenic S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Based on the sequencing result, ica operon-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) and ica operon-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains were separated and co-cultivated with PVC material. After 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h of co-culture, the thickness of the bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on the PVC surface were measured under the confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. The positive rate of S. epidermidis-specific 16SrRNA in 112 iatrogenic strains was 100% (112/112). The genotype of ica-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 57.1% (64/112), and genotype of ica-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 37.5% (42/112). During 30 h of co-culture, no obvious bacterial biofilm formed on the surface of PVC in the ica-positive group, however, mature bacterial biofilm structure formed after 24 h. For all time points, thickness of bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on PVC surfaces in the ica operon-positive group were significantly higher than those in ica operon-negative group (poperon-negative and ica operon-positive strains. The ica operon plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial multiplication on PVC material.

  6. Stability assessment of lyophilized intravenous immunoglobulin after reconstitution in glass containers and poly(vinyl chloride) bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parti, R; Mankarious, S

    1997-02-01

    Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) has been in use for the past 20 years. This biological product is commonly provided in liquid or lyophilized dosage form. When the lyophilized product is rehydrated, it is usually administered within 2-3 h from time of complete dissolution. While this practice is advisable whenever possible, occasionally the patient or care-giver may need to delay the infusion. Hence, a study of the stability of lyophilized IGIV after reconstitution with water for injection was conducted. The reconstituted product was stored either in its original glass container or pooled into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags. The effect of extended storage on the active ingredient (IgG), excipients (glucose, albumin) and extractables [sodium from glass vials, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate and cyclohexanone from PVC bags] was evaluated. The stability of the active ingredient was evaluated by physico-chemical tests (molecularsize distribution, pH, appearance, total protein), monitoring titres of a specific antibody (hepatitis B surface antigen) and an antibody functional test (bacterial opsonization). To evaluate the risk of microbial contamination during reconstitution and pooling procedures, sterility, pyrogen and animal-safety tests were included in the protocol. The potential of IgG polymerizing in solution during storage and subsequent complement activation was evaluated by assaying for non-specific binding of complement (anti-complement activity). Results show that aseptically reconstituted IGIV is stable and remains sterile up to 48 h at 5 degrees C. The reconstituted product was also found to be stable at room temperature (25 degrees C) up to 12 h.

  7. Determinations of phase transitions in nylon 6-12, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Reyes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the phase transitions, mainly the glass transition, of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), Nylon-6,12, Nylon-6, poly(ethylene terephthalate) during the thermal treatment of these polymers. The longest lived component lifetime and intensity, indicative of ortho-Positronium pick-off exhibit thermal dependencies that can be attributed to the anticipated free volume changes associated with structural transitions. Positron lifetime measurements were performed using an E G and G Ortec standard fast-fast coincidence system. Three spectra were collected at each temperature, each consisting of a peak height of approximately 25000 counts. The resulting spectra were consistently modeled with a three component fit using the computer program PATFIT. For nylon-6,12, nylon-6, PVC systems three transitions were obtained in both tau-3 and I-3 as a function of temperature. Changes in the slope of the curves appear for both parameters, these could be attributed to T g1 , T g2 and T c , respectively. In the case of PET analysis two transitions were obtained as is shown by the variations of tau-3 as a function of the heating temperature. These transitions can be attributed to T g1 and T g2 . Similar changes can be observed for I-3 in relation with temperature. Glass transition behavior was evident in the lifetime behavior of polymers. Increases in slope of the lifetime temperature plots were interpreted free-volume cavity expansion as temperature is increased. The intensity responses in the vicinity of the upper glass transition were consistent with the association of this transition with the reduction of crystalline constraint of segmental mobility in the amorphous phase. (Author)

  8. Physicochemical stability of oxaliplatin in 5% dextrose injection stored in polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and polypropylene infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Céline; Philibert, Laurent; Bekhtari, Khedidja; Poujol, Sylvain; Malosse, Francoise; Pinguet, Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    The physicochemical stability of extemporaneous dilutions of oxaliplatin in 5% dextrose injection stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene, and polyethylene infusion bags was studied. Oxaliplatin 100 mg/20 mL concentrated solution was diluted in 100 mL of 5% dextrose injection in PVC, polypropylene, and polyethylene infusion bags to produce nominal oxaliplatin concentrations of 0.2 and 1.3 mg/mL. The filled bags were stored for 14 days at 20 degrees C and protected from light, at 20 degrees C under normal fluorescent light, and at 4 degrees C. A 1-mL sample was removed from each bag at time 0 and at 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, and 336 hours. The samples were visually inspected for color and clarity, and the pH values of the solutions were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assay oxaliplatin concentration. Bacterial contamination was assessed on study day 14 after incubation in trypticase soy solution for three days at 37 degrees C. Solutions of oxaliplatin 0.2 and 1.3 mg/mL in 5% dextrose injection were stable in the three container types for at least 14 days at both 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C without regard to light exposure. No color change was detected during the storage period, and pH values remained stable. No microbial contamination was detected in any samples over the study period. Oxaliplatin solutions diluted in 5% dextrose injection to 0.2 and 1.3 mg/mL were stable in PVC and PVC-free infusion bags for at least 14 days at both 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C without regard to light exposure.

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)/polyvinyl chloride as gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hong-Ryun; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibrous PMMA/PVC-based GPEs were prepared by immersing the PMMA/PVC blend nonwoven membranes into the liquid electrolyte. ► Electrochemical stability of the GPEs improves with increasing PMMA content. ► 10PMMA/PVC-based GPE shows the excellent specific capacity as well as outstanding cycle retention. ► Cyclic stability of 10PMMA/PVC-based GPE is excellent even at high C-rate (5 C) without cycling fading. - Abstract: Various electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate)/polyvinyl chloride (PMMA/PVC) blend nonwoven membranes were prepared by electrospinning of the blend solutions containing PMMA and PVC in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The electrospun PMMA/PVC had fully interconnected pore structure with high porosity and large specific surface area capable of high uptake of organic liquid electrolyte as gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs). The electrospun PMMA/PVC-based GPEs showed superior electrochemical properties than PVC-based GPE. Among PMMA/PVC-based GPEs, the 10PMMA/PVC-based GPE comprising 10 wt.% PMMA and 90 wt.% PVC represents the highest ionic conductivity as 7.8 × 10 −3 S cm −1 and the lowest interfacial resistance as 31.49 Ω with sufficient electrochemical stability of up to 4.7 V. The LiCoO 2 /GPE/graphite cell using 10PMMA/PVC-based GPE retained the discharge capacity of 140 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C without reducing discharge capacity, while PVC-based GPE showed continuous fading by 110 mAh g −1 . Also, the cell using 10PMMA/PVC-based GPE showed the excellent electrochemical performance caused by the formation of interconnected porous structure and gel state in fibers even at high C-rate (1, 2, 5 C).

  10. Antioxidant content of and migration from commercial polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; López-Vilariñó, J M; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, M V

    2007-04-18

    Antioxidants commonly used in polyolefins were studied in commercial food packages made of low- and high-density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephtalate (PET) and in a LDPE film extruded at the laboratory. The phenolic antioxidants BHA, BHT, AO 2246, AO 425, Ethanox 330, Irganox 1010, and Irganox 1076 were studied together with the phosphite Irgafos 168 and their two degradation products, phosphate and DBP. Antioxidants were extracted from polyolefins using microwave energy and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the antioxidant content in the diverse commercial films. Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 were found in the majority of the samples generally together with the phosphite Irgafos 168 and its oxidized product (phosphate). Specific migration levels of each antioxidant were determined by HPLC after pretreatment with solid-phase extraction (SPE) in aqueous food simulants and after their dilution with tetrahydrofuran (THF) in fatty food simulant. These levels were much lower than limits allowed by legislation.

  11. In vitro evaluation of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate-plasticized polyvinyl chloride blood bags for red blood cell storage in AS-1 and PAGGSM additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graminske, Sharon; Puca, Kathleen; Schmidt, Anna; Brooks, Scott; Boerner, Amanda; Heldke, Sybil; de Arruda Indig, Monika; Brucks, Mark; Kossor, David

    2018-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) makes polyvinyl chloride flexible for use in blood bags and stabilizes the red blood cell (RBC) membrane preventing excessive hemolysis. DEHP migrates into the blood product and rodent studies have suggested that DEHP exposure may be associated with adverse health effects albeit at high dosages. Although structurally and functionally similar to DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT; or Eastman 168 SG [Eastman Chemical Company]) is metabolically distinct with a comprehensive and benign toxicology profile. This study evaluated RBC stability in DEHT-plasticized bags with AS-1 and PAGGSM compared to conventional DEHP-plasticized bags with AS-1. Thirty-six whole blood units were collected into CPD solution, leukoreduced, centrifuged, and divided into RBCs and plasma. To limit donor-related variability, three ABO-identical RBCs were mixed together and then divided equally and stored among the three different plasticizer and additive solution combinations. RBCs from 12 trios were analyzed for a standard panel of in vitro variables on Day 0 and after storage. No individual bag on Day 42 exceeded the US 1.0% hemolysis criteria. While hemolysis during storage was higher in the DEHT bags, the PAGGSM RBCs were close to the control RBCs (0.38% vs. 0.32%, respectively). ATP retention was higher than 70% and potassium levels were similar regardless of plasticizer. Additional RBC variables exhibited some significant differences but were not viewed as clinically important. DEHT/PAGGSM provides similar hemolysis protection to that of DEHP/AS-1. Although hemolysis values with DEHT and AS-1 are higher than that of DEHP, DEHT is a potential DEHP alternative. © 2018 AABB.

  12. Polyvinyl chloride-based 18-crown-6, dibenzo18-crown-6 and calix-[6]-arene zinc(II-potentiometric sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda A. Akl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC based membranes of 18-crown-6 (18C6, dibenzo 18-crowen-6 (DB18C6 and calix[6]arene (CAX, as ionophores, with dioctylphenylphosphonate (DOPP, bis(ethylhexylsebacate (DOS dioctyl phthalate (DOP, 2-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE and didecylphthalate (DDP as plasticizing solvent mediators are prepared and constructed for the determination of Zn(II. Of the 15 membranes constructed, only the PVC based membranes of DB18C6 and 18C6 ionophores with DOPP, as plasticizer, in the ratio (w/w PVC:ionophore:DOPP (60:2:120 give the best results in terms of working concentration range (1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 10−1 M with a Nernstian slope of 29.0 mV/decade of activity for membrane composed of DOPP + DB18C6(1a and (1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 10−1 M with a Nernstian slope of 30.0 mV/decade of activity for membrane composed of DOPP + 18C6(1b. The usable pH range of the sensors is 3.0–8.0, beyond which a drift in potential is observed. The response time of the sensors is ⩽15 s with a lifetime of 2 months during which they can be used without any measurable divergence. The selectivity coefficient values indicate that the electrode is highly selective for Zn2+ over a number of other cations except Pb2+ and Ag+. The electrodes have successfully been used to determine Zn(II in real alloys and standard samples with a precision as relative standard deviation (RSD <2% for each of the cited electrodes. The results obtained by the proposed ISEs are in good agreement with the results obtained by direct flame AAS method.

  13. Surface modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by physisorbed free radical initiation for reduced plasticizer migration and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Kathryn

    Poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, is a particularly important commodity polymer that accounts for an annual world-wide production of 26 million tons. It is used frequently in the medical field as blood storage bags, endotracheal and dialysis tubing and intravenous catheters. Common plasticizers, namely di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are added to PVC to improve the processability and flexibility by lowering the glass transition temperature. However, most phthalate plasticizers are potential carcinogens. There has been extensive research on PVC with surface coatings to improve biocompatibility, surface crosslinking to create a barrier to the plasticizer leaching and surface grafting of hydrophilic polymers for both biocompatibility and reduced plasticizer migration. A novel surface grafting technique is the grafting of hydrophilic monomers by physisorbed free radical initiators. This modification method can be applied to PVC to attach vinyl hydrophilic monomers by the "grafting from" method. This approach, extending on earlier work involving polymer brush formation on poly(dimethylsiloxane), involves a two-step process: physisorption of a hydrophobic free radical initiator onto a polymer surface followed by radical polymerization of hydrophilic monomers in water. The key step is creating a hydrophobic/hydrophilic diffusional barrier that promotes radical reactions at the polymer surface. Polymers that have been successfully grafted from PVC films and tubing include: poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA), poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP). Characterization methods performed include bulk chemical composition by transmission infrared spectroscopy, surface composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface wettability by tensiometry and capillary rise, film thickness determination by infrared, gravimetric analysis and UV

  14. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  15. Studies on physical properties and fractography of electron beam irradiated poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber blend in the presence of trimethylolpropane triacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantara Thevy Ratnam; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Nasir, M.; Baharin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the 50/50 poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber blend was studied in the presence of 3 phr trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). The blend was irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine at doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy in air and room temperature. The tensile properties, resilience and gel fractions of the blends were measured. Electron beam irradiation of the blend in the presence of the TMPTA were found to cause crosslinking which in effect caused an enhancement in modulus and gel fraction together with a concomitant decline in ultimate elongation. The irradiation has resulted in a less hysteretic poly(vinyl chloride)/epoxidized natural rubber blend, with increased rebound resilience. The tensile strength of the blend reached a maximum at 60 kGy followed by a slight decrease at higher doses, implying embrittlement due to the excessive crosslinking. The scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surfaces of the irradiated blends show evidence consistent with the above contention. (Author)

  16. Water Fastness of Screen Printed Pearl Luster Pigments based on Synthetic and Natural Mica on Polyvinyl Chloride Foil and Rich Mineral Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine water fastness of screen printed pearl luster pigments based on synthetic and natural mica on polyvinyl chloride foil and Rich Mineral Paper. Three types of pearl luster pigments were used, each different from the other in composition, interference colour and particle size: one pigment based on synthetic mica (Pigment 1 and two pigments based on natural mica (Pigment 2 and Pigment 3. Pearl luster pigments were applied to the printing base (PVC transparent base in 15wt.% concentration and printed by means of screen printing technique. The test of water fastness was made on prints, where the samples were soaked in distilled water for 6 and 12 days. It was established that this water treatment did not have any significant impact on the durability of screen printed pearl luster pigments. The pigments could demonstrate slightly better water fastness after being printed on Rich Mineral Paper.

  17. A highly selective fluorescent sensor for Cu{sup 2+} based on 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaobing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Peng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); He Chunlian [Medical college, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006 (China); Shen Guoli [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)]. E-mail: rqyu@hnu.cn

    2006-05-17

    This paper describes a copper selective optical chemical sensor based on static quenching of the fluorescence of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole entrapped in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane. The effect of the composition of the sensing membrane was studied, and experimental conditions were optimized. The sensors exhibit stable response over the concentration range from 4.0 x 10{sup -8} M to 5.0 x 10{sup -5} M Cu{sup 2+} at pH 4.0-6.5, and a high selectivity. The response time for Cu{sup 2+} with concentration {<=}5 x 10{sup -6} M is less than 7 min. The optode can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and acetate buffer solution. The sensor has been used for direct measurement of copper content in river water samples with a relative error less than 4% with reference to that obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  18. Microwave and ultrasound-assisted synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride)/riboflavin modified MWCNTs: Examination of thermal, mechanical and morphology properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Azimi, Faezeh

    2018-03-01

    This study focused on the preparation and investigation of physicochemical features of new poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites (NCs) including different amounts of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) functionalized with riboflavin (RIB). Firstly, to increase the hydrophilicity of MWCNTs, the surface of them was functionalized by incorporating and formation of ester groups with RIB as a low cost and environmentally friendly biomolecule through ultrasound and microwave irradiations. Afterwards, PVC/RIB-MWCNTs NCs were fabricated via the solution casting and ultrasonic dispersion methods. Prepared NCs were examined by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron micrograph, and Raman spectroscopy. The PVC/RIB-MWCNTs NCs (12wt%) showed the higher mechanical and thermal behavior as compared to other concentration of MWCNTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomistic modeling of interfacial interaction between polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene with Boron-Nitride monolayer sheet: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Mashhadzadeh, A.; Fereidoon, A.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.

    2017-11-01

    In present work, we performed Density Functional Theory calculation (DFT) to prepare polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nanocomposite. For mentioned purpose, we chose Boron-Nitride graphene (BN-graphene) sheet as nano reinforcement. Next, we calculated adsorbed energy between these two polymeric matrixes with BN-monolayer sheet. Our DFT results demonstrated that interaction energy between PP/BN-graphene and PVC/BN-graphene are equal, approximately, because in mentioned two nanocomposite systems, polymer matrix approached to nano reinforcement from hydrogen atom in optimized structure. Then, the adsorbed energy and equilibrium distance between mentioned polymeric matrixes and BN-graphene sheet in nanocomposite with increasing the number of polymer monomers onto surface of BN-graphene were calculated. Finally, we modeled van der Waals interfacial interaction between polymer matrixes and nano reinforcement with linear classical spring by using lennard-jones parameters.

  20. Comparison of prophylactic effects of polyurethane cylindrical or tapered cuff and polyvinyl chloride cuff endotracheal tubes on ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because microaspiration of contaminated supraglottic secretions past the endotracheal tube cuff is considered to be central in the pathogenesis of pneumonia, improved design of tracheal tubes with new cuff material and shape have reduced the size and number of folds, which together with the addition of suction ports above the cuff to drain pooled subglottic secretions leads to reduced aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions. So we conducted a study to compare the prophylactic effects of polyurethane-cylindrical or tapered cuff and polyvinyl chloride cuff endotracheal tubes (ETT on ventilator-associated pneumonia. This randomized clinical trial was carried out in a 12 bed surgical intensive care unit. 96 patients expected to require mechanical ventilation more than 96 hours were randomly allocated to one of three following groups: Polyvinyl chloride cuff (PCV ETT, Polyurethane (PU cylindrical Sealguard ETT and PU Taperguard ETT. Cuff pressure monitored every three hours 3 days in all patients. Mean cuff pressure didn't have significant difference between three groups during 72 hours. Pneumonia was seen in 11 patients (34% in group PVC, 8 (25% in Sealguard and 7 (21% in Taperguard group. Changes in mean cuff pressure between Sealguard and PVC tubes and also between Taperguard and PVC tubes did not show any significant difference. There was no significant difference in overinflation between three groups. The use of ETT with PU material results in reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia compared to ETT with PVC cuff. In PU tubes Taperguard has less incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia compared to Sealguard tubes.

  1. Optimization of the thickness of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: a new way to improve their potentiometric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Matejka, P; Král, V; Sedenková, I; Trchová, M; Stejskal, J

    2008-08-29

    Repeated depositions of polyaniline (PANI) have been used to control the thickness of the polymeric film deposited on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane surface. The oxidation of aniline was carried out in a dispersion mode, i.e. in the presence of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Two kinds of PVC were used for this purpose: a non-plasticized PVC for the study of PANI deposition and PVC, plasticized with nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), as a prototype of a liquid membrane electrode. The results of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies and electron microscopy showed that (1) the film thickness increased by about equal increments of approximately 40 nm after each polymerization, and (2) the interface with PVC was constituted by PANI film and adhering PANI-PVP colloidal particles. The various thicknesses of the deposited PANI films affected the potentiometric response of the NPOE/PVC membrane with and without an anion-exchanger. The potentiometric anionic response was observed with a minimal thickness of PANI film on the blank NPOE/PVC membrane. Sensitivity of the PANI film to pH occurred only with a blank NPOE/PVC membrane coated with a thick polymeric film, while it was strongly suppressed by the presence of a lipophilic anion-exchanger, tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDDMACl), in the membrane, regardless of the thickness of the polymer film. The thickness of the PANI film did not affect the anionic selectivity pattern of TDDMACl-based membranes to any great extent, but its presence improved and stabilized their potentiometric characteristics (sensitivity, linear-response range).

  2. High photocatalytic degradation activity of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO2 nano-composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Gong, Chuqing; Peng, Tianyou; Deng, Kejian; Zan, Ling

    2010-06-15

    A novel photodegradable polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO(2) nano-composite film was prepared by embedding VC modified nano-TiO(2) photocatalyst into the commercial PVC plastic. The solid-phase photocatalytic degradation behavior of PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film under UV light irradiation was investigated and compared with those of the PVC-TiO(2) film and the pure PVC film, with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), weight loss monitoring, and X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD). The results show that PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film has a high photocatalytic activity; the photocatalytic degradation rate of it is two times higher than that of PVC-TiO(2) film and fifteen times higher than that of pure PVC film. The optimal mass ratio of VC to TiO(2) is found to be 0.5. The mechanism of enhancing photocatalytic activity is attributed to the formation of a Ti(IV)-VC charge-transfer complex with five-member chelate ring structure and a rapid photogenerated charge separation is thus achieved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carboxylated graphene oxide/polyvinyl chloride as solid-phase extraction sorbent combined with ion chromatography for the determination of sulfonamides in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke; Luo, Zhibin; Liu, Zhe; Shao, Yijuan; He, Wanwen; Deng, Jianchao; Luo, Xingling

    2015-08-12

    A carboxylated graphene oxide/polyvinyl chloride (CGO/PVC) material was prepared as a sorbent for the selective extraction of sulphonamides from complex sample. After being dispersed in buffer solution, sample was transferred into the prefabricated solid-phase extraction (SPE) column, which integrated extraction and cleanup into one single-step. A multi-response optimization based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize factors affecting extraction efficiency. Compared with the commonly commercial sorbents including MCX, WCX and C18, CGO/PVC hybrid material had higher extraction selectivity and capacity to sulphonamides. The limits of detection and quantification for seven target compounds were in the range of 3.4-7.1 μg/L and 11.4-23.7 μg/L, respectively. The self-assembly SPE cartridge was successfully used to enrich seven analytes in anti-acne cosmetics prior to ion chromatography detection with good recoveries of 87.8-102.0% and relative standard deviations of 1.2-6.4%, implying that this method was suitable for routine analysis of cosmetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the effects of polymer molecular weight and non-solvent content on the phase separation, surface morphology and hydrophobicity of polyvinyl chloride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoryani, Zahra; Seyfi, Javad; Nekoei, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to study the effects of polymer molecular weight as well as non-solvent concentration on the phase separation, surface morphology and wettability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the Mn of the used PVC grades is 6 × 104, 8.7 × 104 and 1.26 × 105 g/mol. It was found that a proper combination of polymer molecular weight and non-solvent content could result in superhydrophobic and self-cleaning behaviors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated that addition of ethanol causes the polymer chains to be severely aggregated at the films' surface forming strand-like structures decorated by nano-scale polymer spheres. The polymer molecular weight was found to affect the degree of porosity which is highly influential on the hydrophobicity of the films. The mechanism of phase separation process was also discussed and it was found that the instantaneous demixing is the dominant mechanism once higher contents of non-solvent were used. However, a delayed demixing mechanism was detected when the lower molecular weight PVC has been used which resulted in a pore-less and dense skin layer. Differential scanning calorimetry was also utilized to study the crystallization and glass transition behavior of samples.

  5. Compatibilization of immiscible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) blends with maleic anhydride-styrene-vinyl acetate terpolymer (MAStVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmren, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, compatibilizing effects of maleic anhydride-styrene-vinyl acetate (MAStVA) with various terpolymer ratios on immiscible blends of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and polystyrene (PS) blends were investigated by viscometry method, thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscosimetric measurements were carried out for PVC, PS, a (70:30) blend of PVC/PS and a blend of PVC/PS/MAStVA containing 2-10% of the terpolymer in the range of concentrations (0.25-2.00 g dL -1) where tetrahydrofuran (THF) is the solvent. The interaction parameter (Δ b) was used to study the miscibility and compatibility of polymer blend in solution, obtained from the modified Krigbaum and Wall theory. TMA and FTIR measurements were also used to investigate the miscibility of this pair of polymers. In consequence of the study, it was observed that a considerable improvement was achieved in the miscibility of PVC/PS blends by adding among 4 and 10 wt.% of compatibilizer.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of foldable and magnetic field-sensitive, freestanding poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran composite and nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarıtaş, Sevilay; Eşsiz, Serpil; Sarı, Bekir, E-mail: bsari@gazi.edu.tr

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • In this study, ternary composite/nanocomposite films were synthesized. • Magnetic field-sensitive folding films were prepared without any elastomer. • Morphological studies show that all composite films have a smooth surface. • The ternary composites/nanocomposite show improved thermal stability compared to the pure PF. - Abstract: In this study, polyfuran and poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran ternary composites were synthesized via the chemical polymerization method. The temperature and magnetic field–sensitive novel composites and the nanocomposite were obtained in the form of powders and films. It was observed that the prepared novel conductive films have superior properties at a certain temperature range (25–50 °C) such as bending and folding. The structural properties, thermal behavior, surface morphology, internal structure, and surface roughness of the prepared samples were investigated by various characterization techniques. The conductivities of the samples were measured at room temperature and different temperatures by the four-point technique. X-ray Diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the PF and composites have an amorphous structure, whereas the nanocomposite is in crystalline form. The saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the magnetite and nanocomposite were found to be 58.9 and 5.3 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. It was found that magnetite-doped nanocomposite has superparamagnetic properties at room temperature.

  7. Poly(vinyl chloride) membrane alkali metal ion-selective electrodes based on crystalline synthetic zeolite of the Faujasite type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghai, H.; Giahi, M.; Arvand Barmehi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Potentiometric electrodes based on the incorporation of zeolite particle in to poly (vinyl chloride) (pvc) membranes are described. The electrodes characteristics are evaluated regarding the response towards alkali ions. Pvc membranes plasticised with dibutyl phthalate and without lipophilic additives (co-exchanger) were used throughout this study. The electrode exhibits a Nernst ion response over the alkali metal cations concentration a range of 1.0x10 - 4 - 1.0 x 10 1 M with a slop of 57.0 ± 0.9 mV per decade of concentration a working ph range (3.0- 9.0) and a fast response time (≤15 c). The selective coefficients for cesium ion as test species with respect to alkaline earth, ammonium and some heavy metal ions were determined. Zeolite-PVC electrodes were applied to the determination of ionic surfactant

  8. Morphological characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dechlorination during pyrolysis process: Influence of PVC content and heating rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiongmin; Yuan, Guoan; Yin, Lijie; Chen, Dezhen; He, Pinjing; Wang, Hai

    2016-12-01

    In this research morphological techniques were used to characterize dechlorination process of PVC when it is in the mixed waste plastics and the two important factors influencing this process, namely, the proportion of PVC in the mixed plastics and heating rate adopted in the pyrolysis process were investigated. During the pyrolysis process for the mixed plastics containing PVC, the morphologic characteristics describing PVC dechlorination behaviors were obtained with help of a high-speed infrared camera and image processing tools. At the same time emission of hydrogen chloride (HCl) was detected to find out the start and termination of HCl release. The PVC contents in the mixed plastics varied from 0% to 12% in mass and the heating rate for PVC was changed from 10 to 60°C/min. The morphologic parameters including "bubble ratio" (BR) and "pixel area" (PA) were found to have obvious features matching with PVC dechlorination process therefore can be used to characterize dechlorination of PVC alone and in the mixed plastics. It has been also found that shape of HCl emission curve is independent of PVC proportions in the mixed plastics, but shifts to right side with elevated heating rate; and all of which can be quantitatively reflected in morphologic parameters vs. temperature curves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  10. Percolated conductive polyaniline-clay nanocomposite in polyvinyl chloride through the combined approach porous template and self-assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Sudha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are reporting a novel strategy for the preparation of conductive polyaniline-clay nanocomposite in Polyvinylchloride (PVC matrix by admicellar emulsion polymerization using a low cost renewable resource based surfactant cum dopant. The highly oriented percolated network of polyaniline-clay nanocomposite in PVC matrix was revealed from the studies made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results suggested that porous template was formed by the noncovalent interactions among the hydroxyl groups present in the nanoclay edges and the chloride ions present in PVC matrix. Here, the bio-based surfactant, 4-hydroxy-2-pentadecyl benzene-1-sulphonic acid (PDPSA performed multiple roles of dopant, emulsifier and soft template during the polymerization of anilinium+PDPSA– (An+PDPSA– in PVC-clay matrix. The prepared composite exhibited electrical conductivity (σdc of 4.8•10–2 S/cm and electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE of 55.2 dB suggesting it as a prospectable candidate for the encapsulation of electronic devices in high technological applications.

  11. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives:Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO and peroxidase (HRP directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35 o C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4 o C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also.

  12. A new route to prepare nanocomposites based on polyvinyl chloride and MgAl layered double hydroxide intercalated with laurylether phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH with laurylether phosphate was prepared using reconstruction method. Delamilation of the LDH with laurylether phosphate (LDH-PK in tetrahydrofuran was characterized by AFM (atomic force microscopy, indicating that a large part of the LDH was delaminated into single, double and multi layers. The delaminated LDH-PK suspension was then used with polyvinyl chloride (PVC to prepare a series of high-LDH-loading nanocomposites. Both the XRD (X-ray diffraction patterns and TEM (transmission electron microscopy photographs of the as-prepared PVC/LDH nanocomposites indicated that the LDH nanolayers dispersed uniformly in the PVC matrix. With differential scanning calorimetry (DSC the glass transition temperatures of PVC phases in the PVC/LDH nanocomposites were measured and a slightly lower value than that of pristine PVC has been observed. Thermogravimetric analysis results show that the presence of LDH enhanced the dehydrochlorination temperature (Tmax1, reduced the maximum degradation rate (Rmax1 and the 5% weight loss temperature, and promoted the char formation of PVC. However, the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax2 and thermal degradation rate (Rmax2 of the dehydrochlorinated PVC were slightly affected by the presence of LDH. The apparent activation energies were calculated by the method of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa in nitrogen at four different heating rates, showing that the nanofiller increased the apparent activation energies by 10–26 kJ/mol when compared with pristine PVC, probably implying that the LDH nanolayers improve the stability of chlorine atom on the PVC chains.

  13. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A co-treatment process for recovery of Co and Li and simultaneous detoxification of PVC in subcritical water was proposed. • PVC was used as a hydrochloric acid source. • More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were leached under the optimum conditions. • Neither corrosive acid nor reducing agent was used. • The co-treatment process has technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional recovery processes. - Abstract: In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350 °C, PVC/LiCoO{sub 2} ratio 3:1, time 30 min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350 °C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO{sub 2} subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water.

  14. Optical and acoustic properties at 1064 nm of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol for use as a tissue phantom in biomedical optoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirou, Gloria M; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Vitkin, I Alex; Whelan, William M

    2005-01-01

    A novel optoacoustic phantom made of polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP) for optoacoustic studies is described. The optical and acoustic properties of PVCP were measured. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) powder and black plastic colour (BPC) were used to introduce scattering and absorption, respectively, in the phantoms. The optical absorption coefficient (μ a ) at 1064 nm was determined using an optoacoustic method, while diffuse reflectance measurements were used to obtain the optical reduced scattering coefficient (μ' s ). These optical properties were calculated to be μ a = (12.818 ? 0.001)A BPC cm -1 and μ' s = (2.6 ? 0.2)S TiO2 + (1.4 ? 0.1) cm -1 , where A BPC is the BPC per cent volume concentration, and S TiO2 is the TiO 2 volume concentration (mg mL -1 ). The speed of sound in PVCP was measured to be (1.40 ? 0.02) ? 10 3 m s -1 using the pulse echo transmit receive method, with an acoustic attenuation of (0.56 ? 1.01) f (1.51?0.06) MHz (dB cm -1 ) in the frequency range of 0.61-1.25 MHz, and a density, calculated by measuring the displacement of water, of 1.00 ? 0.04 g cm -3 . The speed of sound and density of PVCP are similar to tissue, and together with the user-adjustable optical properties, make this material well suited for developing tissue-equivalent phantoms for biomedical optoacoustics. (note)

  15. Improved permeation performance and fouling-resistance of Poly(vinyl chloride/Polycarbonate blend membrane with added Pluronic F127

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supateekan Pacharasakoolchai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/polycarbonate (PC blend membranes for use in ultrafiltration. Pluronic F127 was used as an additive to modify the membrane surface of the PVC/PC blended membranes. The PVC/PC blend membrane was first prepared using the phase inversion method from a casting solution of PVC with small amount of PC in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP and water as the non-solvent. The morphologies structure and properties, such as tensile strength, water flux, and bovine serum albumin (BSA rejection of the blend membrane were studied. Increased amounts of PC resulted in an increase in the water flux and ability to reject protein. A concentration of 0.75 wt% PC provided the best improvement in tensile strength of blend membrane. Addition of different amounts of pluronic F127 to the casting solution of PVC/PC with a PC concentration of 0.75 wt% resulted in a decrease in the water contact angle that demonstrated the improvement of hydrophilicity of blend membrane. Scanning electron microscopy photographs showed that the modified PVC/PC membranes had a bigger pore volume in the porous sub-layer compared to the PVC/PC control membrane. The PVC/PC membrane with added Pluronic F127 exhibited a much higher flux and rejection of BSA in a protein filtration experiment than the PVC/PC membrane. An increase in flux recovery ratio of PVC/PC/pluronic 127 blend membrane indicated that the modified membranes could reduce membrane fouling useful for ultrafiltration.

  16. Influence of fiber content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibers reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shekeil, Y.A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Al-Shuja’a, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing fiber content decreased tensile strength and strain. • Tensile modulus was increasing with increase in fiber content. • SEM showed fiber/matrix poor adhesion. • Impact strength was decreasing with increase in fiber content. • Lower thermal stability with increase in fiber content was observed. - Abstract: Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) bast fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) poly-blend was prepared by melt mixing method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites were prepared with different fiber content: 20%, 30% and 40% (by weight), with the processing parameters: 140 °C, 11 min, and 40 rpm for temperature, time and speed, respectively. After mixing, the composite was compressed using compressing molding machine. Mechanical properties (i.e. tensile properties, flexural properties, impact strength) were studied. Morphological properties of tensile fracture surface were studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal properties of the composites were studied using Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA). PVC/TPU/KF composites have shown lower tensile strength and strain with increase in fiber content. Tensile modulus showed an increasing trend with increase in fiber content. Impact strength decreased with increase in fiber content; however, high impact strength was observed even with 40% fiber content (20.2 kJ/m 2 ). Mean while; the 20% and 30% fiber contents showed higher impact strength of 34.9, 27.9 kJ/m 2 ; respectively. SEM showed that there is poor fiber/matrix adhesion. Thermal degradation took place in three steps. In the first step, composites as well as the matrix had a similar stability. At the second step, matrix showed a slightly better stability than the composites. At the last step, composites showed a better stability than the matrix

  17. Empirical Study on Sustainable Opportunities Recognition. A Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC Joinery Industry Analysis Using Augmented Sustainable Development Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard-Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes factors influencing recognition of sustainable opportunities by using an augmented sustainability process model. The conceptual model used two main factors, Knowledge and Motivation, and one moderating variable, Social embeddedness. We investigated entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry and concluded that while market orientation and sustainable entrepreneurial orientation definitely and positively influence sustainable opportunity recognition, others variables like knowledge of the natural/communal environment, awareness of sustainable development or focus on success have less support. Among all variables analyzed, perception of the threat of the natural/communal environment and altruism toward others have the poorest impact on opportunity recognition. Finally, we concluded that social embeddedness has a moderating effect on sustainable opportunity recognition, even though the results were mixed.

  18. Investigation of fatigue and mechanical properties of the pipe grade poly(vinyl chloride using recycled scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of using pre-consumer PVC scraps on static and long-term mechanical properties is studied. The degradation characteristics of mixing virgin PVC with crushed pre-consumer and PVC pipe scraps are analyzed using various tools including Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The variation of static mechanical properties as a function of adding pre-consumer PVC pipe scraps is investigated using the degradation analyses of recycled PVC scraps. In addition, fatigue tests are executed to evaluate the long-term durability of blending virgin PVC and recycled PVC scraps, and the fracture surface is investigated in detail to reveal the variation of the fracture mechanisms.

  19. Adsorption of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and glass: effect of solvent additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, T P

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of recombinant-derived proteins to glass and polymeric materials used in their packaging and delivery remains a problem. Loss of these very expensive proteins to surface adsorption not only results in reduced yields during purification and scale-up, but also to decreased therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of the present investigation was to inhibit/minimize adsorption of a model protein, namely, recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to glass, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polypropylene by inclusion of select solvent additives. Solvent additives used to inhibit/minimize surface adsorption included glycerin, U.S.P. (0.5%, 1%, 5%, and 25% v/v), Pluronic F-127 (0.005%, 0.05%, and 0.5% w/w), Pluronic F-68 (0.005%, 0.05%, and 0.5% w/w), Tween 80 (0.005% and 0.05% w/w) and Tween 20 (0.005%, 0.05%, and 0.5% w/w). Over the rhG-CSF concentration range of 0.0 ng/ml to 300 ng/ml, the amount of rhG-CSF bound per cm2 of PVC increased with an increase in the rhG-CSF concentration tested. At rhG-CSF equilibrium concentrations of 262 +/- 3.7 ng/ml and 136 +/- 1.9 ng/ml, the rhG-CSF bound/cm2 of PVC at 22 degrees C and 45 degrees C reached a maximum of 37.6 +/- 9.8 ng/cm2 and 165.2 +/- 11.7 ng/cm2, respectively. The adsorption isotherms determined at each temperature were described by the classic Freundlich equation. Moreover, the rate of adsorption of rhG-CSF to PVC was extremely rapid. The mean values of the percent of rhG-CSF bound to PVC after only 10 minutes of equilibration at 22 degrees C and 45 degrees C were 92.8 +/- 9.2 percent and 97.3 +/- 17.9 percent, respectively. The mean values of the percent of rhG-CSF bound to PVC at 22 degrees C and 45 degrees C after 24 hours were 52.4 +/- 10.9% and 70.0 +/- 9.7%, respectively, indicating that some desorption of rhG-CSF does occur during 24 hr. However, surface adsorption of rhG-CSF to PVC was shown to be irreversible over a 1 hr time period. Using viscometry, an estimate of the thickness

  20. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging; Filme ativo de poli(cloreto de vinila)/prata: sintese, caracterizacao e avaliacao como embalagem ativa antimicrobiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio, E-mail: lilianrodribraga@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF, (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm{sup -1} and 1165 cm{sup -1} bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  1. The synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposite films containing ZrO2 nanoparticles modified with vitamin B1 with the aim of improving the mechanical, thermal and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Shafiee, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, solution casting method was used for the preparation of nanocomposite (NC) films. At first, the surface of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) was modified with vitamin B 1 (VB 1 ) as a bioactive coupling agent to achieve a better dispersion and compatibility of NPs within the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The grafting of modifier on the surface of ZrO 2 was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, the resulting modified ZrO 2 (ZrO 2 -VB 1 ), was used as a nano-filler and incorporated into the PVC matrix to improve its mechanical and thermal properties. These processes were carried out under ultrasonic irradiation conditions, which is an economical and eco-friendly method. The effect of ZrO 2 -VB 1 on the properties and morphology of the PVC matrix was characterized by various techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed a good dispersion of fillers into the PVC matrix with the average diameter of 37-40 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to study optical behavior of the obtained NC films. TGA analysis has confirmed the presence of about 7 wt% VB 1 on the surface of ZrO 2 . Also, the data indicated that the thermal and mechanical properties of the NC films were enhanced.

  2. Nanocomposite materials based on poly(vinyl chloride) and bovine serum albumin modified ZnO through ultrasonic irradiation as a green technique: Optical, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Darvishzadeh, Marzieh

    2018-03-01

    In this project, physicochemical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) reinforced by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Firstly, ZnO NPs were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an organo-modifier and biocompatible substance through ultrasound irradiation as environmental friendly, low cost and rapid means. Nanocomposite (NC) films were prepared by loadings of various ratios of ZnO/BSA NPs (3, 6 and 9wt%) inside the PVC. Structural morphology and physical properties of the ZnO-BSA NPs and NC films were investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. According to the obtained information from the TGA, an increase in the thermal stability can be clearly observed. Also the results of contact angle analysis indicated with increasing percent of ZnO/BSA NPs into PVC the hydrophilic behaviors of NCs were increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A cerium(III) selective polyvinyl chloride membrane sensor based on a Schiff base complex of N,N'-bis[2-(salicylideneamino)ethyl]ethane-1,2-diamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Singh, A.K.; Gupta, Barkha

    2006-01-01

    A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based membrane sensor for cerium ions was prepared by employing N,N'-bis[2-(salicylideneamino)ethyl]ethane-1,2-diamine as an ionophore, oleic acid (OA) as anion excluder and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE) as plasticizer. The plasticized membrane sensor exhibits a Nernstian response for Ce(III) ions over a wide concentration range (1.41 x 10 -7 to 1.0 x 10 -2 M) with a limit of detection as low as 8.91 x 10 -8 M. It has a fast response time (<10 s) and can be used for 4 months. The sensor revealed a very good selectivity with respect to common alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metal ions. The response of the proposed sensor is independent of pH between 3.0 and 8.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of fluoride, carbonate and oxalate anions and determination of cerium in simulated mixtures

  4. Preparation of Chloro Penta Amine Cobalt(III Chloride and Study of Its Influence on the Structural and Some Optical Properties of Polyvinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada K. Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloro penta amine cobalt(III cloride [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 was prepared and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The obtained results indicated the formation of orthorhombic [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 nanoparticles of ≈28.75 nm size. Polymeric films based on polyvinyl acetate (PVAc doped with chloro penta amine cobalt(III cloride [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 in different weight percent ratios were prepared using the solvent cast technique. The complexation of the additive with the polymer was confirmed by FTIR and SEM studies. The XRD pattern revealed that the amorphousicity of PVAc polymer matrix increased with raising the [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 content. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, and optical conductivity were studied by using the absorbance and measurements from computerized UV-visible spectrophotometer in the spectral range 190–800 nm. This study showed that the optical properties of PVAc were affected by the doping of [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 where the absorption increased by leveling up [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 concentration. The nature of electronic transition from valence band to conduction band was determined and the energy band gaps of the composite films samples were estimated by UV-visible spectrum. It was observed that the optical conductivity increased with photon energy and with the increase of [Co(NH35Cl]Cl2 concentration.

  5. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  6. Polyvinyl chloride degradation by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbampato, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Degradation of film samples of pure PVC and comercial film (PVC + Polyacrylatis) with vacuum X-rays using the following techniques: infra-red, Raman, ultra violet and visible spectroscopies, eletronic paramagnetic resonance, X-rays difraction, percent measurement of transmitance and microanalysis was studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  7. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II) Oxide and Copper(II) Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Ahamad J.; Donaldson, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II) chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds ...

  8. Comparative scanning electron microscope study of the degradation of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane in different conditions; Estudio comparativo con microscopio electrónico de barrido de la degradación de una lámina impermeable de cloruro de polivinilo plastificado en diferentes condiciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, A.; Del Río, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the analysis of several samples of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P) waterproofing membrane. The samples were extracted from different areas of the same flat roof, which was in service for over 12 years. An original sample of an identical PVC-P membrane that was not installed on the roof was also analyzed. The analysis of the materials was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An elemental analysis of every sample was also performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micrographs and the elemental composition of the samples were compared with the data obtained in the analysis of the original sample. The results show dehydrochlorination of the polymer in two of the samples studied and great deterioration that was not visible to the naked eye in the sample that was totally exposed to the weather. [Spanish] Este estudio discute el análisis de varias muestras de una membrana impermeable de cloruro de polivinilo plastificado (PVC-P). Las muestras fueron extraídas de diferentes áreas de la misma cubierta plana, que estuvo en servicio durante más de 12 años. Una muestra original de idéntica membrana de PVC-P que no estuvo instalada en la cubierta fue también analizada. El análisis de los materiales se llevó a cabo utilizando un microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB). Además se realizó un análisis elemental sobre cada una de las muestras mediante espectroscopía de dispersión de energía de rayos X (EDS). Las micrografías, y la composición elemental de las muestras, se comparan con los datos obtenidos en el análisis de la muestra original. Los resultados muestran deshidrocloración del polímero en dos de las muestras estudiadas, y un gran deterioro de la muestra totalmente expuesta a la intemperie, que no era visible a simple vista.

  9. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  10. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  11. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  12. RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA EVALUADA EN EL ENSAYO MARSHALL DE MEZCLAS DENSAS EN CALIENTE ELABORADAS CON ASFALTOS MODIFICADOS CON DESECHOS DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC, POLIETILENO DE ALTA DENSIDAD (PEAD Y POLIESTIRENO (PS MECHANICAL RESISTANCE OF HOT THICK MIXTURES MADE WITH ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, POLYCLORURE (PVC WASTES, HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (PEAD, AND POLYSTYRENE (PS EVALUATED IN MARSHALL ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó evaluar en laboratorio el cambio en la resistencia mecánica que experimentan mezclas asfálticas densas en caliente cuando se adicionan, por vía húmeda, al cemento asfáltico aditivos poliméricos producto de desechos industriales del tipo plastómero (policloruro de vinilo, polietileno de alta densidad y poliestireno. Para tal fin se empleó el ensayo Marshall. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de mezclas asfálticas modificadas con desechos del tipo plastómero es mayor en comparación con las convencionales (mezclas que emplean asfaltos sin ningún aditivo.The main objective of this research Project was to evaluate in a laboratory the change in mechanical strength that dense hot asphalt mixtures go through when waste polymeric additives of plastomeric type (polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene and polystyrene are added to asphalt cement, by 'wet way'. This change was evaluated using Marshall Test. The general conclusion of the experimental results was that modified hot asphalt mixtures present better mechanical behavior than conventional mixtures (mixtures which use asphalt without additives.

  13. Desempenho de filmes comestíveis em comparação ao filme de policloreto de vinila na qualidade pós-colheita de mexericas 'Poncã' Performance of edible films in comparison to the polyvinyl chloride film in the post-harvest tangerines 'Ponkan'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabiola Pereira Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de fécula de mandioca na vida útil pós-colheita de frutos 'Mexerica Poncã' durante o armazenamento em temperatura ambiente em substituição ao filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC. Os frutos foram imersos em suspensões aquosas de fécula de mandioca a 0; 1; 2 e 3% (m:v acrescidas de 0,5mL L-1 de óleo mineral Assist (Bayer Cropscience, da empresa Hoechst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd. - Inglaterra ou recobertos com PVC de 14µm de espessura, e armazenados a temperatura ambiente. As amostragens foram realizadas no tempo zero (início do experimento e a cada dois dias, por oito dias. Foram avaliadas a perda de massa fresca, rendimento de suco, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT e teor de ácido ascórbico. A perda de massa fresca aumentou durante o armazenamento, sendo mais acentuada na dose de 2%. A redução no teor de ácido ascórbico foi maior nos frutos recobertos com filme de PVC. A concentração de fécula de mandioca a 1% foi a que proporcionou melhores resultados quanto à manutenção da qualidade físico-química de frutos de 'Mexerica Poncã' durante oito dias de armazenamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of cassava starch in postharvest life of fruits 'Tangerine Poncã' during storage at room temperature instead the film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The fruits were immersed in aqueous suspensions of cassava starch at 0, 1, 2 and 3% (m/v plus 0.5mL L-1 a mineral oil Assist (Bayer CropScience, company Hoechst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd. - Inglaterra and the film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC of 14µm thick, and stored at room temperature. The samples were collected at time zero (day of the assembly of the experiment and then every two days. We evaluated the weight loss, juice yield, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS / TA and ascorbic acid. The weight loss increased during

  14. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes: First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied the structural properties, thermal stability, and electrochemical response of the membranes to understand chloride migration and transport. Finally, the membranes are tested in a prototype solid-state chloride-ion battery setup. The feasibility of the membranes for their potential use in anion batteries is discussed.

  15. Surface characterization of industrial flexible polyvinyl(chloride) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Bertrand; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Beneventi, Davide; Chaussy, Didier; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2014-03-01

    Surface properties of industrial coated plasticized PVC flooring films have been investigated, with the aim of establishing possible additives migration, which causes chemical surface modification of the film and consequently its adhesion behavior. The storage period, from the production time to the converting operations (printing, laminating…) can also promote the additives migration. The surface of these films was extracted with acetone and water and the organic fraction was identified by surface tension, FTIR and GC/MS. These techniques established clearly that the extracted molecules are issuing from the plasticizers. Virgin and aged films were characterized by contact angle measurement and the surface chemistry was directly studied by XPS analyses. The first technique showed stable wettability properties of the films during storage. The contact angle of water droplet was found to decrease step wisely indicating that some surfactant-type molecules were extracted during the measurements, as confirmed by surface tension measurements. XPS established that a higher concentration of the chlorine-free additives was localized on the surface, which points out a probable enrichment of the surface by the plasticizers and the other additives. This suggests that migration kinetic of plasticizers is very high during the production, because of the high processing temperature.

  16. Post-irradiation stability of polyvinyl chloride at sterilizing doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimian, F.; Katbab, A.A.; Nazokdast, H.

    1994-01-01

    Post-irradiation stability of plasticized PVC irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray at sterilizing doses has been studied. Effects of irradiation upon chemical structure, mechanical properties and rheological behaviour of samples contained different amounts of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as plasticizer have been investigated. Formation of conjugated double bonds, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups have been followed by UV and FTIR spectrometers up to 6 months after irradiation. FTIR spectra of irradiated samples showed no significant changes in carbonyl and hydroxyl groups even 6 months after irradiation. However, changes in UV-visible spectra was observed for the irradiated samples up to 6 months post-irradiation. This has been attributed to the formation of polyenes which leads to the discoloration of this polymer. Despite a certain degree of discoloration, it appears that the mechanical properties of PVC are not affected by irradiation at sterilizing doses. No change in the melt viscosity of the irradiated PVC samples with post-irradiation was observed, which is inconsistent with the IR results. (author)

  17. CONTECH(R) A-2000 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Determine the effectiveness and long-term durability of the Contech A-2000 PVC pipe : in an irrigation application. This type of pipe may prove to be a viable alternative to : reinforced concrete pipe (RCP).

  18. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for... of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan were being...

  19. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  20. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  1. New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on chloride/potassium ratio analyzed in non-invasively obtained skin-wipe sweat samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurč, Pavol; Foret, František; Pokojová, Eva; Homola, Lukáš; Skřičková, Jana; Herout, Vladimír; Dastych, Milan; Vinohradská, Hana; Kubáň, Petr

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for sweat analysis used in cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is proposed. It consists of a noninvasive skin-wipe sampling followed by analysis of target ions using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (C4D). The skin-wipe sampling consists of wiping a defined skin area with precleaned cotton swab moistened with 100 μL deionized water. The skin-wipe sample is then extracted for 3 min into 400 μL deionized water, and the extract is analyzed directly. The developed sampling method is cheap, simple, fast, and painless, and can replace the conventional pilocarpine-induced sweat chloride test commonly applied in CF diagnosis. The aqueous extract of the skin-wipe sample content is analyzed simultaneously by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection using a double opposite end injection. A 20 mmol/L L-histidine/2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 2 mmol/L 18-crown-6 at pH 6 electrolyte can separate all the major ions in less than 7 min. Skin-wipe sample extracts from 30 study participants-ten adult patients with CF (25-50 years old), ten pediatric patients with CF (1-15 years old), and ten healthy control individuals (1-18 years old)-were obtained and analyzed. From the analyzed ions in all samples, a significant difference between chloride and potassium concentrations was found in the CF patients and healthy controls. We propose the use of the Cl - /K + ratio rather than the absolute Cl - concentration and a cutoff value of 4 in skin-wipe sample extracts as an alternative to the conventional sweat chloride analysis. The proposed Cl - /K + ion ratio proved to be a more reliable indicator, is independent of the patient's age, and allows better differentiation between non-CF individuals and CF patients having intermediate values on the Cl - sweat test. Figure New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on skin-wipe sampling of forearm and analysis of ionic content (Cl - /K + ratio) in

  2. Caracterização mecânica e térmica de compósitos de poli (cloreto de vinila reforçados com fibras de sisal Mechanical and thermal characterization of the polyvinyl chloride-sisal fibers composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson S. Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de PVC, plastificados com diferentes sistemas de plastificação e reforçados com fibras de sisal, foram processados em moinho de dois rolos. A influência do tipo e teor do plastificante, do comprimento e do teor das fibras nas propriedades dos compósitos obtidos foi estudada. Dois tipos de plastificantes foram usados, um líquido (do tipo poliéster e um sólido permanente (copolímero etileno/ acetato de vinila/ monóxido de carbono. As fibras usadas foram previamente lavadas com água a 80 °C por uma hora. Os compósitos, com fibras curtas aleatoriamente distribuídas, foram caracterizados através de ensaio mecânico de resistência à tração, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, e análises térmicas de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e análise por termogravimetria (TG. O comprimento ótimo de fibra obtido para os compósitos foi de 6 mm. O uso do plastificante sólido mostrou-se viável e promoveu uma maior molhabilidade da fibra pela matriz nos compósitos, principalmente para teores acima de 40 pcr. As análises térmicas mostraram que a substituição do plastificante líquido pelo plastificante sólido não afetou a estabilidade térmica das matrizes e dos compósitos.Composites consisting of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC, plasticized with two different types of plasticizers and reinforced with sisal fibers, were processed on a two-roll mixing mill. Two plasticizers were used, a liquid plasticizer (polyester and a permanent solid plasticizer (ethylene/ vinyl acetate/ carbon monoxide copolymer - Elvaloy® , to form two kinds of polymeric matrices. For each one of these matrices, the influence of plasticizers type, plasticizers content, size and quantity of sisal fibers in the composite properties has been studied. The fibers were washed with water at 80 °C during one hour. The composites with randomly distributed short fibers were characterized by mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy

  3. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 4. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based polymer electrolyte with poly(vinyl alcohol)–poly(4-styrenesulphonic acid) polymer complex. MAYANK PANDEY GIRISH M JOSHI NARENDRA NATH GHOSH. Volume 40 Issue 4 August ...

  4. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A matrix composed of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) mixed with different concentration ratios of the granular strontium chloride (SrCl2.6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric properties such as a.c. electrical conductivity by a conventional method, using ...

  5. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielec- tric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve. 1. Introduction. The purpose of this article is to review the available experimental evidences pertaining to electric, dielectric and mechanical properties on a ...

  6. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from Taiwan... of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within...

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  8. Clay flocculation improved by cationic poly(vinyl alcohol)/anionic polymer dual-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yizhou; Xiao, Huining

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of cationically modified poly(vinyl alcohol), CPVA, by copolymerization of vinyl acetate and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC), followed by alkaline hydrolysis was systematically studied. The application of the resulting polymer to the fine clay flocculation was also reported. The charge density and the structure of the resulting CPVA were characterized by polyelectrolyte titration and NMR. A photometric dispersion analyzer was used to conduct the dynamic flocculation experiments. Under fine clay experimental conditions, the CPVA alone contributed little to inducing clay flocculation. However, in conjunction with anionic polyacrylamide-based polymer with high molecular weight and low charge density, significant improvement in the flocculation of fine clay particles was achieved. The influence of factors such as pH and shear force on clay flocculation was also investigated to identify optimum application conditions for clay flocculation. The electrostatic interactions between the clay and CPVA, as well as those between the CPVA pre-treated clay and anionic polymer, were studied to explore the flocculation mechanism.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  10. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2001-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  11. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  12. Natural formation of vinyl chloride in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Frank; Borchers, Reinhard; Pracht, Jens; Rheinberger, Stefan; Scholer, Heinz F

    2002-06-01

    Vinyl chloride is a highly reactive and toxic substance which is widely used in industry. It is the parent compound of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), one of the most important industrial polymers. Until now, it was thought that vinyl chloride found in the environment is exclusively man-made or results from the degradation of other anthropogenic substances, such as trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Here, we demonstrate that vinyl chloride also has natural sources. Soil air and ambient air from a rural area in Northern Germany were investigated for volatile chlorinated halocarbons. The concentrations of vinyl chloride in the soil air were significantly enhanced as compared to ambient air, indicating a natural formation of this compound in the soil. A series of laboratory experiments using different soils and model compounds was conducted, which clearly proved that vinyl chloride could be produced during soil processes. We propose that this highly reactive compound can be formed during the oxidative degradation of organic matter in soil, for example, in a reaction between humic substances, chloride ions and an oxidant (ferric ions or hydroxyl radicals). The redox-sensitive aromatic compounds in soil such as catechols and o-quinones can be degraded to CO2, accompanied by the release of vinyl chloride and other volatile chlorinated compounds. This process could have started in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, 400 million years ago, when the first soils on earth evolved.

  13. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch blends. ... Their mechanical properties, biodegradability and surface morphology were estimated and studied. The poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch blends show good ... Keywords: Starch, Acetylation, Biodegradation, Poly(vinyl alcohol), Polymer blend.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1670 - Polyvinyl alcohol film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinyl alcohol film. 177.1670 Section 177.1670... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1670 Polyvinyl alcohol film. Polyvinyl alcohol film may be safely used in contact with food of the types identified in § 176.170(c) of this...

  15. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date... value in the antidumping duty investigation of PVA from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final...

  16. Clinical Fit of Partial Removable Dental Prostheses Based on Alginate or Polyvinyl Siloxane Impressions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, W.A.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical fit of metal-frame partial removable dental prostheses (PRDPs) based on custom trays used with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane impression material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifth-year students of the Nijmegen Dental School made 25 correct

  17. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  18. Polyvinyl alcohol biodegradation under denitrifying conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marušincová, H.; Husárová, L.; Růžička, J.; Ingr, M.; Navrátil, Václav; Buňková, L.; Koutný, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, October (2013), s. 21-28 ISSN 0964-8305 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/0200 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : polyvinyl alcohol * biodegradation * denitrification * waste-water treatment * anaerobic * Steroidobacter Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  19. Clinical Fit of Partial Removable Dental Prostheses Based on Alginate or Polyvinyl Siloxane Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkinga, Wietske A; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical fit of metal-frame partial removable dental prostheses (PRDPs) based on custom trays used with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Fifth-year students of the Nijmegen Dental School made 25 correct impressions for 23 PRDPs for 21 patients using alginate, and 31 correct impressions for 30 PRDPs for 28 patients using polyvinyl siloxane. Clinical fit of the framework as a whole and of each retainer separately were evaluated by calibrated supervisors during framework try-in before (first evaluation) and after (second evaluation) possible adjustments (score 0 = poor fit, up to score 3 = good fit). Framework fit and fit of the denture base were evaluated at delivery (third evaluation). Finally, postinsertion sessions were evaluated and total number of sessions needed, sore spots, adjustments to the denture base, and reported food-impaction were recorded. No significant differences in clinical fit (of the framework as a whole, for the retainers, or for the denture base) were found between the groups in the three evaluation sessions. Differences were not found for postinsertion sessions with one exception: in the alginate group, four subjects reported food impaction, versus none in the polyvinyl siloxane group. Clinical fit of metal-frame PRDPs based on impressions with custom trays combined with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane was similar.

  20. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  1. suitability of polyvinyl waste powder as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    replacement level is not above 10%. nclude the works of [10] on cassava on pulverised bone, and [14] roofing sheet waste, etc. The present es possibility of using polyvinyl waste as partial replacement of cement in the oncrete. Polyvinyl are materials made vinyl compounds, which are sed to manufacture building materials.

  2. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  3. Inkjet-printed Polyvinyl Alcohol Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Zhou, Zuoxin; Morris, Peter; Gibbons, Gregory J

    2017-05-11

    Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability. The wettability of the ink on different substrates was investigated, and glass was identified as the most suitable substrate in this particular case. A proprietary 3D inkjet printer was employed to manufacture polymer multilayer structures. The morphology, surface profile, and thickness uniformity of inkjet-printed multilayers were evaluated via optical microscopy.

  4. Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wesley Brandt-Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture, use and disposal of various plastics can pose numerous health risks, including the risk of cancer. A model example of carcinogenic risk from plastics is provided by polyvinyl chloride, since it is composed of the known human carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. In recent years, much has been learned about the molecular biological pathways of VC carcinogenesis. This has led to molecular epidemiologic studies of VC carcinogenesis in exposed human populations which have identified useful biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for VC. These studies have in turn provided the basis for new molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers. This model could have much wider applicability for many other carcinogenic exposures and many other human cancers.

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  6. Influence of Erbium Ions on the Optical and Structural Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour A. Hamdalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA films doped with erbium chloride (ErCl3 have been prepared by casting from their aqueous solutions. The structure of the doped samples as well as the interactions between the host PVA and Er+3 was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. The optical measurement was recorded at room temperature in the range from 200 nm to 2000 nm. FTIR measurements revealed that Er+3 forms complex configuration within the PVA structure. PVA doped with 9 wt% of ErCl3 exhibits energy gap and refractive index of 5.1 eV and 1.72, respectively. The effect of the doping increment of ErCl3 on the optical parameters has been discussed.

  7. Experimental investigations on potassium permanganate doped polyvinyl alcohol - polyvinyl pyrrolidone blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, G.; Lobo, Blaise

    2018-04-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend films were prepared by solution casting technique, in the doping range varying from 0.01 wt % up to 4.70 wt %. The microstructural changes caused by doping, and the modified properties of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and temperature dependent direct current (DC) electrical measurements. Temperature variation of electrical resistivity was found to obey Arrhenius relation, from which activation energy was determined. The study was supported by AFM scans, which showed an increase in surface roughness and the presence of spike-like structures, due to interaction of dopant with the polymeric blend. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) scans revealed two stages of degradation in KMnO4 doped PVA - PVP blend films.

  8. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  9. Modeling of the Migration of Glycerol Monoester Plasticizers in Highly Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kristiansen, Jørgen K.

    2009-01-01

    Different migration models were evaluated on the basis of data from migration experiments carried out by Danisco in 2005. The migration experiments were set up to investigate the behavior of the three plasticizers GRINDSTED (R) SOFT-N-SAFE (SNS), GRINDSTED (R) ACETEM 95 CO (Acetem), and epoxidize...

  10. Organic Heat Stabilizers for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A Synergistic Behavior of Eugenol and Uracil Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawakosinchai, Aran; Jubsilp, Chanchira; Mora, Phattarin; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2017-10-01

    Recycling ability, mechanical, and thermal properties of PVC stabilized with organic heat stabilizers, i.e., uracil (DAU) and eugenol were investigated to substitute PVCs stabilized with commercial lead, Ca/Zn, and organic-based stabilizer for PVC pipe production. PVC stabilized with the DAU and the eugenol can be processable at 30 °C lower than that of the PVC stabilized with commercial heat stabilizers. The most remarkable short-term thermal stability belonged to the PVC stabilized with the DAU, and its original color can be maintained at least up to 3 processing cycles. Synergistic behavior in thermal stability of the PVC mixed with DAU and eugenol at mass ratios of 1.5:1.5 was observed. Mechanical properties of DAU- and eugenol-stabilized PVC were higher than the samples with other heat stabilizers. Glass transition temperature of the PVC stabilized with all heat stabilizers was determined to be 99 °C with the exception of the value of 89 °C for eugenol-stabilized PVC. Therefore, the DAU and the eugenol showed high potential to be used as an organic heat stabilizer for PVC because of their non-toxic and good heat resistance properties.

  11. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... LDAR program to detect leaks of VOC into cooling water. For existing sources, we are proposing monthly... by Gas Chromatography Using Photoionization and/or Electrolytic Conductivity Detectors, with a leak... strippable VOC in the cooling water or 29 ppmv of total strippable VOC in the stripping gas. When a leak is...

  12. Interaction between plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane and extruded polystyrene board, in the inverted flat roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverted flat roof is a constructive system widely used in flat roof construction. In this constructive solution, the insulation is placed over the waterproofing material as a protection. It is believed that this solution provides a longer life cycle; given the fact that it limits the thermal variation the waterproofing material bears up to the end of its life cycle. Consequently, the result will be providing a longer life to the waterproofing membrane. This constructive solution always incorporates polymers or other materials with a thermoplastic addition in their composition. Some polymers show interactions between them that can affect their integrity, and, at the same time, the bulk of the polymeric materials are incompatible. The extruded polystyrene board is always present in the inverted flat roof, and although it is an unbeatable product for this use, it presents incompatibilities and interactions with other materials, and these can affect their properties and therefore the durability of them.La cubierta plana invertida es un sistema constructivo muy utilizado en las cubiertas planas. En esta solución constructiva, el aislamiento se coloca sobre el material impermeabilizante a modo de protección. Se cree que esta solución proporciona un ciclo de vida más largo; dado que se limita la variación térmica de la impermeabilización hasta el final de su ciclo de vida. En consecuencia, el resultado proporciona una vida más larga a la membrana impermeable. Esta solución constructiva siempre incorpora polímeros u otros materiales con adición termoplástica en su composición. Algunos polímeros muestran interacciones entre ellos que pueden afectar a su integridad, además, la mayor parte de los materiales poliméricos son incompatibles. La plancha de poliestireno extrusionado está siempre presente en la cubierta plana invertida, y aunque es un producto inmejorable para este uso, presenta incompatibilidades e interacciones con otros materiales, y estos pueden afectar a sus propiedades, y por lo tanto a la durabilidad de los mismos.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes(HNTs grafted with Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA were synthesized via radical polymerization. The properties of PMMA-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that PMMA grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then, PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding. The morphology, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. PMMA-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the toughness, strength and modulus of PVC. The glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures of PVC phase in PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites are shifted toward slightly higher temperatures. The grafted HNTs were uniformly dispersed in PVC matrix as revealed by TEM photos. The fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites exhibited plastic deformation feature indicating ductile fracture behaviors. The improvement of toughness of PVC by PMMA-grafted HNTs was attributed to the improved interfacial bonding by grafting and the toughening mechanism was explained according to the cavitation mechanism.

  14. Migration of additives from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes into aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The stability and migration product of medical PVC tubes plasticized with polyadipates were investigated by ageing in phosphate buffer at pH 1.679 and water at different temperatures. Changes in the PVC tubes were studied by wtaer absorption, weight loss, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dif...

  15. The core-double-shell microcapsules flame retardant: Synthesis and its application for polyvinyl chloride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yujie; Han, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The core-double-shell microcapsules flame retardant has been regarded as a promising additive for improving the fire safety of PVC. In this article, melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF)/silicon dioxide (SiO2)/zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) microcapsule was prepared. The effect of synthetic parameters (such as pH, agitation speed, reaction time and reaction temperature) on the morphologies and sizes of the SiO2/ZHS microcapsules were investigated in details. MF/SiO2/ZHS microcapsule was introduced into PVC to prepare biofunctional composites with excellent fire resistance and smoke suppression. The flammability of PVC composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI), smoke density (SDR), cone calorimeter test. The results showed that the sample containing 16.4% MF/SiO2/ZHS microcapsule (the mass ratio of MF:SiO2:ZHS = 2.5:2:8) achieved the maximal LOI value of 35.6%, minimal SDR value of 21.2%, and significantly decreased the peak heat release rate from 179.7 kW/m2 of neat PVC to 108.3 kW/m2. The thermal behaviors of PVC composites and the morphologies of residues were characterized.

  16. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  17. Study of the simultaneous grafting and heparinisation of poly(vinyl chloride), by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzarini, Luz Consuelo Gonzalez Alonso

    2003-01-01

    This work had the objective of obtaining the PVC-co-DMAEMA-co-Heparin graft copolymer through process of simultaneous irradiation by γ-radiation coming from a 60 Co source with dose rate ranging between 0,5 and 0,8 kGy h -1 . Grafting parameters were evaluated in function of PVC film swelling time before irradiation, concentration of hydrophilic N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomer, radiation doses ranging between zero and 7,0 kGy, concentration of isopropyl alcohol and CUSO 4 as homopolymerization inhibitors varying from 0,02 mol L -1 to 1,0 mol L -1 . Preliminary studies allowed us to establish the concentration of DMAEMA at 30 and 45%. At these two studied concentrations, were observed the highest grafting levels when was utilized 0,02 mol L -1 concentrations of homopolymerization inhibitor. A study of grafting as a function of the dose showed an interdependence between the dose and DMAEMA concentration, where was achieved the highest grafting level at doses of 2,5 kGy and 5,0 kGy for the systems containing 45% and 30% of DMAEMA, respectively. Graft copolymer characterization, accomplished by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) evidenced the largest grafting levels for the irradiated samples with 45% of DMAEMA, however heparin presence was only evident on irradiated samples with 30% of DMAEMA. Surface morphological analysis, carried out by scanning electronic microscopy, permitted us to notice that addition of heparin to the reaction medium (0.25% w/v) led to obtaining surfaces less rough than those ones observed in heparin absence, suggesting then a more homogeneous distribution of the graft chains. Evaluation of antithrombogenic properties of the graft copolymers, accomplished 'in vitro' through platelets adhesion test, showed that the increase of surface roughness affects the blood platelet activation mechanisms, leading consequently to a more thrombogenic surface. Analysis by means of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the kinetical decay of radicals of PVC-co-DMAEMA-coheparin is strongly induced by radicals formed throughout the radiolysis of DMAEMA and PVC. The PVC-co-DMAEMA-co-heparin graft copolymer that presented less thrombogenic surfaces was obtained by means of a simultaneous radiation beam dose of 5,0 KGy on PVC films immersed in aqueous solutions containing DMAEMA (30%), heparin sodium salt (0,25%w/v) and isopropanol (0,02 mol L -1 . (author)

  18. Separation and analysis of low molecular weight plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    ) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), as well as by studying the extracted low molecular weight plasticizers by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and GC. It was found that the simple room temperature extraction in chloroform showed the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix. Close results...... on extracted diisooctyl phthalate (DOP) concentration were obtained from different methods. Analysis on one kind of the used tubes showed that 64-67% of DOP migrated to the patient, but bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA) was 70-100% retained....

  19. The complex reaction sequence of the thermal and radiolytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, W.

    1983-03-01

    The degradation of PVC-foils was been tested by thermal and radiolytic stress in N 2 - and O 2 -atmosphere. Additionally was determined the influence of plasticizers, Fe-, Zn- and Cu-stearates and other additives, which partially are known as stabilizators. Complex mechanisms of degradation are proposed, which were deduced from the HCl-elimination, consumption of oxygen and the shift of the molmass by the scission and crosslinking of main chains both for PVC as combination of PVC with additives. The mechanism corresponds to other known experimental results, too. It was shown, that the radiolytical degradation caused by radicals, which initiate a radical chain mechanism, if the temperature is higher than the glass temperature (Tg). The thermical degradation in a N 2 -atmosphere was explained by an ionic complex mechanism. At the presence of oxygen the ionic mechanism was superimposed by a radical chain mechanism following the oxidation of polyene structures. (author)

  20. Strawberries packaged with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC film/ Morangos embalados com filme de Ppolicloreto de Vinila (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries cv. Dover with approximately 75% of their surface with red color was packaged in disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET container and sealed with PVC film of 15mm thick. Strawberries without film serves as control. The fruits were stored at 12°C for ten days and there were determined during storage time the titratable acidity, solid soluble and vitamin C contents, color, respiration rate, texture and weight loss. After 6 days the strawberries packaged without film had decayed while the fruits packaged with PVC film were in conditions of consumption and commercialization. After 10 days all fruits were inappropriate to consumption. Packages with PVC film extended the shelf life of strawberries preserving the color characteristic of the product and vitamin C content, reducing the respiration rate and weight loss, characterizing this packaging as being adequate to this kind of product.Foram utilizados morangos cv. Dover com aproximadamente 75% de sua superfície com coloração vermelha e embalados em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET. No tratamento CONTROLE os morangos foram acondicionados sem filme e no tratamento FILME, as embalagens foram seladas com filme de PVC de 15mm de espessura. As frutas foram armazenadas a 12°C por dez dias e foram determinadas ao longo do tempo acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, cor, taxa de respiração, textura e perda de massa. Após 6 dias de armazenagem os morangos CONTROLE estavam impróprios para consumo pois apresentavam deterioração visível por bolores enquanto que os embalados com PVC estavam em condições de consumo e comercialização. Após 10 dias todos os morangos estavam impróprios para consumo. A embalagem utilizando filme de PVC aumentou a vida de prateleira de morangos em relação aos sem embalagem pois preservou melhor a coloração característica do produto e teor de vitamina C e reduziu as taxas de respiração e de perda de massa, caracterizando a embalagem como sendo adequada para este tipo de produto.

  1. Theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl chloride nanotube inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assad Kareen Edaan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electronic properties of inclusion or interconnection between NT and PVC were studied by quantum semiepirical approximation method using (PM3 self-consistent ?eld molecular orbital method. The total structural energy, HOMO level energy, LUMO level energy, band gap?(E?_g ?=E?_HOMO-E_LUMO, and dipole moment of the compounds were calculated. Increasing the distance between NT and PVC led to decline the total energy difference which led to better interconnection between NT and PVC and vice versa when the distant is decreased. Therefore the more stable compound is f. The best electronic energies were obtained at the structures 3c and 3b in the first distance respectively. The dipole moments for all structures have the following trend: b> d > c > e > f > a> g.

  2. Itaconamide derivatives as organic stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) against photodegradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalil, A. M.; Rabie, S. T.; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Abd El Ghaffar, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2016), s. 96-103 ISSN 1060-1325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : itaconamide * PVC * stabilizer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2016

  3. Comparing Dimensional Accuracy Between a Polyvinyl Chloride Skull and Its Virtually Constructed Counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    performed dental implant placement performed bone sounding to determine alveolar bone thickness. Even though many clinicians are still using this technique... dental community at large [18,42]. Digital dental models and CBCT have evolved tremendously within the last decade and although they were designed as two...digital dental cast. As a result, this study was designed to test the accuracy of a superimposed 3-D digital model and its digitized dental models to

  4. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  5. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of iron adsorption and the effect by chloride, sulfate, and hydroxyl: evaluation of PVC-U drinking pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia -Ying; Li, Shu-Ping; Xin, Kun-Lun; Tao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The update of pipeline was quick over the last few years and the plastic pipes were widely used in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), especially in the small-diameter pipes. In this study, the iron adsorptive characteristics and the affecting factors in unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pipe were investigated. Results showed that the average amount of iron in the 10-year-old PVC-U pipe's interior surface was 2.80 wt% which was almost 187 times larger than that in a new one. Goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were the major iron compounds in the scales which covered on the old pipes' interior surface and showed loose and porous images under a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the influence of the iron concentration on the adsorption amount and rate was discussed. The adsorption amount was significantly influenced by iron concentration, but similar adsorption rate was discovered. Notably, iron was quantitatively adsorbed by PVC-U pipe during the experimental period in accordance with the pseudo second order kinetic model. Meanwhile, regression model and response surface methodology were used to analyze the regular of iron adsorption in different concentrations of chloride (Cl - ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), and hydroxyl (OH - ). It can be concluded that Cl - and OH - showed the strong ability of iron adsorption which were larger than SO 4 2- .

  6. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.; Ives, B.H.

    1986-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres, having a size range of ∼150- to 250-μm diameter with 1- to 5-μm wall thickness, have been fabricated using a solution droplet technique. The spheres were developed for possible use on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. PVA, a polymer chosen based on earlier survey work carried out at KMS Fusion, Inc., has good strength, low hydrogen permeability, is optically transparent, and water soluble. The latter property makes it safe and easy to use in our droplet generator system. A unique dual-orifice droplet generator was used to prepare the spheres. The droplet generator operating conditions and the column processing parameters were chosen using results from our 1-D model calculations as a guide. The polymer microsphere model is an extension of the model we developed to support the glass sphere production. After preparation, the spheres were physically characterized for surface quality, sphericity, wall thickness (and uniformity), and size. We also determined the buckling pressure for both uncoated and CH-coated spheres. Radiation stability to beta decay (from tritium) was evaluated by exposing the spheres to a 7-keV electron beam. The results from these and other physical property measurements are presented in this report

  7. Controlled Morphology of Porous Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lubasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and effective method for the fabrication of porous nanofibers based on the solvent evaporation methods in one-step electrospinning process from the commercial polyvinyl butyral (PVB is presented. The obtained nanofibers are prevalently amorphous with diameters ranging from 150 to 4350 nm and specific surface area of approximately 2–20 m2/g. Pore size with irregular shape of the porous PVB fibers ranged approximately from 50 to 200 nm. The effects of polymer solution concentration, composition of the solvents mixture, and applied voltage on fiber diameter and morphology were investigated. The theoretical approach for the choice of poor and good solvents for PVB was explained by the application Hansen solubility parameter (HSP and two-dimensional graph. Three basic conditions for the production of porous PVB nanofibers were defined: (i application of good/poor solvent mixture for spinning solution, (ii differences of the evaporation rate between good/poor solvent, and (iii correct ratios of good/poor solvent (v/v. The diameter of prepared porous PVB fibers decreased as the polymer concentration was lowered and with higher applied voltage. These nanofiber sheets with porous PVB fibers could be a good candidate for high-efficiency filter materials in comparison to smooth fibers without pores.

  8. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  9. Preparation of robust polyamide microcapsules by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine and sebacoyl chloride and plasticization with oleic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Rosa; Martins, GV; Margarida Bastos; Gois, JR; Coelho, JFJ; Marques, J; Tavares, CJ; Magalhães, F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Microcapsules produced by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and sebacoyl chloride (SC) were studied. The products were characterized in terms of morphology, mean diameter and effectiveness of dodecane encapsulation. The use of Tween 20 as dispersion stabilizer, in comparison with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), reduced considerably the mean diameter of the microcapsules and originated smoother wall surfaces. When compared to ethylenediamine (EDA), microcapsules produced with P...

  10. Study on properties of poly(vinyl alcohol/polyacrylonitrile blend film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA/polyacrylonitrile (PAN blend films with different PAN mole contents were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. Surface morphologies of PVA/PAN blend films were analyzed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PVA/PAN blend films were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Tensile Tests, and Surface Contact Angle Tests. The results showed that the introduction of PAN could exert marked effects on the properties of PVA films.

  11. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  12. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  13. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  14. [The mortality among the makers of vinyl chloride in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Belli, S; Bruno, C; Comba, P; De Santis, M; Foà, V; Maltoni, C; Masina, A; Reggiani, A

    1991-01-01

    A mortality study was performed on 5,946 vinyl chloride (VC)-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) workers of the nine Italian plants. The aims of the study were to investigate the cause-specific mortality of workers exposed to VC in production and polymerization stages and to ascertain whether exposure is associated with a higher risk of cancers other than liver angiosarcoma. An incident cohort was enumerated in five plants, a mixed cohort in two and a cross sectional one in the remaining two facilities. Cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) were calculated for the six incidence cohorts with a sufficiently long follow-up period. Both Italian and regional rates were used for the comparison. A pooled analysis of six cohorts was performed. For deceased persons, information from death certificates was used in the mortality analysis. Additional clinical and pathological data were sought for all decreased individuals (Best Evidence = BE). The results of the study confirm the carcinogenic action of vinyl chloride on the liver but not on the other suggested target organs (i.e., lung, lymphopoietic tissues, brain). A deficit for all causes of death and cardiovascular disease was evident in most cohorts and in the pooled cohort. Analysis of BE data showed a broad spectrum of carcinogenic action of VCM on the liver as demonstrated by the occurrence of both angiosarcomas and other histotypes of tumours.

  15. Vasculitic purpura in vinyl chloride disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavita, N.; Bergamaschi, A.; Garcovich, A.; Giuliano, G.

    1986-05-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC), a volatile substance mostly used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) synthesis, is a systemic toxicant particularly noxious to endothelium. Angiosarcoma of the liver, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma-like lesions, acroosteolysis and neuritis are known to be typical vinyl chloride-associated manifestations (VC disease). A so far unknown feature of the disease is purpura. This was first observed by the authors in a worker of a PVC-producing plant. The skin eruption was characterized by small purpuric maculae with tiny, palpable spots and papulae, mostly concentrated on the lower part of the legs, changing into bullae, pustules and crusts and tending to spontaneous regression after withdrawal from VC exposure. A skin biopsy revealed marked inflammatory reaction with a mostly lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration around and in the walls of dermal arterioles. The finding of increased circulating immune complexes and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies strengthens the hypothesis that immunologic changes play a role in the appearance of ''vinylic purpura.''

  16. Vinyl Chloride Emulsion Polymerization Reaction: Effect of Various Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehrdad Jalilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture  of  sodium  lauryl  sulfate  (SLS  as  ionic  emulsifer  and  stearyl alcohol as non-ionic emulsifer was employed in a vinyl chloride emulsion polymerization  reaction  to  study  the  infuence  of  various  interactive parameters involved in the reaction system. It was found that the particle size was dependent on the amount and type of emulsifer. The average particle size of polyvinyl chloride was dropped by higher amount of emulsifying agents.  At the gel point, more heat was generated by higher amount of vinyl chloride fed into the reaction system. The molecular weight of the polymer was decreased by increases in reaction temperature while,  it  increased by augmenting  the amount of emulsifer. According to the 13C NMR and FTIR spectroscopic data no defect was detected in the chain structure of synthetic polyvinylchloride product. An optimization of polymerization reaction condition was reached based on ultimate particle size desired for its favorable distribution in plastisols.

  17. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  18. Spectroscopic, thermal, and electrical properties of MgO/ polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Gh.; El Sayed, Adel M.; Morsi, W. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to control the optical and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in order to broaden its industrial and technological applications, which we achieved by blending PVA with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and adding sol-gel prepared MgO nanopowder. The blended film and nanocomposite films were prepared using the solution casting technique. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the crystallite size was ∼18.4 nm for MgO and the highest degree of crystallinity (XC) in the films was about 24.34% at 1.0 wt% MgO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy determined the nanoribbon morphology of MgO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the uniform distribution of the MgO nanoribbons on the surfaces of the PVA/PVP films. SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the interaction between the blend and MgO fillers. The effects of the additives on the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures were evaluated by differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The appearance of one melting point confirmed the miscibility of the two polymers. According to ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy measurements, the optical properties and optical constants of PVA could be adjusted by the addition of PVP and MgO, where the optical band gap (Eg) determined for PVA increased with the PVP content, whereas it decreased to 4.8 eV as the MgO content increased. The DC conductivity (σdc) of the films increased whereas the activation energy (Ea) decreased after the addition of MgO, possibly because the nanoribbon shape fixed the preferred conducting pathways. In addition, MgO could break the H-bond in sbnd OH groups of the blends to allow the free movement of the molecular chains.

  19. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  20. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    [14] has reported the electrical transport properties of polyvinyl alcohol- selenium nanocomposite ... of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles. Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method using raw materials of ... constantly stirred using the magnetic stirrer until the pH level reached to 12. A specified amount.

  1. Structural and optical properties of zinc sulphide–polyvinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Zinc sulphide; polyvinyl alcohol; nanocomposite; chemical bath deposition. 1. Introduction. During the last decade, research into nanocomposites has become quite popular in various fields of material sci- ence. Recently, fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles in polymer matrices has attracted much attention, because.

  2. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    295–300. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium-doped zinc oxide nanorods. KANCHAN SAXENA. ∗. , AMIT KUMAR, NISHANT MALIK, PRAMOD KUMAR and V K JAIN. Amity Institute of Advanced Research and Studies (Materials and Devices), Amity University, ...

  3. Anammox sludge immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogels to encapsulate slow-growing anammox bacteria for deammonification treatment of wastewater. The cryogel pellets were prepared by a freezing-thawing procedure at -8 oC. On average, pellets contained 11.8 mg TSS/g-pellet of enriched anamm...

  4. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F–T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  6. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Undoped and aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized by electrochemical route. The synthesized materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectrometer and scanning electron microscope. The Al-doped ZnO nanorods have been coated with polyvinyl alcohol.

  7. Time-dependent micro-Raman scattering studies of polyvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-15

    Feb 15, 2014 ... Abstract. In-situ monitoring of silver nanoparticle formation was studied in thin films of poly- vinyl alcohol and silver nitrate. We proposed the observation of surface-enhanced Raman spec- troscopy (SERS) as a novel and simple technique to record the growth of silver nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol thin ...

  8. The study of epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins as corrosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion resistance of two commonly used protective coatings (epoxy polyamide and polyvinyl resins) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been assessed. The coatings on low carbon steel were subjected to varying conditions of pH, temperature and exposure time and the corrosion rates calculated. At a pH of 2, 3, 4, ...

  9. Size variation of polyaniline nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. We report the preparation of polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol. (PVA) matrix. From SEM picture it is seen that the particle sizes vary from 100–20 nm. Also with increase in. PVA content the stability of dispersion is found to increase. Apart from SEM, spin cast films of PANI in PVA.

  10. Role of polyvinyl alcohol in the conductivity behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based composite gel electrolytes using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as guest polymer have been synthesized with 1 molar solution of ... Temperature dependence of conductivity profiles exhibits Arrhenius behaviour in low temperature regime followed by VTF character at higher temperature.

  11. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is 50–70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to “bound” and “free” states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state. - Highlights: • The synthesis and the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels were studied. • PVA was modified by glycidyl methacrylate before gamma cross-linking. • The modification results in decreasing of PVA cross-linking dose by 3 orders lower. • The gel fraction and water content of the hydrogels were measured. • A fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is independent of gel fraction content

  12. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride monomer derivatives on hepatic DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used extensively in the chemical industry, mainly in the production of polyvinyl chloride. It has recently been found to cause hepatic angiosarcoma. As VCM has also been shown to be mutagenic after metabolic activation the effect of VCM on DNA synthesis was investigated. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to measure the rate of DNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. A possible direct toxic effect of VCM or its metabolites on liver cell metabolism was examined by two unrelated techniques, viz. the measurement of adenine nucleotide concentrations in regenerating livers and the influence on transmembrane potentials in hepatocytes. The distribution of radioactivity in subcellular fractions following [ 14 C]VCM administration suggested microsomal conversion of VCM to an active form which was selectively retained in the nuclear fraction. Measurement of the activities of thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase in regenerating liver indicated that the induction of these enzymes which normally occurs after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by VCM treatment. Three techniques were used to test the hypothesis that the retardation in DNA synthesis was due to DNA damage: the prophage lambda induction test for DNA damage, autoradiographic detection of unscheduled thymidine incorporation into DNA, and detection of DNA strand breaks in alkaline sucrose gradients. All three provided evidence of DNA damage and led to the development of a novel technique to confirm these findings. This involved centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients on intact double-stranded DNA contained in hepatocyte nucleoids and showed conclusively that VCM administration causes DNA strand breaks. Subsequent repair of DNA was also assessed by this technique. The site of the VCM/metabolite: DNA reaction was characterized by DNA thermal denaturation and renaturation studies

  13. Stability of Dexmedetomidine in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Intravenous Infusion Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Kathleen; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Szumita, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a frequently used sedative in the critical care setting. It is commercially available as a 4-mg/mL premixed compound or as 200-mcg/2-mL vials that must be further diluted prior to administration. However, limited data exist regarding the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures compounded from the 200-mcg/2-mL vials, particularly for durations greater than 48 hours. Therefore, we performed stability testing on compounded dexmedetomidine prepared in two types of intravenous infusion bags for 14 days. Dexmedetomidine is available as 200-mcg/2-mL vials for dilution, 80-mcg/20-mL single-dose vials, and as 200-mcg/50-mL and 400-mcg/100-mL glass bottles. The stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures has previously been tested for 48 hours. The purpose of this analysis was to test the stability of dexmedetomidine admixtures for 14 days. Six dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were compounded in polyvinyl chloride and non-polyvinyl chloride bags, three of which were stored under refrigeration and three of which were kept at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography testing was performed to determine the concentration at Days 1 through 14. Stability was determined by taking the mean concentration of samples taken from each bag. All samples were tested in duplicate. A sample was considered stable if the concentration was greater than 90% of the original concentration. All samples retained over 90% of the drug under their respective storage conditions for the duration of the study. At time 0, the concentration of dexmedetomidine was between 3.99 mcg/mL and 4.01 mcg/mL. On Day 14, the mean concentration was between 95.8% and 98.9%, depending on the bag type and storage condition. The pH remained between 4.7 and 5.8 during the study period as has previously been reported in the literature. Dexmedetomidine admixtures of 200 mcg/50 mL were stable in both polyvinyl chloride bags and non-polyvinyl chloride bags for 14 days under refrigeration

  14. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  15. Characterization and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol based polymer electrolyte films doped with ammonium thiocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshrestha, N., E-mail: niharikakul@gmail.com; Chatterjee, B.; Gupta, P.N., E-mail: guptapn07@yahoo.co.in

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • Ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN). • Electrical conductivity. • Fractals. - Abstract: In this communication, films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer complexed with ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN) salt were studied. XRD (X-ray diffraction) was used to study the complexation of salt with the polymer matrix and amorphicity in the films. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies showed that the glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) of the PVA:NH{sub 4}SCN complexed films were less than pristine PVA. Raman analysis was analyzed in order to study the change in the vibrational bands due to the complexation of salt with PVA. Optical micrographs confirm the fractal formation in 75:25 and 70:30 PVA:NH{sub 4}SCN films. Ionic transference number was estimated by Wagner's polarization method and its large value indicates that conduction takes place mainly due to mobile ionic species. Maximum conductivity ∼10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature was obtained for 70:30 ratio of PVA: NH{sub 4}SCN polymer electrolyte films.

  16. Characterization and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol based polymer electrolyte films doped with ammonium thiocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, N.; Chatterjee, B.; Gupta, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • Ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN). • Electrical conductivity. • Fractals. - Abstract: In this communication, films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer complexed with ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN) salt were studied. XRD (X-ray diffraction) was used to study the complexation of salt with the polymer matrix and amorphicity in the films. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) studies showed that the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the PVA:NH 4 SCN complexed films were less than pristine PVA. Raman analysis was analyzed in order to study the change in the vibrational bands due to the complexation of salt with PVA. Optical micrographs confirm the fractal formation in 75:25 and 70:30 PVA:NH 4 SCN films. Ionic transference number was estimated by Wagner's polarization method and its large value indicates that conduction takes place mainly due to mobile ionic species. Maximum conductivity ∼10 −3 S/cm at room temperature was obtained for 70:30 ratio of PVA: NH 4 SCN polymer electrolyte films

  17. Immobilization of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanqiu; Tu, Baojun

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate. The immobilization conditions and ammonia oxidation ability of the immobilized bacteria were investigated. The following immobilization conditions were observed to be optimal: PVA, 12%; sodium alginate, 1.1%; calcium chloride, 1.0%; inoculum concentration, 1.3 immobilized balls/mL of immobilized medium; pH, 10; and temperature, 30°C. The immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria exhibited strong ammonia oxidation ability even after being recycled four times. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria reached 90.30% under the optimal immobilization conditions. When compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized by sodium alginate alone, the bacteria immobilized by PVA and sodium alginate were superior with respect to pH resistance, the number of reuses, material cost, heat resistance, and ammonia oxidation ability. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  19. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  20. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of garbage burning (GB emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3–30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  1. Evaluation of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer nanomicelle for trigeminal ganglion neurons delivering with intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengshuang; Xin, Meng; Song, Kaichao; Sun, Fengyuan; Hou, Yuzhen; Li, Jun; Wu, Xianggen

    2018-03-01

    Purpose How to deliver enough medical agents to the trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons conveniently still remains a challenge in pharmaceutics and clinics. The purpose of this study was to reveal that intranasal administration of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVCL-PVA-PEG) nanomicelle formulation could efficiently deliver agent to TG neurons in mice. Methods Ocular topical or intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6 was performed in mice, and tissue distribution after administration (0.25, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h) was analyzed. Fluoro-Gold was used as a retrograde tracer to identify corneal and nasal neurons in the TG. Pharmacokinetic profiles after ocular topical or intranasal administration were explored in detail. Results Coumarin-6 levels in the TG neurons were significantly higher in intranasal administration groups than in topical administration groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at all time points except for 10 h. Interestingly, in cornea, coumarin-6 was detected after intranasal administration. For intranasal administration groups, it was also interestingly found that coumarin-6 levels in the TG neurons were much higher than that in the brain, suggesting that the TG neurons was a target tissue after the intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6. These levels also indicated the safety of brain tissue after intranasal administration. Using Fluoro-Gold tract tracing techniques, coumarin-6 was detected in TG neurons after either ocular topical or intranasal administration of nanomicelle coumarin-6, indicating the high colocalization of corneal and nasal neurons in the TG. Conclusions Intranasal administration of PVCL-PVA-PEG nanomicelle formulation could efficiently deliver to TG neurons, and it might be a promising therapy for pathological TG neurons.

  2. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  3. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  4. Post-electrospinning crosslinking of guar/polyvinyl alcohol membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available College of Material and Textile Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, China The present study reports post-electrospinning crosslinking of guar/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid nanofiber membranes by heat treatment. Porous, interconnected nonwoven nanofiber membranes (average diameter 194±23 nm were electrospun from a homogeneous blend of 1wt% guar gum and 8wt% polyvinyl alcohol solution (3:7 weight ratio containing 5 wt% (by the total weight of the solution citric acid. The electrospun nanofiber membranes were then cured at 140 oC for 2 h. The crosslinked nanofiber membranes were insoluble in water, while the non-crosslinked membranes dissolved instantaneously. FT-IR spectrum investigates that crosslinking of guar/PVA occurred through esterfication reaction during heat treatment.

  5. Polyvinyl butyral based solid polymeric electrolytes. Preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Shaleen; Ramchandran, R.; Agnihotry, Rashmi S.A. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India)

    1996-01-08

    A series of solid polymeric electrolytes has been prepared based on Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) with different proportions of LiI salt. These polymeric electrolytes showed high ionic conductivity, which has been investigated as a function of the LiI concentration. The highest conductivity was seen at weight proportions 1:0.15 for PVB:LiI. An electrochromic device fabricated using this polymeric electrolyte showed good switching

  6. Stimuli Responsive Poly(Vinyl Caprolactam) Gels for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kummara Madhusudana Rao; Kummari Subba Venkata Krishna Rao; Chang-Sik Ha

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PNVCL) is one of the most important thermoresponsive polymers because it is similar to poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide). PNVCL precipitates from aqueous solutions in a physiological temperature range (32–34 °C). The use of PNVCL instead of PNIPAM is considered advantageous because of the assumed lower toxicity of PNVCL. PNVCL copolymer gels are sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature and pH; which gives them a wide range of biomedical applications and consequen...

  7. Rheology and structure of aqueous bentonite–polyvinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The influence of polymer on flow behaviour of Balikesir, Turkey bentonite dispersions (2%, w/w) was studied for non-ionic polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In a range of 3⋅3 × 10–6 – 3⋅3 × 105 mol/l, PVA was added to the bentonite dispersions in different concentrations and its behaviour was observed on ...

  8. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  9. Surface Properties of a Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol Film Prepared by Heterogeneous Saponification of Poly(vinyl acetate Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Baek Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost general poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films were prepared by the processing of a PVA solution. For the first time, a novel poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film was prepared by the saponification of a poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc film in a heterogenous medium. Under the same saponification conditions, the influence of saponification time on the degree of saponification (DS was studied for the preparation of the saponified PVA film, and it was found that the DS varied with time. Optical microscopy was used to confirm the characteristics and surface morphology of the saponified PVA film, revealing unusual black globules in the film structure. The contact angle of the films was measured to study the surface properties, and the results showed that the saponified PVA film had a higher contact angle than the general PVA film. To confirm the transformation of the PVAc film to the PVA film, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed.

  10. Effect of different polyol-based plasticizers on thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol:starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir

    2016-01-20

    A series of gelatinized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):starch blends were prepared with various polyol-based plasticizers in 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% ratios via solution casting method. The obtained films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkable changes have been observed in glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the samples containing varying concentrations of different plasticizers and they have been discussed in detail with respect to the conducted thermal and chemical analyses. The observed order of Tg point depression of the samples containing 15 wt% plasticizer is 1,4-butanediol - 1,2,6-hexanetriol--pentaerythriyol--xylitol--mannitol, which is similar to the sequence of the thermal stability changes of the samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  12. Nanofibre Electrospinning Poly(vinyl alcohol and Cellulose Composite Mats Obtained by Use of a Cylindrical Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sutka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of nanofibre composites obtained by electrospinning from poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solutions of steam exploded hemp fibres and shives is reported. A combined treatment of steam explosion (SE, ball milling, and high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS is applied to prepare cellulose nanofibres (CNF from hemp fibres (CNF-F and shives (CNF-S. The reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR ATR spectroscopy is used to analyze the obtained PVA/CNF composite mats. Morphology of the PVA/CNF composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  13. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  14. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  15. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  16. Sodium deoxycholate functionalized graphene and its composites with polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lanwei; Liao Ruijuan; Tang Zhenghai; Lei Yanda; Guo Baochun

    2011-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate (SDC), a kind of bile derivative, is used to noncovalently functionalize graphene. Stable and high concentration (up to 20 mg ml -1 ) of graphene colloid is obtained. The stabilization mechanism is revealed to be hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic repulsion and hydrogen bonding. Single-layer and few-layer graphene are obtained in the colloid. Subsequently, the obtained graphene sheets are incorporated into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix by solution casting to fabricate PVA/graphene composites. Morphological observations substantiate the homogeneous dispersion of graphene in the PVA matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between them. Significant improvements in tensile strength and modulus of the composite films are observed.

  17. The Huggins viscosity coefficient of aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewandowska, K.; Staszewska, D. U.; Bohdanecký, Miloslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2001), s. 25-32 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol ) * Huggins viscosity coefficient * aggregation of poly(vinyl alcohol ) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2001

  18. Sorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) and its cationic derivative on silica oxide: effect of charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesiene, J.; Matulioniene, J.; Aniulyte, J.; Keizer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based cationic polyelectrolyte (DEAE-PVA) as well as unmodified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto silica oxide surface was studied by means of reflectometry. The study was focused on the effect of charge of polymer segments on their adsorption on silica oxide. The

  19. Swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Sasaki, Saori

    2015-12-01

    Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are versatile biomaterials due to their excellent biocompatibility. In the past decades, physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels have been extensively studied for biomedical applications. However, these materials have not yet been implemented due to their mechanical strength. Physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels consist of a swollen amorphous network of poly(vinyl alcohol) physically crosslinked by microcrystallites. Although the mechanical properties can be improved to some extent by controlling the distribution of microcrystallites on the nano- and micro-scales, enhancing the mechanical properties while maintaining high water content remains very difficult. It may be technologically impossible to significantly improve the mechanical properties while keeping the gel's high water absorbance ability using conventional fabrication methods. Physical and chemical understandings of the swelling and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) gels are considered here; some promising strategies for their practical applications are presented. This review focuses more on the recent studies on swelling and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, prepared using only poly(vinyl alcohol) and pure water with no other chemicals, as potential biomedical materials. © IMechE 2015.

  20. Investigation of the primary plasticisers present in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products currently authorised as food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Katherine S; de Jager, Lowri S; Begley, Timothy H

    2018-03-15

    PVC is a common food contact material that is usually plasticised to increase its flexibility. Phthalates are one class of chemical compounds that are often used as plasticisers in PVC in a wide range of industries. They may be used in packaging materials for foods and can also be found in components of certain food processing equipment such as conveyor belts and tubing. Transfer of plasticisers from packaging to foods can occur. In recent years, there has been increased interest in understanding the health effects of phthalates, as well as the possible human exposure levels. However, there is limited information available about the routes of exposure to phthalates. In July 2014, the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) produced a report for the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission detailing the potential health hazards of phthalates and phthalate alternatives. This report listed diet as one factor contributing greater than or equal to 10% of total phthalate exposure. As a result of this report, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in determining the types of the primary plasticiser present in food packaging and processing materials as well as their concentrations. An investigation was conducted of 56 different samples of PVC food packaging and food processing materials available in the US market using a solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis. Nine different plasticisers including three phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, were identified in the products tested. The plasticiser concentrations ranged from 1 to 53% depending on the types of food contact materials and the type of plasticiser. Overall, it appears that manufacturers are switching away from phthalates as their primary plasticiser to alternate compounds such as ESBO, ATBC, DEHT, DINCH, DEHA and DINA.

  1. IR Laser-Induced Decomposition of Poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate): Control of Products by Irradiating Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupčík, Jaroslav; Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Šubrt, Jan; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Pola, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 11 (2006), s. 2560-2566 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : laser ablation * laser decomposition * laser-induced polymer films Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  2. Preparation of carbon-polyvinyl chloride (C-PVC) and its application for electrodes to electrochemical degradation of batik wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Nisaa, Choirun

    2017-11-01

    Batik industrial waste contains some hazardous substance, such as Remazol Black B, Remazol Red AB, Remazol golden yellow RNL, naphthol, benzene and other azo dyes class. Batik dye also contains high Pb, COD and TDS which electrochemical degradation is needed. Preparation and application of carbon-PVC (95% w/w: 5%) electrode using the batch system for batik waste degradation with electrolysis method were performed in this study. Variations of voltage and electrolysis time used are 6, 7, 8, and 9 V and 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes, respectively. Electrolysis was done by the addition of 1.5 g NaCl and the flow of external DC circuit Sanfix SP-303E. The optimum results were obtained from electrolysis with the voltage of 9 V in 150 minutes with 97.68% of waste degraded, and percent reduce TDS until 91.16%, total Pb metal content of 0.636 mg/L and COD figures amounted to 95.76%. This study concludes that electrolysis method using carbon-PVC electrode was used to degrade the batik waste is effective and can be reduce the value of COD, total Pb, and TDS.

  3. Nano level detection of Cd(II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Al Khayat, Maysoon; Singh, Ashok K; Pal, Manoj K

    2009-02-16

    The construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrodes based on two neutral ionophores, 2,2'-(1Z,1'Z)-(1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(azaan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methylene)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methan-1-yl-ylidene)diphenol (L(1)) and 4,4'-(1E,1'E)-(butane-1,4-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dinaphthalen-1-ol (L(2)) for quantification of cadmium ions, are described. The influences of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics. The best performance was obtained with the electrode having a membrane composition (w/w) of (L(1)) (2.6%):PVC (31.6%):DOP (63.2%):NaTPB (2.6%). The proposed electrode exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 5.0 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M Cd(2+) with limit of detection 3.1 x 10(-9), performs satisfactorily over wide pH range (2.0-8.5) with a fast response time (11s). The electrode has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 40% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 2.5 months. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of cadmium in cigarette samples. The practical utility of the membrane electrode has also been observed in the presence of surfactants.

  4. Nano level detection of Cd(II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Al Khayat, Maysoon; Singh, Ashok K.; Pal, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    The construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrodes based on two neutral ionophores, 2,2'-(1Z,1'Z)-(1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(azaan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methylene)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(methan-1-yl-ylidene)diphenol (L 1 ) and 4,4'-(1E,1'E)-(butane-1,4-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dinaphthalen-1-ol (L 2 ) for quantification of cadmium ions, are described. The influences of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics. The best performance was obtained with the electrode having a membrane composition (w/w) of (L 1 ) (2.6%):PVC (31.6%):DOP (63.2%):NaTPB (2.6%). The proposed electrode exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 5.0 x 10 -9 to 1.0 x 10 -1 M Cd 2+ with limit of detection 3.1 x 10 -9 , performs satisfactorily over wide pH range (2.0-8.5) with a fast response time (11 s). The electrode has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 40% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 2.5 months. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of cadmium in cigarette samples. The practical utility of the membrane electrode has also been observed in the presence of surfactants

  5. Nano level detection of Cd(II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Al Khayat, Maysoon [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Singh, Ashok K.; Pal, Manoj K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-02-16

    The construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrodes based on two neutral ionophores, 2,2'-(1Z,1'Z)-(1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(azaan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methylene)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(methan-1-yl-ylidene)diphenol (L{sub 1}) and 4,4'-(1E,1'E)-(butane-1,4-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dinaphthalen-1-ol (L{sub 2}) for quantification of cadmium ions, are described. The influences of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics. The best performance was obtained with the electrode having a membrane composition (w/w) of (L{sub 1}) (2.6%):PVC (31.6%):DOP (63.2%):NaTPB (2.6%). The proposed electrode exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 5.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M Cd{sup 2+} with limit of detection 3.1 x 10{sup -9}, performs satisfactorily over wide pH range (2.0-8.5) with a fast response time (11 s). The electrode has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 40% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 2.5 months. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of cadmium in cigarette samples. The practical utility of the membrane electrode has also been observed in the presence of surfactants.

  6. Photostability Characterization of Wood Polymer Composites of Polyvinyl Chloride and Rice Husk to Ultra-Violet Irradiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jais Farhana Hazwanee M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the photostability of wood polymer composites (WPC was assessed by using ultra-violet accelerated weathering test. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of WPC show strength improvement at prolonged UV irradiation exposure with 43.21 MPa and maximum strain of 4.08 % at 5000 hours and 1000 hours UV irradiation exposure respectively. The colour stability of WPC was improved by addition of Ultraviolet (UV stabilizer during pre-mixing process which shows positive effect on the colour stability and prevented chalking of the composites for external use. Generally, discolourations of WPC during test exposure were caused by degradation of both wood and plastic. Therefore, incorporation with pigments and other additives gives improvement to the photostability of WPC. This is based on the increment of WPCs mechanical property while the morphological fracture surface of dumbbell test specimens revealed the pull out rice husk fiber which contributed to the distribution of load in the WPC samples.

  7. Optical and electronic properties of quaternized polysulfone/polyvinyl alcohol blends in relation to structure of the polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Luminita Ioana, E-mail: luminitab25@yahoo.com; Avram, Ecaterina; Musteata, Valentina Elena; Filimon, Anca

    2016-07-01

    New blend system of quaternized polysulfone/polyvinyl alcohol was investigated, as to its optical and electronic properties. Optical properties were analyzed by refractivity and transmission spectra. In order to obtain optical parameters, an approach proposed by Tauc for amorphous semiconductors was used, because of the similarity of the absorption edges. At the same time, the frequency-dependent-dielectric properties and conductivity of these blends were studied. The dielectric constant takes low values for the studied blend, being dependent on the chemical characteristics of the blend compounds. The dielectric loss behavior exhibits two types of relaxation, γ and β, for the analyzed samples, being due to temperatures at which the two processes occur in the case of pure components. The results obtained from conduction studies showed that the conduction mechanism in the quaternized polysulfone/polyvinyl alcohol blend was based on the electronic hopping process, which can be explained in terms of band conduction mechanisms, through band gap representation. The outcomes of this work highlight the importance of new polymer blends for better electrical performances. - Highlights: • New blend systems are investigated to evaluate the dielectric and optical behavior–chemical structure relationship. • Evaluation of optical properties is reflecting transparent material characteristics. • Correlation between optical and electrical parameters has been established.

  8. Sensitized green emission of terbium with dibenzoylmethane and 1, 10 phenanthroline in polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Tb doped polyvinyl alcohol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone blends with dibenzoylmethane (DBM) and 1, 10 Phenanthroline (Phen) have been prepared by solution cast technique. Bond formation amongst the ligands and Tb3 + ions in the doped polymer has been confirmed employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Optical properties of the Tb3 + ions have been investigated using UV-Vis absorption, excitation and fluorescence studies excited by different radiations. Addition of dimethylbenzoate and 1, 10 Phenanthroline to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb3 + ions along with energy transfer from the polymer blend itself. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from DBM and Phen to Tb3 + ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. The fluorescence decay time of PVA-PVP host decreases from 6.02 ns to 2.31 ns showing an evidence of energy transfer from the host blend to the complexed Tb ions. Similarly the lifetime of DBM and Phen and both in the blend reduces in the complexed system showing the feasibility of energy transfer from these excited DBM and Phen to Tb3 + and is proposed as the cause of the above observations. These entire phenomena have been explained by the energy level diagram.

  9. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2017-10-15

    The application of the electro-Fenton process for organic compound mineralisation has been widely reported over the past years. However, operational problems related to the use of soluble iron salt as a homogeneous catalyst involve the development of novel catalysts that are able to operate in a wide pH range. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads, containing goethite as iron, were synthesised and evaluated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride mineralisation. The influence of catalyst dosage and pH solution on ionic liquid degradation was analysed, achieving almost total oxidation after 60 min under optimal conditions (2 g/L catalyst concentration and pH 3). The results showed good catalyst stability and reusability, although its effectiveness decreases slightly after three successive cycles. Furthermore, a plausible mineralisation pathway was proposed based on the oxidation byproducts determined by chromatographic techniques. Finally, the Microtox® test revealed notable detoxification after treatment which demonstrates high catalyst ability for pyridinium-based ionic liquid degradation by the electro-Fenton process.

  10. Potential life-threatening variations of drug concentrations in intravenous infusion systems: potassium chloride, insulin, and heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, N.; Vellar, I.D.

    1982-09-18

    The investigation of concentrations of active agents in common carrier media for intravenous infusion revealed that potassium chloride tends to form a pool when it is added without mixing to carrier media in glass or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers which are already suspended in their functional position with ports pointing downwards. Heparin behaves in a similar fashion when added without mixing to carrier media in PVC containers. Such uneven distribution may expose a patient to potentially dangerous, possibly lethal, concentrations of a drug even when a relatively small amount of it is used. Insulin floats to the top of a Haemaccel container if its contents are not adequately mixed after addition of insulin. The resultant irregularity of insulin dosage may make the management of diabetic ketoacidosis more difficult. It is recommended that the instructions for the adequate mixing of contents should appear on all containers of carrier media for intravenous infusions.

  11. Colorful and transparent poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films filled with layered zinc hydroxide salts, intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes (methyl orange and orange II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves da Silva, Marlon Luiz; Marangoni, Rafael; Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Schreiner, Wido Herwig; Wypych, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide salts were successfully intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes. ► The anionic dye was co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. ► The orange materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol). ► Transparent, homogeneous, colorful PVA films were obtained by wet casting. ► Some composites stored at lower humidity exhibited improved mechanical properties. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide salts (zinc LHS) were intercalated with anionic orange azo dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and orange II (OII), and co-intercalated with hydrated chloride anions. After characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the materials were used as fillers for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Colorful transparent films were obtained by wet casting, revealing good dispersion of the material into the polymer. In the case of zinc LHS/OII, PVA was intercalated between the zinc LHS layers. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the PVA composite films revealed that the layered colorful materials were able to increase the mechanical properties of the PVA films only when the films were stored under lower relative humidity. As expected, films with higher water content displayed reduced tensile strength and modulus because of the plasticizing effect of water. As for the films stored at 43% relative humidity, more pronounced improvement of modulus was observed for 1 and 4% zinc LHS/OII, and enhanced tensile strength was achieved for 0.5 and 1% zinc LHS/OII. This effect can be attributed to better dispersion of the layered filler and its better adhesion to the PVA matrix.

  12. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  13. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  14. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  15. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones ... The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines ...

  16. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  17. Diffusion relaxation of photoinduced gratings in polyvinyl acetate latex films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veniaminov, A. V.; Bartsch, E.

    2011-03-01

    The features of the postexposure relaxation of holographic gratings recorded in inhomogeneous polyvinyl acetate latex films with photosensitive agents (photochromic molecules of fulgide dyes and phenanthrenequinone) have been considered. The diffusion coefficients and rms displacements of izomerized probe in polymer latex particles and aqueous environment are determined within the model of two diffusion states. The effective diffusion coefficient of the molecular probe, which is responsible for the relaxation of gratings, increases with an increase in their period in wet films, whereas in dry films, this parameter is independent of the grating period. In the films subjected to high-temperature treatment the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with an increase in the grating period. The successive stages of grating relaxation in latex films with phenanthrenequinone are related to the diffusion of free molecules, radicals, and polymer chains, as well as to the local displacement of macromolecular segments at distances of 5-25 nm.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on the poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terence, M.C.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) is a polymer used as bio material. The PVAL was used as ocular insert and may be used as a drug delivery system (DDS) for pair PVAL/gancyclovir, where the last one is used for treatment of people with retinitis caused by cytomegalovirus. These inserts are crosslinked systems. The crosslink was induced by gamma radiation applied in polymer. The samples of PVAL was irradiated by gamma rays with doses in the range 0 to 100 kGy. On irradiated PVAL samples was observed a low yellowness, attributed to the formation of polymeric radicals that are stable in the structure of the polymer, from radiolysis of PVAL. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of bioglass/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Wang Yingjun; Zheng Yudong; Chen Xiaofeng; Ren Li; Wu Gang; Huang Xiaoshan

    2007-01-01

    In order to form firm active fixation with the adjacent bone, a new kind of bioactive composite hydrogel was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bioglass (BG) through ultrasonic dispersion, heat-high-pressure and freeze/thawed technique. A digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to characterize the mechanical properties of the series of BG/PVA composites. Results showed that at different load pressures, the composite hydrogel displayed different displacement and deformation in the V field. Results also showed that an increase of PVA percentage (15-30 wt%) or of bioglass percentage (2-10 wt%) in composite hydrogel could lead to an increase in the elastic compression modulus. Scanning electron microscope results indicated that bioglass was uniformly dispersed in the BG/PVA composite hydrogel. The BG/PVA composite hydrogel shows a promising prospect as a new bionic cartilage implantation material

  20. Degradation of Polyvinyl Alcohol using a Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. K.; Yoo, D. H.; Lee, J. K.; Lee, B. J.; Lee, M. J.; Choi, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Han, B. S.; Kim, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    The release of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from industrial plants, especially from the textile industry causes many ecological problems, which still need to be solved. Unfortunately, sizing agents in these wastewaters are very difficult to break down biologically, and they are known as the dominant contributor of COD in the textile wastewater. Conventional treatment technologies do not satisfactorily reduce PVA concentration in the wastewaters. Although, PVA in wastewater can be effectively destroyed by wet oxidation, advanced chemical oxidation such as Fenton oxidation, UV, O 3 and RuO 2 /TiO 2 process, the costs of these methods are relatively high because of additional chemical requirements. Especially, positive effects of gamma-rays irradiation for purification of wastewater are well known. Therefore, objective of this work is to examine the applicability of gamma rays irradiation to the treatment of wastewater containing PVA

  1. Reentrant behaviour in polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels, cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax, were studied with small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The SANS data satisfy the Ornstein-Zernike approximation. The hydrogels are modelled as PVA chains bound by borate cross-links. Water occupies the spaces within the three-dimensional hydrogel network. The mesh size ξ indicates reentrant behaviour i.e. at first, ξ increases and later decreases as a function of borax concentration. The behaviour is explained on the basis of the balance between the charged di-diol cross-links and the shielding by free ions in the solvent. XRD and DTA show the molecular size of water in the solvent and the glass transition temperature commensurate with reentrant behaviour.

  2. Synthesis and morphology of polyvinyl alcohol /zinc sulfide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.; Motlan

    2017-07-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposites have been synthesized. The nanocomposites which prepared by sol-gel method were mixed to various concentrations of PVA using magnetic stirrer bar of 500 rpm at 80°C. After the solvent evaporates, the white suspensions were casted on to a flat metal and the film-like composites formed. Those samples were characterized including tensile for mechanical test follow ISO-527-2 and melting points for thermal analysis using DSC operated at 20°C/min with the temperature range of 30-300°C. The most homogeny and Young modulus samples were obtained at ratio 98:2 w/w % of PVA/ZnS, and the highest melting point were found at ratio 97:3% of PVA/ZnS.

  3. Stimuli Responsive Poly(Vinyl Caprolactam Gels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummara Madhusudana Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl caprolactam (PNVCL is one of the most important thermoresponsive polymers because it is similar to poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide. PNVCL precipitates from aqueous solutions in a physiological temperature range (32–34 °C. The use of PNVCL instead of PNIPAM is considered advantageous because of the assumed lower toxicity of PNVCL. PNVCL copolymer gels are sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature and pH; which gives them a wide range of biomedical applications and consequently attracts considerable scientific interest. This review focuses on the recent studies on PNVCL-based stimuli responsive three dimensional hydrogels (macro, micro, and nano for biomedical applications. This review also covers the future outlooks of PNVCL-based gels for biomedical applications, particularly in the drug delivery field.

  4. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism of Bulk Polymerization of Vinyl Chloride in a Polymerization Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC is the third most commonly produced polymer and is important because of its mechanical characteristics. The most common method of PVC manufacturing is the process of suspension. Although, there are several benefits associated with suspension, this study will focus on the bulk polymerization of vinyl chloride; highlight the physical and chemical properties of PVC, which can be changed through an estimation of the optimum ratio that exists between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of the polymer’s surface, and propose a new mathematical model which will be helpful for the conversion of PVC into a useful form. The result will be the proposal of a new dynamic mathematical model for the three-phase structure model. All particles have been taken into account in the proposed model, which helped contribute to the reaction in gel, solid, and liquid phases, emphasizing the use of mercury (Hg as a catalyst. The proposed mathematical model considers the heat and mass transfer between the liquid, gel, and solid phases with chemical reactions that occur between the liquid and solid phases, and between the gel and solid phases. The effect of the catalyst and volumetric flow rates of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM on the system have been evaluated through the proposed mathematical model. Furthermore, the study’s experimental data have been compared with the findings of the suggested model in the context of concentration and temperature reaction. Obtained results show good agreement between the proposed mathematical model and the actual plant data.

  6. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  7. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... will be followed by a potable water rinse of the carcass. [72 FR 67576, Nov. 29, 2007] ...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  12. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: pinamura@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s{sup -1}, energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  13. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s -1 , energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  14. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhavat Pour, Zahra; Makvandi, Pooyan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2015-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing antibacterial polymeric materials. In the present work, novel antibacterial cross-linked blend films were prepared based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary ammonium starch (ST-GTMAC) using citric acid (CA) as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linker. The ST-GTMAC was successfully synthesized from reaction between water-soluble oxidized starch and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). The effect of ST-GTMAC, CA and GA contents on the swelling, solubility, mechanical and thermal properties of the films was investigated. It was found that incorporation of ST-GTMAC reduced UV-transmittance and provided antibacterial properties, increasing GA content increased tensile strength and decreased solubility and swelling degree of the films, while CA acted as plasticizer when its concentration was above 10 wt%. The results showed that ST-GTMAC/PVA/CA/GA film has fair antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These results suggest that the prepared film might be used as potential antibacterial material in medical and packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immobilization of phospholipase a1 using a polyvinyl alcohol-alginate matrix and evaluation of the effects of immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Zhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis and performance of an immobilized phospholipase A1 with practical application for oil degumming. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA had a number of properties indicating this polymer as a good enzyme carrier. The combination with alginate made a macro-porous structure, evidenced by SEM analyses. When the process time in boric acid solution was 30 minutes, the results revealed that beads prepared with 10% (w/v PVA and 2% (w/v sodium alginate in 4% (w/v boric acid and 2% (w/v calcium chloride solution exhibited high immobilized enzyme activity, immobilization yield and stability. The pH and temperature optimum for the PVA-alginate immobilized phospholipase A1were 5.6 and 58 °C, respectively. The enzyme immobilized in the beads retained 50.37% of the initial activity in the eighth cycle. The enzyme biocatalyst immobilized in the beads retained 78.58% of the initial activity after storing 6 weeks at 4 °C.

  16. Investigation of physico-mechanical properties of flexible poly (vinyl chloride) filled with antimony trioxide using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Mona Y; Fathy, E S; Hassan, Medhat M

    2018-04-12

    Composites of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with 2% calcium carbonate, 2% diethyl phthalate, 2% paraffin wax and 2% lead sulphate and different contents of antimony trioxide (Sb 2 O 3 ) prepared by melting and irradiated with gamma ray have been considered. Assessment of the mechanical and thermal properties of the unirradiated and irradiated flexible polyvinyl chloride (FPVC) were completed utilizing elasticity (TS), Elongation at break (Eb) and thermogravimetric analysis measurements. TS and thermal stability of FPVC displayed advanced improvement after addition of additives and this approach highlighted the efficiency of those ingredients on PVC. The compounding of FPVC with Sb 2 O 3 in various extents was examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. It is obvious that the presence of Sb 2 O 3 begins impacting oxidative degradation, leading to a decrease in mechanical properties up to 10%. Moreover, a slight increase in the thermal stability of composites by exposure to ionizing radiation is apparently due to cross-linking of FPVC chains.

  17. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  19. Inhibiting the deterioration of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride)-a museum perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    materials in museums. Environments included a closed flask, freezer, with silica gel, activated carbon and Ageless ® oxygen absorber, at high relative humidity, on glass and in polyethylene bags. In addition, two naturally aged ‘objects’, also plasticized with DEHP and exhibiting deterioration, were......Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been one of the most economically and technically important synthetic materials since the 1950s . Proportions of plasticizer in commercial PVC formulations range from 15% to 50% by weight. Examples of these various formulations are present in many...... international museum collections, in the form of protective clothing and footwear, inflatable furniture, cable insulation, toys, medical tubing and sculpture. Most plasticized PVC formulations are designed to function for less than 10 years; this is a concern to museums where all collections should be preserved...

  20. 78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce..., AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S...

  1. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  2. Sorption of ions Pb2+ by cryogels on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol and bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Seralin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryogels on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol and bentonite clay were synthesized. Influences of factors of environment (pH, temperature on properties of composites and them sorption ability were considered. In given article it is resulted sorption kinetics of lead ions on bentonite clay, and also composite cryogel on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol and bentonite clay. It was established that composite cryogels shows much bigger sorption ability.

  3. Biodesulphurization of gasoline by Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, A; Sadeghi, S

    2017-05-01

    A new biodesulphurization (BDS) method has been considered using Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for BDS of thiophene as a gasoline sulphur model compound in n-hexane as the solvent, subsequently this biocatalyst has been applied to BDS of gasoline samples. The obtained results according to UV-Spectrophotometer analysis at 240 nm showed that 97·41% of thiophene at the optimum condition of primary concentration 80 mg l -1 , pH = 7, by 0·1 g of biocatalyst in 30°C and after 20 h of contact time has been degraded. These optimum conditions have been applied to gasoline BDS and the biodegradation of gasoline thiophenic compounds have been investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to GC-MS, thiophene and its 2-methyl, 3-methyl and 2- ethyl derivatives had acceptable biodegradation efficiencies of about 26·67, 21·03, 23·62% respectively. Also, benzothiophene that has been detected in a gasoline sample had 38·89% biodegradation efficiency at optimum conditions, so biomodification of PVA by R. erythropolis produces biocatalysts with an active metabolism that facilitates the interaction of bacterial strain with gasoline thiophenic compounds. The morphology and surface functional groups of supported R. erythropolis on PVA have been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy respectively. SEM images suggest some regular layered shape for the supported bacteria. FT-IR spectra indicate a desirable interaction between bacterial cells and polymer supports. Also, the recovery of biocatalyst has been investigated and after three times of using in BDS activity, its biocatalytic ability had no significant decreases. The biomodification of polyvinyl alcohol by Rhodococcus erythropolis described herein produces a new biocatalyst which can be used for significantly reducing the thiophenic compounds of gasoline and other fossil fuels. The immobilization process is to increase the

  4. Synthesis, characterization, optical and antimicrobial studies of polyvinyl alcohol-silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) through sodium borohydride. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance band located at around 400 nm in the UV-Visible absorption spectrum confirmed the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Polyvinyl alcohol-silver (PVA-Ag) nanocomposite films were prepared by the casting technique. The morphology and interaction of PVA with Ag NPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Optical studies show that PVA exhibited indirect allowed optical transition with optical energy gap of 4.8 eV, which reduced to 4.45 eV under addition of Ag NPs. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant and their dispersions have been analyzed using Wemple and DiDomenco model. Color properties of the nanocomposites are discussed in the framework of CIE L∗u∗v∗ color space. The antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite samples was tested against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 7447 &Bacillus subtillis NCIB 3610), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, NTC10416 &Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 9016) and fungi (Aspergillus niger Ferm - BAM C-21) using the agar diffusion technique. The antimicrobial study showed that PVA has moderate antibacterial activity against B. subtillis and the 0.04 wt% Ag NPs composite sample effect was strong against S. aureus.

  5. Effect of Polyvinyl Siloxane Viscosity on Accuracy of Dental Implant Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghahremanloo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dental implant impressions obtained by a combination of different impression techniques and viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS.Materials and Methods: Four parallel fixtures were placed between mental foramina in a master model of lower dental arch. Three different viscosities (putty/light body, medium body/light body, and monophase: heavy body and direct and indirect techniques (six groups were used, and seven impressions were obtained from each group (n=42. To measure the accuracy of impressions, drift, horizontal, and vertical angles of the implants, as well as the hex rotation of the implants in casts were evaluated using a digitizer device (1μm accuracy, in comparison with master arch. Data were analyzed using five-factor two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test.Results: The accuracy of impressions was assessed and the results showed that direct technique was not significantly different from indirect technique (P>0.05. Also, there were no significant differences between the mentioned viscosities except for the horizontal angle (P=0.006.Conclusions: Viscosity of impression materials is of high significance for the accuracy of dental impressions.Keywords: Dental Materials; Dental Implants; Dental Impression Technique; Viscosity; Vinyl Polysiloxane; Dimensional Measurement Accuracy

  6. Effect of Polyvinyl Siloxane Viscosity on Accuracy of Dental Implant Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanloo, Ahmad; Seifi, Mahdieh; Ghanbarzade, Jalil; Abrisham, Seyyed Mohammad; Javan, Rashid Abdolah

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dental implant impressions obtained by a combination of different impression techniques and viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS). Four parallel fixtures were placed between mental foramina in a master model of lower dental arch. Three different viscosities (putty/light body, medium body/light body, and monophase: heavy body) and direct and indirect techniques (six groups) were used, and seven impressions were obtained from each group (n=42). To measure the accuracy of impressions, drift, horizontal, and vertical angles of the implants, as well as the hex rotation of the implants in casts were evaluated using a digitizer device (1μm accuracy), in comparison with master arch. Data were analyzed using five-factor two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. The accuracy of impressions was assessed and the results showed that direct technique was not significantly different from indirect technique (P>0.05). Also, there were no significant differences between the mentioned viscosities except for the horizontal angle (P=0.006). Viscosity of impression materials is of high significance for the accuracy of dental impressions.

  7. Properties and Applications of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Halloysite Nanotubes and Their Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to analyze/investigate the synthesis, properties, and applications of polyvinyl alcohol–halloysite nanotubes (PVA–HNT, and their nanocomposites. Different polymers with versatile properties are attractive because of their introduction and potential uses in many fields. Synthetic polymers, such as PVA, natural polymers like alginate, starch, chitosan, or any material with these components have prominent status as important and degradable materials with biocompatibility properties. These materials have been developed in the 1980s and are remarkable because of their recyclability and consideration of the natural continuation of their physical and chemical properties. The fabrication of PVA–HNT nanocomposites can be a potential way to address some of PVA’s limitations. Such nanocomposites have excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability. PVA–HNT nanocomposites have been reported earlier, but without proper HNT individualization and PVA modifications. The properties of PVA–HNT for medicinal and biomedical use are attracting an increasing amount of attention for medical applications, such as wound dressings, drug delivery, targeted-tissue transportation systems, and soft biomaterial implants. The demand for alternative polymeric medical devices has also increased substantially around the world. This paper reviews individualized HNT addition along with crosslinking of PVA for various biomedical applications that have been previously reported in literature, thereby showing the attainability, modification of characteristics, and goals underlying the blending process with PVA.

  8. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxylapatite (HA) hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F; Ma, M; Lu, L; Pan, Z; Zhou, W; Cai, J; Luo, S; Zeng, W; Yin, F

    2017-05-20

    A novel bioactive hydrogel for cartilage tissue based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxylapatite (HA) were prepared, the effects of its component contents on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the hydrogel were investigated. The important properties of the scaffold composites, such as density, porosity, compressive modulus and microstructure were studied and analyzed through various measurements and methods. The biodegradability of hydrogel was evaluated by soaking the samples into artificial degradation solution at body temperature (36 - 37 oC) in vitro. Experimental results showed that the PVA/HA hydrogels had a density of 0.572 - 0.683 g/cm3, a porosity of 63.25 - 96.14% and a compressive modulus of 5.62 - 8.24 MP. The HA compound in the hydrogels enhanced the biodegradation significantly and linearly increased the rate of biodegradation by 2.3 - 8.5 %. The compressive modulus of PVA/HA exhibited a linear reduce to 0.86 - 1.53 MP with the time of degradation. The scaffold composites PVA/HA possess a high porosity, decent compressive modulus and good biodegradability. After further optimizing the structure and properties, this composite might be considered as novel hydrogel biomaterials to be applied in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Constitutive Investigation on Viscoelasticity of PolyVinyl Butyral: Experiments Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PolyVinyl Butyral (PVB film is now widely used in automotive industry and architectures serving as the protective interlayer. The dynamic modulus of PVB is measured through systematic experiments based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA method at various temperatures, heating rates, and vibration frequencies. Further, viscoelasticity of PVB influenced by time and temperature is systematically studied. Fitted empirical formulas describing the relationship between glass transition temperature and frequency, as well as the heating rate of PVB, are established. The master curve of PVB at 293 K is suggested based on the experiment data as to express the dynamic modulus variation at various frequencies in a wider range. Constitutive behavior of PVB is then analyzed based on Generalized Maxwell (GM model and Fractional Derivative (FD model, respectively. It is shown that PVB has higher efficiency of energy dissipation in its high energy absorption state, while both fifth-order GM model and FD model can characterize the viscoelasticity of PVB at glassy transition area. Results may offer useful fundamental experimental data and important constitutive characteristics of PVB and shed lights on further studies on viscoelasticity behavior of PVB and energy mitigation ability of laminated glass.

  10. Physical changes on the radiation and heat induced poly(Vinyl alcohol) fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Park, Kyung Ran; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Youn Mook; Kang, Phil Hyun [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has high tensile strength and flexibility as well as oxygen barrier properties. The water, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the tensile strength of PVA and swells PVA as well. It needs to have high water-resistant depending on its applications, especially for the use as tire cords. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the annealing temperature and radiation on the Gel content and tensile strength of PVA fbers. For this purpose, gel fraction and tensile strength were determined and analyzed. Annealing was performed in the temperature range of 120-180℃ for 10 min. PVA fbers were irradiated by using a conventional electron beam irradiation at a radiation dose of 50⁓200 kGy, at a dose of 10 kGy/pass at room temperature (acceleration voltage of 1 MeV). Annealing markedly increased the Gel content and the tensile strength of PVA fbers. However irradiation lowered the Gel content and the tensile strength of PVA fbers because they were degraded easily by radiation.

  11. Falsely increased chloride and missed anion gap elevation during treatment with sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendroth, Scott M; Heady, Tiffany N; Haverstick, Doris M; Bachmann, Lorin M; Scott, Mitchell G; Boyd, James C; Bruns, David E

    2014-04-20

    Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is used to treat calciphylaxis and cyanide poisoning, but can lead to a serious anion-gap acidosis. We suspected that the calculated anion gap in a patient treated with STS for calciphylaxis was decreased to normal by a falsely increased chloride, and we hypothesized that STS directly interfered with chloride measurements. Plasma pools were prepared with 12 concentrations of STS from 0 to 20 mmol/l. Chloride was measured in each sample on 9 analyzers: Architect 16200, StatProfile pHOx Plus, RapidLab 1265®, Vitros 350®, Advia 1800, Roche Modular, iSTAT1, RAPIDpoint 500, and Radiometer ABL735. Statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in reported chloride concentrations were seen with all analyzers except the RAPIDpoint 500 and Vitros. The increases ranged from 5 to 75 mmol/l at the peak thiosulfate concentrations (33 mmol/l) expected in treated patients. The CLIA-allowable error of 5% was exceeded by 4 analyzers (Architect 16200, iSTAT1, StatProfile pHOx Plus, and Radiometer ABL735). The RAPIDpoint 500 showed a 3-mmol/l decrease in measured chloride over the tested range. The Vitros analyzer showed no interference. Interference of STS in chloride measurement in several common analyzers may lead to erroneous anion-gap calculations and confound the diagnosis of STS-induced anion-gap acidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. One-pot Synthesis and Surface Modification of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Alcohol by Coprecipitation and Ultrasonication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Aditya D.; Wulandari, Ika O.; Hutami Rahayu, L. B.; Riva’i, Imam; Santojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    Among the various substances developed through nanoparticles, iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle is one of the substances that have been widely used in various fields such as industry, agriculture, biotechnology and biomedicine. The synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticle can be carried out by two methods, consist of chemical and mechanical synthesis methods. Coprecipitation is one of the most commonly used methods for chemical synthesis. Fe3O4 compounds are easily oxidized because they are amphoteric. To avoid the continuous oxidation process, chemical modification process should be carried out with the addition of a solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this study, PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ coprecipitation and ultrasonication methods through direct mixing (one-pot synthesis) of the iron (II) chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl2.4H2O), iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O), and PVA under alkaline condition. The effects of addition amount of NH3solution (by adjusting its flow rate using automated syringe pump) and PVA concentration were gently studied. Interaction of PVA with Fe3O4 nanoparticle was identified by infrared spectroscopy whereas lattice parameters and crystallite sizes of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and PVA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  13. Graft copolymerization of styrene onto poly(vinyl alcohol) initiated by potassium diperiodatocuprate (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, L.; Wang, Ch.; Jin, J.; Liu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of styrene onto poly(vinyl alcohol) is studied by using a novel redox system of potassium diperiodatocuprate-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Cu(III)poly(vinyl alcohol) in alkaline medium. Cu(III)-poly(vinyl alcohol) redox pair is an efficient initiator for this graft copolymerization which is proved by high graft efficiency (>97%) and high percentage of graft (>300%). Reaction conditions (monomer-to-poly(vinyl alcohol) weight ratio, initiator concentration, p H, time and temperature) affect the graft parameters which have been investigated systematically. The optimum reaction conditions are found as St/poly(vinyl alcohol) = 5.4; [Cu(III)] = 1*10 -2 M; p H = 12.7; temperature = 50 d eg C ; time = 3.5 h. Further, the equation of the overall polymerization rate can be written as follows: R p = k C 1.9 (St) C 1.7 (Cu(III)). The overall activation energy was calculated to be 42.0 kJ/mol based on the experimental data of the relations between R p and C(St); R p and C(Cu(III)); and R p and temperature. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of radicals and the initiation. The structure of the graft copolymers is confirmed by Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy. Some peaks were compared with poly(vinyl alcohol) at 3080.34-3001.79 cm -1 (=C-H stretching in the phenyl ring), 1600.34-1450.95 cm -1 (C=C stretching in the phenyl ring), 755.17 cm -1 and 698.64 cm -1 (=C-H out-off-plane bending in phenyl ring) which are considered to belong to the characteristic absorption bands of phenyl group of polystyrene. Therefore it proves that the graft copolymer is composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and polystyrene. thermal gravimetric analysis thermo grams of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-polystyrene are investigated as well. As it is shown the initial decomposition temperature of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-polystyrene(377.3 d eg C ) is much higher than that of poly(vinyl alcohol) (241.8 d eg C ), which indicates that the thermal stability of the

  14. Development of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl alcohol bionanocomposite for prosthesis implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, V.; Pabi, S. K.; Chowdhury, S. K. Roy

    2018-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) has similar structural and chemical properties of natural bone mineral and hence widely used as a bone replacement substitute. Natural bone consists of hydroxyapatite and collagen. For mimicking the natural, in the present work, a sintered porous hydroxyapatite component has been vacuum impregnated with Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which has better properties like biocompatibility, biodegradability and water- solubility. Hydroxyapatite powders have been made into nanosize to reduce the melting point and hence the sintering temperature. In the present investigation high energy ball mill is used to produce nano-hydroxyapatite powders in bulk quantity by optimizing the milling parameters using stainless steel grinding media. Pellets of 10 mm diameter have been produced from nano- hydroxyapatite powders under different uniaxial compaction pressures. The pellets have been sintered to form porous compacts. The vacuum impregnation of sintered pallets with PVA solution of different strength has been done to find the optimum impregnation condition. Microhardness, compressive strength, wear loss and haemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite ceramics have been studied before and after impregnation of PVA. The nano- hydroxyapatite/PVA composites have superior mechanical properties and reduced wear loss than the non-impregnated porous nano-hydroxyapatite ceramics.

  15. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol) xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Elton Jorge da Rocha; Cavalcante, Maxwell de Paula; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2016-05-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO{sub 2}), were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO{sub 2} does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO{sub 2}. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials. (author)

  16. Thermal stability of polyvinyl alcohol/nanocrystalline cellulose composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, Marina I; Surov, Oleg V; Guseinov, Sabir S; Barannikov, Vladimir P; Zakharov, Anatoly G

    2015-10-05

    Thermal stability of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystals (PVA/CNCs) composites prepared with solution casting technique was studied. The PVA/CNCs composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Due to the presence of CNCs nanoparticles, thermal degradation of the composites occurs at much higher temperatures compared to that of the neat PVA. Thermal stability of the PVA/CNCs composites is maximally enhanced with CNCs content of 8-12 wt%. Some thermal degradation products of the PVA/CNCs composites were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. TG measurements with synchronous recording of mass spectra revealed that the thermal degradation of both CNCs and PVA in the composites with CNCs content of 8-12 wt% occurs simultaneously at a much higher temperature than that of CNCs or the neat PVA. However, with increasing CNCs content more than 12 wt% the thermal stability of the composites decreases. In this case, the degradation of CNCs comes first followed by the degradation of PVA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukhova, I.V., E-mail: ivpuhova@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kurzina, I.A. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K.P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Laput, O.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E.M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 10{sup 14}, 1 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (−C=O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  18. Optical and structural behaviors of crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subhankar; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) has excellent properties like uniaxial tensile stress, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, etc. The properties of PVA further can be tuned by crosslinking process. In this work, a simple heat treatment method is used to find out the optimum crosslinking of PVA and the corresponding structural and optical responses are explored. The PVA crosslinking is done by exposing the films at different temperatures and time intervals. The optical property of pure and heat treated PVA films are investigated by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and structural modifications are studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The absorption peaks of pure PVA are observed at ≈ 280 and 335 nm and the corresponding emission is observed at ≈ 424 nm. The pure PVA showed modified optical behaviors after the heat treatment. In addition, dipping the PVA films in hot water (85°C) for nearly 20 minutes also show impact on both structural and optical properties. From FTIR spectroscopy, the changes in vibrational band positions confirm the structural modifications of PVA films.

  19. Adsorption Characteristics of Polyvinyl Alcohols in Solution on Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Yan Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite (EG adsorbent was prepared with 50 mesh graphite as raw materials, potassium permanganate as oxidant, and vitriol as intercalation compound. Three kinds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different degree of polymerization (DP in aqueous solution were used as adsorbates. We have studied the influence of initial PVA concentration, temperature and ionic strength on adsorption capacity. Langmuir constants and Gibbs free energy change (⊿G° were calculated according to experimental data respectively. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the equilibrium adsorbance of PVA on EG increase with the rise of SO42– concentration. Adsorption isotherms of PVA with different degree of polymerization are all types and we deduce PVA molecules lie flat on EG surface. Adsorption processes are all spontaneous. Kinetic studies show that the kinetic data can be described by pseudo second-order kinetic model. Second-order rate constants and the initial adsorption rate rise with the increasing of temperature and half-adsorption time decreases with the increasing of temperature. The adsorption activation energy of each PVA is less than 20 kJ•mol−1, physical adsorption is the major mode of the overall adsorption process.

  20. Research progress of fabricating polyvinyl alcohol coating on plastic microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Lin; Chen Sufen; Liu Meifang; Zhang Zhanwen; Yao Hong; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the procedures of designing polystyrene-polyvinyl alcohol-CH (carbon and hydrogen elements) (PS-PVA-CH) triple-layer microspheres, there are many methods such as drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation, dip (spin) coating, interfacial polycondensation, and spraying technique to prepare the PVA coating. Drop-tower technique, emulsion micro-encapsulation and dip (spin) coating are most-commonly used. The advantages, disadvantages and the research progress of the three methods are summarized in this paper. Emulsion micro-encapsulation is suitable for preparing double-layer microspheres of sizes smaller then 500 μm, with high survival ratio and good quality. However, the preparation process is easily influenced by artificial factors. Small-sized double-layer microspheres can also be prepared by the drop-tower technique, and the preparation period is short. But there are still some problems such as the difficulty in designing the droplet generator, uneven PVA coating and the difficulty in preparing large-sized microspheres. Dip (spin) coating technique can be used to prepare PS-PVA microspheres with sizes larger than 1000 μm, but the spread of PVA coating is affected by many factors in this method, and the prepared PVA coating is too thin and not uniform. (authors)

  1. Neutron spin-echo studies on dynamic and static fluctuations in two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishida, K.; Seto, H.; Nagao, M.; Takeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report neutron spin-echo measurements on two types of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels. The first is PVA gel in a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water with volume ratio 60/40, and the second is PVA gel in an aqueous borax solution. The observed normalized intermediate scattering functions I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) are very different between them. The former I(Q,t)/I(Q,0) shows a nondecaying component in addition to a fast decay, but the latter does not have the nondecaying one. This clearly indicates that the fluctuations in the former PVA gel consist of static and dynamic fluctuations whereas the latter PVA gel does include only the dynamic fluctuations. The dynamic fluctuations of the former and latter gels have been analyzed in terms of a restricted motion in the network and Zimm motion, respectively, and the origins of these motions will be discussed

  2. Effect of trap states and microstructure on charge carrier conduction mechanism through semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) granular film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study on hysteresis behaviour of current-voltage characteristic and impedance spectroscopy of granular semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The charge carrier conduction mechanism and charge traps of granular PVA film by measuring and analyzing the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristic indicate a bi-stable electronic state in the film. A sharp transformation of charge carrier conduction mechanism from Poole-Frenkel emission to space charge limited current mechanism has been observed. An anomalous oscillatory behaviour of current has been observed due to electric pulse effect on the molecular chain of the polymer. Effect of microstructure on charge transport mechanism has been investigated from impedance spectroscopy analysis. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to explain the result.

  3. The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol-gellan gum-Ca(2+) with improved network structure and mechanical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wen, Ying; Bai, Tongchun

    2016-12-01

    The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gellan gum (GG) are of interesting in the biomaterials application. To improve the structure and mechanical property, in this work, Ca(2+) ion was introduced to crosslink the polymer chain, and the PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogel was formed. By analyzing its structure, mechanical properties, swelling and dehydration kinetics, the effect of molecular interaction on hydrogel structure and properties have been observed. Our result indicates that, as GG is added to hydrogel network, the role of Ca(2+) ion is stand out, it reorganizes the network structure, enhances the mechanical properties, and strengthens the electrolytic and hydrogen bonding interactions in PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogels. These observations will benefit the development of hydrogels in biomaterials application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Enhancement of the stability of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Diospyros discolor Willd. leaves using polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardani, H. K.; Imawan, C.; Handayani, W.; Djuhana, D.; Harmoko, A.; Fauzia, V.

    2017-04-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention because of it reduces the environmental impact and already used in numerous applications. However, the disadvantages such as easy aggregation and instability properties, prevent its’ application. In this papers, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Diospyros discolor Willd. leaves have been prepared. The effect of biosynthesis variables, like ratio of reactants and reduction time on the particle size distribution, stability, and morphology of the silver nanoparticles were investigated. The resulted silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Particles Size Analyzer. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to enhance the stability of the silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles modification with 1% PVA concentration has produced a better characteristic of particle size distribution compared to the original silver nanoparticles, from highly polydisperse into moderately disperse. The results of the Zetta potential measurement also confirmed the increase stability of cluster distribution in the colloidal Ag/PVA compared to the original Ag.

  5. l-Nebiviololinium chloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Hänsicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride salt of chiral l-nebivolol {systematic name: (+−(R,S,S,S-bis[2-(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-2-hydroxyethyl]ammonium chloride dihydrate}, C22H26F2NO4+·Cl−·2H2O, was obtained by chiral liquid chromatography as a dihydrate. The pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. Hydrogen bonds between the cation, anions and water molecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to the ac plane.

  6. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  7. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  9. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  10. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  12. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  13. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th......, it is possible to use external electrodes and not use of the reinforcement as cathode thus avoiding side effects....... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...

  14. New holographic polymeric composition based on plexiglass, polyvinyl butyral, and phenanthrenquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, Vladislav; Tolstik, Elen; Kowarschik, Richard; Egorova, Elena; Matusevich, Yuri I.; Krul, Leonid

    2013-05-01

    The newly developed Plexiglas films containing polyvinyl butyral resins and phenanthrenequinone molecules as photosensitive dopant, which are proposed for the practical application as interlayer of laminated safety glass, are shown for the first time. The injection of the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate) into the polyvinyl butyral protective interlayer provides a homogenous distribution of the recording holographic medium in the layer and allows fixing the entire surface grating in the laminated glass. In addition, the original properties of polyvinyl butyral as a connecting material were preserved during manufacturing of the laminated glass. This allows a recording of holographic structures directly after baking of the laminated glass, thus reducing the destruction of the gratings due to the elevated temperatures. The diffractive structures in phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral polymeric layers with thicknesses of hundreds of microns are sealed between two panels of glass (so-called laminated glass) and are generated by illumination with an Argon-laser of 514 nm. Efficiently fixed and long-term stable holographic gratings recorded in the phenanthrenequinone-poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyvinyl butyral layer enable to produce transparent laminated glass with inserted diffractive elements, which can be used e.g. for Head-up Displays in automobile windshields or as holographic light concentrators for solar cells.

  15. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  16. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  17. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  18. Improvement in the water solubility of drugs with a solid dispersion system by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion with using the amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and d-mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Tomoki; Suzuki, Ryohei; Okamoto, Ryohei; Shibagaki, Kohei; Fujita, Kosuke; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion particles with a novel amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, as a water-soluble carrier. Solid dispersion particles were prepared by hot-melt extrusion and spray drying. Indomethacin (IMC) was used as a model comprising drugs with low solubility in water and d-mannitol (MAN) was used as an excipient. The physicochemical properties of prepared particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, FTIR spectra analysis, and drug release studies. Stability studies were also conducted under stress conditions at 40°C, 75% relative humidity. We found that dissolution behavior of the original drug crystal could be improved by solid dispersion with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer. The PXRD pattern and thermal analysis indicated that the solid dispersion prepared with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC was in an amorphous state. FTIR spectra analysis indicated that the interaction manner between the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC may differ with the preparation method and formulation of solid dispersions. Stability studies proved that the amorphous state of IMC in solid dispersion particles was preserved under stress conditions for more than two weeks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  20. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... No: 2010-8568] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium... determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  2. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  3. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  4. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicated distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by 3-D simulation results as able to capture major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by 3-D simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository

  5. Characterization of lithium-thionyl chloride cells by impedance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.; Pozin, M.; Cherniy, A.; Tikhonov, K.

    The main contributor to voltage drop observed on initial discharge of lithium-thionyl chloride cells is the resistance of the passive layer on the lithium anode, as can be determined from the Nyquist plot of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell. At extremely low discharge currents, initial voltage drop corresponds to the value found from the impedance measurements; at higher current, an empirical correction based on the experimental results is required. The dispersion in the values of the impedance parameters and thus in initial voltage drop of individual cells was analyzed. The condition of the lithium surface after assembly was shown not to be the only reason for high dispersion in impedance parameter values.

  6. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  7. Effect of Hydroxyl Concentration on Chemical Sensitivity of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Carbon-Black Composite Chemiresistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Yelton, W. Graham

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity and selectivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / carbon black composite films have been found to vary depending upon the hydroxylation percentage (''-OH'') of the polymer. These chemiresistors made from PVA films whose polymer backbone is 88% hydroxylated (PVA88) have a high sensitivity to water, while chemiresistors made from PVA75 have a higher sensitivity to methanol. The minor differences in polymer composition result in films with different Hildebrand volubility parameters. The relative responses of several different PVA-based chemiresistors to solvents with different volubility parameters are presented. In addition, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) films with PVA88 are used in an array to distinguish the responses to methanol-water mixtures

  8. Toxicokinetics of mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J B

    1992-09-01

    Future human exposure to inorganic mercury will probably lead to a few individuals occupationally exposed to high levels and much larger populations exposed to low or very low levels from dental fillings or from food items containing inorganic mercury; human exposure to methylmercury will be relatively low and depending on intake of marine food. Ideally, risk assessment is based on detailed knowledge of relations between external and internal dose, organ levels, and their relation to toxic symptoms. However, human data on these toxicokinetic parameters originate mainly from individuals or smaller populations accidentally exposed for shorter periods to relatively high mercury levels, but with unknown total body burden. Thus, assessment of risk associated with exposure to low levels of mercury will largely depend on data from animal experiments. Previous investigations of the toxicokinetics of mercuric compounds almost exclusively employed parenteral administration of relatively high doses of soluble mercuric salts. However, human exposure is primarily pulmonary or oral and at low doses. The present study validates an experimental model for investigating the toxicokinetics of orally administered mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride in mice. Major findings using this model are discussed in relation to previous knowledge. The toxicokinetics of inorganic mercury in mice depend on dose size, administration route, and sex, whereas the mouse strain used is less important. The "true absorption" of a single oral dose of HgCl2 was calculated to be about 20% at two different dose levels. Earlier studies that did not take into account the possible excretion of absorbed mercury and intestinal reabsorption during the experimental period report 7-10% intestinal uptake. The higher excretion rates observed after oral than after intraperitoneal administration of HgCl2 are most likely due to differences in disposition of systemically delivered and retained mercury. After

  9. Analysis of isothiazolinone preservatives in polyvinyl alcohol cooling towels used in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-09-19

    Recently, cases of contact dermatitis that were related to the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cooling towels containing isothiazolinone preservatives were reported in Japan. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the concentrations of five different isothiazolinone compounds present in PVA towels and to assess the effectiveness of washing in removing the preservatives from new towels prior to being used for the first time. Twenty-seven PVA towels were used in this study. Two groups (i.e., laboratory-simulation and volunteer) of washing experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of washing procedures. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by LC/MS/MS, which detected 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MI) and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothaizolin-3-one (CMI) in 23 samples (MI: 0.29-154 μg g-wet(-1), CMI: 2.2-467 μg g-wet(-1)), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) in one sample (478 μg g-wet(-1)). The compounds 4,5-Dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (2Cl-OIT) and 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) were not detected in all samples. We confirmed the presence of residual MI, CMI, and OIT in the washed towels, and the residual-to-original content ratio of OIT was higher than that of MI and CMI in PVA towels, due to the higher hydrophobicity of OIT than MI and CMI. A concern has been raised about the occurrence of contact dermatitis being caused by the use of PVA towels. It is suggested that a detailed description of isothiazolinone preservatives in PVA towels and an effective washing procedure for the removal of these preservatives should be provided by the manufacturer. Further, alternative non-sensitizing preservatives might be considered for the manufacture of PVA cooling towels in the future.

  10. Evaluation of radiation shielding properties of the polyvinyl alcohol/iron oxide polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lead is the conventional shielding material against gamma/X-rays. It has some limitations such as toxic, high density, nonflexibility, and also bremsstrahlung production during electron interaction. It may affect the accuracy of radiotherapy outcome. Aims: To theoretically analyze the radiation shielding properties of flexible polyvinyl alcohol/iron oxide polymer composite with five different concentrations of magnetite over the energy range of 15 KeV–20 MeV. Subjects and Methods: Radiological properties were calculated based on the published literature. Attenuation coefficients of pure elements are generated with the help of WinXCOM database. Results: Effective atomic numbers and electron density are increased with the concentration of magnetite. On the other hand, the number of electrons per gram decreased. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ϼ and linear attenuation coefficients (μ are higher in the lower energy <100 KeV, and their values decreased when the energy increased. Computed tomography numbers (CT show the significant variation between the concentrations in <60 KeV. Half-value layer and tenth-value layers are directly proportional to the energy and indirectly proportional to the concentration of magnetite. Transmission curve, relaxation length (ƛ, kinetic energy released in the matter, and elemental weight fraction are also calculated and the results are discussed. Conclusions: 0.5% of the magnetite gives superior shielding properties compared with other concentrations. It may be due to the presence of 0.3617% of Fe. Elemental weight fraction, atomic number, photon energy, and mass densities are the important parameters to understand the shielding behavior of any material.

  11. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  12. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  13. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  14. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  15. [Determination of sodium and chloride in hogwash oil and their molar ratio by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Lichun; Lu, Yuntian

    2012-11-01

    By reference to edible oil using process as well as hogwash oil refining technology, a method is presented to determine the contents of the sodium and chloride in hogwash oil based on ion chromatography. The molar ratio of the sodium and chloride was analyzed in order to determine whether the sample contained hogwash oil. A hogwash oil sample was extracted by deionized water before analysis. The ion chromatographic separation of the chloride was carried out on an AS19 column (250 mm x4 mm) at 30 degrees C, using 20 nmol/L KOH solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and suppressor current of 112 mA. The ion chromatographic separation of the sodium was carried out on a CS12 column (250 mm x 4 mm) at 30 degrees C, using 20 nmol/L methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and suppressor current of 59 mA. The injection volume was 25 microL and the detector was an electron capture detector (ECD). The external standard method was used to quantify chloride and sodium. The detection limits of this method were 0.005 mg/L for chloride and 0.001 mg/L for sodium. The linear range was from 0 to 5 mg/L with r2 = 0.999988 for chloride and r2 = 0.999926 for sodium. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations were 94.2% and 2.4% for chloride and 92.5% and 2.7% for sodium, respectively. The molar ratio of sodium and chloride in edible oil was approximately 1, while that in hogwash oil was more than 4. The determination of the contents and molar ratio of the chloride and sodium in hogwash oil can be used as an important basis for the judgment of hogwash oil.

  16. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  17. Monitoring of trace chloride ions at different stages of the gas production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. El Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty gas and liquid samples at different stages of Obaiyed gas plant in Egypt were selected and subjected for determining chloride ion and hydrocarbon compositions. The trace levels of chloride in the water extracted from natural gas, condensate, Benfield and glycol samples were achieved using ion chromatograph (IC, electrical, conductivity and potentiometric methods, respectively. The hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed and evaluated using capillary gas chromatography. The chloride ions in natural gas and condensate are a function of water content and their concentration mainly depends on the separation efficiency. Variability in natural gas and condensate compositions seasonally is not an uncommon occurrence. Our aim is monitoring of chloride ion to select and optimize the conditions of sweetening and dehydration regenerators in order to follow and prevent their gradient in gas plant.

  18. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  19. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Miao Miao; Hong, Sen; Zhou, Hong Yan; Wang, Hong Wei; Wang, Li Na; Zheng, Ya Juan

    2014-01-01

    Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies. PMID:24378849

  20. Preparation of robust polyamide microcapsules by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine and sebacoyl chloride and plasticization with oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natacha; Martins, Gabriela V; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Gois, Joana R; Coelho, Jorge F J; Marques, Juliana; Tavares, Carlos J; Magalhães, Fernão D

    2015-01-01

    Microcapsules produced by interfacial polycondensation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and sebacoyl chloride (SC) were studied. The products were characterized in terms of morphology, mean diameter and effectiveness of dodecane encapsulation. The use of Tween 20 as dispersion stabilizer, in comparison with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), reduced considerably the mean diameter of the microcapsules and originated smoother wall surfaces. When compared to ethylenediamine (EDA), microcapsules produced with PPD monomer were more rigid and brittle, prone to fracture during processing and ineffective retention of the core liquid. The use of diethylenetriamine (DETA) cross-linker in combination with PPD did not decrease capsule fragility. On the other hand, addition of a small fraction of oleic acid to the organic phase remarkably improved wall toughness and lead to successful encapsulation of the core-oil. Oleic acid is believed to act as a plasticizer. Its incorporation in the polymeric wall was demonstrated by FTIR and (1)H-NMR.

  1. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  2. Study of poly(vinyl alcohol) chemical modifications and evaluation of their physical-chemical properties; Estudo de modificacoes quimicas do poli(alcool vinilico) e avaliacao de propriedades fisico-quimicas dos produtos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder Junior, Angelo L.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: federjr@ima.ufrj.br; Maldonado, Gaspar G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas - CENPES]. E-mail: gaspar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2001-07-01

    In this study, hydrophobically modified and urethanized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared by chemical modifications of PVA, in order to investigate the influence of composition on its physical-chemical properties and application as oily water flocculant additive. PVA samples, containing different molecular weight and hydrolyzed grades, were modified and tested in relation of solubility, at room temperature, and cloud point. By reacting chlorides (derived from C12, C16 and C18 fatty acids) and PVA, it was obtained a product containing long side chains, which plays an important role in the flocculation process. In order to improve the brine solubility of the hydrophobically modified PVA samples, carbamate groups (-OCONH{sub 2}) were introduced to the PVA chain. (author)

  3. Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaiyang; Ren, Junli; Li, Weiying; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Shijie

    2014-03-15

    Composite films of xylan and polyvinyl alcohol were produced with citric acid as a new plasticizer or a cross-linking agent. The effects of citric acid content and polyvinyl alcohol/xylan weight ratio on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, solubility, degree of swelling and water vapor permeability of the composite films were investigated. The intermolecular interactions and morphology of composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The results indicated that polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films had good compatibility. With an increase in citric acid content from 10% to 50%, the tensile strength reduced from 35.1 to 11.6 MPa. However, the elongation at break increased sharply from 15.1% to 249.5%. The values of water vapor permeability ranged from 2.35 to 2.95 × 10(-7)g/(mm(2)h). Interactions between xylan and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of citric acid become stronger, which were caused by hydrogen bond and ester bond formation among the components during film forming. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Disk Refining and Ultrasonication Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Residues for Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Bio-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzheng Cheng; Zhaohui Tong; Luisa Dempere; Lonnie Ingram; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues reclaimed from the waste stream of a simplified bioethanol process after fermentation were used to fabricate biobased composites with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by film casting. The morphologies and the size distributions of residue particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and...

  5. Templated diamond growth on porous carbon foam decorated with polyvinyl alcohol-nanodiamond composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Stehlík, Štěpán; Kaman, Ondřej; Ižák, Tibor; Domonkos, Mária; Lee, D.S.; Kromka, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, Aug (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-22102J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nucleation * polyvinyl alcohol * nanodiamonds * carbon foam Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  6. Organogel polymers from 10-undecenoic acid and poly(vinyl acetate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels are used in a variety of high value applications including the removal of toxic solvents from aqueous environments and the time-controlled release of compounds. One of the most promising gelators is a polyvinyl polymer containing medium chain length carboxylic acids. The existing producti...

  7. Metronidazole loaded carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol cryogels: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to prepare composite hydrogels of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide and polyvinyl alcohol employing freeze thaw-treatment and evaluate them for release behavior. The effect of concentrations of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide, polyvinyl alcohol, and freeze-thaw cycles on the % release of metronidazole was studied employing central composite experimental design. The result of the study revealed that the concentration of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide and interaction effect of concentrations of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide and polyvinyl alcohol influenced the release of metronidazole significantly. The optimal calculated parameters were concentration of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-6.0% (w/v), concentration of polyvinyl alcohol-8.53% (w/v) and freeze-thaw cycles-4, which provided cryogels with a release of 75.77% over a period of 6h. The formation of cryogels was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Thermal studies revealed higher thermal stability of cryogel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of individual tubular J-aggregates by poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Berlepsch, H; Kirstein, S; Hania, R; Didraga, C; Pugzlys, A; Bottcher, C

    2003-01-01

    The changes in the optical properties and morphology of J-aggregates fonned by the 3,3'-bis(3-carboxypropyl)5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1'-dioctylbenzimidacarbocyanine dye (C8O3) in aqueous solution that are induced by the addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were investigated by optical spectroscopy

  9. Additive effects on phase transition and interactions in poly(vinyl methyl ether) solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starovoytova, Larisa; Šťastná, J.; Šturcová, Adriana; Konefal, Rafal; Dybal, Jiří; Velychkivska, Nadiia; Radecki, M.; Hanyková, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2015), s. 2572-2583 ISSN 2073-4360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23392S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : additives * LCST * poly(vinyl methyl ether) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.944, year: 2015

  10. Incorporation of a Cationic Conjugated Polyelectrolyte CPE within an Aqueous Poly(vinyl alcohol) Sol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Stewart, Beverly; Costa, Telma

    2016-01-01

    We report on a multiscale polymer-within-polymer structure of the cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte poly{[9,9-bis(6-N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl]fluorene phenylene} (HTMAPFP) in aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol).(PVA) sol. Molecular dynamics simulations and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data...

  11. Biaxial stress-strain behavior of chemical and physical gels of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2008), s. 2560-2567 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(vinyl alcohol ) gels * pure shear behavior * constitutive equation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  12. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-08-31

    The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

  13. Oxidative mineralization and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol for compatibility with tank farm processing chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.N.

    2000-01-04

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) material has been evaluated for use as a cost-effective substitute for conventional cellulose-based disposal materials (decontamination mops and wipes), plastic bags, and disposable personal protection clothing, that are currently used at Savannah River Site. This study also provides process design criteria for ultraviolet/ultrasonic/hydrogen peroxide PVA reactor system.

  14. Compatibility of Polyvinyl Alcohol with the 241-F/H Tank Farm Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.N.

    1998-11-25

    This report describes results from laboratory-scale oxidative mineralization of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the evaluation of the F/H Tank Farms as a storage/disposal option for PVA waste solution generated in the Canyons and B-line decontamination operations.

  15. Water absorption and its effect on the tensile properties of tapioca starch/polyvinyl alcohol bioplastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judawisastra, H.; Sitohang, Ramona; Marta, L.; Mardiyati,

    2017-01-01

    Tapioca is one of the largest sources of starch and makes it suitable to be used for bioplastic material. Addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been shown to successfully reduce the brittleness of starch bioplastic. This study aims to investigate the influence of PVA addition to water absorption

  16. Oxidative mineralization and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol for compatibility with tank farm processing chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) material has been evaluated for use as a cost-effective substitute for conventional cellulose-based disposal materials (decontamination mops and wipes), plastic bags, and disposable personal protection clothing, that are currently used at Savannah River Site. This study also provides process design criteria for ultraviolet/ultrasonic/hydrogen peroxide PVA reactor system

  17. [Preparation and clinical application of polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan microsphere composite wound dressing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuju; Lin, Zhidan; Chen, Wenbin; Song, Ying; Li, Zhizhong

    2011-04-01

    In order to prepare and apply the polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan microspheres composite wound dressing, we first prepared chitosan microspheres by emulsion cross-linking method, and then added chitosan microspheres into the reactants during the acetalization of polyvinyl alcohol and formaldehyde. We further studied the morphology, water absorption, swelling degree, mechanical properties and in vitro release of the sponge with different amount of chitosan microspheres. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol/drug-loaded chitosan composite sponge has porous structure with connectionism. Increasing the amount of chitosan microspheres would make the apertures smaller, so that the water absorption and the swelling of sponge decreased, but the tensile strength and compressive strength increased. With the increase of the amount of chitosan microspheres, the drug absorption of cefradine and the release rate increase, and the release time become longer. With the results of toxicity grade of 0 to 1, this type of composite sponge is non-toxic and meets the requirement of biocompatibility. The observation of rabbit nasal cavity after surgical operation suggested that polyvinyl acetal sponge modified with the chitosan has antiphlogistic, hemostatic and non-adherent characteristic, and can promote the healing and recovering of the nasalmucosa. After using this composite material, best growing surroundings for patients' granulation tissue were provided. Exposed bone and tendon were covered well with granulation tissue.

  18. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent casting method is adopted for the synthesis of MoO3 dispersed polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film (MoO3–PVA). These synthesized MoO3 and their composite samples are characterized for their structure, morphology, bonding and thermal behaviour by XRD, SEM, IR and DSC techniques, respectively.

  19. Raman Spectra and Dynamics of Thiocyanate Ion in Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-KSCN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.; Shabanov, N. S.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Amirov, A. M.; Gadjimagomedov, S. Kh.

    2017-11-01

    Raman spectra of poly(vinyl alcohol)-potassium-thiocyanate films are studied. Parameters of vibrational and orientational relaxation of thiocyanate ion in the polymer matrix are determined. The character and rate of vibrational dephasing become identical to SCN- vibrations in aqueous solution at salt concentrations ≥0.3 M.

  20. Effect of Polyvinyl Acetate Stabilization on the Swelling-Shrinkage Properties of Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl acetate constitutes a class of polymers that can entirely dissolve in water to form a solution. In this study, polyvinyl acetate as a nontraditional chemical stabilizer was used in soil improvement. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of polyvinyl acetate on swelling-shrinkage properties of expansive soil. A series of shrink/swell tests were performed with adding polyvinyl acetate as amendment at a concentration 3 g/cm3 to four aggregate sizes in the range of 0–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1-2 mm, and 2–5 mm and five concentrations 1.5 g/cm3, 3 g/cm3, 4.5 g/cm3, 6 g/cm3, and 9 g/cm3 to soils with aggregate size in the range of 0.5–1 mm for comparison of results with those of untreated soils. The results show that all the linear swelling ratio (LSWR and linear shrinkage ratio (LSHR values of the treated specimens decrease. SEM images and the test results indicate the achieved reduction in volume change of the soil tested using soil pore filling and particle encapsulation.

  1. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  2. Physical characterization of biodegradable films based on chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and Opuntia mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to develop and characterize biodegradable films containing mucilage, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in different concentrations. The films were prepared by casting on glass plates using glycerol as plasticizer. Mechanical properties, water vapor and oxygen barrier, as well as ...

  3. Compatibility of Polyvinyl Alcohol with the 241-F/H Tank Farm Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes results from laboratory-scale oxidative mineralization of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the evaluation of the F/H Tank Farms as a storage/disposal option for PVA waste solution generated in the Canyons and B-line decontamination operations

  4. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) nanocomposites: properties, solubility of carbon dioxide, and foaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and its nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced nanocomposites were produced and foamed and its properties-such as the dynamic mechanical properties, crystallization behavior, and solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2)were evaluated. PVOH was mixed with an NFC fiber suspension in water followed by casting. Transmission...

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-heparin hydrogels as sensor catheter membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, E.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.

    1991-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)-heparin hydrogels with varying water content were synthesized for use as sensor catheter membranes. Films were cast from aqueous mixtures of poly(viny) alcohol) (PVA), a photosensitive cross-linker p-diazonium diphenyl amine polymer (PA), glutaraldehyde (GA) and heparin. After

  6. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  7. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents...

  8. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  9. Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis of MoO3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film. ARUNKUMAR LAGASHETTY†, VIJAYANAND HAVANOOR, S BASAVARAJA and. A VENKATARAMAN*. Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, India. †Appa Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gulbarga ...

  10. Synthesis of MoO 3 and its polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent casting method is adopted for the synthesis of MoO3 dispersed polyvinyl alcohol nanostructured film (MoO3–PVA). These synthesized MoO3 and their composite samples are characterized for their structure, morphology, bonding and thermal behaviour by XRD, SEM, IR and DSC techniques, respectively.

  11. Preparation of CuS nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/CuS composite nanofibres were successfully prepared by electrospinning technique and gas–solid reaction. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that the average diameter of PVA/CuS fibres was about 150–200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved that a majority ...

  12. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  13. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  14. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  15. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  16. Polyvinyl Alcohol-Sulfonated Polyethersulfone Blend for Application in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Askari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, proton-exchange membranes as the main components of composite actuators have been paid special attention because of their important role in membrane technology. Polyvinyl alcohol was blended with sulfonated polyethersulfone in the presence of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. The effect of the blend ratio and glutaraldehyde content on the ionic and mechanical properties of the blend was studied. For this purpose, polyethersulfone was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonated sample was blended with polyvinyl alcohol in different ratios, and in order to control the water uptake of polyvinyl alcohol, glutaraldehyde was added into the blend mixture. Degree of sulfonation of polyethersulfone measured by titration method was found to be 26%. By increasing the sulfonated polyethersulfone and glutaraldehyde contents, the water uptake of membranes indicated a decreasing trend with a minimum of 18%. The higher glutaraldehyde/polyvinyl alcohol (GA/PVA ratio from 0.03 to 0.06 had not much effect on the ion exchange capacity but reduced its proton conductivity. With increasing the sulfonated polyethersulfone/polyvinyl alcohol (SPES/PVA ratio, the sulfonic acid groups were increased, and therefore, the ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity were both increased to their maximum values of 0.62 meq/g and 2.63 mS/cm. Tensile test results showed that the blend containing 70% sulfonated polyethersulfone with the GA/PVA ratio of 0.06, had the maximum mechanical strength and young modulus of 30.86 and 104.18 MPa, respectively. Besides, each membrane showed a tougher behavior when the sulfonated polyethersulfone content was increased.

  17. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  18. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  19. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  20. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  1. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  2. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  3. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  4. Charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, Istvan; Endroeczy, Gabor; Szemerey, Istvan; Szendroe, Sandor

    1985-01-01

    The scientific task of the charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG, a part of the VEGA space probe, and the physical background of the measurements are described. The sensor of the device face the Sun and the comet Halley measuring the energy and mass spectrum of ion and electron components of energies lower than 25 keV. The tasks of the individual electronic parts, the design aspects and the modes of operation in different phases of the flight are dealt with. (author)

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol terminal chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic arteriovenous shunts: Safety, efficacy, and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiu-song; Mei, Que-lin; Li, Yan-hao, E-mail: cjr.liyanhao@vip.163.com

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) terminal chemoembolization and to identify the prognostic factors associated with survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatic arteriovenous shunts (HAVS). Materials and methods: Of 133 patients’ managements were retrospectively analyzed. HAVS was classified into three types: slow-flow, intermediate-flow and high-flow. The size of the PVA used was determined following the scheme: slow-flow HAVS: 300–500 μm PVA; intermediate-flow HAVS: 500–710 μm PVA; high-flow HAVS: 710–1000 μm PVA. The HCCs with slow-flow and intermediate-flow HAVS were embolized by PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents lipiodol emulsion, while the high-flow HAVS were treated by PVA with chemotherapeutic agents. Survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. The influence of possible prognostic factors on survival were analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional-hazards method. Results: The median overall survival (OS) of 133 patients was 9.1 months. The median OS of the slow-flow type, intermediate-flow type and high-flow type patients were 10.8, 9.1 and 7.3 months, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among different HAVS types (P = 0.239). The 30-day mortality was 3.8%. Cox multivariate survival analysis revealed that initial preoperative AFP value ≥ 400 ng/ml (HR = 2.105, P = 0.006) was an independent risk factor. While multiple embolization (HR = 0.482, P = 0.011), tumor remission (HR = 0.431, P = 0.041) and multimodality therapy (HR = 0.416, P = 0.004) were independent protection factors. Conclusion: It is safe and effective for HCCs with HAVS treated by terminal chemoembolization therapy with PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents lipiodol emulsion (or PVA plus chemotherapeutic agents). The HCCs with HAVS achieves good prognosis with multiple embolization, tumor remission and multimodality therapy, while achieves poor prognosis with

  6. A novel device for quantitative measurement of chloride concentration by fluorescence indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Chon, Chanhee; Gonska, Tanja; Li, Dongqing

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease. At present, the common method for diagnosis of CF is to detect the chloride concentration in sweat using ion-selective electrodes. However, the current sweat testing methods require a relatively large quantity of sweat sample, at least 25 µL, which is very difficult to obtain, especially for newborns. This paper presents a new method and a new device for rapid detection of the chloride concentration from a small volume of solution. In this method, the chloride concentration is determined quantitatively by the fluorescence intensity of MQAE, a chloride ion fluorescent indicator. In this device, the sample is carried by a small piece of filter paper on a cover glass exposed to an UV LED light source. The resulting fluorescent signals are detected by a Si photodiode. Data acquisition and processing are accomplished by LabVIEW software in a PDA. Based on the Stern-Volmer relationship, the effects of different parameters on the fluorescence intensity were analyzed. The observed significant difference between 40 and 60 mM (the borderline of chloride concentration for CF) is discussed in this paper. The results show that detection can be completed within 10 s. The minimum detectable volume of the chloride solution is 1 μL. The novel method and the device are of great potential for CF diagnosis.

  7. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  8. In vitro mechanical fatigue behavior of poly-ɛ-caprolactone macroporous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering: Influence of pore filling by a poly(vinyl alcohol) gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, J A; Vikingsson, L; Gomez Ribelles, J L; Lanceros-Mendez, S; Sencadas, V

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric scaffolds used in regenerative therapies are implanted in the damaged tissue and submitted to repeated loading cycles. In the case of articular cartilage engineering, an implanted scaffold is typically subjected to long-term dynamic compression. The evolution of the mechanical properties of the scaffold during bioresorption has been deeply studied in the past, but the possibility of failure due to mechanical fatigue has not been properly addressed. Nevertheless, the macroporous scaffold is susceptible to failure after repeated loading-unloading cycles. In this work fatigue studies of polycaprolactone scaffolds were carried by subjecting the scaffold to repeated compression cycles in conditions simulating the scaffold implanted in the articular cartilage. The behavior of the polycaprolactone sponge with the pores filled with a poly(vinyl alcohol) gel simulating the new formed tissue within the pores was compared with that of the material immersed in water. Results were analyzed with Morrow's criteria for failure and accurate fittings are obtained just up to 200 loading cycles. It is also shown that the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) increases the elastic modulus of the scaffolds, the effect being more pronounced with increasing the number of freeze/thawing cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Photoinduced synthesis of single-digit micrometer-size spheroidal calcite composites in the presence of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-06-01

    Photoinduced crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which was based on the photodecarboxylation of ketoprofen (KP, 2-(3-benzoylphyenyl)propionic acid) under alkaline conditions of pH 8.4 and 10 was studied for preparation of CaCO3 composite particles in single-digit micrometer-sizes. In this method, a homogeneous solution comprising KP, calcium chloride, ammonia, and partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAPS, degree of saponification: 86.5-89.0 mol%) was used as a precursor solution and was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for different time periods. After the UV irradiation for 50 min, calcite spheroids in single-digit micrometer-sizes were obtained as major products at pH 8.4. The obtained calcite spheroids contained organic components of about 10 wt%. The comparison of the characteristics of the CaCO3 obtained at pH 8.4 and 10 suggests that the nucleation and crystallization of both vaterite and calcite continuously took place in a moderated supersaturation owing to the CO2 hydration equilibrium as long as the photodecarboxylation of KP continued. Consequently, the aggregation-based crystal growth in the presence of PVAPS seemed to enable the formation of the spheroidal composites of calcite in single-digit micrometer-sizes.

  10. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkittikul, Pincha; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl 2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl 2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl 2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  11. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  12. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  13. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  14. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  15. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  16. Localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol and final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Frederiks, W. M.; Gossrau, R.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    We have detected xanthine oxidoreductase activity in unfixed cryostat sections of rat and chicken liver, rat duodenum, and bovine mammary gland using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol, the electron carrier 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, the final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT, and

  17. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  18. [Study on the function group uniformity of polystyrol sulfonyl chloride resins by infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian; Wei, Rong-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Rui

    2009-07-01

    The reactions of polyvinyl benzene with chlorosulfonic acid were performed under different ratio and reaction time and the results of chloro-sulfonation were detected by infrared spectrometer (380FT-IR). The characteristic peak at 1 601.5 cm(-1) belongs to benzene ring and was selected as the internal standard peak Two characteristic peaks at 1 377.4 and 3 476.8 cm(-1) were selected as reference peaks, and belong to sulfonyl chloride and sulfonic group respectively. According to the Lambert-Beer law, the absorbance at 1 377. 4 and 3 476.8 cm(-1) was detected and compared with absorbance at 1 601.5 cm(-1) respectively. The value of A1 377.4 : A3 476.8 was used to express uniformity of polystyrol sulfonyl chloride resins. The results show that: (a) After 0.5 h, A1 377.4 : A1 60.5 rises quickly with the prolonging of reaction time; and A3 476.8 : A1 601.5 rises too, but descends after 1 h. And the value of A1 377.4 : A3 476.8 rises with the prolonging of reaction time after 1 h. (b) When the ratio of HSOs Cl and PS is less than 1 : 1, A3 476.8 : A1 601.5 rises with the ratio increasing, but when the ratio of HSO3 Cl and PS is more than 1 : 1, A3 476.8 : A1 601.5 descends while A1 377.4 : A1 601.5 appears and increases following the increase in the ratio. As the ratio was 4 : 1, A1 377.4 : A 601.5 and A3 476.8 : A, 601.5 show stabilization. In one step reaction condition, as the ratio of HSO3 Cl and PS is 4 : 1, the reaction can enhance uniformity of PS-SO2 Cl at 60 degrees C for 5 h (the loading of sulfonyl chloride is 4.0 mmol x g(-1)). It was also confirmed that the function group uniformity of polystyrol sulfonyl chloride resins could be determined by infrared spectroscopy conveniently and quickly. Meanwhile, this method could be adopted to determine the function group uniformity practicably and widely.

  19. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  20. Electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers loaded with hexadecane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, A; Mannino, S; Weiss, J

    2010-08-01

    The feasibility of producing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers containing fine-disperse hexadecane droplets by electrospinning a blend of hexadecane-in-water emulsions and PVA was investigated. Hexadecane oil-in-water nanoemulsions (d(10)= 181.2 +/- 0.1 nm) were mixed with PVA at pH 4.5 to yield polymer-emulsion blends containing 0.5 to 1.5 wt% oil droplets and 8-wt% PVA. The solution properties of emulsions and emulsion-PVA blends (viscosity, conductivity, surface tension) were determined. Solutions were electrospun and the morphology and thermal properties of deposited fiber mats characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Fiber mats were dissolved in buffer to liberate incorporated hexadecane droplets and the buffer solutions analyzed by optical microscopy, UV-spectroscopy, and light scattering. Analysis of dry fiber mats and their solutions showed that emulsion droplets were indeed part of the electrospun fiber structures. Depending on the concentration of hexadecane in the initial emulsion-polymer blends, droplets were dispersed in the fibers as individual droplets or in form of aggregated flocs of hexadecane droplets. Nanofibers with spindle-like perturbations or nanofibers containing bead-like structures with approximately 5 times larger than the size of droplets in the original nanoemulsion were obtained. Remarkably, incorporation of hexadecane droplets in fibers did not alter size of individual droplets, that is, no coalescence occurred. The manufacture of solid matrix containing nanodroplets could be of substantial interest for manufacturers wishing to develop encapsulation system for lipophilic functional compounds such as lipid-soluble flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and bioactives with tailored release kinetics. Practical Applications: The paper describes the formation of electrospun nanofibers from hydrophilic polymers that contain fine-disperse emulsion droplets. By incorporating emulsion droplets, a

  1. Studi Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy dari Lembaran Polyvinyl Alcohol dengan Penambahan Liclo4 sebagai Bahan Elektolit Baterai Li-ion

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Indra; Wahyudianingsih, Wahyudianingsih; Sudaryanto, Sudaryanto

    2016-01-01

    ELECTROCHEMICALIMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL SHEETWITHADDITION OFLiClO4AS ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL OF Li-ION BATTERAY. Solid polymer electrolyte materials for Li ion battery have been prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) added by lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt with various concentration. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of the material was done by making a Nyquist plot of the measurement with a LCR meter. These electrolyte materials prepared by using PVA...

  2. Crystallisation of hydroxyapatite in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) as a synthetic route to tough mechanical hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Akane; Hirota, Ken; Mizutani, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared by treating poly(vinyl alcohol) with 100% phosphoric acid, and 5, 10 and 20% of the hydroxyl groups were converted to phosphoric acid ester. Addition of Ca 2+ to an aqueous solution of phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave a transparent gel. Five cycles of alternate soaking of the gel in aqueous CaCl 2 and aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were carried out to crystallise hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The X-ray diffraction peaks of HAP formed in 5% phosphorylated PVA were sharp, while those of HAP formed in 20% phosphorylated PVA were broad. The contents of inorganic phase in the hybrid powder were increased from 58 to 76 wt% as the fraction of phosphate groups in the gel was decreased from 20% to 5%. The hybrid powder was first subjected to uniaxial pressing, followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and warm isostatic pressing (WIP) at 120 °C at pressures of 300–980 MPa, to obtain the specimens for three-point bending test. These hybrid specimens showed bending strengths of 15–53 MPa. The hybrid compacts prepared from 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) showed the smallest Young's modulus, the largest displacement at break, and the largest fracture energy, showing that it has the highest toughness among the hybrid materials prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) with varying degrees of phosphorylation. - Graphical abstract: Densification of hydroxyapatite crystallised in 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave the toughest compact. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was crystallised in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gels. • Crystallite size of hydroxyapatite decreased as phosphate density was increased. • The hybrid specimens prepared in 10% phosphorylated gel was the toughest. • Phosphate density in organic matrix regulated the mechanical properties of the hybrid.

  3. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  4. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  5. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  6. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  7. Structural behaviour of bamboo-reinforced foamed concrete slab containing polyvinyl wastes (PW as partial replacement of fine aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Ikponmwosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of experimental study to investigate the structural behaviour of bamboo-reinforced foamed concrete slab with polyvinyl waste as partial replacement of fine aggregates. The structural properties studied were: compressive strength, density, crack development pattern and propagation, failure pattern, load–deflection characteristics and the ultimate moment. Compressive strength and the density tests were also conducted using 150 × 150 × 150 cube specimens. The flexural behaviour was investigated by using 1300 × 500 × 100 mm slab specimens. The results showed that: (i partial replacement of sand with polyvinyl waste (PW improved the compressive strength of the foamed aerated concrete specimens, (ii that slab specimens with polyvinyl waste as partial replacement sand exhibited shear bending failure, (iii all the slab specimens with polyvinyl waste as partial replacement sand recorded lower values of deflection for the same loading, as the level of sand replacement with polyvinyl wastes increased, and (iv increase in the amount of sand replaced with polyvinyl wastes resulted in improved bending performance of the slab specimens.

  8. Functional T lymphocytes infiltrate implanted polyvinyl alcohol foams during surgical wound closure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttefangeas, C; Eberle, M; Ruck, P; Stark, M; Müller, J E; Becker, H D; Rammensee, H G; Pinocy, J

    2001-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure involving the implantation of polyvinyl alcohol foam is a technique recently developed for the treatment of patients suffering from either wound infection or chronic wounds. This method has been shown to improve and accelerate wound healing. However, little is known about the cell populations that infiltrate the foam, and their potential role in resolving the infection and promoting granulation tissue formation. Our study demonstrates that wound-implanted foams are mainly infiltrated with granulocytes, but that mononuclear cells, including macrophages and minor populations of T, B and natural killer lymphocytes, are also present. We show that foam-infiltrating T cells, especially CD4(+) T cells, constitute a phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous population influenced by wound-infecting bacteria. Thus, T lymphocytes could play a role in wound cleansing. In addition, our data indicate that implanted polyvinyl alcohol foams might be suitable microenvironments for manipulating T cell-mediated immune responses in patients.

  9. Preparation of polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate film and research of thermal stability and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihui; Song, Yunna; Ma, Zheng; Li, Ning; Niu, Shuai; Li, Yongshen

    2018-05-01

    In this article, flake graphite, nitric acid, peroxyacetic acid and phosphoric acid are used to prepare graphene oxide phosphonic and phosphinic acids (GOPAs), and GOPAs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are used to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate and phosphinate (PVAGOPs) in the case of faint acidity and ultrasound irradiation, and PVAGOPs are used to fabricate PVAGOPs film, and the structure and morphology of GOPAs, PVAGOPs and PVAGOPs film are characterized, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are investigated. Based on these, it has been proved that GOPAs consist of graphene oxide phosphonic acid and graphene oxide phosphinic acid, and there are CP covalent bonds between them, and PVAGOPs are composed of GOPAs and PVA, and there are six-member lactone rings between GOPAs and PVA, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are improved effectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of filter paper plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde in ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H.T.S. Barbosa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available F1-antigen purified from Yersinia pestis was covalently linked to 5-mm diameter filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde. These discs were used both for ELISA and dot-ELISA for the detection of anti-F1 IgG in rabbits. The best conditions were achieved using 1.25 µg of F1 antigen/disc, 3% w/v skim milk in PBS as blocking agent, anti-IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 12,000 times, and serum from rabbits immunized or not against Y. pestis, diluted 6,400 times. The absorbance values obtained from the comparative study between this procedure and conventional ELISA were not significantly different but the low cost of the reagents employed in ELISA using the filter paper discs plasticized with polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde makes this method economically attractive.

  11. Biomaterial properties evaluation of poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride)/chitosan nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela; Popa, Marcel; Chailan, Jean-François; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara

    2014-08-01

    Nanocapsules with diameter around 100 nm based on a natural polymer (chitosan) and a synthetic polymer poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride) [poly(MAVA)] by interfacial condensation method were prepared. The present study proposes a new type of biocompatible nanocapsules based on poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride-chitosan) (MCS) able to become a reliable support for inclusion and release of drugs. The spherical shape of the nanocapsules was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Nanocapsules presented a good Norfloxacin loading and release capacity. Haemocompatibility tests have demonstrated that the nanocapsules present a low toxicity and a good compatibility with sanguine medium. The biocompatibility properties of the nanocapsules after their intraperitoneal administration in rats were evidenced by histopathological examination of different organs (brain, liver, kidney, and lung). The results are encouraging and the nanocapsules can be used as controlled drug delivery systems.

  12. IR Laser Ablative Decomposition of Poly(vinyl acetate) Loaded with Fe and Cu Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan; Bastl, Zdeněk; Galíková, Anna; Pola, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2006), s. 2241-2248 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : laser ablation * poly(vinyl acetate) * metal particles Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  13. Photoelectric Properties of Film Composites Based on Poly(Vinyl Butyral) and Heterometallic Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Kokozay, V. N.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Petrusenko, S. R.; Plyuta, N. I.; Davidenko, I. I.

    2018-01-01

    Photosensitive polymeric film composites based on nonphotoconducting poly(vinyl butyral) doped with heterometallic Cu/M complexes (M = Ca, Sr) were synthesized and investigated. These composites possessed photoconducting and photovoltaic properties and electron-type photoconductivity. The greater photocurrent for composites with complexes having shorter distances between the nearest Cu metal centers was attributed to the greater probability of electron transfer between these centers.

  14. Effect of Polyvinyl Siloxane Viscosity on Accuracy of Dental Implant Impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahremanloo, Ahmad; Seifi, Mahdieh; Ghanbarzade, Jalil; Abrisham, Seyyed Mohammad; Javan, Rashid Abdolah

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dental implant impressions obtained by a combination of different impression techniques and viscosities of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS).Materials and Methods: Four parallel fixtures were placed between mental foramina in a master model of lower dental arch. Three different viscosities (putty/light body, medium body/light body, and monophase: heavy body) and direct and indirect techniques (six groups) were used, and seven impressions...

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites preparation by freeze/thaw cycles and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părpăriţă Elena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and chitosan (CS based hydrogels are often chosen to obtain hydrogels as being considered non-toxic for human body. The present study aims the preparation and physical chemical characterisation of hydrogels based PVA and CS by using an environmental friendly method i.e. freeze/thaw. In this method the only parameters affecting the hydrogels’ properties is the PVA concentration in solution, time and number of cycles of freezing / thawing. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles resulted in production of a highly elastic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with higher degree of crystallization. Adding chitosan in polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel is giving to the newly formed material, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties due to the free amino groups of chitosan. Higher mechanical and thermal characteristics of PVA/CS based hydrogels were obtained by addition of a small amount of inorganic nanoparticles (montmorillonite clay, C30B into the matrix (i.e. 1%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, near-infrared chemical imaging spectroscopy (NI-CI, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, swelling and rheological measurements were used to characterize the polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/montmorillonite properties. The swelling degree increased with decreasing chitosan content in hydrogels and the variation is opposite in nanocomposites, decreasing after introducing the nanoclay. The swelling behaviour was influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles. The plasticizer effect of the nanoparticles was reflected by obtaining a more compact hydrogel network with higher mechanical and thermal properties. The proposed materials can be a promising alternative in biomedical applications

  16. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents....... The effects of irradiation temperature and humidity on the radiation response of the dosimeter films are discussed....

  17. Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel, multi-layer artery phantoms for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Campbell, Gordon; Pazos, Valérie; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present recent development of phantoms of coronary arteries with representative mechanical properties. The phantoms were made of poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel (PVA-C). Multilayer phantoms were fabricated by an overmoulding process. The optical properties are adjusted in each layer by the different number of freeze-thaw cycles in combination with additives. The mechanical properties of the multilayer phantoms are characterized, and various means for improving the strain hardening are investigated.

  18. Reorientation of Magnetic Graphene Oxide Nanosheets in Crosslinked Quaternized Polyvinyl Alcohol as Effective Solid Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shuin Lin; Wei-Ting Ma; Chao-Ming Shih; Bor-Chern Yu; Li-Wei Teng; Yi-Chun Wang; Kong-Wei Cheng; Fang-Chyou Chiu; Shingjiang Jessie Lue

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to clarify the effect of magnetic graphene oxide (GO) reorientation in a polymer matrix on the ionic conduction and methanol barrier properties of nanocomposite membrane electrolytes. Magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared and dispersed on GO nanosheets (GO-Fe3O4). The magnetic GO-Fe3O4 was imbedded into a quaternized polyvinyl alcohol (QPVA) matrix and crosslinked (CL-) with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain a polymeric nanocomposite. A magnetic field was applied ...

  19. Crossover from Rouse dynamics to the α-relaxation in poly(vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crossover from Rouse dynamics to the α-relaxation in poly(vinyl ethylene). A ARBE1,∗, J COLMENERO1,2,3, D RICHTER4, M MONKENBUSCH4,. L WILLNER4 and B FARAGO5. 1Unidad Fısica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU; 2Departamento de Fısica de Materiales. UPV/EHU; 3Donostia International Physics Center, ...

  20. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels: their synthesis and steps towards control of electroendosmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, Helen K; Caulfield, Marcus J; Solomon, David H; Sommer-Knudsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) hydrogel networks cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were prepared and their properties as membranes examined using a variety of techniques including preparative electrophoresis. Electroendosmosis (EEO) was observed and shown to be the result of charges on the membrane and of complexation with borate buffer ions. Investigation of "glutaraldehyde" solutions showed acid entities in, or formed in "glutaraldehyde" were responsible for EEO. Techniques for using "glutaraldehyde" which minimize EEO are described.

  1. Electrical Conductivity Improvement of Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanofiber by Solvent Vapour Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    - Chotimah; Aditya Rianjanu; Bimo Winardianto; Misbachul Munir; Indriana Kartini; Kuwat Triyana

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers is naturally low. For an electrical device application, it requires high enough conductivity. The objective of this study is to improve the electrical conductivity of electrospun PVA nanofibers with and without poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) by exposure polar solvent of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For this purpose, the nanofibers were deposited on a substrate with patterned elect...

  2. Chain length effect on dynamical structure of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Dielectric relaxation study of the binary mixtures of poly(vinyl pyrroli- done) (PVP) (Mw = 24000, 40000 and 360000 g mol−1) with ethyl alcohol (EA) and poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) (Mw = 200 and 400 g mol−1) in dilute solutions of dioxane were carried out at 10.1 GHz and 35◦C. The relaxation time of PVP–EA ...

  3. Preparation and Biodegradation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Films in Bioenvironmental Media

    OpenAIRE

    Nusaiba Islam; Sharmin Jahan Proma; Ashiqur Rahman; Ashok Kumar Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Solution casting method was used to prepare nanocellulose reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) from Oil palm empty fruit bunches. Different environmental test were used to investigate the biodegradability of the composite in soil and compost as well as in water and acidic solution. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The composite film with nanocellulose and without nanocellulose were compared, nanocellulose modified PVOH film showed more highly de...

  4. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Formulation and Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam tablets using Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and Povidone in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Rabia; Hasan, S M Farid; Hassan, Fouzia; Rehman, Attique

    2017-03-01

    Meloxicam is a poor water soluble drug mostly prescribed in various rheumatic diseases. The present research study was design to formulate and increase the solubility of meloxicam in the tablet dosage form. A 3 2 full factorial design was employed to optimize meloxicam formulations. Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer) and Povidone were taken as independent variables while cumulative drug release at 90 minutes was selected as dependent variable. All trial formulations complied with official standards. Multiple regression by Microsoft Excel on cumulative drug release of the selected formulations (F1, F2, F6- F9) showed the positive effect of PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer (α = 0.05) and a negative effect of Povidone (α = 0.05). Formulation six (F6) (PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer 3 mg and Povidone 22.5 mg / tablet) was considered as the optimal formulation based on its cumulative drug release. Dissolution kinetics by model dependent analysis predicted Weibull (R 2 =0.99) as the best fit model in describing meloxicam dissolution kinetics. The role of PVCL-PVA-PEG graft copolymer should be explored with other solubilizers in future studies.

  7. Tailor-made starch-based conjugates containing well-defined poly(vinyl acetate and its derivative poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization was adopted to synthesize starch-based conjugates that possessed controllable architecture and properties. Starch-based xanthate agent was prepared and applied as chain transfer agent to conduct the living/controlled polymerization (LCP of vinyl acetate, which generated tailor-made conjugates of starch and well-defined poly(vinyl acetate (SVAc. The relevant derivatives, conjugates of starch and chain length-controlled poly(vinyl alcohol (SVA, were obtained subsequently. Various characterizations such as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were performed to examine the structure of intermediates and the starch-based conjugates. Static contact angle measurements revealed that the hydrophilic character of starch-based conjugates was tunable. Well-defined SVAc was amphiphilic and it was able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified by contact angles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS tests. SVA exhibited much higher capability to form physically cross-linked hydrogel than starch did. Both the characteristic of SVAc and SVA were chain length-dependent.

  8. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  9. A Novel Research on Behavior of Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Different Concentration of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimah Mohamed Kamari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc ferrite nanocrystals were prepared from an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and various of concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, i.e., 0, 15, 40, and 55 g/L, as a capping agent. To stabilize the particles, they were thermally treated at 873 K, as an optimum calcination temperature. The behaviors of the polymeric precursor were analyzed by use of simultaneous thermo-gravimetry (TG and derivative thermo-gravimetry analyses (DTG. The presence of the crystalline phase in each sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The average particle size and the morphology of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and these parameters were found to differ at various concentrations of PVP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the PVP concentrations and confirmed the absence of organic bands for PVP concentrations less than 55 g/L. Measurements of the magnetization value of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, which showed that, in the absence of PVP, the sample exhibited a paramagnetic behavior while, in the presence of PVP, samples have a super-paramagnetic behavior.

  10. Graphite oxide incorporated crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol and sulfonated styrene nanocomposite membrane as separating barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Ruchira; Kumar, Vikash; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2017-02-01

    Different membranes with varied molar concentrations of graphite oxide (GO), 'in situ' polymerized sulfonated polystyrene (SS) and glutaraldehyde (GA) cross linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), have been analyzed as an effective and low cost nanocomposite barrier in single chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The synthesized composite membranes, namely GO0.2, GO0.4 and GO0.6 exhibited comparatively better results with reduced water uptake (WU) and swelling ratios (SR) over the native PVA. The variation in properties is illustrated with membrane analyses, where GO0.4 showed an increased proton conductivity (PC) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 0.128 S cm-1 and 0.33 meq g-1 amongst all of the used membranes. In comparison, reduced oxygen diffusivity with lower water uptake showed a two-fold decrease in GO0.4 over pure PVA membrane (∼2.09 × 10-4 cm s-1). A maximum power density of 193.6 mW m-2 (773.33 mW m-3) with a current density of 803.33 mA m-2 were observed with GO0.4 fitted MFC, where ∼81.89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed using mixed firmicutes, as biocatalyst, in 25 days operation. In effect, the efficacy of GO incorporated crosslinked PVA and SS nanocomposite membrane has been evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for harnessing bio-energy from single chambered MFCs.

  11. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, S; Giannuzzi, L; Rivero, S; Pinotti, A

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer-polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the Electrical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonic Acid) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Kalim; Sankaran, Sowmya; Basheer Ahamed, M.; Khadheer Pasha, S. K.; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Ali Almaadeed, Mariam; Chidambaram, K.

    In the present study, graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend composite films were prepared using colloidal blending technique at various concentrations of GO (0-3wt.%). The morphological investigations of the prepared composites were carried out using polarized optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of composites were evaluated using an impedance analyzer in the frequency range 50Hz to 20MHz and temperature in the range 40-150∘C. Morphological studies infer that GO was homogeneously dispersed in the PSSA/PVA blend matrix. Investigations of electrical property indicate that the incorporation of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix resulted in the enhancement of the impedance (Z) and the quality factor (Q-factor) values. A maximum impedance of about 4.32×106Ω was observed at 50Hz and 90∘C for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. The Q-factor also increased from 8.37 for PSSA/PVA blend to 59.8 for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. These results indicate that PSSA/PVA/GO composites can be used for high-Q capacitor applications.

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Smart carbon nanotube/fiber and PVA fiber-reinforced composites for stress sensing and chloride ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheneder, Joshua

    Fiber reinforced composites (FRC) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and carbon nanofibers (CNF) had an excellent flexural strength in excess of 18.5 MPa compared to reference samples of 15.8 MPa. It was found that the developed, depending on applied stress and exposure to chloride solutions, composites exhibit some electrical conductivity, from 4.20×10 -4 (Ω-1m-1 to 4.13×10 -4 Ω-1m-1. These dependences can be characterized by piezioresistive and chemoresistive coefficients demonstrating that the material possesses self-sensing capabilities. The sensitivity to stain and chloride solutions can be enhanced by incorporating small amounts of carbon nanofibers (CNF) or carbon nanotube (CNT) into composite structure. Conducted research has demonstrated a strong dependency of electrical properties of composite on crack formation in moist environments. The developed procedure is scalable for industrial application in concrete structures that require nondestructive stress monitoring, integrity under high service loads and stability in harsh environments.

  15. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  16. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  17. Sonochemical synthesis of stibnite nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in polynomial chloride matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Lima, Thaysa Araujo de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2011-01-01

    Stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Amorphous powder of Sb 2 S 3 was obtained and exhibit nanospheres structure with an average size in the range of 300-500 nm. Commercial Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) containing Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles (PVC/Sb) at concentrations of 0.10; 0.30 and 0.50 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (M v ) was measured for PVC systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decreases in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PVC matrix irradiated at dose of 25 kGy decreased the number of main chain scissions and was calculated a protection index of 66,5% in PVC matrix. Results about the free radical scavenger action of the Sb 2 S 3 were obtained by use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and are discussed in this study. Changes in the infrared spectra of PVC systems indicated that polymer molecules interact with Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles. (author)

  18. Preparation of modified clay with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium chloride and evaluation of their interactions with PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, Daniel K.; Dornelas, Camila B.; Moreira, Leonardo A.; Gomes, Ailton S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Cabral, Lucio M.; Simeoni, Luiz A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was the preparation of modified clays with benzethonium or cetylpyridinium to obtain organophilic silicates with good stability and evaluate the possible use of them for the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The reactions of modification of clays and the PVC were prepared by solution intercalation. The new clays were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The reactions of clays with PVC were assessed by Low-field NMR, through the determination of proton spin lattice relaxation time. The stability of new organophilic clays and their reactions with PVC were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). High stability was observed for organophilic clays prepared. The degradation of PVC materials obtained with the organophilic clay began at temperatures above 200 deg C. If it is considered that the temperatures normally used in the processing of PVC are between 140 deg C to 180 deg C, the observed results may indicate the possibility of the use of clays for preparation of nanomaterials with PVC. (author)

  19. [Determination of high concentrations of rubidium chloride by ICP-OES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Sun, Bai; Li, Hai-jun; Wang, Tao; Li, Wu; Song, Peng-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The method of ICP-OES for the direct determination of high content of rubidium in rubidium chloride solutions was studied through mass dilution method and optimizing parameters of the instrument in the present paper. It can reduce the times of dilution and the error introduced by the dilution, and improve the accuracy of determination results of rubidium. Through analyzing the sensitivity of the three detection spectral lines for rubidium ion, linearly dependent coefficient and the relative errors of the determination results, the spectral line of Rb 780. 023 nm was chosen as the most suitable wavelength to measure the high content of rubidium in the rubidium chloride solutions. It was found that the instrument parameters of ICP-OES such as the atomizer flow, the pump speed and the high-frequency power are the major factors for the determination of rubidium ion in the rubidium chloride solutions. As we know instrument parameters of ICP-OES have an important influence on the atomization efficiency as well as the emissive power of the spectral lines of rubidium, they are considered as the significant factors for the determination of rubidium. The optimization parameters of the instrument were obtained by orthogonal experiments and further single factor experiment, which are 0. 60 L . min-1 of atomizer flow, 60 r . min-1 of pump speed, and 1 150 W of high-frequency power. The same experiments were repeated a week later with the optimization parameters of the instrument, and the relative errors of the determination results are less than 0. 5% when the concentration of rubidium chloride ranged from 0. 09% to 0. 18%. As the concentration of rubidium chloride is 0. 06%, the relative errors of the determination results are -1. 7%. The determination of lithium chloride and potassium chloride in the high concentration of the aqueous solutions was studied under the condition of similar instrument parameters. It was found by comparison that the determination results of lithium

  20. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  1. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  2. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  3. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... significantly improve the ethanol production. This was also clearly ... parameter values over time in Z.M.F-4 under high sugar osmotic stress. Calcium chloride .... These genes were introduced into Z. mobilis ATCC 31821 by the transposition method as described in the literature (Foulongne et al., 1999). The.

  5. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  6. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  7. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  8. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  9. Fluid Bed Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, K.; Lee, C.; O'Keefe, K.

    Molten salt electrolysis of MgCl2 is commonly used for the production of magnesium metal. However, the electrolysis feed must be completely dry with minimum oxygen content. Therefore, complete dehydration of the MgCl2 brine or the hydrated prill is a required process, which is very challenging because of the ease of thermal degradation due to hydrolysis of magnesium chloride.

  10. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  12. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the ... were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic. Keywords. Conducting polymer; electrochemical ...

  13. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  14. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  15. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when using a powered air-purifying respirator having a hood, helmet, or full or half facepiece, or a... release of vinyl chloride; and (ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training and..., including the following topics: (A) Alcohol intake; (B) Past history of hepatitis; (C) Work history and past...

  17. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time. It was found that the optimal transformation efficiency were obtained when the concentration of CaCl2 was 75 mmol/l, ...

  18. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  19. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  20. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.